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Sample records for parenting promotes willingness

  1. With a Little Help from My Friends: Maternal Social Support, via Parenting, Promotes Willingness to Share in Preschoolers Born to Young Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about prosocial behaviours in children of young mothers. This longitudinal study involved 44 young mother (age less than 20 years at birth of first child) families and 44 older mother families, who were carefully matched for child age and gender, as well as for family structure (number of children, lone-parent status) and…

  2. Nurses' and physicians' valuation of and willingness to promote teamwork.

    PubMed

    Bukonda, N K

    1996-01-01

    To assess the extent to which nurses differed from physicians in terms of valuation of and willingness to promote attitudes toward teamwork, research was conducted using data collected though a multistage nonrandom survey in 46 hospitals in Zambia and the Ivory Coast. Respondents provided information on a Likert scale regarding (1) the importance to him or her of teamwork within a hospital; (2) how well the hospital promotes teamwork; and (3) the extent to which he or she is willing to promote teamwork. T-tests compared the two professions; moreover, a 2 x 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to control for country effect. Findings were favorable toward nurses on general valuation of teamwork in hospitals and on valuation of teamwork practices. No significant difference was detected on willingness to promote teamwork.

  3. Parents' willingness to invest in their children's oral health.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Jannetje; Bonifacio, Clarissa; van Gemert-Schriks, Martine; van Loveren, Cor; Verrips, Erik; Duijster, Denise

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed to evaluate parents' Willingness to Invest (WTI) in their children's oral health in terms of money, visits to a dental practice, and brushing minutes. Objectives were to assess the association between parents' WTI and a) children's dental caries experience, b) children's oral hygiene behavior (OHB), and c) maternal education level and ethnic background. A sample of 630 five to six-year-old-children was recruited from pediatric dental centers in the Netherlands. Children's dmft scores were extracted from personal dental records. Parental questionnaires were used to collect data on parents' WTI, children's OHB, maternal education level and ethnicity. On average, parents were willing to spend a maximum of €37 per month, 3.0 dental visits per year, and 4.5 brushing minutes per day to maintain good oral health for their child. The mean dmft was significantly higher in children whose parents were willing to pay more money and visit the dentist more often (P = 0.028 and P = 0.002, respectively), while the mean dmft was significantly lower in children of parents who were willing to invest more brushing minutes (P < 0.001). Parental WTI in terms of money and brushing minutes was higher in native and higher-educated parents, and was associated with more favorable OHB of children. Parents' WTI in their children's oral health is related to children's dental caries status and reported OHB. Results suggest that children are better off when parents are willing to invest in self-care, rather than in money or dental visits. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Underserved parents, underserved youth: Considering foster parent willingness to foster substance-using adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kathleen; Kaynak, Övgü; Clements, Irene; Bresani, Elena; White, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents involved with foster care are five times more likely to receive a drug dependence diagnosis when compared to adolescents in the general population. Prior research has shown that substance use is often hidden from providers, negating any chance for treatment and almost guaranteeing poor post-foster care outcomes. There are virtually no studies that examine the willingness (and its determinants) to foster youth with substance abuse problems. The current study conducted a nationally-distributed survey of 752 currently licensed foster care parents that assessed willingness to foster youth overall and by type of drug used, and possible correlates of this decision (e.g., home factors, system factors, and individual foster parent factors such as ratings of perceived difficulty in fostering this population). Overall, willingness to foster a youth involved with alcohol and other drugs (AOD) was contingent upon the types of drugs used. The odds that a parent would foster an AOD-involved youth were significantly increased by being licensed as a treatment foster home, having fostered an AOD-involved youth in the past, having AOD-specific training and past agency-support when needed, and self-efficacy with respect to positive impact. Surprisingly, when religion played a large part in the decision to foster any child, the odds of willingness to foster an AOD-involved youth dropped significantly. These results suggest that a large proportion of AOD-involved youth who find themselves in the foster care system will not have foster families willing to parent them, thereby forcing placement into a variety of congregate care facilities (e.g., residential treatment facilities, group homes). Specific ways in which the system can address these issues to improve placement and permanency efforts is provided. PMID:25878368

  5. Underserved parents, underserved youth: Considering foster parent willingness to foster substance-using adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Kathleen; Kaynak, Övgü; Clements, Irene; Bresani, Elena; White, Tammy

    2013-09-01

    Adolescents involved with foster care are five times more likely to receive a drug dependence diagnosis when compared to adolescents in the general population. Prior research has shown that substance use is often hidden from providers, negating any chance for treatment and almost guaranteeing poor post-foster care outcomes. There are virtually no studies that examine the willingness (and its determinants) to foster youth with substance abuse problems. The current study conducted a nationally-distributed survey of 752 currently licensed foster care parents that assessed willingness to foster youth overall and by type of drug used, and possible correlates of this decision (e.g., home factors, system factors, and individual foster parent factors such as ratings of perceived difficulty in fostering this population). Overall, willingness to foster a youth involved with alcohol and other drugs (AOD) was contingent upon the types of drugs used. The odds that a parent would foster an AOD-involved youth were significantly increased by being licensed as a treatment foster home, having fostered an AOD-involved youth in the past, having AOD-specific training and past agency-support when needed, and self-efficacy with respect to positive impact. Surprisingly, when religion played a large part in the decision to foster any child, the odds of willingness to foster an AOD-involved youth dropped significantly. These results suggest that a large proportion of AOD-involved youth who find themselves in the foster care system will not have foster families willing to parent them, thereby forcing placement into a variety of congregate care facilities (e.g., residential treatment facilities, group homes). Specific ways in which the system can address these issues to improve placement and permanency efforts is provided.

  6. Strategies and willingness of rural restaurateurs to promote healthy foods.

    PubMed

    Benson, W

    1995-01-01

    Nutritionists need to understand the willingness of restaurateurs to prepare and sell healthy foods, as Canadians frequently eat meals at food services. The lunch trade restaurants under the jurisdiction of a rural and semi-rural Alberta health unit were surveyed by telephone. Two thirds of the restaurants were family-style and had 100 seats or fewer. Five of 20 healthy foods were rated as difficult to serve, due to: lack of customer demand; lack of food availability; and the need to maintain the quality of fresh vegetables, fruits and milk products. Many restaurateurs are willing to change internally by training staff (88%) and by trying new recipes (84%). Staff education materials perceived to be helpful by 80% of restaurateurs included video/audio tapes, information sheets and posters. Restaurateurs were most willing to use menu inserts (76%), table tents (68%) and door decals (72%) to promote healthy foods. Nutrition services should focus on how restaurants can make changes to include healthy foods through food preparation and menu items.

  7. Association of Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors with Adolescents’ Willingness to Engage in eHealth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anisha A.; Graham, Amanda L.; Wilson, Lara D.; Walker, Leslie R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examines adolescents’ willingness to use the internet and other forms of technology for health promotion purposes (i.e., “eHealth promotion” willingness) and determines if a relationship exists between adolescents’ behavioral risks and their eHealth promotion willingness. Methods A total of 332 adolescents provided data at a routine medical check-up, including assessments of technology access, eHealth promotion willingness, and multiple behavioral risk factors for child- and adult-onset disease (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, sun protection, depression). Results The level of access to technology among the sample was high, with moderate willingness to engage in eHealth promotion. After adjusting for adolescents’ access to technology, the presence of multiple behavioral risk factors was positively associated with willingness to use technology for health promotion purposes (β =.12, p =.03). Conclusions Adolescents with both single and multiple behavioral risk factors are in need of health promotion to prevent the onset of disease later in life. eHealth appears to be an acceptable and promising intervention approach with this population. PMID:18723566

  8. Parents' willingness to get human papillomavirus vaccination for their adolescent children at a pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Calo, William A; Gilkey, Melissa B; Shah, Parth; Marciniak, Macary W; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-02-07

    Pharmacies are promising alternative settings for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination because of their accessibility and existing infrastructure for vaccine delivery. We sought to examine parents' willingness to get HPV vaccination for their children at pharmacies. In 2014, we conducted a national, online survey of 1255 parents of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in the United States. Parents reported whether they would be willing to get HPV vaccine for their children at a pharmacy. We used multivariable logistic regression to model willingness for getting HPV vaccinations in pharmacies. Overall, 29% of parents would be willing to get HPV vaccine for their children at a pharmacy. Parental willingness was associated with believing that pharmacists are skilled at administering vaccines (OR=2.05, 95% CI:1.68-2.51), HPV vaccine was at least as important as other adolescent vaccines (OR=1.48, 95% CI:1.10-1.98), and getting vaccines in pharmacies would give children more opportunities to get health care (OR=2.17, 95% CI:1.63-2.89). Parental willingness was also more common among parents of adolescents ages 13-17 or who had already initiated the HPV vaccine series. Parents most often indicated that they would like to learn about HPV vaccination in pharmacies from their children's doctor (37%). Offering HPV vaccine in pharmacies may increase uptake as a meaningful number of parents would get the vaccine for their children in these settings. Physician referrals for completing the HPV vaccine series may serve as an important source for increasing awareness of and demand for adolescent vaccination services in pharmacies.

  9. Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Psychological Help: Promoting and Preventing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…

  10. American parents' willingness to prescribe psychoactive drugs to children: a test of cultural mediators.

    PubMed

    Cohen, David; Dillon, Frank R; Gladwin, Hugh; De La Rosa, Mario

    2013-12-01

    In the USA, white children receive psychoactive drugs more often than black or Hispanic children. This study investigates whether cultural attitudes statistically mediate differences between American parents' self-identified racial-ethnic group membership and their willingness to medicate children for behavioral problems. Using data from telephone interviews with 1,145 parents in two Florida counties, structural models tested associations between each group compared with the other, in willingness to medicate children exhibiting different problematic behaviors and hypothesized cultural (familism, fatalism, attitude toward corporal punishment, religiosity, concern about treatment stigma, birth abroad, language of interview) and other mediators (views about medications and causes of children's problems). Respondent gender, age, socioeconomic status, parent-type household, taking psychoactive medication, and having a child with behavioral problems were used as covariates. Race-ethnicity was strongly associated with specific cultural attitudes and views about medications and problems, but only Hispanics distinguished themselves significantly from whites in willingness to medicate children. Across groups, parents who viewed medication favorably and endorsed biomedical causes for problems were more willing to medicate. In Hispanic-white and Hispanic-black comparisons, being interviewed in Spanish was the sole but modest cultural mediator of willingness, and in black-white comparisons, only concern about treatment stigma weakly mediated differences in willingness. These findings provide faint support for a parent-centered cultural explanation of reported prescription differences among youths of different racial-ethnic groups in the USA. However, structural and professional components of a broader cultural hypothesis for such differences, within the USA and between different countries, still require evaluation.

  11. Parents' willingness to pay for coeliac disease screening of their child.

    PubMed

    Norström, Fredrik; Ivarsson, Anneli; Lindholm, Lars; Carlsson, Annelie; Danielsson, Lars; Högberg, Lotta; Karlsson, Eva; Löfgren, Curt

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Swedish parents' willingness to pay (WTP) for coeliac disease (CD) screening of their child. CD screening was undertaken involving 10,041 12-year-old children, with 7567 (75%) agreeing to participate. Blood samples from the children were analysed for CD serological markers. Parents received a questionnaire including a scenario describing the health-related risks of having CD and screening and diagnostic procedures. Parents were also asked whether they were willing to pay for CD screening, should this not be offered free of charge, and, if so, what their maximum WTP would be. Their WTP was compared with the average cost per child for the screening and case ascertainment procedures. The questionnaire was answered by 6524 parents, and of 6057 valid responses 63% stated that they were willing to pay something. The mean WTP was 79 EUR and the median 10 EUR. The average cost per child for the screening and case ascertainment procedures was 47 EUR, which 23% of the parents stated they were willing to pay. Parents' WTP increased with higher education and income, and with child symptoms that may indicate CD. Swedish parents' WTP for school-based CD screening of their child was higher than the average cost per child; however, only a minority of the parents were willing to pay that amount.

  12. Contributions of Parents' School Opinions and Reasons for Choice to Their Willingness To Support Catholic High Schools: A Structural Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Patricia A.; Gao, Hong

    A study was conducted to determine the association among variables representing parent and school demographics, parents' opinions of the school, their reasons for choosing it, and their willingness to support the school in various ways, including the level of tuition they would pay. Data were collected from a stratified sample of 10 high schools…

  13. Willingness to use ADHD Self-Management: Mixed Methods Study of Perceptions by Adolescents and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Gurnani, Tina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Albarracin, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about perceptions surrounding self-management for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although such interventions appear commonly used and are considered essential components of the chronic care model. Our research is part of a mixed methods study that followed students at high and low risk for ADHD over 11 years. During the final study years, area-representative samples of 148 adolescents (54.8% participation; 97 ADHD high-risk group; 51 low-risk peers) and 161 parents (59.4% participation; 108 parents of high-risk adolescent; 53 parents of low-risk peer) completed a cross-sectional survey on community-identified self-management interventions for ADHD (activity outlets, sleep regulation, dietary restriction, homework help, family rules, and prayer). Respondents also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable self-management effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. High-risk adolescents expressed significantly lower willingness towards all self-management interventions than did adult respondents, except for increased activity outlets. They also reported lower receptivity towards sleep regulation and dietary restriction than did their low-risk peer group. No gender or race differences in self-management willingness were found, except for higher receptivity to prayer in African American respondents. Cost, perceived ineffectiveness, disruptions to routines, causation of interpersonal conflicts, and reduced future self-reliance were seen as potential undesirable effects. Findings suggest that activity-based ADHD interventions appear particularly acceptable across all demographic and risk groups, unlike sleep regulation and dietary approaches. Further research on self-care effectiveness is needed to incorporate adolescents’ viewpoints about ADHD self-management, as interventions may be acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents. PMID:26834448

  14. Willingness to use ADHD Self-Management: Mixed Methods Study of Perceptions by Adolescents and Parents.

    PubMed

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Gurnani, Tina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about perceptions surrounding self-management for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although such interventions appear commonly used and are considered essential components of the chronic care model. Our research is part of a mixed methods study that followed students at high and low risk for ADHD over 11 years. During the final study years, area-representative samples of 148 adolescents (54.8% participation; 97 ADHD high-risk group; 51 low-risk peers) and 161 parents (59.4% participation; 108 parents of high-risk adolescent; 53 parents of low-risk peer) completed a cross-sectional survey on community-identified self-management interventions for ADHD (activity outlets, sleep regulation, dietary restriction, homework help, family rules, and prayer). Respondents also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable self-management effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. High-risk adolescents expressed significantly lower willingness towards all self-management interventions than did adult respondents, except for increased activity outlets. They also reported lower receptivity towards sleep regulation and dietary restriction than did their low-risk peer group. No gender or race differences in self-management willingness were found, except for higher receptivity to prayer in African American respondents. Cost, perceived ineffectiveness, disruptions to routines, causation of interpersonal conflicts, and reduced future self-reliance were seen as potential undesirable effects. Findings suggest that activity-based ADHD interventions appear particularly acceptable across all demographic and risk groups, unlike sleep regulation and dietary approaches. Further research on self-care effectiveness is needed to incorporate adolescents' viewpoints about ADHD self-management, as interventions may be acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents.

  15. Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication About Anabolic Steroids on Adolescent Athletes' Willingness to Try Performance-Enhancing Substances.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya; Clarke, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Performance-enhancing substances are used by adolescent athletes to help improve performance. Anabolic steroids (AS) are performance-enhancing substances that pose significant health problems when used by adolescents. Objectives were to: (1) examine the extent to which parents and adolescents discuss AS and (2) test whether parent-adolescent communication about AS can generalize to, and influence, decisions to use other types of performance-enhancing substances. Adolescent athletes (n = 244) completed an anonymous questionnaire that assessed the extent to which the adolescents discussed with their parents the performance outcomes and protective factors associated with AS, their intentions to use AS, and their willingness to try a newly developed, potentially illegal performance-enhancing substance. Data were collected during 2009-2010. Adolescents reported relatively low levels of communication with their parents about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Communication with parents about the performance outcomes associated with AS was a positive predictor of willingness to try a newly developed performance-enhancing substance (b = 0.31, p < .01) and intentions to use AS (b = 0.54, p < .01). Communication with parents about protective factors predicted willingness to try a new performance-enhancing substance (b = -0.24, p < .01), but not intentions (b = -0.20, p > .77). Conclusions/Importance: Parents should highlight the protective factors and avoid emphasizing the performance outcomes associated with AS in discussions with their adolescents. Discussions about AS may influence adolescents' decisions to use other types of performance-enhancing substances.

  16. Effects of Diagnostic Label and Disease Information on Emotions, Beliefs, and Willingness to Help Older Parents with Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kali S.; McIlvane, Jessica M.; Haley, William E.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the impact of the diagnostic label of osteoarthritis and educational information on family members' attributions, perceptions, and willingness to help older parents with pain. Undergraduate students (N = 636) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they read vignettes about an older mother with chronic pain, which varied…

  17. Effects of Diagnostic Label and Disease Information on Emotions, Beliefs, and Willingness to Help Older Parents with Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kali S.; McIlvane, Jessica M.; Haley, William E.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the impact of the diagnostic label of osteoarthritis and educational information on family members' attributions, perceptions, and willingness to help older parents with pain. Undergraduate students (N = 636) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they read vignettes about an older mother with chronic pain, which varied…

  18. Promoting Positive Parenting Practices through Parenting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Marlene; Varela, Frances; Morales, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The family is the crucible of a young child's development. The 2000 Institute of Medicine report From Neurons to Neighborhoods shows that positive developmental interactions with parents improve young children's social competence and their overall capacity to learn. Fifty-four percent of parents want more information on how they can help their…

  19. Willingness to use ADHD Treatments: A Mixed Methods Study of Perceptions by Adolescents, Parents, Health Professionals and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Mason, Dana; Mayerson, Gillian; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about factors that influence willingness to engage in treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). From 2007 to 2008, in the context of a longitudinal study assessing ADHD detection and service use in the United States, we simultaneously elicited ADHD treatment perceptions from four stakeholder groups: adolescents, parents, health care professionals and teachers. We assessed their willingness to use ADHD interventions and views of potential undesirable effects of two pharmacological (short- and long-acting ADHD medications) and three psychosocial (ADHD education, behavior therapy, and counseling) treatments. In multiple regression analysis, willingness was found to be significantly related to respondent type (lower for adolescents than adults), feeling knowledgeable, and considering treatments acceptable and helpful, but not significantly associated with stigma/embarrassment, respondent race, gender and socioeconomic status. Because conceptual models of undesirable effects are underdeveloped, we used grounded theory method to analyze open-ended survey responses to the question: “What other undesirable effects are you concerned about?” We identified general negative treatment perceptions (dislike, burden, perceived ineffectiveness) and specific undesirable effect expectations (physiological and psychological side-effects, stigma and future dependence on drugs or therapies) for pharmacological and psychosocial treatments. In summary, findings indicate significant discrepancies between teens’ and adults’ willingness to use common ADHD interventions, with low teen willingness for any treatments. Results highlight the need to develop better treatment engagement practices for adolescents with ADHD. PMID:22133584

  20. Parent Involvement, Business Partnerships Promote Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Danny D.

    1994-01-01

    To tap the resources, knowledge, and expertise of parents, a West Virginia middle school initiated a parent-involvement program in fall 1992. The parents created their own program, the Red Apple Corps, which planned and promoted a back-to-school day, a birthday bulletin board, a tutoring program, a school pride award, and the school newspaper.…

  1. HPV Awareness and Vaccine Willingness among Dominican Immigrant Parents Attending a Federal Qualified Health Clinic in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Quiñones, Valerie; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M.; Conde-Toro, Alexandra; Serra-Rivera, Michelle J.; Martínez, Tania M.; Rodríguez, Verónica; Berdiel, Luis; Villanueva, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV), and willingness to vaccinate among a convenience sample of 60 immigrant Dominican parents of adolescent sons in a Federal Qualified Health Clinic (FQHC) in Puerto Rico (PR). Participation involved completing a self-administered survey. Even though more than half of the parents had not received proper HPV vaccine orientation from healthcare provider (58.3%) nor asked provider for vaccination recommendation for their adolescent sons (56.7%), most parents were aware of HPV (91.7%) and HPV vaccination among males (55.0%). Among those with unvaccinated sons, willingness to vaccinate the son within the next year was high (83.8%). The low vaccination percentage (31.7%) and information exchange between the parents and the son’s healthcare provider indicates an opportunity for future culturally tailored interventions to target HPV vaccination among healthcare providers and parents of foreign descent in order to increase HPV vaccine uptake among males. PMID:25023490

  2. Nutrition-related claims on children's cereals: what do they mean to parents and do they influence willingness to buy?

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Thompson, Jacqueline M; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-12-01

    To examine parents' beliefs about the meaning of common front-of-package nutrition-related claims on children's cereals and determine whether the claims would make them more willing to buy the cereals. Parents viewed images of box fronts for children's cereals of below-average nutritional quality, as assessed by a validated nutrient profiling model. These boxes featured various nutrition-related claims including 'supports your child's immunity', 'whole grain', 'fibre', 'calcium and vitamin D' and 'organic'. Participants were provided possible meanings for these claims and asked to select any that applied with the option to write in additional meanings. They also indicated how the claim would affect their willingness to buy the product. Online survey. Parents with children between the ages of 2 and 11 years (n 306) recruited through an online panel. The majority of parents misinterpreted the meaning of claims commonly used on children's cereals. They inferred that cereals with claims were more nutritious overall and might provide specific health-related benefits for their children; and these beliefs predicted greater willingness to buy the cereals. These findings indicate that common front-of-package nutrition-related claims are potentially misleading, especially when placed on products with high levels of nutrients to limit (e.g. sugar, sodium) and low levels of other nutrients to encourage (e.g. fibre, protein). Additional regulation is needed to protect consumers in the USA.

  3. When a Parent Is Away: Promoting Strong Parent-Child Connections during Parental Absence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeary, Julia; Zoll, Sally; Reschke, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    How does a parent stay connected with an infant or toddler during a prolonged separation? Research has shown how important early connections are for child development. When a parent is not present physically, there are strategies that military parents have been using to keep a parent and child connected, promoting mindfulness. Because infants and…

  4. When a Parent Is Away: Promoting Strong Parent-Child Connections during Parental Absence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeary, Julia; Zoll, Sally; Reschke, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    How does a parent stay connected with an infant or toddler during a prolonged separation? Research has shown how important early connections are for child development. When a parent is not present physically, there are strategies that military parents have been using to keep a parent and child connected, promoting mindfulness. Because infants and…

  5. Low self-control promotes the willingness to sacrifice in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Francesca; Finkenauer, Catrin; Finkel, Eli J

    2013-08-01

    Although previous theories and research have suggested that human behavior is automatically driven by selfish impulses (e.g., vengeance rather than forgiveness), the present research tested the hypothesis that in close relationships, people's impulsive inclination is to be prosocial and to sacrifice for their partner-to pursue the interests of the partner or of the relationship at some costs for the self. Results from four studies demonstrated that people with low self-control, relative to those with high self-control, reported greater willingness to sacrifice for their close others. Furthermore, Study 4 demonstrated that communal orientation was more strongly associated with sacrifice among participants with low self-control than participants with high self-control. This moderational pattern supports the hypothesis that communal orientation functions as a default approach to sacrifice in the context of close relationships. Taken together, these findings suggest that under certain crucial conditions in close relationships, gut-level impulses are more likely than deliberative considerations to promote prorelationship behavior.

  6. Changes in willingness to self-manage pain among children and adolescents and their parents enrolled in an intensive interdisciplinary pediatric pain treatment program.

    PubMed

    Logan, Deirdre E; Conroy, Caitlin; Sieberg, Christine B; Simons, Laura E

    2012-09-01

    The importance of willingness to adopt a self-management approach to chronic pain has been demonstrated in the context of cognitive-behaviorally oriented interdisciplinary pain treatment programs for adults, both as a treatment outcome and as a process that facilitates functional improvements. Willingness to self-manage pain has not been studied in pediatric interdisciplinary pain treatment settings. Study aims were (1) to investigate willingness to self-manage pain among children and parents undergoing intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment and (2) to determine whether increased willingness to self-manage pain influenced functional treatment outcomes. A total of 157 children ages 10 to 18 and their parents enrolled in a pediatric pain rehabilitation program completed the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ youth and parent versions) at pretreatment, posttreatment, and short-term follow-up. They also reported on pain, functional disability, depressive symptoms, fear of pain, and use of passive and accommodative coping strategies. Results show that willingness to self-manage pain increased during treatment among both children and parents, with gains maintained at follow-up. Increases in children's readiness to self-manage pain from pretreatment to posttreatment were associated with decreases in functional disability, depressive symptoms, fear of pain, and use of adaptive coping strategies. Increases in parents' readiness to adopt a pain self-management approach were associated with changes in parent-reported fear of pain but not with other child outcomes. Few associations emerged between pretreatment willingness to self-manage pain and posttreatment outcomes. Findings suggest that interdisciplinary pediatric pain rehabilitation may facilitate increased willingness to self-manage pain, which is associated with improvements in function and psychological well-being.

  7. [Health Promotion Training for Parents].

    PubMed

    Hurrelmann, K; Hartung, S; Kluwe, S; Sahrai, D

    2015-09-01

    In this research project, we have analysed how parent education programmes can be integrated into the settings kindergarten, school and community family services. Using the example of 3 well-established prevention programmes for mothers and fathers we were able to identify the conditions for an improved usage of the facilities offered by the programme. We found evidence that the embedding of the programmes in such settings made it possible to approach mothers and fathers from disadvantaged social backgrounds to a higher degree than with traditional approaches.

  8. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  9. Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  10. Changes in willingness to self-manage pain among children and adolescents and their parents enrolled in an intensive interdisciplinary pediatric pain treatment program

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Deirdre E.; Conroy, Caitlin; Sieberg, Christine B.; Simons, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of willingness to adopt a self-management approach to chronic pain has been demonstrated in the context of cognitive-behaviorally oriented interdisciplinary pain treatment programs for adults, both as a treatment outcome and as a process that facilitates functional improvements. Willingness to self-manage pain has not been studied in pediatric interdisciplinary pain treatment settings. Study aims were (1) to investigate willingness to self-manage pain among children and parents undergoing intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment and (2) to determine whether increased willingness to self-manage pain influenced functional treatment outcomes. 157 children ages 10-18 and their parents enrolled in a pediatric pain rehabilitation program completed the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ youth and parent versions) at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and short-term follow up. They also reported on pain, functional disability, depressive symptoms, fear of pain, and use of passive and accommodative coping strategies. Results show that willingness to self-manage pain increased during treatment among both children and parents, with gains maintained at follow-up. Increases in children’s readiness to self-manage pain from pre- to post-treatment were associated with decreases in functional disability, depressive symptoms, fear of pain, and use of adaptive coping strategies. Increases in parents’ readiness to adopt a pain-self management approach were associated with changes in parent-reported fear of pain but not with other child outcomes. Few associations emerged between pre-treatment willingness to self-manage pain and post-treatment outcomes. Findings suggest that interdisciplinary pediatric pain rehabilitation may facilitate increased willingness to self-manage pain, which is associated with improvements in function and psychological well-being. PMID:22749194

  11. The New Parent Checklist: A Tool to Promote Parental Reflection.

    PubMed

    Keys, Elizabeth M; McNeil, Deborah A; Wallace, Donna A; Bostick, Jason; Churchill, A Jocelyn; Dodd, Maureen M

    To design and establish content and face validity of an evidence-informed tool that promotes parental self-reflection during the transition to parenthood. The New Parent Checklist was developed using a three-phase sequential approach: Phase 1 a scoping review and expert consultation to develop and refine a prototype tool; Phase 2 content analysis of parent focus groups; and Phase 3 assessment of utility in a cross-sectional sample of parents completing the New Parent Checklist and a questionnaire. The initial version of the checklist was considered by experts to contain key information. Focus group participants found it useful, appropriate, and nonjudgmental, and offered suggestions to enhance readability, utility, as well as face and content validity. In the cross-sectional survey, 83% of the participants rated the New Parent Checklist as "helpful" or "very helpful" and 90% found the New Parent Checklist "very easy" to use. Open-ended survey responses included predominantly positive feedback. Notable differences existed for some items based on respondents' first language, age, and sex. Results and feedback from all three phases informed the current version, available for download online. The New Parent Checklist is a comprehensive evidence-informed self-reflective tool with promising content and face validity. Depending on parental characteristics and infant age, certain items of the New Parent Checklist have particular utility but may also require further adaptation and testing. Local resources for information and/or support are included in the tool and could be easily adapted by other regions to incorporate their own local resources.

  12. Promoting Attitude Change and Expressed Willingness to Take Action toward Climate Change in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Gale M.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Lombardi, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among cognitive and motivational variables impacting college students' willingness to take mitigative action to reduce the impacts of human-induced climate change. One hundred and forty college students were asked to read a persuasive text about human-induced climate change and were pre- and post-tested on…

  13. Promoting Attitude Change and Expressed Willingness to Take Action toward Climate Change in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Gale M.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Lombardi, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among cognitive and motivational variables impacting college students' willingness to take mitigative action to reduce the impacts of human-induced climate change. One hundred and forty college students were asked to read a persuasive text about human-induced climate change and were pre- and post-tested on…

  14. A contingent valuation study to estimate the parental willingness-to-pay for childhood diarrhoea and gender bias among rural households in India

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mo; Khondoker, Farhana

    2004-01-01

    We used contingent valuation technique to estimate the parental willingness to pay for an episode of diarrhoea among 324 children of both sexes aged between five and seven years in two rural villages of Chennai in India. The aim was to examine if there was any gender bias in the parental willingness to treat children for a diarrhoeal episode, and if so to what extent. The willingness to pay was specified as a hedonic function of the duration and severity of an episode, and of parents' socioeconomic characteristics. The findings suggest that parents were willing to pay more to protect their male child compared to the female child suffering from a diarrhoeal episode. The median willingness to pay to avoid an episode for male and female children were calculated at Rs. 33.7 (approx. US$ 0.72) and Rs. 25.2 (approx. US$ 0.54) respectively – a difference of around 34%. After adjusting for the greater duration and severity of the illness, it was found that the difference between the two medians increased to 51%. PMID:15214964

  15. A contingent valuation study to estimate the parental willingness-to-pay for childhood diarrhoea and gender bias among rural households in India.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mo; Khondoker, Farhana

    2004-06-24

    We used contingent valuation technique to estimate the parental willingness to pay for an episode of diarrhoea among 324 children of both sexes aged between five and seven years in two rural villages of Chennai in India. The aim was to examine if there was any gender bias in the parental willingness to treat children for a diarrhoeal episode, and if so to what extent. The willingness to pay was specified as a hedonic function of the duration and severity of an episode, and of parents' socioeconomic characteristics. The findings suggest that parents were willing to pay more to protect their male child compared to the female child suffering from a diarrhoeal episode. The median willingness to pay to avoid an episode for male and female children were calculated at Rs. 33.7 (approx. US$ 0.72) and Rs. 25.2 (approx. US$ 0.54) respectively - a difference of around 34%. After adjusting for the greater duration and severity of the illness, it was found that the difference between the two medians increased to 51%.

  16. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…

  17. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…

  18. Adolescent, parent and societal preferences and willingness to pay for meningococcal B vaccine: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H S; Chen, G; Clarke, M; Ratcliffe, J

    2016-01-27

    Meningococcal B (MenB) vaccines have been licensed in many countries with private purchase the only option until recently, when a funded programme was introduced in the UK. The aim of this study was to explore adolescent/parental values for a variety of salient vaccine attributes (cost, effectiveness, side effect profile) to assess preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a MenB vaccine. A national cross-sectional population study was conducted in Australia using Discrete Choice Experiment methodology to assess adolescent/parent/adult preferences for attributes related to MenB vaccine. 2003 adults and 502 adolescents completed the survey in 2013. The majority of participants were willing to be vaccinated with MenB vaccine with vaccination opt-out chosen by 11.9% of adolescents and parents, and 18.2% of non-parent adults. A mixed logit regression model examining adolescent/adult preferences indicated consistent findings; the higher the effectiveness, the longer the duration of protection, the less chance of adverse events and the lower the cost, the more likely respondents were to agree to vaccination. For an ideal MenB vaccine, including the most favoured level of each attribute summed together (90% effectiveness, 10 year duration, 1 injection, no adverse events) adolescents would pay AU$251.60 and parents AU$295.10. Adolescents and parents would pay AU$90.70 or AU$127.20 for 90% vaccine effectiveness vs AU$18.50 or AU$16.70 for 70% effectiveness and would want to be financially compensated for 50% effectiveness; pay AU$63.30 or AU$76.40 for 10 years protection; and pay AU$48.50 or AU$49.20 for no vaccine related adverse events. A slight fever post vaccination was a preferred choice with parents and adolescents willing to pay AU$9.60 or AU$12.30 for this attribute. Vaccine effectiveness, adverse events and duration of immunity are important drivers for parental and adolescent decisions about WTP for MenB vaccine and should be included in discussions on the

  19. Black and White Parents' Willingness to Seek Help for Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Idia B; Hardin, Robin; Decker, Kristina; Arnold, Trisha; Howell, Kathryn H; Phares, Vicky

    2017-06-16

    Understanding social and environmental factors that contribute to parental help-seeking intentions is an important step in addressing service underutilization for children in need of treatment. This study examined factors that contribute to parents' intentions to seek formal and informal help for child psychopathology (anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]). A total of 251 parents (N = 128 mothers, N = 123 fathers; 49% Black, 51% White) read 3 vignettes describing children with anxiety, ADHD, and no diagnosis. Measures of problem recognition, perceived barriers, and formal (pediatricians, psychologists, teachers) and informal (religious leaders, family/friends, self-help) help seeking were completed. Four separate hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine parental help-seeking likelihood from formal and informal sources for internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Predictors were socioeconomic status, parent race, age, and sex, parent problem recognition (via study vignettes), and perceived barriers to mental health service utilization. Mothers were more likely than fathers to seek help from pediatricians, psychologists, teachers, and religious leaders for child anxiety and pediatricians, religious leaders, and self-help resources for child ADHD. Black parents were more likely to seek help from religious leaders and White parents were more likely to use self-help resources. Problem recognition was associated with greater intentions to seek help from almost all formal and informal sources (except from friends/family). Understanding factors that contribute to parental help seeking for child psychopathology is critical for increasing service utilization and reducing the negative effects of mental health problems. This study highlights the importance of decreasing help-seeking barriers and increasing problem recognition to improve health equity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Willingness to Participate in a Parental Training Intervention to Reduce Neurocognitive Late Effects among Latino Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Jessica M.; Rosen, Roxanna; Patel, Sunita K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine correlates of Spanish-speaking Latino parents’ interest for participation in an educational intervention to improve learning and school success in children with cancer-related cognitive and behavioral late effects. Participants included 73 Latino caregivers of school age children who are survivors of brain tumor or leukemia and at risk for cognitive late effects. . The parents completed a battery of surveys relating to interest in and barriers to intervention participation, as well as measures of parental knowledge and beliefs and their children's cognitive functioning, and health-related quality of life. Results showed that the majority of parents expressed interest in participating in the proposed 8-week intervention, with over 90% indicating interest in learning more about improving grades, making learning more exciting, being a role model, and the impact of cancer on memory. The factors most strongly related to interest in intervention included lower maternal education, as well as perceptions of greater child cognitive difficulties and lower health-related quality of life. The barriers most highly endorsed by the most parents were difficulty paying for gas, child care responsibility, and too much stress in other parts of life. Also highly endorsed as barriers were statements relating to the child's lack of interest and need for services (i.e., my child is doing fine). These findings are consistent with the Health Belief Model wherein decisions to engage in health-related behaviors are made by weighing the potential benefits relative to the costs and barriers. PMID:24792525

  1. Parents Promoting School Success for Young Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyfer, Victoria

    This paper is designed to help parents in laying a solid foundation of learning experiences for their child with learning disabilities. It introduces three strategies, a rationale, and examples for each strategy that may help parents promote future school success for their child with learning disabilities. The first strategy urges parents to…

  2. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  3. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  4. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  5. Parents' Perspectives of School Mental Health Promotion Initiatives Are Related to Parents' Self-Assessed Parenting Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Achieving broad-scale parent engagement with school initiatives has proven elusive. This article reports survey data from 287 Maltese parents about their perceptions of the quality of their child's school's initiatives for promoting students' wellbeing and mental health. Findings indicate that, on average, parents rated school initiatives highly.…

  6. Parents' Perspectives of School Mental Health Promotion Initiatives Are Related to Parents' Self-Assessed Parenting Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Achieving broad-scale parent engagement with school initiatives has proven elusive. This article reports survey data from 287 Maltese parents about their perceptions of the quality of their child's school's initiatives for promoting students' wellbeing and mental health. Findings indicate that, on average, parents rated school initiatives highly.…

  7. The Promotion of Self-Regulation through Parenting Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity for a parent to self-regulate their own performance is argued to be a fundamental process underpinning the maintenance of positive, nurturing, non-abusive parenting practices that promote good developmental and health outcomes in children. Deficits in self-regulatory capacity, which have their origins in early childhood, are common in…

  8. [Promoting sensitivity and parenting competencies in teenage mothers].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhain, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Relevant concepts of parenting emphasize biologically oriented behavioral tendencies as intuitive parenting that unconsciously guides interaction with the infant. They can be violated by risk factors or adverse life conditions and are to be perceived in parental problems to cope with the infants' needs and even in neglecting and maltreating behavioral displays. In particular high risk groups as teenage mothers are affected. Early and preventive intervention efforts promoting parent-child relationship seem to be successful to prevent maltreatment and later behavioral problems in the child. An attachment-oriented and video-based program for intervention with teenage mothers is described. Chances and limits of promoting parent-child attachment in teenage mothers are discussed.

  9. Engaging Parents to Promote Children's Nutrition and Health.

    PubMed

    Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M

    2017-03-01

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.

  10. Operation Parenting Edge: Promoting Resiliency through Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeary, Julia

    2007-01-01

    With current U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, military families are facing an unprecedented level of stress because of repeated and lengthy separations. The impact on children of these separations from one or both parents depends to a large extent on the remaining caregiver's ability to respond to the needs of the children. By…

  11. Operation Parenting Edge: Promoting Resiliency through Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeary, Julia

    2007-01-01

    With current U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, military families are facing an unprecedented level of stress because of repeated and lengthy separations. The impact on children of these separations from one or both parents depends to a large extent on the remaining caregiver's ability to respond to the needs of the children. By…

  12. Path Analysis: Health Promotion Information Access of Parent Caretaking Pattern through Parenting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunarsih, Tri; Murti, Bhisma; Anantanyu, Sapja; Wijaya, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Parents often inhibit learning process organized by education, due to their ignorance about how to educate child well. Incapability of dealing with those changes leads to dysfunctional families, and problematic children. This research aimed: to analyzed the health promotion information access pattern of parent caretaking pattern through parenting…

  13. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  14. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  15. Parental encouragement of dieting promotes daughters' early dieting.

    PubMed

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L

    2014-09-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls.

  16. Structure, coercive control, and autonomy promotion: A comparison of fathers' and mothers' food parenting strategies.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Mercedes; Hoffmann, Debra; Taylor, Maija; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2017-05-01

    This study explored differences in mothers' and fathers' food parenting strategies, specifically coercive control, structure, and autonomy promotion, and whether parenting style and parental responsibility for food parenting related to the use of these strategies. Parents of children aged 2.5-7.5 years ( N = 497) reported about their parenting practices and food parenting strategies. Parenting style accounted for the majority of the variance in food parenting. Fathers were more authoritarian than mothers. Authoritarian and permissive parenting practices were related to more coercive strategies. Mothers reported more food parenting responsibility. Responsibility was related to less coercive practices and more autonomy promotion and structure.

  17. Talking parents, healthy teens: a worksite-based program for parents to promote adolescent sexual health.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Karen L; Corona, Rosalie; Schuster, Mark A

    2006-10-01

    Parents play an important role in the sexual health of their adolescent children. Based on previous research, formative research, and theories of behavioral change, we developed Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, an intervention designed to help parents improve communication with their adolescent children, promote healthy adolescent sexual development, and reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We conduct the parenting program at worksites to facilitate recruitment and retention of participants. The program consists of 8 weekly 1-hour sessions during the lunch hour. In this article, we review the literature that identifies parental influences on adolescent sexual behavior, summarize our formative research, present the theoretical framework we used to develop Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, describe the program's components and intervention strategies, and offer recommendations based on our experiences developing the program. By targeting parents at their worksites, this program represents an innovative approach to promoting adolescent sexual health. This article is intended to be helpful to health educators and clinicians designing programs for parents, employers implementing health-related programs, and researchers who may consider designing and evaluating such worksite-based programs.

  18. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents' PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' experiences of being a part of their adolescents' empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents', but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  19. Motivating parents to promote cardiovascular health in children.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Sandra L; Graves, Barbara Ann

    2015-01-01

    Identifying risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) early in life gives advanced practice nurses an opportunity to educate parents about choices that promote long-term heart health. The addition of universal lipid screening to 9- to 11-year-old well-child examinations opens a time interval that is adequate for conversations related to cardiovascular health. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of a 10-minute health promotion plan that includes identification of child modifiable CVD risk factors would have an effect on parental intent to engage in lifestyle changes that promote heart health in 9- to 11-year-old children. The quasi-experimental pilot study involved 26 English-speaking parents of 9- to 11-year-old children during routine well-child examinations. Participants completed questionnaires before and after receiving a health promotion plan and the child's modifiable CVD risk screening results. The advanced practice nurse-researcher analyzed the questionnaires to evaluate parental intent to promote lifestyle changes. Increases were seen in concern for the child's future heart health and in awareness of diet and exercise recommendations. Participants were likely to encourage more fruits and vegetables (100%), limit "screen time" (96%), encourage physical activity (92%), and limit sugar-sweetened beverage intake (96%). Factors identified as most influential on participant decision to encourage change were the child's body mass index (38.46%), lipid screening results (23.08%), and "other"-tobacco smoke exposure (15.38%), which closely approximate national prevalence for each risk category. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends lipid screening once for all children between 9 and 11 years of age. In this study, outlining recommendations for good health and identifying modifiable CVD risk factors showed a positive effect on parental intent to encourage lifestyle changes. Further research is needed to advance the science of CVD

  20. The relationship between perceived social capital and the health promotion willingness of companies: a systematic telephone survey with chief executive officers in the information and communication technology sector.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julia; Nitzsche, Anika; Ernstmann, Nicole; Driller, Elke; Wasem, Jürgen; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Pfaff, Holger

    2011-03-01

    This study examines the association between perceived social capital and health promotion willingness (HPW) of companies from a chief executive officer's perspective. Data for the cross-sectional study were collected through telephone interviews with one chief executive officer from randomly selected companies within the German information and communication technology sector. A hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results of the logistic regression analysis of data from a total of n = 522 interviews suggest that higher values of perceived social capital are associated with pronounced HPW in companies (odds ratio = 3.78; 95% confidence intervals, 2.24 to 6.37). Our findings suggest that characteristics of high social capital, such as an established environment of trust as well as a feeling of common values and convictions could help promote HPW.

  1. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870

  2. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  3. Promoting Parenting to Support Reintegrating Military Families: After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Pinna, Keri L. M.; Hanson, Sheila K.; Brockberg, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    The high operational tempo of the current conflicts and the unprecedented reliance on National Guard and Reserve forces highlights the need for services to promote reintegration efforts for those transitioning back to civilian family life. Despite evidence that parenting has significant influence on children’s functioning, and that parenting may be impaired during stressful family transitions, there is a dearth of empirically-supported psychological interventions tailored for military families reintegrating after deployment. This paper reports on the modification of an empirically-supported parenting intervention for families in which a parent has deployed to war. A theoretical rationale for addressing parenting during reintegration after deployment is discussed. We describe the intervention, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), and report early feasibility and acceptability data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of ADAPT, a 14-week group-based, web-enhanced parenting training program. Among the first 42 families assigned to the intervention group, participation rates were high, and equal among mothers and fathers. Satisfaction was high across all fourteen sessions. Implications for psychological services to military families dealing with the deployment process are discussed. PMID:24564441

  4. Promoting parenting to support reintegrating military families: after deployment, adaptive parenting tools.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K; Brockberg, Dustin

    2014-02-01

    The high operational tempo of the current conflicts and the unprecedented reliance on National Guard and Reserve forces highlights the need for services to promote reintegration efforts for those transitioning back to civilian family life. Despite evidence that parenting has significant influence on children's functioning, and that parenting may be impaired during stressful family transitions, there is a dearth of empirically supported psychological interventions tailored for military families reintegrating after deployment. This article reports on the modification of an empirically supported parenting intervention for families in which a parent has deployed to war. A theoretical rationale for addressing parenting during reintegration after deployment is discussed. We describe the intervention, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), and report early feasibility and acceptability data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of ADAPT, a 14-week group-based, Web-enhanced parenting training program. Among the first 42 families assigned to the intervention group, participation rates were high, and equal among mothers and fathers. Satisfaction was high across all 14 sessions. Implications for psychological services to military families dealing with the deployment process are discussed.

  5. Over-time associations among parental self-efficacy, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M

    2015-06-01

    Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as parents' beliefs about their abilities to influence their children in a way that fosters their children's positive development. Research has shown links among PSE, parenting, and children's behavior (Jones & Prinz, 2005), but there are still questions concerning the associations over time. Theory predicts 3 types of processes relevant to these associations: a PSE-driven process, a parent-behavior-driven process, and a child-driven process. In this study, we tested these processes during early to middle adolescence using reports from 401 parents (286 mothers, 115 fathers) from 305 families, and their adolescents (Mage = 11.5 years), at 3 time points. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine the associations among PSE, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing. Results supported a PSE-driven process for mothers within early adolescence. In addition, evidence for parent-behavior-driven and child-driven processes emerged at different times within this developmental period. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Role of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in the paediatric setting: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Pires, D; Zingg, W; Pittet, D

    2016-06-01

    When a child is hospitalized, parents have to share their role to protect the child with the hospital, and establish a partnership with healthcare workers to deliver safe care to the child, including undertaking good hand hygiene practices. To review the scientific evidence about the participation of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in paediatric settings. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and SciELO databases was undertaken using the following terms: ('hand hygiene'[MeSH] OR 'hand hygiene' OR 'hand disinfection'[MeSH] OR hand disinf* OR hand wash* OR handwash* OR hand antisep*) AND (parent OR caregiver OR mother OR father OR family OR families OR relatives). The Integrated Quality Criteria for Review of Multiple Study Designs tool was used for quality assessment. The literature search yielded 1645 articles, and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria for the final analysis. Most studies were observational, and were based on questionnaires or interviews. Most parents had little knowledge about the indications to perform hand hygiene, but recognized hand hygiene as a relevant tool for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Their willingness to remind healthcare workers about a failed opportunity to perform hand hygiene was variable and, overall, rather low. Parents felt more comfortable about reminding healthcare workers about hand hygiene if they had previously been invited to do so. Literature on the subject is scarce. The promotion of hand hygiene by parents should be further explored by research as a potential intervention for enhancing patient safety in paediatric settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children’s Kindergarten Adjustment: The REDI Parent Program

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Nix, Robert L.; Mathis, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games, interactive stories, and guided pretend play to use with their children. To evaluate impact, 200 4-year-old children in Head Start REDI classrooms were randomly assigned to REDI-P or a comparison condition (mail-home math games). Beyond the effects of the classroom program, REDI-P promoted significant improvements in child literacy skills, academic performance, self-directed learning, and social competence, demonstrating the utility of the approach in promoting gains in cognitive and social-emotional skills evident after the transition into kindergarten. PMID:26494108

  8. Promotion of Positive Parenting and Prevention of Socioemotional Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P.; Berkule Johnson, Samantha; Huberman, Harris S.; Seery, Anne M.; Canfield, Caitlin F.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine what effects pediatric primary care interventions, focused on promotion of positive parenting through reading aloud and play, have on the socioemotional development of toddlers from low-income, primarily immigrant households. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included random assignment to 1 of 2 interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP] or Building Blocks [BB]) or to a control group. Mother–newborn dyads were enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. In VIP, dyads met with an interventionist on days of well-child visits; the interventionist facilitated interactions in play and shared reading through provision of learning materials and review of videotaped parent–child interactions. In BB, parents were mailed parenting pamphlets and learning materials. This article analyzes socioemotional outcomes from 14 to 36 months for children in VIP and BB versus control. RESULTS: A total of 463 dyads (69%) contributed data. Children in VIP scored higher than control on imitation/play and attention, and lower on separation distress, hyperactivity, and externalizing problems, with effect sizes ∼0.25 SD for the sample as a whole and ∼0.50 SD for families with additional psychosocial risks . Children in BB made greater gains in imitation/play compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the efficacy of VIP, a preventive intervention targeting parent–child interactions, for enhancing socioemotional outcomes in low-income toddlers. Given the low cost and potential for scalability of primary care interventions, findings support expansion of pediatric-based parenting programs such as VIP for the primary prevention of socioemotional problems before school entry. PMID:26817934

  9. Promoting Resilience among Parents and Caregivers of Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, K. Scott; Syrjala, Karen L.; Back, Anthony L.; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Promoting resilience is an aspect of psychosocial care that affects patient and whole-family well-being. There is little consensus about how to define or promote resilience during and after pediatric cancer. Objectives The aims of this study were (1) to review the resilience literature in pediatric cancer settings; (2) to qualitatively ascertain caregiver-reported perceptions of resilience; and (3) to develop an integrative model of fixed and mutable factors of resilience among family members of children with cancer, with the goal of enabling better study and promotion of resilience among pediatric cancer families. Methods The study entailed qualitative analysis of small group interviews with eighteen bereaved parents and family members of children with cancer treated at Seattle Children's Hospital. Small-group interviews were conducted with members of each bereaved family. Participant statements were coded for thematic analysis. An integrative, comprehensive framework was then developed. Results Caregivers' personal appraisals of the cancer experience and their child's legacy shape their definitions of resilience. Described factors of resilience include baseline characteristics (i.e., inherent traits, prior expectations of cancer), processes that evolve over time (i.e., coping strategies, social support, provider interactions), and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., post-traumatic growth and lack of psychological distress). These elements were used to develop a testable model of resilience among family members of children with cancer. Conclusions Resilience is a complex construct that may be modifiable. Once validated, the proposed framework will not only serve as a model for clinicians, but may also facilitate the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in family members of children with cancer. PMID:23646887

  10. Promoting resilience among parents and caregivers of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Baker, K Scott; Syrjala, Karen L; Back, Anthony L; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Promoting resilience is an aspect of psychosocial care that affects patient and whole-family well-being. There is little consensus about how to define or promote resilience during and after pediatric cancer. The aims of this study were (1) to review the resilience literature in pediatric cancer settings; (2) to qualitatively ascertain caregiver-reported perceptions of resilience; and (3) to develop an integrative model of fixed and mutable factors of resilience among family members of children with cancer, with the goal of enabling better study and promotion of resilience among pediatric cancer families. The study entailed qualitative analysis of small group interviews with eighteen bereaved parents and family members of children with cancer treated at Seattle Children's Hospital. Small-group interviews were conducted with members of each bereaved family. Participant statements were coded for thematic analysis. An integrative, comprehensive framework was then developed. Caregivers' personal appraisals of the cancer experience and their child's legacy shape their definitions of resilience. Described factors of resilience include baseline characteristics (i.e., inherent traits, prior expectations of cancer), processes that evolve over time (i.e., coping strategies, social support, provider interactions), and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., post-traumatic growth and lack of psychological distress). These elements were used to develop a testable model of resilience among family members of children with cancer. Resilience is a complex construct that may be modifiable. Once validated, the proposed framework will not only serve as a model for clinicians, but may also facilitate the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in family members of children with cancer.

  11. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Nix, Robert L.; Mathis, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games,…

  12. Effects of Healthy Families New York on the Promotion of Maternal Parenting Competencies and the Prevention of Harsh Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, M. L.; Dumont, K.; Mitchell-Herzfeld, S. D.; Walden, N. J.; Greene, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the effectiveness of the Healthy Families New York (HFNY) home visiting program in promoting parenting competencies and preventing maladaptive parenting behaviors in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect. Methods: The study used microlevel observational assessments of mother-child interactions in the third…

  13. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Nix, Robert L.; Mathis, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games,…

  14. Effects of Healthy Families New York on the Promotion of Maternal Parenting Competencies and the Prevention of Harsh Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, M. L.; Dumont, K.; Mitchell-Herzfeld, S. D.; Walden, N. J.; Greene, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the effectiveness of the Healthy Families New York (HFNY) home visiting program in promoting parenting competencies and preventing maladaptive parenting behaviors in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect. Methods: The study used microlevel observational assessments of mother-child interactions in the third…

  15. "Peers, parents and phones"--Swedish adolescents and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-01-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents' awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.

  16. Title VII Projects of Academic Excellence: Efforts to Promote Parent Involvement and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Monica; And Others

    Descriptions of four Title VII Academic Excellence projects focus on their efforts to promote limited-English-proficient (LEP) parents' involvement in schools and literacy. "Parents as Tutors" (Monica Sandoval) outlines the structure of the Brownsville (Texas) Independent School District's program to involve parents of children in…

  17. The Impact of Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Practices to Promote Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattimore, Myra T.

    2013-01-01

    Parental involvement, defined as the educational engagement of parents in activities such as involvement in PTA, volunteering, and Science/Math night, promotes academic success. Lack of parental involvement is associated with lower academic performance. The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the relationship between parent…

  18. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  19. The Impact of Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Practices to Promote Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattimore, Myra T.

    2013-01-01

    Parental involvement, defined as the educational engagement of parents in activities such as involvement in PTA, volunteering, and Science/Math night, promotes academic success. Lack of parental involvement is associated with lower academic performance. The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the relationship between parent…

  20. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  1. Promoting Health and Preventing Injury in Preschool Children: The Role of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemagno, Sonia A.; Niles, Sheila A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy; Miller, William J.

    2008-01-01

    There is concern that parents under stress may not be effective in promoting health and preventing injury in young children, but research in this area has been limited. To explore this issue, a study was conducted to look at the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and actions taken to promote health and to prevent injury in…

  2. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2013-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

  3. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2013-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

  4. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    PubMed Central

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children. PMID:26652259

  5. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries.

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A

    2015-01-01

    Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3-6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children.

  6. Anxiety Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Teetsel, Rebekah N.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Drake, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers’ parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6–12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children’s dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers’ parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety. PMID:23677528

  7. Working with Parents to Promote Healthy Adolescent Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida

    2009-01-01

    Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…

  8. Working with Parents to Promote Healthy Adolescent Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida

    2009-01-01

    Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…

  9. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    PubMed

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations.

  10. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  11. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  12. Cost of talking parents, healthy teens: a worksite-based intervention to promote parent-adolescent sexual health communication.

    PubMed

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Elliott, Marc N; Bogart, Laura M; Kanouse, David E; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J; Ratner, Jessica A; Schuster, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    To examine the cost and cost-effectiveness of implementing Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a worksite-based parenting program designed to help parents address sexual health with their adolescent children. We enrolled 535 parents with adolescent children at 13 worksites in southern California in a randomized trial. We used time and wage data from employees involved in implementing the program to estimate fixed and variable costs. We determined cost-effectiveness with nonparametric bootstrap analysis. For the intervention, parents participated in eight weekly 1-hour teaching sessions at lunchtime. The program included games, discussions, role plays, and videotaped role plays to help parents learn to communicate with their children about sex-related topics, teach their children assertiveness and decision-making skills, and supervise and interact with their children more effectively. Implementing the program cost $543.03 (standard deviation, $289.98) per worksite in fixed costs, and $28.05 per parent (standard deviation, $4.08) in variable costs. At 9 months, this $28.05 investment per parent yielded improvements in number of sexual health topics discussed, condom teaching, and communication quality and openness. The cost-effectiveness was $7.42 per new topic discussed using parental responses and $9.18 using adolescent responses. Other efficacy outcomes also yielded favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Talking Parents, Healthy Teens demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a worksite-based parenting program to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health. Its cost is reasonable and is unlikely to be a significant barrier to adoption and diffusion for most worksites considering its implementation. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost of Talking Parents, Healthy Teens: a Worksite-based Intervention to Promote Parent-Adolescent Sexual Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ladapo, Joseph A.; Elliott, Marc N.; Bogart, Laura M.; Kanouse, David E.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Klein, David J.; Ratner, Jessica A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cost and cost-effectiveness of implementing Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a worksite-based parenting program designed to help parents address sexual health with their adolescent children. Methods We enrolled 535 parents with adolescent children at 13 worksites in southern California in a randomized trial. Time and wage data from employees involved in implementing the program were used to estimate fixed and variable costs. Cost-effectiveness was determined with nonparametric bootstrap analysis. For the intervention, parents participated in eight weekly one-hour teaching sessions at lunchtime. The program included games, discussions, role plays, and videotaped role plays to help parents learn to communicate with their children about sex-related topics, teach their children assertiveness and decision-making skills, and supervise and interact with their children more effectively. Results Implementing the program cost $543.03 (SD=$289.98) per worksite in fixed costs, and $28.05 per parent (SD=$4.08) in variable costs. At 9 months, this $28.05 investment per parent yielded improvements in number of sexual health topics discussed, condom teaching, and communication quality and openness. The cost-effectiveness was $7.42 per new topic discussed using parental responses and $9.18 using adolescent responses. Other efficacy outcomes also yielded favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Conclusions Talking Parents, Healthy Teens demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a worksite-based parenting program to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health. Its cost is reasonable and unlikely to be a significant barrier to adoption and diffusion for most worksites considering its implementation. PMID:23406890

  14. Interventions Designed To Promote Parent-Teen Communication about Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas; Miller, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes different approaches used to increase parent-child communication about sexuality and summarizes studies that have measured their impact. Focuses primarily on the impact of programs on parent-child communication, but also summarizes the limited research on the impact of such programs on adolescent sexual behavior, or on other determinants…

  15. Promoting Mental Health: A Parent/Child Care Provider Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sale, June Solnit

    This document provides descriptions of simple intervention techniques that day care center staff can use to help working parents and support young children's mental health. Discussion begins with the proposition that when children let adults know through their behavior that they are troubled, the children deserve a joint effort of parents and…

  16. Reducing Parental Demand for Antibiotics by Promoting Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alder, Stephen C.; Trunnell, Eric P.; White, George L., Jr.; Lyon, Joseph L.; Reading, James P.; Samore, Matthew H.; Magill, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria are continuing to emerge as high rates of antibiotic use persist. Children are among the highest users of antibiotics, with parents influencing physician decision-making regarding antibiotic prescription. An intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to reduce parents' expectations for antibiotics…

  17. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  18. Children's Food and Beverage Promotion on Television to Parents.

    PubMed

    Emond, Jennifer A; Smith, Marietta E; Mathur, Suman J; Sargent, James D; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionally poor foods are heavily advertised to children on television. Whether those same products are also advertised to parents on television has not been systematically examined. This study is a content analysis of advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages aired over US network, cable, and syndicated television for 1 year (2012 to 2013). The target audience of each advertisement was defined as children or parents based on advertisement content, where parent-directed advertisements included emotional appeals related to family bonding and love. Advertisement characteristics and patterns of airtime were compared across target audience, and the proportion of total airtime devoted to advertisements targeting parents was computed. Fifty-one children's food or beverage products were advertised over the study year, 25 (49%) of which were advertised directly to parents. Parent-directed advertisements more often featured nutrition and health messaging and an active lifestyle than child-directed advertisements, whereas child-directed advertisements more frequently highlighted fun and product taste. Over all products, 42.4% of total airtime was devoted to advertisements that targeted parents. The products with the most amount of airtime over the study year were ready-to-eat cereals, sugar-sweetened beverages, and children's yogurt, and the proportion of total advertisement airtime for those products devoted to parents was 24.4%, 72.8%, and 25.8%, respectively. Television advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages frequently targeted parents with emotional appeals and messaging related to nutrition and health. Findings are of concern if exposure to such advertisements among parents may shape their beliefs about the appropriateness of nutritionally questionable children's foods and beverages. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism, doubts of child competency, over-control, and granting of autonomy) in anxious parents with (n = 21) and without (n = 45) social anxiety disorder (SAD) during a five-minute task with their non-anxious child (aged 7-12 years, M = 9.14). Parents with SAD demonstrated less warmth/positive affect and more criticism and doubts of child competency than did those without SAD. There were no group differences in over-control or granting of autonomy. Findings help clarify inconsistent results in the literature, inform models of familial transmission, and suggest intervention targets for parents with SAD. PMID:23053617

  20. Strategies for promoting HIV testing uptake: willingness to receive couple-based and collective HIV testing among a cross-sectional online sample of men who have sex with men in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongyi; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bien, Cedric; Yang, Ligang; Meng, Roger; Han, Larry; Yang, Min; Tucker, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    Low rates of HIV testing drive the rapidly growing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. We examined the potential usefulness of couple-based and collective HIV testing strategies among Chinese MSM. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 1113 MSM in 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with willingness to receive couple-based and collective testing. Acceptability of couple-based testing was very high among participants (86.1%), with a moderate level of interest in collective testing (43.2%). Being 'out' to others about one's sexual identity (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.48, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.17) and having ever had an HIV test (AOR=3.05, 95% CI 2.10 to 4.33) were associated with willingness to receive couple-based testing. Having multiple male anal sex partners in the past 3 months was associated with willingness to participate in collective testing (AOR=1.43, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.99). Couple-based and collective HIV testing could help better control the HIV epidemic among Chinese MSM if implemented and promoted in a culturally competent manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  2. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  3. Promoting Health and Home Safety for Children of Parents with Intellectual Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Honey, Anne; Mayes, Rachel; Russo, Domenica

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated a home-based intervention for parents with intellectual disability to promote child health and home safety in the preschool years. The intervention improved parents' ability to recognize home dangers and to handle emergencies, increased their knowledge about illness and medicines, and increased the number of safety precautions…

  4. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  5. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  6. Effects of Healthy Families New York on the promotion of maternal parenting competencies and the prevention of harsh parenting.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M L; Dumont, K; Mitchell-Herzfeld, S D; Walden, N J; Greene, R

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of the Healthy Families New York (HFNY) home visiting program in promoting parenting competencies and preventing maladaptive parenting behaviors in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect. The study used microlevel observational assessments of mother-child interactions in the third wave of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether mothers who received home visiting services were more likely to exhibit positive parenting and less likely to display negative parenting behaviors than those who did not receive these services. Women were randomly assigned during pregnancy or shortly after the birth of the target child to an intervention group that was offered home visiting services or a control group that was given referrals to other services. At Year 3, 522 mother and child pairs were systematically observed while they interacted in semistructured tasks presenting varied parenting challenges. The study also sought to replicate a finding from Year 2, which revealed that program effects on harsh parenting were stronger among young, first-time mothers who were randomly assigned during pregnancy (the High Prevention Opportunity subgroup) than among the other mothers (the Limited Prevention Opportunity subgroup). Results indicate that HFNY was effective in fostering positive parenting, such as maternal responsivity and cognitive engagement. With respect to negative parenting, HFNY mothers in the High Prevention Opportunity subgroup were less likely than their counterparts in the control group to use harsh parenting, while no differences were detected for the Limited Prevention Opportunity subgroup. HFNY was successful in promoting positive parenting among mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect, which may reflect the program's strength-based approach. The replication of the High Prevention Opportunity subgroup as a moderator of program effects on harsh parenting further suggests that HFNY may be more useful for preventing

  7. An evaluation of computer-based programmed instruction for promoting teachers' greetings of parents by name.

    PubMed

    Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hanley, Gregory P

    2006-01-01

    Although greeting parents by name facilitates subsequent parent-teacher communication, baseline measures revealed that 4 preschool teachers never or rarely greeted parents by name during morning check-in. To promote frequent and accurate use of parents' names by teachers, the effects of a fully automated computerized assessment and programmed instruction (CAPI) intervention were evaluated in a multiple baseline design. The CAPI intervention involved assessment and training of relations among parents' and children's pictures and names, and produced rapid learning of parent names. The CAPI intervention also resulted in substantial improvements in the classroom use of parents' names for 3 of the 4 teachers; however, a supervisor-mediated feedback package (consisting of instructions, differential reinforcement, and error correction) was necessary to maintain name use for 2 of those teachers. The practical strengths and limitations of computer-based teacher training are discussed.

  8. Leveraging Healthcare to Promote Responsive Parenting: Impacts of the Video Interaction Project on Parenting Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Dreyer, Benard P.; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Vlahovicova, Kristina; Ledesma, Jennifer; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine impacts of a pediatric primary care intervention, the Video Interaction Project, on 3-year trajectories of parenting stress related to parent-child interactions in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted, with random assignment to one of two interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP]; Building Blocks [BB]) or control (C). As part of VIP, dyads attended one-on-one sessions with an interventionist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading through review of videotaped parent-child interactions made on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided to facilitate parent-child interactions at home. Parenting stress related to parent-child interactions was assessed for VIP and Control groups at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale of the Parenting Stress Index- Short Form, with 378 dyads (84%) assessed at least once. Group differences emerged at 6 months with VIP associated with lower parenting stress at 3 of 4 ages considered cross-sectionally and an 17.7% reduction in parenting stress overall during the study period based on multi-level modeling. No age by group interaction was observed, indicating persistence of early VIP impacts. Results indicated that VIP, a preventive intervention targeting parent-child interactions, is associated with decreased parenting stress. Results therefore support the expansion of pediatric interventions such as VIP as part of a broad public health strategy to address poverty-related disparities in school-readiness. PMID:27134514

  9. Leveraging Healthcare to Promote Responsive Parenting: Impacts of the Video Interaction Project on Parenting Stress.

    PubMed

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Dreyer, Benard P; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Vlahovicova, Kristina; Ledesma, Jennifer; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    We sought to determine impacts of a pediatric primary care intervention, the Video Interaction Project, on 3-year trajectories of parenting stress related to parent-child interactions in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted, with random assignment to one of two interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP]; Building Blocks [BB]) or control (C). As part of VIP, dyads attended one-on-one sessions with an interventionist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading through review of videotaped parent-child interactions made on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided to facilitate parent-child interactions at home. Parenting stress related to parent-child interactions was assessed for VIP and Control groups at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale of the Parenting Stress Index- Short Form, with 378 dyads (84%) assessed at least once. Group differences emerged at 6 months with VIP associated with lower parenting stress at 3 of 4 ages considered cross-sectionally and an 17.7% reduction in parenting stress overall during the study period based on multi-level modeling. No age by group interaction was observed, indicating persistence of early VIP impacts. Results indicated that VIP, a preventive intervention targeting parent-child interactions, is associated with decreased parenting stress. Results therefore support the expansion of pediatric interventions such as VIP as part of a broad public health strategy to address poverty-related disparities in school-readiness.

  10. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  11. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Welsh, Janet A; Heinrichs, Brenda S; Nix, Robert L; Mathis, Erin T

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games, interactive stories, and guided pretend play to use with their children. To evaluate impact, two hundred 4-year-old children in Head Start REDI classrooms were randomly assigned to REDI-P or a comparison condition (mail-home math games). Beyond the effects of the classroom program, REDI-P promoted significant improvements in child literacy skills, academic performance, self-directed learning, and social competence, demonstrating the utility of the approach in promoting gains in cognitive and social-emotional skills evident after the transition into kindergarten.

  12. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.

  13. Parental Involvement, Is It Real? A Study of Viewpoints Promoting Parental Involvement That Enhances Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Lorretta Faye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the motives, practices, attitudes, and barriers of parental involvement as recognized by administrators and teachers in southwest Tennessee in order to improve the school-home and community relationship in southwest Tennessee. This study investigated the benefits of parental involvement and…

  14. Parental Involvement, Is It Real? A Study of Viewpoints Promoting Parental Involvement That Enhances Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Lorretta Faye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the motives, practices, attitudes, and barriers of parental involvement as recognized by administrators and teachers in southwest Tennessee in order to improve the school-home and community relationship in southwest Tennessee. This study investigated the benefits of parental involvement and…

  15. Parental Nurturance Promotes Reading Acquisition in Low Socioeconomic Status Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Bowman, Margo; Barnett, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Research Findings: Children require cognitive skills (e.g., phoneme awareness, verbal intelligence) and environmental resources (e.g., stimulation, print exposure) to acquire reading. This investigation examined the additional contribution of parental nurturance to literacy development during the transition from preschool to elementary school.…

  16. Authoritative Parenting Promotes Adolescent School Achievement and Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Elmen, Julie D.

    As adolescents progress from elementary to secondary school, their academic success increasingly depends on their ability to manage their own time and behavior. Because the family plays such an important role in the development of responsible autonomy, this study examined authoritative parenting and the hypothesis that authoritative parents…

  17. Parent-Child Communication: Promoting Sexually Health Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagina, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    When young people feel unconnected to home, family, and school, they may become involved in activities that put their health at risk. However, when parents affirm the value of their children, young people more often develop positive, healthy attitudes about themselves. Although most adults want youth to know about abstinence, contraception, and…

  18. Parent-Child Communication: Promoting Sexually Health Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagina, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    When young people feel unconnected to home, family, and school, they may become involved in activities that put their health at risk. However, when parents affirm the value of their children, young people more often develop positive, healthy attitudes about themselves. Although most adults want youth to know about abstinence, contraception, and…

  19. An Evaluation of Computer-Based Programmed Instruction for Promoting Teachers' Greetings of Parents by Name

    PubMed Central

    Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hanley, Gregory P

    2006-01-01

    Although greeting parents by name facilitates subsequent parent–teacher communication, baseline measures revealed that 4 preschool teachers never or rarely greeted parents by name during morning check-in. To promote frequent and accurate use of parents' names by teachers, the effects of a fully automated computerized assessment and programmed instruction (CAPI) intervention were evaluated in a multiple baseline design. The CAPI intervention involved assessment and training of relations among parents' and children's pictures and names, and produced rapid learning of parent names. The CAPI intervention also resulted in substantial improvements in the classroom use of parents' names for 3 of the 4 teachers; however, a supervisor-mediated feedback package (consisting of instructions, differential reinforcement, and error correction) was necessary to maintain name use for 2 of those teachers. The practical strengths and limitations of computer-based teacher training are discussed. PMID:16813041

  20. Promoting Birth Parents' Relationships with their Toddlers upon Reunification: Results from Promoting First Relationships(®) Home Visiting Program.

    PubMed

    Oxford, Monica L; Marcenko, Maureen; Fleming, Charles B; Lohr, Mary Jane; Spieker, Susan J

    2016-02-01

    Birth parents, once reunified with their child after a foster care placement, are in need of in-home support services to prevent reoccurrence of maltreatment and reentry into foster care, establish a strong relationship with their child, and enhance child well-being. Few studies have addressed the efficacy of home visiting services for reunified birth parents of toddlers. This study reports on the findings from a randomized control trial of a 10-week home visiting program, Promoting First Relationships(®) (Kelly, Sandoval, Zuckerman, & Buehlman, 2008), for a subsample of 43 reunified birth parents that were part of the larger trial. We describe how the elements of the intervention align with the needs of parents and children in child welfare. Although the sample size was small and most of the estimates of intervention effects were not statistically significant, the effect sizes and the pattern of results suggest that the intervention may have improved both observed parenting sensitivity and observed child behaviors as well as decreased parent report of child behavior problems. Implications are that providing in-home services soon after a reunification may be efficacious in strengthening birth parents' capacity to respond sensitively to their children as well as improving child social and emotional outcomes and well-being.

  1. Promoting Parent-Child Sexual Health Dialogue with an Intergenerational Game: Parent and Youth Perspectives.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Jina; Santa Maria, Diane; Dube, Sara; Markham, Christine; McLaughlin, Jeffrey; Wilkerson, Johnny M; Peskin, Melissa F; Tortolero, Susan; Shegog, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health discussions between parents and their preadolescent youth can delay sexual debut and increase condom and contraceptive use. However, parents frequently report being uncomfortable talking with their youth about sex, often reporting a lack of self-efficacy and skills to inform and motivate responsible decision making by youth. Intergenerational games may support parent-youth sexual health communication. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and youth perspectives on a proposed intergenerational game designed to increase effective parent-youth sexual health communication and skills training. Eight focus groups were conducted: four with parents (n=20) and four with their 11-14-year-old youth (n=19), to identify similarities and differences in perspectives on gaming context, delivery channel, content, and design (components, features, and function) that might facilitate dyadic sexual health communication. Participants concurred that a sex education game could improve communication while being responsive to family time constraints. They affirmed the demand for an immersive story-based educational adventure game using mobile platforms and flexible communication modalities. Emergent themes informed the development of a features inventory (including educational and gaming strategies, communication components, channel, and setting) and upper-level program flow to guide future game development. This study supports the potential of a game to be a viable medium to bring a shared dyadic sexual health educational experience to parents and youth that could engage them in a motivationally appealing way to meaningfully impact their sexual health communication and youth sexual risk behaviors.

  2. Effectiveness of a national media campaign to promote parent-child communication about sex.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-02-01

    Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children's decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) to encourage parent-child communication about sex. Previous experimental studies have found the campaign to be efficacious in increasing parent-child communication. But to date, the actual reach of the campaign and its real-world effectiveness in promoting parent-child communication has not been established. The present study addresses this gap. The authors surveyed 1,804 parents of 10- to14-year-old children from the nationally representative Knowledge Networks online panel. The survey included questions about parents' awareness of PSUNC ads and parent-child communication behaviors. The authors also analyzed market-level data on campaign gross rating points, a measure of market-level intensity of PSUNC advertising in the United States. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the association between PSUNC exposure and a three-item scale for parent-child communication. Overall, 59.4% of parents in the sample reported awareness of PSUNC. The authors found that higher market-level PSUNC gross rating points were associated with increased parent-child communication. Similar relationships were observed between self-reported awareness of PSUNC and increased frequency of communication and recommendations to wait. These associations were particularly strong among mothers. This study provides the first field-based data on the real-world reach and effectiveness of PSUNC among parents. The data support earlier experimental trials of PSUNC, showing that the campaign is associated with greater parent-child communication, primarily among mothers. Further research may be needed to develop additional messages for fathers.

  3. Promoting parent academic expectations predicts improved school outcomes for low-income children entering kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Loughlin-Presnal, John E; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, Mage=4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Parents' and adolescents' willingness to be vaccinated against serogroup B meningococcal disease during a mass vaccination in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (Quebec).

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Hamel, Denis; Belley, Sylvie; Gagné, Hélène; Boulianne, Nicole; Landry, Monique; Bettinger, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    A mass vaccination campaign with the 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis Pharmaceutical Canada Inc) was launched in a serogroup B endemic area in Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted to assess parental and adolescent opinions about the acceptability of the vaccine. Intent to receive the vaccine or vaccine receipt was reported by the majority of parents (93%) and adolescents (75%). Meningitis was perceived as being a dangerous disease by the majority of parents and adolescents. The majority of respondents also considered the 4CMenB vaccine to be safe and effective. The main reason for positive vaccination intention or behaviour was self-protection, while a negative attitude toward vaccination in general was the main reason mentioned by parents who did not intend to have their child vaccinated. Adolescents mainly reported lack of interest, time or information, and low perceived susceptibility and disease severity as the main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated or not being vaccinated.

  5. Promoting family-centered care in the NICU through a parent-to-parent manager position.

    PubMed

    Voos, Kristin C; Miller, Laura; Park, Nesha; Olsen, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The Family-Centered Care (FCC) committee had formulated multiple ideas for projects but was unable to fully carry out and sustain many of the initiatives. The committee felt that to implement the proposed FCC projects someone would need to devote full attention to the task. The parent-to-parent (PTP) position was created to develop and sustain initiatives of our institution's NICU Family Support Program. The purpose of this article is to describe the process of creating a PTP manager position and the effects it can have in the NICU for the family. Program outcomes were assessed in 3 areas that align with core principles of FCC: (1) emotional support and parent empowerment, (2) a welcoming environment with supportive policies, and (3) education for staff and families. The assessment of the program included review and attendance of parent support offerings, review and revision of parent material, and survey evaluation of staff education. In the first year, the program reached over 800 families, provided 136 parent education hours, and organized social activities that reached 847 families. The creation of a PTP manager position has been instrumental in the development and management of multiple initiatives to offer families and staff continued support and education. Further evaluation of programs and strategies for PTP support in the NICU setting is needed.

  6. Parents' promotion of psychological autonomy, psychological control, and Mexican-American adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and explored their associations with adolescents' adjustment in the context of acculturation. In 5th grade, 134 (54.5% female) Mexican-American adolescents reported on their acculturation level and the parenting practices of their mothers and fathers. In 5th and 7th grade, adolescents also reported on their depressive symptoms, number of delinquent friends, and self-worth. Perceptions of promotion of psychological autonomy and of psychological control were positively correlated. However, perceptions of more promotion of psychological autonomy and of less psychological control predicted fewer depressive symptoms 2 years later. Perceptions of more promotion of psychological autonomy also predicted fewer delinquent friends two years later. Finally, perceptions of more promotion of psychological autonomy predicted higher self-worth only among less acculturated adolescents. The study underscores the roles that promotion of psychological autonomy and psychological control may play in Mexican-American children's well-being during early adolescence.

  7. Adolescent ethnic prejudice: understanding the effects of parental extrinsic versus intrinsic goal promotion.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Based on Self-Determination Theory, the role of parental extrinsic versus intrinsic (E / I) goal promotion for adolescent ethnic prejudice and the mechanisms underlying this effect were examined in a sample of adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that paternal and maternal E / I goal promotion had a significantly positive effect on ethnic prejudice. This effect could be accounted for by differences in adolescent right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). In addition, differences in adolescent E / I goal pursuit fully mediated the effects of parental E / I goal promotion on RWA and SDO. Finally, the effects of adolescent E / I goal pursuits on ethnic prejudice were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. Implications of these findings will be discussed.

  8. Primary Care-Based Interventions to Promote Positive Parenting Behaviors: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Reshma; Kennedy, Sarah; Clark, Maureen D; Bauer, Sarah C; Schwartz, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Utilization of primary care settings offers a promising approach to enhance parenting practices that are critical for promoting early childhood development. Determining the impact of existing primary care interventions on key parenting behaviors will aid providers and policy makers as they seek strategies to improve early child outcomes. To evaluate the efficacy of primary care-based interventions on parenting practices that promote early child development among children younger than 36 months. PubMed, Excerpta Medica dataBASE, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases were searched electronically. English-language articles that were quasi-randomized or randomized controlled trials, included parents of children <36 months of age, and reported outcomes related to parenting behaviors that promote early child development. Two reviewers independently extracted data regarding participants, interventions, and outcomes. Quantitative meta-analyses were conducted with random effects for study and fitted with restricted maximum likelihood methods. The review included 13 studies reporting parenting outcomes in 2 categories: participation in cognitively stimulating activities and positive parent-child interactions. We found a statistically significant positive effect of primary care-delivered interventions and parent-child interactions (summary standardized mean difference 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.52, P < .0001) and participation in cognitively stimulating activities (summary standardized mean difference 0.34, 95% CI 0.03-0.54; summary odds ratio 0.13, 95% CI 0.01-0.25, P < .0001). Limitations included heterogeneity in measures used, outcomes, and timing of assessments. Primary care-based interventions modestly affect positive parenting behaviors important for early childhood development. Randomized controlled trials with comparable outcome measures using standardized assessments are needed to assess further beneficial

  9. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  10. A paid radio advertising campaign to promote parent-child communication about alcohol.

    PubMed

    Surkan, Pamela J; Dejong, William; Herr-Zaya, Kathleen M; Rodriguez-Howard, Mayra; Fay, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a paid radio commercial designed to promote parent-child communication about alcohol use and sponsored by the Bureau of Substance Abuse Services, Massachusetts Department of Public Health. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents or guardians of children ages 10-17 years was conducted after a four-week advertising flight. Respondents with unassisted recall of the commercial more often disagreed that parent-child discussion is useful only if children have begun to experiment with alcohol, and more often reported having three or more parent-child discussions about alcohol compared to those who did not recall the commercial. Findings suggest the potential benefit of paid media campaigns to encourage parents to talk with their children about alcohol.

  11. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs; 1) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; 2) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and 3) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions. PMID:20822438

  12. Social learning theory parenting intervention promotes attachment-based caregiving in young children: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social learning theory-based treatment promoted change in qualities of parent-child relationship derived from attachment theory. A randomized clinical trial of 174 four- to six-year-olds selected from a high-need urban area and stratified by conduct problems were assigned to a parenting program plus a reading intervention (n = 88) or nonintervention condition (n = 86). In-home observations of parent-child interactions were assessed in three tasks: (a) free play, (b) challenge task, and (c) tidy up. Parenting behavior was coded according to behavior theory using standard count measures of positive and negative parenting, and for attachment theory using measures of sensitive responding and mutuality; children's attachment narratives were also assessed. Compared to the parents in the nonintervention group, parents allocated to the intervention showed increases in the positive behavioral counts and sensitive responding; change in behavioral count measures overlapped modestly with change in attachment-based changes. There was no reliable change in children's attachment narratives associated with the intervention. The findings demonstrate that standard social learning theory-based parenting interventions can change broader aspects of parent-child relationship quality and raise clinical and conceptual questions about the distinctiveness of existing treatment models in parenting research.

  13. Counter-advertising may reduce parent's susceptibility to front-of-package promotions on unhealthy foods.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Kelly, Bridget; Donovan, Robert; Chapman, Kathy; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Assess the effect of counter-advertisements on parents' appraisals of unhealthy foods featuring front-of-package promotions (FOPPs). A 2 × 2 × 5 between-subjects Web-based experiment. Parents were randomly shown an advertisement (counter-advertisement challenging FOPP/control advertisement) and then a pair of food products from the same category: an unhealthy product featuring an FOPP (nutrient content claim/sports celebrity endorsement) and a healthier control product with no FOPP. Australia. A total of 1,269 Australian-based parents of children aged 5-12 years recruited from an online panel. Parents nominated which product they would prefer to buy and which they thought was healthier, then rated the unhealthy product and FOPP on various characteristics. Differences between advertisement conditions were assessed using logistic regression (product choice tasks) and analysis of variance tests (ratings of unhealthy product and FOPP). Compared with parents who saw a control advertisement, parents who saw a counter-advertisement perceived unhealthy products featuring FOPPs as less healthy, expressed weaker intentions for buying such products, and were more likely to read the nutrition facts panel before nominating choices (all P < .001). Counter-advertising may help reduce the misleading influence of unhealthy food marketing and improve the accuracy of parents' evaluations of how nutritious promoted food products are. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implications of Parental Suicide and Violent Death for Promotion of Resilience of Parentally-Bereaved Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ana C.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Liu, Xianchen; Haine, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the implications of suicide and violent deaths (including suicide, homicide, and accidents) for the development of interventions for parentally bereaved children. Analyses of data from the Family Bereavement Program find minimal differences in children's mental health problems, grief or risk and protective factors based on…

  15. Parents as Teachers: How Teachers Can Help Parents Promote Science Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichting, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests some techniques and strategies that teachers can share with parents to help them support their children as they construct meaning, develop scientific literacy, and form a more intense and personal connection with the content information presented in science and mathematics books. (KHR)

  16. Implications of Parental Suicide and Violent Death for Promotion of Resilience of Parentally-Bereaved Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ana C.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Liu, Xianchen; Haine, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the implications of suicide and violent deaths (including suicide, homicide, and accidents) for the development of interventions for parentally bereaved children. Analyses of data from the Family Bereavement Program find minimal differences in children's mental health problems, grief or risk and protective factors based on…

  17. Influence of children's oral health promotion on parents' behaviours, attitudes and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Mimmi; Anttonen, Vuokko; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Hausen, Hannu; Lahti, Satu

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim was to compare the changes in parents' oral health-related behaviour, knowledge and attitudes in 2001-2003 and 2003-2005, during a 3.4-year-intervention in Pori and in the reference area Rauma, Finland. Materials and methods The study population consisted of parents of children who participated in the oral health promotion programme in Pori (all 5th and 6th graders who started the 2001-2002 school year in the town of Pori, n = 1691) and the parents of same-aged children in a reference town (n = 807). In 2001-2003, the promotion was targeted only to the children in Pori. In 2003-2005, the promotion was targeted also to parents, for example via local mass media. The statistical significances of the differences in parents' self-reported behaviour, knowledge and attitudes, and changes in these, were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-tests and confidence intervals. Results In 2001-2003, the trend in changing behaviours was in favour of parents in Pori. Mothers in Pori also improved their knowledge and the attitude 'importance of brushing for health and appearance'. In 2003-2005, the trend in changing behaviours was rather similar in both towns, which may be due to diffusion of the oral health intervention to Rauma via the media. Conclusions The results suggest that health promotion targeted to children, which in previous studies has been shown to be successful in improving children's behaviours, also helped their parents in mending their habits.

  18. Social and psychological factors associated with willingness to test for HIV infection among young people in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Fako, Thabo T

    2006-04-01

    In spite of extensive campaigns to promote voluntary counselling and testing through the radio, television, newspapers and mass rallies, testing for HIV remains a challenge in Botswana. Using a representative sample of 1,294 students from secondary schools and tertiary institutions, the study investigates the effects of socio-demographic background variables, family coherence, interpersonal relations, sexual experience and knowledge about sexual health, on willingness to test for HIV infection. The results show that willingness to test for HIV infection was negatively associated with being sexually active and having a number of partners. Indicators of family, coherence, psychological bonding and personal adjustment such as common residence among parents, emotional support from the family attachment to parents, happiness with life in general and satisfaction with life as a student were associated with willingness to test. The importance of sexual activity, number of partners, happiness with life in general, level of attachment to father and physical fights with other children were identified as the social and psychological predictors of willingness to test for HIV using multiple logistic regression. The study highlights the importance of continued education about voluntary counselling and testing among sexually active young people, especially those from poorer backgrounds in rural areas.

  19. Promoting protective factors for young adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported significantly higher adolescent prosocial behaviors (p = 0.020), lower conduct problems (p = 0.048) and total difficulties (p = 0.041). These parents also reported lower stress associated with adolescent moodiness (p = 0.032), parent life-restriction (p < 0.001), adult-relations (p < 0.001), social isolation (p = 0.012), incompetence/guilt (p < 0.001), lower stress in the parenting domain (p < 0.001) and lower overall stress (p = 0.003) relative to the control condition following the intervention period. No other statistically significant differences were evident (p < 0.05). Results of intention-to-treat analyses were similar. Greater reliable clinically significant change was also achieved for the intervention condition. Participants reported high satisfaction with all elements of the ABCD program. Results suggest the program may assist parents of young adolescents to promote or maintain protective factors in their families. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ANZCTRN12609000194268.

  20. Parental Views of Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Overweight Preschoolers and School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2017-01-01

    Given the importance of parental influence on children’s eating habits, we explored perceptions of parents of overweight (body mass index–for-age percentile ≥85%) preschoolers (3-5 years) and overweight school-aged children (6-12 years) regarding challenges in promoting fruit and vegetable intake and how they and other family members influence their overweight children’s dietary habits. Focus groups were conducted with 13 parents of overweight preschoolers and 14 parents of overweight school-aged children. Codes and themes were developed by inductive data analysis. Four common themes were identified: short shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables prohibiting parents from purchasing, children’s taste changes in fruits and vegetables, parents having the primary influence on children’s dietary intake, and wanting fruits and vegetables “ready to go.” Parents of school-aged children were more concerned about their children’s weight, and extended family members negatively influenced children’s dietary intake compared with parents of preschoolers. Our findings provide valuable insight for nutrition/health educators when developing family-based interventions for weight management. PMID:28462357

  1. Promoting the well-being of children whose parents are gay or lesbian.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    To promote optimal health and well-being of all children, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports access for all children to (1) civil marriage rights for their parents and (2) willing and capable foster and adoptive parents, regardless of the parents' sexual orientation. The AAP has always been an advocate for, and has developed policies to support, the optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. In so doing, the AAP has supported families in all their diversity, because the family has always been the basic social unit in which children develop the supporting and nurturing relationships with adults that they need to thrive. Children may be born to, adopted by, or cared for temporarily by married couples, nonmarried couples, single parents, grandparents, or legal guardians, and any of these may be heterosexual, gay or lesbian, or of another orientation. Children need secure and enduring relationships with committed and nurturing adults to enhance their life experiences for optimal social-emotional and cognitive development. Scientific evidence affirms that children have similar developmental and emotional needs and receive similar parenting whether they are raised by parents of the same or different genders. If a child has 2 living and capable parents who choose to create a permanent bond by way of civil marriage, it is in the best interests of their child(ren) that legal and social institutions allow and support them to do so, irrespective of their sexual orientation. If 2 parents are not available to the child, adoption or foster parenting remain acceptable options to provide a loving home for a child and should be available without regard to the sexual orientation of the parent(s).

  2. An examination of marketing techniques used to promote children's vitamins in parenting magazines.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Roberts, Katherine J; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra

    2014-11-26

    More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children's vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed.  There were 207 advertisements for children's vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy.  None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning.  Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement.  Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind.  Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children.  Companies that market children's vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements.  Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children's vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose.

  3. An Examination of Marketing Techniques used to Promote Children’s Vitamins in Parenting Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children’s vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed. There were 207 advertisements for children’s vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy. None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning. Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement. Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind. Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children. Companies that market children’s vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements. Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children’s vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose. PMID:25948456

  4. How do treatment seeking overweight youth and their parent describe weight promoting factors in their family?

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Annmarie; Riesch, Susan K.; Sanders, Linda; Sass-DeRuyter, Suzanne M.; Birchmeier, Becky; Kotula, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to describe youth and parents perceptions of potential weight promoting factors among families seeking treatment for youth overweight. We identified two important gaps in the vast multi-disciplinary literature: (a) a lack of studies addressing both the youth and the parent perceptions about family factors that are potentially weight-promoting and (b) a lack of interventions that community health nurses could deliver specifically targeting families seeking treatment for overweight youth. Focus group data were content analyzed. Broad themes included: (a) Mixed Messages, (b) Food and Exercise as Battleground, (c) Problem Solving, and (d) Social Aspects of Youth Overweight. We conclude that youth and parents could benefit from community health nursing interventions to implement healthcare professionals' recommendations incorporating all family members and creating and maintaining an accepting and demanding family climate. PMID:23136859

  5. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  6. Children's Literacy Interest and Its Relation to Parents' Literacy-Promoting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Laura E.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how children's literacy interests related to parent literacy-promoting practices across time. Using a sample of 909 preschool-age children and the newly developed Child Activities Preference Checklist, literacy interest appeared to be a complex construct, not easily captured by a single measure. In a subsample of 230 children…

  7. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  8. Promoting Joint Attention in Toddlers with Autism: A Parent-Mediated Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2007-01-01

    Joint attention, a foundational nonverbal social-communicative milestone that fails to develop naturally in autism, was promoted for three toddlers with early-identified autism through a parent-mediated, developmentally grounded, researcher-guided intervention model. A multiple baseline design compared child performance across four phases of…

  9. The Effectiveness of a Parent-Training Program for Promoting Cognitive Performance in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Vahidi, Elahe; Aminyazdi, Amir; Kareshki, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program for promoting cognitive performance of young children through enriching the parent-child interactions among mothers of preschool-aged children in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 29 couples of mothers and their children were assigned to an experimental group (n = 16 couples) and a control group (n = 13 couples). Mothers in the experimental group participated in 12 weekly sessions and were trained how to enrich their daily parent-child interactions as such. Children's cognitive performance was assessed by three subscales of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). The results of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group. The findings support the effectiveness of the parent training program for enhancing cognitive performance in preschoolers.

  10. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  11. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  12. [The theory of dependent-care--a conceptual framework for assessing, supporting, and promoting parental competencies].

    PubMed

    Holoch, Elisabeth

    2010-02-01

    Parental competencies have influence on the professional health care needs of a child and its caregivers. One reason for this is the influence of parental competencies on the healthy development of the child. This applies especially to infants and young children. In order to develop their inborn abilities to regulate themselves and their behaviour, infants and young children are dependent on the perception of and appropriate response to their behaviour by the persons they are most closely attached to. The differentiation of self-regulating abilities is a precondition for a healthy development. The current rise of sleeping and feeding disorders, as well as interaction problems among infants and young children, indicates that parents are increasingly dependent on support in the perception and development of their parental competencies. Paediatric nurses can make an important contribution to this, where a concept of parental competencies, defined by nursing professionals, is available. The Theory of Dependent-Care and especially the concept of Dependent-Care Agency will be presented in this paper. It will be examined how they can provide a theoretical framework for the systematic assessment, support, and promotion of parental competencies by paediatric nurses. To conclude, issues for further investigation of parental Dependent-Care Agency and the necessity for a more detailed conceptualisation of the Theory of Dependent-Care will be demonstrated.

  13. Promoting healthy diet and exercise patterns amongst primary school children: a qualitative investigation of parental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hart, K H; Herriot, A; Bishop, J A; Truby, H

    2003-04-01

    Parents represent a potentially powerful intermediary in behaviour change strategies aimed at improving the lifestyle behaviours of young children. However, to fulfil this role, parents need to have the necessary knowledge and motivation to assimilate dietary guidelines. This study aimed to assess these psychosocial constructs, and subsequent parental receptiveness to nutrition education, through investigation of the barriers and benefits perceived by parents to the provision of a healthy diet and adequate exercise for their children. A qualitative methodology was employed and 41 parents took part in seven focus groups separated by socio-economic status (SES). Across the groups, a combination of reported external barriers and unconscious internal barriers, stemming from high optimistic bias, low perceived control and unrealistic health expectations, were observed. SES differences were suggested in restrictive feeding practices, the responsibility attributed to the school and in the level and format of desired nutrition education. Overall a demand for interventions focusing on behavioural techniques rather than fact transmission was uncovered, in particular the promotion of parental self-awareness to reduce negative influences within the family food environment. Providing realistic definitions of appropriate behaviour and empowering parents to tackle children's weight issues were indicated as important targets for future education programmes.

  14. Promoting mental health and wellbeing for a young person with a mental illness: parent occupations.

    PubMed

    Honey, Anne; Alchin, Sarah; Hancock, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    Parenting is a critical and complex occupational role, requiring different occupations and abilities depending on the developmental stage and specific characteristics of each child. When a young adult child develops a mental illness, assisting and supporting them to overcome or adapt to the mental illness becomes a crucial aspect of this occupational role to which many parents devote a great deal of time and energy. The way parents respond to mental illness can have an important impact on young people. However, to date, research on these parents has focussed almost exclusively on their characteristics and personal coping rather than what they do to try to assist and support young people. The aims of this study were to identify the occupations parents currently engage in to promote mental health and wellbeing for a young person with a mental illness and to explore the perceived helpfulness of these occupations. Interviews with 26 young people (15-24 years old) and 32 parents were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Participants reported 78 conceptually distinct mental illness related occupations aimed at promoting: appropriate treatment; positive activities and actions; positive thoughts and feelings; and an ordinary life. Importantly, few participants could evaluate with confidence the helpfulness of individual mental illness related occupations. This research demonstrates the breadth of the mental illness related occupations parents employ and provides a framework for understanding their complexities. It highlights the need to establish an evidence base for various mental illness related occupations so that parents can have more knowledge and thus confidence in these critical occupations. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  16. Biham—Middleton—Levine model in consideration of cooperative willingness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei; Xue, Yu; Zhao, Rui; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the Biham—Middleton—Levine (BML) model with consideration of cooperative willingness has been proposed to study the traffic flow in urban networks. An evolutionary game with a cooperative willingness profile is introduced to deal with conflicts between disturbing neighbors. Simulation results suggest that imitating cooperative willingness can ease the effect of premature seizure on traffic flow due to the introduction of evolutionary games. Phase diagrams with a strategy profile and cooperative willingness profile have been investigated in detail. Our findings also prove that by imitating the more successful, cooperative willingness instead of simply the more successful strategies, the evolution of cooperation is significantly promoted, hence improving the order of cooperation and relieving the pressure of traffic networks.

  17. Encuentro: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Outcomes of a Culturally Tailored Teen-Parent Health Promotion Program.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; Allen, Michele L; Galvan, Adriana; Rodriguez-Hager, Rosemarie; Beckman, Kara; Castillo, Marina; Gadea, Abigail; Jimbo-Llapa, Fanny; Porta, Carolyn; Svetaz, Maria Veronica

    2017-09-01

    The growth of the Latino youth population, combined with the reality that many Latino adolescents live in environments characterized by social disparities, reveals a compelling need to address health inequalities affecting Latinos through effective health promotion programs designed by and for this population. This article presents findings from a pilot study of Encuentro, a health promotion program for young Latino teens and their parents. Developed by a community-university partnership, Encuentro aims to bolster internal assets, familial and cultural supports for young teens' positive development, and healthy sexual decision making and behaviors. Encuentro was pilot tested with 49 Latino families at 3 community sites in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Families were assigned to a program group or a control group. Pilot study findings confirm program feasibility and acceptability. Compared to the control group, program group youth reported substantially more involvement in activities celebrating Latino culture, and greater communication with their parents about sexual health topics. Parents in the program group reported greater ethnic pride, engaging in more activities to share Latino values and traditions with their teens, greater communication with their teens about sexual health topics, and increased parental monitoring than did parents in the control group. Findings demonstrate the potential of the Encuentro program.

  18. Parental Involvement in Middle School: A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Strategies That Promote Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nancy E.; Tyson, Diana F.

    2009-01-01

    Early adolescence is often marked by changes in school context, family relationships, and developmental processes. In the context of these changes, academic performance often declines, while at the same time the long-term implications of academic performance increase. In promoting achievement across elementary and secondary school levels, the significant role of families, family-school relations, and parental involvement in education has been highlighted. Although there is a growing body of literature focusing on parental involvement in education during middle school, this research has not been systematically examined to determine which types of involvement have the strongest relation with achievement. The authors conducted a meta-analysis on the existing research on parental involvement in middle school to determine whether and which types of parental involvement are related to achievement. Across 50 studies, parental involvement was positively associated with achievement, with the exception of parental help with homework. Involvement that reflected academic socialization had the strongest positive association with achievement. Based on the known characteristics of the developmental stage and tasks of adolescence, strategies reflecting academic socialization are most consistent with the developmental stage of early adolescence. PMID:19413429

  19. Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nancy E; Tyson, Diana F

    2009-05-01

    Early adolescence is often marked by changes in school context, family relationships, and developmental processes. In the context of these changes, academic performance often declines, while at the same time the long-term implications of academic performance increase. In promoting achievement across elementary and secondary school levels, the significant role of families, family-school relations, and parental involvement in education has been highlighted. Although there is a growing body of literature focusing on parental involvement in education during middle school, this research has not been systematically examined to determine which types of involvement have the strongest relation with achievement. The authors conducted a meta-analysis on the existing research on parental involvement in middle school to determine whether and which types of parental involvement are related to achievement. Across 50 studies, parental involvement was positively associated with achievement, with the exception of parental help with homework. Involvement that reflected academic socialization had the strongest positive association with achievement. Based on the known characteristics of the developmental stage and tasks of adolescence, strategies reflecting academic socialization are most consistent with the developmental stage of early adolescence.

  20. Cardiovascular risk in parents of children with elevated blood pressure. "Heart Smart"--family health promotion.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C C; Nicklas, T A; Arbeit, M L; Franklin, F A; Cresanta, J L; Harsha, D W; Berenson, G S

    1987-12-01

    The Heart Smart Family Health Promotion identified elementary-school-age children with elevated blood pressure (BP), based on sex-, race-, height-specific 90th percentiles, and ponderal index (wt/ht3), based on sex-, race-, and age-specific 90th percentiles (norms developed in the Bogalusa Heart Study). These children and their parents were recruited into a behavioral program aimed at reducing cardiovascular (CV) risk factors for both children and parents and preventing "tracking" of children's elevated risk factors into adulthood. Cardiovascular screening consisted of BP, anthropometric evaluation, serum lipids, and 24-hour urinalysis. Self-reported assessments were personal and family medical history, eating, exercise, smoking, and alcohol behaviors. Both child and parent subjects were predominantly black and female. Data were stable over two baseline measurements and indicated CV risk factor abnormalities in one or both of the parents selected: 67% of the black parents and 25% of the white parents were hypertensive; 91% had positive familial CV history; 41% had total cholesterol greater than or equal to 220 mg/dl; 50% had LDL-C levels greater than or equal to 140 mg/dl; 74% were overweight; 44% were smokers; and 91% were completely sedentary. Using percentile grids to identify children with elevated BP also identifies families with hypertension and associated risk factors.

  1. Supporting parent-child interactions: music therapy as an intervention for promoting mutually responsive orientation.

    PubMed

    Pasiali, Varvara

    2012-01-01

    Music therapists working with families address relationship and interpersonal communication issues. Few controlled studies exist in the literature but a growing body of documented practice is emerging. This study makes a contribution by documenting how music therapy supports mutuality and reciprocity in parent-child interactions. This study investigated mutually responsive orientation (MRO) behaviors of young children (aged 3-5) and their family members during music therapy. Participants were 4 families with low income and history of maternal depression as common risk factors. Data were collected by videotaping sessions, creating field notes and analytic memos, conducting parent interviews and reviewing parent journals. A cross-case analysis using MRO theory as a conceptualizing framework was used for the purpose of data reduction. Greeting and farewell rituals, and the flexibility of music-based therapeutic applications facilitated development of coordinated routines. Therapist's actions (e.g., encouraging and modeling musical interactions) and bidirectional parent-child actions (e.g., joint attention, turn-taking, being playful) facilitated harmonious communication. Behaviors promoting mutual cooperation were evident when adults attempted to scaffold a child's participation or when children sought comfort from parents, engaged in social referencing and made requests that shaped the direction of the session. The novelty of musical tasks captivated attention, increasing impulse inhibition. Parent actions (e.g., finding delight in watching their child participate, acting silly) and parent-child interactions (e.g., play exploration, shared excitement, cuddling) contributed to positive emotional ambiance. Music therapy assisted development of MRO within parent-child dyads by providing opportunities to rehearse adaptive ways of connecting with each other. Results of this study may serve as an archetypal model guiding clinical treatment planning.

  2. Identifying interventions that promote belt-positioning booster seat use for parents with low educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Winston, Flaura K; Erkoboni, Danielle; Xie, Dawei

    2007-09-01

    Many parents with low educational attainment prematurely graduate their children to seat belt restraint rather than use belt-positioning booster seats. This study aimed to identify interventions that promoted booster seat use among this population. This multi-site study used focus groups to elicit contributing factors to booster seat non-use, which informed subsequent intervention development. A first phase (10 focus groups, N = 117) identified parents' perceived barriers, benefits, and threats relating to belt-positioning booster seats. These findings were used to identify existing and create new interventions. A second phase (20 focus groups, n = 171) elicited parent's reactions to these interventions and provided parents with belt-positioning booster seats and education on their use. Follow-up interviews were conducted six weeks later. Lack of education and fear of injury were the primary barriers to belt-positioning booster seat use. Parents were motivated by interventions that provided them with clear, concrete messaging relating to use. Parents favored the intervention that presented a real story detailing a child's severe injury that could have been prevented with appropriate restraint. At follow-up, parents credited this intervention with motivating booster seat use most often. Although parent's cited their child's lack of comfort and non-compliance as barriers to use, they were not as motivated by interventions that addressed these barriers. Effective intervention programs can be created by identifying and addressing factors that contribute to a population's intention to use belt-positioning booster seats. In addition, successful programs must utilize messages that motivate the target population by addressing their perceived threats to booster seat non-use.

  3. Promoting joint attention in toddlers with autism: a parent-mediated developmental model.

    PubMed

    Schertz, Hannah H; Odom, Samuel L

    2007-09-01

    Joint attention, a foundational nonverbal social-communicative milestone that fails to develop naturally in autism, was promoted for three toddlers with early-identified autism through a parent-mediated, developmentally grounded, researcher-guided intervention model. A multiple baseline design compared child performance across four phases of intervention: focusing on faces, turn-taking, responding to joint attention, and initiating joint attention. All toddlers improved performance and two showed repeated engagement in joint attention, supporting the effectiveness of developmentally appropriate methods that build on the parent-child relationship. A complementary qualitative analysis explored family challenges, parent resilience, and variables that may have influenced outcomes. Intervention models appropriate for toddlers with autism are needed as improved early identification efforts bring younger children into early intervention services.

  4. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  5. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay.

    PubMed

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-03-20

    Severe untreated dental decay affects a child's growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children's eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6-12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child-parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; "lift the lip". The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG.Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate

  6. Divorce transitions: identifying risk and promoting resilience for children and their parental relationships.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G G

    1999-10-01

    This paper gives an account of qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. The transitions that accompany divorce and family reordering are shown by many studies in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand as well as in the United Kingdom to have stressful effects for children that can lead to long-term negative outcomes. Other studies have focused on the differential social and family factors that may contribute to the "differences that make a difference" to whether divorce has harmful effects on children. This paper describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and postdivorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. The focus of the work is one promoting long-term connections between parents and children in reordered+ families. Some interactions that may promote resilience in children as well as in their parents are alluded to briefly.

  7. Do Parent Education Programs Promote Healthy Post-Divorce Parenting? Critical Distinctions and a Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Amanda; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene; Braver, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Most parent education programs are designed to improve child well-being following divorce by changing some aspect of parenting. However, there has been relatively little discussion of what aspects of parenting are most critical and the effectiveness of programs to change different aspects of parenting. This paper addresses these issues by: 1. Distinguishing three aspects of post-divorce parenting that have been targeted in parent education programs; 2. Reviewing evidence of the relations between each aspect of parenting and the well-being of children and; 3. Critically reviewing evidence that parent education programs have been successful in changing each aspect of post-divorce parenting. PMID:21552360

  8. Good Relations between Foster Parents and Birth Parents: A Swedish Study of Practices Promoting Successful Cooperation in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The importance for foster children's well-being of good relations between foster parents and birth parents is a common topic of research. This article aims to contribute to an understanding of how co-parenting by foster parents and birth parents works in everyday life, from both parties' perspectives, whether or not they knew each other…

  9. Good Relations between Foster Parents and Birth Parents: A Swedish Study of Practices Promoting Successful Cooperation in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The importance for foster children's well-being of good relations between foster parents and birth parents is a common topic of research. This article aims to contribute to an understanding of how co-parenting by foster parents and birth parents works in everyday life, from both parties' perspectives, whether or not they knew each other…

  10. Reducing Maternal Depressive Symptoms through Promotion of Parenting in Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Berkule, Samantha B.; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P.; Huberman, Harris S.; Arevalo, Jenny; Burtchen, Nina; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    We studied associations between two pediatrics primary care interventions promoting parental responsiveness and maternal depressive symptoms among low-income mothers. This RCT included two interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP], Building Blocks [BB]) and a control group. VIP is a relationship-based intervention, using video-recordings of mother-child dyads to reinforce interactional strengths. BB communicates with parents via parenting newsletters, learning materials and questionnaires. At mean (SD) child age 6.9 (1.2) months, depressive symptoms were assessed with the PHQ-9, parental responsiveness was assessed with StimQ-I. 407 dyads were assessed. Rates of mild depressive symptoms were lower for VIP (20.6%) and BB (21.1%) than Controls (32.1%, p=.04). Moderate depressive symptoms were lower for VIP (4.0%) compared to Controls (9.7%, p=.031). Mean PHQ-9 scores differed across 3 groups (F=3.8, p=.02): VIP mothers scored lower than controls (p=.02 by Tukey hsd). Parent-child interactions partially mediated VIP-associated reductions in depressive symptoms (indirect effect −.17, 95% CI −.36, −.03). PMID:24707022

  11. Parents' knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to promoting condom use among their adolescent sons.

    PubMed

    Tipwareerom, Worawan; Weglicki, Linda

    2017-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing in Thai youth. Consequently, a school-based National Condom Strategy program was launched in 2015 to reduce the rate of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. We conducted in-depth interviews of 31 parents/adoptive guardians of high-school age Thai boys to explore parents' knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to promoting condom use and its role in preventing HIV/sexually transmitted infections. A descriptive phenomenological approach and thematic analysis was used. Most participants had knowledge and positive attitudes about condom use. Half disagreed with the National Condom Strategy of placing condom vending machines in schools. More than half did not initiate teaching male youth about condom use until the youth had broached the question or only intended to do so when the youths were older. Barriers included parents' lack of condom experience and knowledge, embarrassment/discomfort when talking about condoms, and belief that youth were not sexually active. Parents are a key factor for supporting condom use in Thailand. This study supports the need for education programs for parents. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Effects of a Program to Promote High Quality Parenting by Divorced and Separated Fathers.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin; Gunn, Heather; Mazza, Gina; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Berkel, Cady; Jones, Sarah; Porter, Michele

    2017-09-15

    This paper reports on the effects on parenting and on children's mental health problems and competencies from a randomized trial of a parenting program for divorced and separated fathers. The program, New Beginnings Program-Dads (NBP-Dads), includes ten group sessions (plus two phone sessions) which promote parenting skills to increase positive interactions with children, improve father-child communication, use of effective discipline strategies, and skills to protect children from exposure to interparental conflict. The program was adapted from the New Beginnings Program, which has been tested in two randomized trials with divorced mothers and shown to strengthen mothers' parenting and improve long-term outcomes for children (Wolchik et al. 2007). Fathers were randomly assigned to receive either NBP-Dads or a 2-session active comparison program. The sample consisted of 384 fathers (201 NBP-Dads, 183 comparisons) and their children. Assessments using father, youth, and teacher reports were conducted at pretest, posttest, and 10-month follow-up. Results indicated positive effects of NBP-Dads to strengthen parenting as reported by fathers and youth at posttest and 10-month follow-up. Program effects to reduce child internalizing problems and increase social competence were found at 10 months. Many of the program effects were moderated by baseline level of the variable, child age, gender, and father ethnicity. This is the first randomized trial to find significant effects to strengthen father parenting following divorce. In view of recent changes in family courts to allot fathers increasing amounts of parenting time following divorce, the results have significant implications for improving outcomes for children from divorced families.

  13. Planning for health promotion in low-income preschool child care settings: focus groups of parents and child care providers.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; LaPelle, Nancy; Gupta, Ruchi S; Finkelstein, Jonathan A

    2006-01-01

    To identify potentially successful strategies, barriers, and facilitators for health promotion in preschool child care settings. We conducted 6 focus groups including each of the following: parents of children attending child care centers and home-based family child care (2 in English, 1 in Spanish) and directors of child care centers and family child care providers (2 in English, 1 in Spanish). Systematic thematic analysis was conducted to generate themes to address study questions. A total of 24 parents and 45 child care providers, serving predominantly urban, low-income children in Boston, participated. Parents and child care providers agreed that in-person group discussions would be the most effective strategy for providing health education information to parents. Several barriers that could affect implementation emerged. First, some providers expressed frustration toward parents' attitudes about child safety and health. Second, there was diversity of opinion among providers on whether conducting health promotion activities was consistent with their training and role. In addition, literacy, language, and cultural barriers were identified as potential barriers to health promotion in child care. In order to be successful, health promotion strategies in child care settings will need to overcome tensions between providers and parents, allow professional growth of child care providers to serve in a health promotion role, and better integrate external health resources and personnel. Group sessions and peer learning opportunities that are culturally and linguistically sensitive are potentially successful strategies for implementation of health promotion interventions for many parents.

  14. Barriers against and Strategies for Promoting the Involvement of Culturally Diverse Parents in School-Based Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geenen, Sarah; Powers, Laurie E.; Lopez-Vasquez, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the barriers against and strategies for promoting the involvement of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) parents in school-based transition planning. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 31 parents from Native American, African American and Hispanic communities, and 10 professionals who had…

  15. The Use of Literacy Bags Promotes Parental Involvement in Chinese Children's Literacy Learning in the English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, SuHua

    2013-01-01

    This study employed an ethnographic methodology to explore the use of "literacy bags" (LBs) to promote parental involvement in Chinese children's literacy learning in the English language. It was conducted with a first-grade class consisting of 18 students and their parents in Taiwan. Data resources were obtained from teaching…

  16. Evaluation of a Brief Parent Intervention Teaching Coping-Promoting Behavior for the Infant Immunization Context: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustos, Theona; Jaaniste, Tiina; Salmon, Karen; Champion, G. David

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether a brief intervention encouraging parental coping-promoting talk within the treatment room would have beneficial effects on infant pain responses to an immunization injection. Infant-parent dyads were recruited from a 6-month immunization clinic and randomized to an intervention group (n = 25) or…

  17. Enhancing Parent-Child Shared Book Reading Interactions: Promoting References to the Book's Plot and Socio-Cognitive Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Fine, Yaara; Ziv, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote parents' and preschoolers' references to storybooks' plot and socio-cognitive themes during shared reading within a sample of 58 families from low-SES background. All parents were given four books, one new book weekly, and were instructed to read each book four times per week…

  18. Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting Adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne BA; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child…

  19. Evaluation of a Brief Parent Intervention Teaching Coping-Promoting Behavior for the Infant Immunization Context: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustos, Theona; Jaaniste, Tiina; Salmon, Karen; Champion, G. David

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether a brief intervention encouraging parental coping-promoting talk within the treatment room would have beneficial effects on infant pain responses to an immunization injection. Infant-parent dyads were recruited from a 6-month immunization clinic and randomized to an intervention group (n = 25) or…

  20. Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting Adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne BA; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child…

  1. Enhancing Parent-Child Shared Book Reading Interactions: Promoting References to the Book's Plot and Socio-Cognitive Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Fine, Yaara; Ziv, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote parents' and preschoolers' references to storybooks' plot and socio-cognitive themes during shared reading within a sample of 58 families from low-SES background. All parents were given four books, one new book weekly, and were instructed to read each book four times per week…

  2. Alleviating Parenting Stress in Parents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Marja W.; Meppelder, Marieke; Moor, Marleen; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adapted parenting support may alleviate the high levels of parenting stress experienced by many parents with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning were randomized to experimental (n = 43) and control (n = 42) conditions. Parents in both groups received…

  3. Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration project: integrating an empowerment model of health literacy promotion into home-based parent education.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Lauren N; Smith, Sandra A; Thomson, Nicole R

    2015-03-01

    The Parents as Teachers (PAT) Health Literacy Demonstration project assessed the impact of integrating data-driven reflective practices into the PAT home visitation model to promote maternal health literacy. PAT is a federally approved Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting program with the goal of promoting school readiness and healthy child development. This 2-year demonstration project used an open-cohort longitudinal design to promote parents' interactive and reflective skills, enhance health education, and provide direct assistance to personalize and act on information by integrating an empowerment paradigm into PAT's parent education model. Eight parent educators used the Life Skills Progression instrument to tailor the intervention to each of 103 parent-child dyads. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t tests, and logistic regression combined with qualitative data demonstrated that mothers achieved overall significant improvements in health literacy, and that home visitors are important catalysts for these improvements. These findings support the use of an empowerment model of health education, skill building, and direct information support to enable parents to better manage personal and child health and health care. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Pre-breeding food restriction promotes the optimization of parental investment in house mice, Mus musculus

    PubMed Central

    Dušek, Adam; Bartoš, Luděk; Sedláček, František

    2017-01-01

    , including higher offspring mortality. Our study therefore provides the first evidence that pre-breeding food restriction promotes the optimization of parental investment, including offspring number and developmental success. PMID:28328991

  5. Parenting Efficacy and Health-promoting Behaviors for Children of Mothers from Native and Multicultural Families in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sophia Jihey; Bang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of parenting efficacy and health-promoting behaviors for children of mothers, and to explore the relationships between parenting efficacy and the behaviors of mothers from native and multicultural families in South Korea. Data was collected by a self-report questionnaire completed by 258 mothers who had 6-month to 36-month-old children attending kindergartens or multicultural family support centers located in Seoul and in Gyeounggi Province, South Korea. No significant difference in parenting efficacy was found, depending on the maternal country of origin. However, Chinese mothers performed health-promoting behaviors more frequently for their children than Korean and Vietnamese mothers did (F = 6.87, p < .001). The significant positive correlations between parenting efficacy and maternal health-promoting behaviors for children were found, regardless of maternal country of origin (r = .57, p < .001 for Korean, r = .42, p < .001 for Chinese, and r= .40, p < .001 for Vietnamese mothers). Since maternal health-promoting behaviors were different depending on the native country of the mothers, maternal country of origin should be considered in designing programs for improving maternal health-promoting behaviors for their children. In addition, increasing the level of parenting efficacy can be an effective way for improvement of maternal health-promoting behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Family-oriented services in pediatric rehabilitation: a scoping review and framework to promote parent and family wellness.

    PubMed

    King, G; Williams, L; Hahn Goldberg, S

    2017-01-12

    Family-oriented services are not as common as one would expect, given the widespread endorsement of family-centred care, the role of parents in supporting optimal child outcomes, and legislation and literature indicating that parent outcomes are important in their own right. There are no published service delivery frameworks describing the scope of services that could be delivered to promote parent and family wellness. A scoping review was conducted to identify types of family-oriented services for parents of children with physical disabilities and/or intellectual impairments. This information was then synthesized into a conceptual framework of services to inform service selection and design. A scoping review of the recent literature was performed to capture descriptions of services targeting parents/families of children with physical disabilities and/or intellectual impairments, published in a six-year period (2009 to 2014). Six databases were searched and 557 retrieved articles were screened using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty six relevant articles were identified. Based on descriptions of services in these articles, along with seminal articles describing the nature of desirable services, we propose a needs-based and capacity-enhancing framework outlining a continuum of family-oriented services for parents of children with disabilities. The framework includes six types of services to meet parent/family needs, organized as a continuum from fundamental information/education services, to those supporting parents to deliver services to meet their child's needs, to a variety of services addressing parents' own needs (support groups, psychosocial services and service coordination). The framework provides pediatric rehabilitation service organizations with a way to consider different possible family-oriented services. Implications include the particular importance of providing information resources, support groups and psychosocial services to meet parents

  7. Enhancing low-income parents' capacities to promote their children's health: education is not enough.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D L; Drummond, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1996 the Capital Heath Region in Edmonton, Alberta integrated a primary health care component into Head Start programs. One aspect of the primary health care component (PHC-HS) was a series of education sessions aimed at strengthening parents' capacities to enhance their children's health. To make the education sessions relevant, 10 focus groups with 65 parents of children who attended Head Start were conducted prior to the sessions. Findings indicated that participants' ability to enhance their children's health and manage their children's illnesses was limited as much by low incomes, inadequate health care coverage, and lack of transportation as it was by a lack of knowledge. Results provide evidence that health education sessions alone are not adequate to significantly enhance low-income parents' capacities to promote their children's health. Efforts to strengthen the abilities of low-income individuals and families to promote their health will be most effective if health education is accompanied by policy advocacy and social action strategies that challenge the socioeconomic and political conditions that negatively affect health. Public health nursing's commitment to social justice, as well as findings about the limitations that low incomes, inadequate health care benefits, and lack of transportation placed on participants' ability to enhance their children's health, underscore the need for public health nurses (PHNs) to address structural conditions contributing to health inequities. As such, an overview of literature that details strategies and theoretical models for challenging socioeconomic and political conditions which restrict the ability of low-income individuals and families to enhance their health is provided.

  8. Real-World Usage of Educational Media Does Not Promote Parent-Child Cognitive Stimulation Activities.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jason H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Weisleder, Adriana; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Canfield, Caitlin; Seery, Anne; Dreyer, Benard P; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2017-04-25

    To determine whether educational media as actually used by low-income families promote parent-child cognitive stimulation activities. We performed secondary analysis of the control group of a longitudinal cohort of mother-infant dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Educational media exposure (via a 24-hour recall diary) and parent-child activities that may promote cognitive stimulation in the home (using StimQ) were assessed at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months. Data from 149 mother-child dyads, 93.3% Latino, were analyzed. Mean (standard deviation) educational media exposure at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months was, respectively, 25 (40), 42 (58), 39 (49), and 39 (50) minutes per day. In multilevel model analyses, prior educational media exposure had small positive relationship with subsequent total StimQ scores (β = 0.11, P = .03) but was nonsignificant (β = 0.08, P = .09) after adjusting for confounders (child: age, gender, birth order, noneducational media exposure, language; mother: age, ethnicity, marital status, country of origin, language, depressive symptoms). Educational media did predict small increases in verbal interactions and toy provision (adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.13, P = .02; β = 0.11; P = .03). In contrast, more consistent relationships were seen for models of the relationship between prior StimQ (total, verbal interactions and teaching; adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.20, P = .002; β = 0.15, P = .006; β = 0.20, P = .001) and predicted subsequent educational media. Educational media as used by this sample of low-income families does not promote cognitive stimulation activities important for early child development or activities such as reading and teaching. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of a universal health-promoting parenting program: a randomized waitlist-controlled trial of All Children in Focus.

    PubMed

    Ulfsdotter, Malin; Enebrink, Pia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-10-18

    Parenting programs have been highlighted as a way of supporting and empowering parents. As programs designed to promote children's health and well-being are scarce, a new health-promotion program, All Children in Focus, has been developed. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the program in promoting parental self-efficacy and child health and development, as well as to investigate possible moderators of these outcomes. A multicenter randomized waitlist-controlled trial was conducted. The trial included 621 parents with children aged 3-12 years. Parents were randomized to receive the intervention directly or to join a waitlist control group. Parents completed questionnaires at baseline, 2 weeks after the intervention, and 6 months post-baseline. To evaluate potential effects of the program, as well as any moderating variables, multilevel modeling with a repeated-measures design was applied. Parents in the intervention group reported that their self-efficacy (p < .001), as well as their perceptions of children's health and development (p < .05), increased 6 months post-baseline when compared with parents in the control group. One variable was found to moderate both outcomes: parents' positive mental health. Furthermore, parents' educational level and number of children moderated parental self-efficacy, while the children's age moderated child health and development. Having a poor positive mental health, a university-level education, more than one child in the family, and older children, made the families benefit more. In the first randomized controlled trial of All Children in Focus, we found that the program appears to promote both parental self-efficacy and children's health and development in a general population. Additionally, we found that families may benefit differently depending on their baseline characteristics. This contributes to an existing understanding of the advantages of offering universal parenting

  10. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  11. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  12. Promoting Educational Resiliency in Youth with Incarcerated Parents: The Impact of Parental Incarceration, School Characteristics, and Connectedness on School Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents.

  13. Development of a Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting for Children with Autism (VIPP-AUTI).

    PubMed

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne B A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; De Jonge, Maretha V; Van Engeland, Herman; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and content of Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting for Children with Autism (VIPP-AUTI). VIPP-AUTI is an adapted version of the evidence-based intervention VIPP. The lack of social responsiveness in children with autism often lowers the quality of the parent-child interaction. A wide range of early interventions exist to cope with the disorder. The majority of early interventions for children with autism focus on their deficits of (social) skills, but the number of evidence-based interventions to improve early parent-child interaction patterns is limited. The aim of VIPP-AUTI is to enhance parental sensitivity to children's autistic characteristics, in order to improve child developmental outcome by increased parental support.

  14. Alleviating Parenting Stress in Parents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Video-feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting.

    PubMed

    Hodes, Marja W; Meppelder, Marieke; de Moor, Marleen; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-05-01

    Adapted parenting support may alleviate the high levels of parenting stress experienced by many parents with intellectual disabilities. Parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning were randomized to experimental (n = 43) and control (n = 42) conditions. Parents in both groups received care-as-usual. The experimental group also received an adapted version of video-feedback intervention for positive parenting and learning difficulties (VIPP-LD). Measures of parenting stress were obtained pre-test, post-test and 3-month follow-up. Randomization to the experimental group led to a steeper decline in parenting stress related to the child compared to the control group (d = 0.46). No statistically significant effect on stress related to the parent's own functioning or situation was found. The results of the study suggest the feasibility of reducing parenting stress in parents with mild intellectual disability (MID) through parenting support, to the possible benefit of their children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A systematic review of interventions to promote social support and parenting skills in parents with an intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S; McKenzie, K; Quayle, E; Murray, G

    2014-01-01

    The family support needs of parents with an intellectual disability (ID) are relatively unknown. This paper reviewed two types of intervention for parents with ID: those designed to strengthen social relationships and those teaching parenting skills. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a limited number of evaluative studies were found. The evidence for interventions aimed at strengthening social relationships was inconclusive; although positive changes were observed, there were limitations in study design which restricted the generalizability of the results. The evidence for parental skills teaching suggested that behavioural based interventions are more effective than less intensive forms such as lesson booklets and the provision of normal services, although these studies also had limitations. There is a need for further large scale controlled studies in this area to provide clearer evidence and to explore additional factors relating to child, parent and family which may impact on outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Parental High-Fat Diet Promotes Inflammatory and Senescence-Related Changes in Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Shweta; Jena, Gopabandhu; Shah, Heta; Chhabra, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Background. Obesity and dietary habits are associated with increased incidences of aging-related prostatic diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate transgenerational effects of chronic high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on inflammation and senescence-related changes in prostate. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were kept on either normal or HFD one. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity, inflammation, and cellular proliferation were determined in the prostate. Results. Increased SA β-gal activity, expression of p53, and cell proliferation marker PCNA were observed in ventral prostate of HFD-fed rats. Immunostaining for p53 and PCNA revealed that the p53 immunopositive cells were primarily in stroma while PCNA immunopositive cells were epithelial cells. An increase in expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) was observed in prostate of weaning pups HFD-fed parents. However, in adult pups, irrespective of dietary habit, a significant increase in the expression of COX-2, PCNA, phosphorylation of NF-kB, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and SA β-gal activity was observed. Conclusions. Present investigation reports that HFD feeding promotes accumulation of p53 expressing cells, proliferation of epithelial cells, and senescence-related changes in prostate. Further, parental HFD-feeding upholds inflammatory, proliferative, and senescence-related changes in prostate of pups. PMID:28261375

  17. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  18. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  19. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are good opportunities in Sweden for health promotion targeting expectant parents and parents of young children, as almost all are reached by antenatal and child health care. In 2005, a multisectoral child health promotion programme (the Salut Programme) was launched to further strengthen such efforts. Methods Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied. Results Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care. Conclusion Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period, future health promoting

  20. Establishing oral health promoting behaviours in children - parents' views on barriers, facilitators and professional support: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Duijster, Denise; de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; Verrips, Erik; van Loveren, Cor

    2015-12-10

    The prevention of childhood dental caries relies on adherence to key behaviours, including twice daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and reducing the consumption of sugary foods and drinks. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore parents' perceptions of barriers and facilitators that influence these oral health behaviours in children. A further objective was to explore parents' views on limitations and opportunities for professional support to promote children's oral health. Six focus group interviews were conducted, including a total of 39 parents of 7-year old children, who were recruited from paediatric dental centres in The Netherlands. Interviews were held with Dutch parents of low and high socioeconomic status and parents from Turkish and Moroccan origin. Focus group interviews were conducted on the basis of a pre-tested semi-structured interview guide and topic list. Content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Analysis of interview transcripts identified many influences on children's oral health behaviours, operating at child, family and community levels. Perceived influences on children's tooth brushing behaviour were primarily located within the direct family environment, including parental knowledge, perceived importance and parental confidence in tooth brushing, locus of control, role modelling, parental monitoring and supervision, parenting strategies and tooth brushing routines and habituation. The consumption of sugary foods and drinks was influenced by both the direct family environment and factors external to the family, including the school, the social environment, commercials and television, supermarkets and affordability of foods. Parents raised several suggestions for professional oral health support, which included the provision of clear and consistent oral health information using a positive approach, dietary regulations at school and a multidisciplinary approach among dental professionals, child health centres and

  1. Effects of Parental Stress, Optimism, and Health-Promoting Behaviors on the Quality of Life of Primiparous and Multiparous Mothers.

    PubMed

    Loh, Jennifer; Harms, Craig; Harman, Bronwyn

    Parental stress, optimism, and health-promoting behaviors (HPBs) are important predictors of the quality of life (QoL) of mothers. However, it is unclear how strongly these predictors affect the QoL of mothers. It is also unclear if the impact of these predictors on QoL differs between primiparous and multiparous mothers. In this study, we defined primiparous as "bearing young for the first time" and multiparous as "having experienced one or more previous childbirths." The first objective of this study was to examine the relative effect of parental stress, optimism, and HPBs on the QoL of mothers. The second objective was to investigate if the effect of these predictors differed between primiparous and multiparous mothers. One hundred ninety-four Australian mothers (n = 87, 44.8% primiparous mothers) participated in an online survey that included the Parental Stress Scale, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. All predictors (parental stress, optimism, and HPBs) significantly affected the QoL of mothers; higher levels of optimism, greater use of HPBs, and lower parental stress were associated with higher levels of QoL for all mothers. Parity did not affect the relationships. This study sheds light on the nature and unique effect of parental stress, optimism, and HPBs on the QoL of mothers.

  2. “Peers, parents and phones”—Swedish adolescents and health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-01-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents’ awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents. PMID:22740843

  3. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Parenting of Young Children with Visual Impairments and the Adaptions for Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting (VIPP).

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Ellen G C; van Eijden, Ans J P M; Overbeek, Mathilde M; Kef, Sabina; Sterkenburg, Paula S; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Secure parent-child attachment may help children to overcome the challenges of growing up with a visual or visual-and-intellectual impairment. A large literature exists that provides a blueprint for interventions that promote parental sensitivity and secure attachment. The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP) is based on that blueprint. While it has been adapted to several specific at risk populations, children with visual impairment may require additional adjustments. This study aimed to identify the themes that should be addressed in adapting VIPP and similar interventions. A Delphi-consultation was conducted with 13 professionals in the field of visual impairment to select the themes for relationship-focused intervention. These themes informed a systematic literature search. Interaction, intersubjectivity, joint attention, exploration, play and specific behavior were the themes mentioned in the Delphi-group. Paired with visual impairment or vision disorders, infants or young children (and their parents) the search yielded 74 articles, making the six themes for intervention adaptation more specific and concrete. The rich literature on six visual impairment specific themes was dominated by the themes interaction, intersubjectivity, and joint attention. These themes need to be addressed in adapting intervention programs developed for other populations, such as VIPP which currently focuses on higher order constructs of sensitivity and attachment.

  4. Evaluation of Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a new worksite based parenting programme to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Mark A; Corona, Rosalie; Elliott, Marc N; Kanouse, David E; Eastman, Karen L; Zhou, Annie J; Klein, David J

    2008-07-10

    To evaluate a worksite based parenting programme-Talking Parents, Healthy Teens-designed to help parents learn to address sexual health with their adolescent children. Randomised controlled trial (April 2002-December 2005). 13 worksites in southern California. 569 parents completed baseline surveys at work, gave permission for confidential surveys to be posted to their adolescent children, and were randomised to intervention or control groups. Parents and adolescents completed follow-up surveys at one week, three months, and nine months after the programme. Talking Parents, Healthy Teens consists of eight weekly one hour sessions at worksites for parents of adolescent children in 6th-10th grade (about ages 11-16 years). Parent-adolescent communication about a list of sexual topics; whether parent taught adolescent how to use a condom; ability to communicate with parent/adolescent about sex; openness of parent-adolescent communication about sex. Differences between intervention and control groups were significant for the mean number of new sexual topics that parents and adolescents reported discussing between baseline and each follow-up (P<0.001 for each); intervention parents were less likely than controls to discuss no new topics (8% v 29%, 95% confidence interval for difference 16% to 24%) and more likely to discuss seven or more new topics (38% v 8%, 19% to 41%) at nine months. Some differences increased after completion of the programme: at one week after the programme, 18% of adolescents in the intervention group and 3% in the control group (6% to 30%) said that their parents had reviewed how to use a condom since baseline (P<0.001); this grew to 29% v 5% (13% to 36%) at nine months (P<0.001). Compared with controls at nine months, parents and adolescents in the intervention group reported greater ability to communicate with each other about sex (P<0.001) and more openness in communication about sex (P<0.001). A worksite based programme can have substantial

  5. Evaluation of Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a new worksite based parenting programme to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Rosalie; Elliott, Marc N; Kanouse, David E; Eastman, Karen L; Zhou, Annie J; Klein, David J

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a worksite based parenting programme—Talking Parents, Healthy Teens—designed to help parents learn to address sexual health with their adolescent children. Design Randomised controlled trial (April 2002-December 2005). Setting 13 worksites in southern California. Participants 569 parents completed baseline surveys at work, gave permission for confidential surveys to be posted to their adolescent children, and were randomised to intervention or control groups. Parents and adolescents completed follow-up surveys at one week, three months, and nine months after the programme. Intervention Talking Parents, Healthy Teens consists of eight weekly one hour sessions at worksites for parents of adolescent children in 6th-10th grade (about ages 11-16 years). Main outcome measures Parent-adolescent communication about a list of sexual topics; whether parent taught adolescent how to use a condom; ability to communicate with parent/adolescent about sex; openness of parent-adolescent communication about sex. Results Differences between intervention and control groups were significant for the mean number of new sexual topics that parents and adolescents reported discussing between baseline and each follow-up (P<0.001 for each); intervention parents were less likely than controls to discuss no new topics (8% v 29%, 95% confidence interval for difference 16% to 24%) and more likely to discuss seven or more new topics (38% v 8%, 19% to 41%) at nine months. Some differences increased after completion of the programme: at one week after the programme, 18% of adolescents in the intervention group and 3% in the control group (6% to 30%) said that their parents had reviewed how to use a condom since baseline (P<0.001); this grew to 29% v 5% (13% to 36%) at nine months (P<0.001). Compared with controls at nine months, parents and adolescents in the intervention group reported greater ability to communicate with each other about sex (P<0.001) and more openness in

  6. Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  7. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  8. Within-Person Configurations and Temporal Relations of Personal and Perceived Parent-Promoted Aspirations to School Correlates among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Michou, Aikaterini; Soenens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, this longitudinal study examined the academic correlates of middle and high school students' (N = 923; 33.4% male) intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations (i.e., life goals) and the type of aspirations that they perceive their parents to promote to them. Person-centered analysis revealed 3 meaningful groups: a…

  9. [Study on willingness to participate and willingness to pay for hypothetical industrial injury insurance scheme].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Dong, Hengjin; Duan, Shengnan; Liu, Xiaofang; Ye, Chiyu; You, Hua; Hu, Huimei; Wang, Linhao; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Jing

    2014-10-01

    awareness of occupational disease, the proportion of workers with willingness to pay decreased. The workers who were not covered by the industrial injury insurance paid more than those covered by the industrial injury insurance. The hypothetical industrial injury insurance scheme increased the applicability and advantage of independent third-party running and lifetime insurance, which significantly increased the workers' willingness to participate in or to pay for the insurance scheme. Therefore, the industrial injury insurance can be improved in these aspects to promote workers' willingness to participate in and to pay for the insurance scheme. This conclusion provided a reference for the solution of delayed or shirking corporate responsibility for paying the premium.

  10. Promoting Resilience in Stress Management for Parents (PRISM-P): An Intervention for Caregivers of Youth With Serious Illness.

    PubMed

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Klein, Victoria; Eaton, Lauren; Wharton, Claire; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2017-05-25

    It is well-known that parental stress and coping impacts the well-being of children with serious illness. The current study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and satisfaction of a novel resilience promoting intervention, the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management Intervention for Parents (PRISM-P) among parents of adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes or cancer. Secondary analyses explored the effect of the PRISM-P on parent-reported resilience and distress. The PRISM-P includes 4 short skills-based modules, delivered in either 2 or 4 separate, individual sessions. English-speaking parents of adolescents with cancer or Type 1 diabetes were eligible. Feasibility was conservatively defined as a completion rate of 80%; satisfaction was qualitatively evaluated based upon parent feedback regarding intervention content, timing, and format. Resilience and distress were assessed pre- and postintervention with the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale. Twelve of 24 caregivers of youth with diabetes (50%) and 13 of 15 caregivers of youth with cancer (87%) agreed to participate. Nine of 12 (75%) and 9 of 13 (64%) completed all PRISM-P modules, respectively. Among those who completed the intervention, qualitative satisfaction was high. Parent-reported resilience and distress scores improved after the intervention. Effect sizes for both groups indicated a moderate intervention effect. Ultimately, the PRISM-P intervention was well accepted and impactful among parents who completed it. However, attrition rates were higher than anticipated, suggesting alternative or less time-intensive formats may be more feasible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-01-01

    Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation among children of smoking parents. Data of a two-arm randomized controlled trial were used in which 512 smoking parents were recruited into cessation support through their children's primary schools. After the baseline assessment, smoking parents were randomly assigned to tailored telephone counselling or a standard self-help brochure. Parental cessation was measured as 6-month prolonged abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Children's smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation were examined at 3-month, 12-month, and 30-month follow-up. No statistical evidence was found that children of parents who received telephone counselling tailored to smoking parents or children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence differ in smoking-related cognitions (i.e., smoking outcome expectancies, perceived safety of smoking, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, susceptibility to smoking) or smoking initiation rate on any follow-up assessment. This study is the first to examine the effects of an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for parents and treatment-induced parental smoking cessation on cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children. Although descriptive statistics showed lower smoking initiation rates among children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence, there was no statistical evidence that telephone counselling tailored to parents or treatment-induced parental smoking cessation affects precursors of smoking or smoking initiation among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Promoting Graduation and School Achievement for Youth with Disabilities: Strategies for Parents. Curriculum Trainer's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLIANCE National Parent Technical Assistance Center at PACER, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This curriculum was developed in response to a need expressed by parents and parent groups across the country. It is intended to help parents learn strategies that will encourage their youth to remain in school and to graduate with peers. In preparation for presenting this workshop, you will need to have a clear understanding of state initiatives…

  13. Promoting Latino Parent Involvement in K-8 Schools through a Communities of Practice Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrantes Santamaria, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Due to federal mandates, Title I schools now are being asked to implement parent involvement programs that meaningfully involve parents in the schools to increase academic gains. This action research study was based on three different concepts from the literature: a) critical pedagogy theory from Paulo Freire, b) parent involvement from diverse…

  14. Effectiveness of a National Media Campaign to Promote Parent-Child Communication about Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…

  15. The Importance of Parenting and Financial Contributions in Promoting Fathers' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Holly S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between residential, biological fathers' parental engagement, financial contributions, and psychological well-being in 2-parent families. Specifically, this study focuses on how fathers' parental engagement and financial contributions are related to their self-esteem, self-efficacy, and psychological distress.…

  16. Promoting Graduation and School Achievement for Youth with Disabilities: Strategies for Parents. Curriculum Trainer's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLIANCE National Parent Technical Assistance Center at PACER, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This curriculum was developed in response to a need expressed by parents and parent groups across the country. It is intended to help parents learn strategies that will encourage their youth to remain in school and to graduate with peers. In preparation for presenting this workshop, you will need to have a clear understanding of state initiatives…

  17. Identifying and clarifying values and reason statements that promote effective food parenting practices, using intensive interviews

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-yea...

  18. Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

  19. Pathways to Achievement: How Low-Income Mexican-Origin Parents Promote Their Adolescents through School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren; Martinez, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Using an ecocultural framework, we investigated relations between parental academic socialization (PAS) and adolescent motivation and achievement. Two-hundred sixteen Mexican-origin, low-income sixth graders reported on their motivational beliefs and behaviors and on their parents' academic socialization. Results indicated that parents engaged in…

  20. Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

  1. Pathways to Achievement: How Low-Income Mexican-Origin Parents Promote Their Adolescents through School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren; Martinez, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Using an ecocultural framework, we investigated relations between parental academic socialization (PAS) and adolescent motivation and achievement. Two-hundred sixteen Mexican-origin, low-income sixth graders reported on their motivational beliefs and behaviors and on their parents' academic socialization. Results indicated that parents engaged in…

  2. Effectiveness of a National Media Campaign to Promote Parent-Child Communication about Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…

  3. Promoting Parent-Adolescent Communication To Facilitate Healthy Sexual Socialization of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filomeno, Arlynn H.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to identify strengths and weaknesses of parent-adolescent communication patterns relating to adolescent sexual behaviors. Studies show the positive effects of parent-adolescent communication patterns and adolescent sexuality, though man parents fail to address the most critical sexual risks faced by adolescents (sexually…

  4. Promoting Parent-Adolescent Communication To Facilitate Healthy Sexual Socialization of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filomeno, Arlynn H.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to identify strengths and weaknesses of parent-adolescent communication patterns relating to adolescent sexual behaviors. Studies show the positive effects of parent-adolescent communication patterns and adolescent sexuality, though man parents fail to address the most critical sexual risks faced by adolescents (sexually…

  5. Adolescent Sexuality and Parent-Adolescent Processes: Promoting Healthy Teen Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Zentall, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions. Discusses parenting efforts related to adolescent sexual behavior. Examines adolescent sexuality programs with a parent component. Review of 19 programs supports the incorporation of theory and the…

  6. Perceptions of nursery staff and parent views of healthy eating promotion in preschool settings: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Lorraine A; Rapley, Tim; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Haighton, Catherine A; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-08-19

    In the UK just over a fifth of all children start school overweight or obese and overweight 2-5 year olds are at least 4 times more likely to become overweight adults. This can lead to serious future health problems. The WHO have recently highlighted the preschool years as a critical time for obesity prevention, and have recommended preschools as an ideal setting for intervention. However, existing evidence suggests that the preschool environment, including the knowledge, beliefs and practices of preschool staff and parents of young children attending nurseries can be a barrier to the successful implementation of healthy eating interventions in this setting. This study examined the perceptions of preschool centre staff and parents' of preschool children of healthy eating promotion within preschool settings. The participants were preschool staff working in private and local authority preschool centres in the North East of England, and parents of preschool children aged 3-4 years. Preschool staff participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 16 female, 1 male). Parents completed a mapping activity interview (n = 14 mothers, 1 father). Thematic analysis was applied to interpret the findings. Complex communication issues surrounding preschool centre dietary 'rules' were apparent. The staff were keen to promote healthy eating to families and felt that parents needed 'education' and 'help'. The staff emphasised that school policies prohibited providing children with sugary or fatty snacks such as crisps, cakes, sweets and 'fizzy' drinks, however, some preschool centres appeared to have difficulty enforcing such guidelines. Parents were open to the idea of healthy eating promotion in preschool settings but were wary of being 'told what to do' and being thought of as 'bad parents'. There is a need to further explore nursery staff members' personal perceptions of health and how food policies which promote healthier food in preschool settings can be embedded and

  7. Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne Ba; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child interaction and reducing the child's individual Autism Spectrum Disorder-related symptomatology in five home visits. VIPP-AUTI, as compared with usual care, demonstrated efficacy in reducing parental intrusiveness. Moreover, parents who received VIPP-AUTI showed increased feelings of self-efficacy in child rearing. No significant group differences were found on other aspects of parent-child interaction or on child play behavior. At 3-months follow-up, intervention effects were found on child-initiated joint attention skills, not mediated by intervention effects on parenting. Implementation of VIPP-AUTI in clinical practice is facilitated by the use of a detailed manual and a relatively brief training of interveners.

  8. Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed.

  9. Promoting the well-being of children whose parents are gay or lesbian.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Ellen C; Siegel, Benjamin S

    2013-04-01

    Extensive data available from more than 30 years of research reveal that children raised by gay and lesbian parents have demonstrated resilience with regard to social, psychological, and sexual health despite economic and legal disparities and social stigma. Many studies have demonstrated that children's well-being is affected much more by their relationships with their parents, their parents' sense of competence and security, and the presence of social and economic support for the family than by the gender or the sexual orientation of their parents. Lack of opportunity for same-gender couples to marry adds to families' stress, which affects the health and welfare of all household members. Because marriage strengthens families and, in so doing, benefits children's development, children should not be deprived of the opportunity for their parents to be married. Paths to parenthood that include assisted reproductive techniques, adoption, and foster parenting should focus on competency of the parents rather than their sexual orientation.

  10. Identifying Barriers That Hinder Onsite Parental Involvement in a School-Based Health Promotion Program

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Wray, Linda A.; Treviño, Roberto P.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Yin, Zenong; Ulbrecht, Jan S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether barriers to onsite parental involvement in the Bienestar Health Program Parent Component could be identified and whether participation rates could be increased by addressing these barriers. All nonparticipating parents of fourth-grade students of San Antonio Independent School District from 4 schools, which were selected randomly from 20 intervention schools in Bienestar, were invited to take part in this study. A total of 47 of 223 (21%) parents engaged in one of four focus groups offered. Parents identified barriers to their involvement in Bienestar that fit into five descriptive categories: (a) low value, (b) high cost, (c) competing family demands, (d) concerns about the program design, and (e) social role norms. The Bienestar Parent Component was then modified according to the focus group findings, which resulted in a marked increase in parental involvement from 17% to 37% overall. These findings suggest that even when parents are involved in the initial design of parent-friendly and culturally sensitive programs, as was the case for Bienestar, maximizing parental involvement may require additional assessment, identification, and remediation of barriers. PMID:19339644

  11. Identifying barriers that hinder onsite parental involvement in a school-based health promotion program.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Wray, Linda A; Treviño, Roberto P; Hernandez, Arthur E; Yin, Zenong; Ulbrecht, Jan S

    2010-09-01

    We investigated whether barriers to onsite parental involvement in the Bienestar Health Program Parent Component could be identified and whether participation rates could be increased by addressing these barriers. All nonparticipating parents of fourth-grade students of San Antonio Independent School District from 4 schools, which were selected randomly from 20 intervention schools in Bienestar, were invited to take part in this study. A total of 47 of 223 (21%) parents engaged in one of four focus groups offered. Parents identified barriers to their involvement in Bienestar that fit into five descriptive categories: (a) low value, (b) high cost, (c) competing family demands, (d) concerns about the program design, and (e) social role norms. The Bienestar Parent Component was then modified according to the focus group findings, which resulted in a marked increase in parental involvement from 17% to 37% overall. These findings suggest that even when parents are involved in the initial design of parent-friendly and culturally sensitive programs, as was the case for Bienestar, maximizing parental involvement may require additional assessment, identification, and remediation of barriers.

  12. The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yee, Andrew Z H; Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S

    2017-04-11

    The family is an important social context where children learn and adopt eating behaviors. Specifically, parents play the role of health promoters, role models, and educators in the lives of children, influencing their food cognitions and choices. This study attempts to systematically review empirical studies examining the influence of parents on child food consumption behavior in two contexts: one promotive in nature (e.g., healthy food), and the other preventive in nature (e.g., unhealthy food). From a total of 6,448 titles extracted from Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO and PubMED, seventy eight studies met the inclusion criteria for a systematic review, while thirty seven articles contained requisite statistical information for meta-analysis. The parental variables extracted include active guidance/education, restrictive guidance/rule-making, availability, accessibility, modeling, pressure to eat, rewarding food consumption, rewarding with verbal praise, and using food as reward. The food consumption behaviors examined include fruits and vegetables consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snack consumption. Results indicate that availability (Healthy: r = .24, p < .001; Unhealthy: r = .34, p < .001) and parental modeling effects (Healthy: r = .32, p < .001; Unhealthy: r = .35, p < .001) show the strongest associations with both healthy and unhealthy food consumption. In addition, the efficacy of some parenting practices might be dependent on the food consumption context and the age of the child. For healthy foods, active guidance/education might be more effective (r = .15, p < .001). For unhealthy foods, restrictive guidance/rule-making might be more effective (r = -.11, p < .01). For children 7 and older, restrictive guidance/rule-making could be more effective in preventing unhealthy eating (r = - .20, p < .05). For children 6 and younger, rewarding with verbal praise can be more effective in promoting

  13. Latino Teen Theater: A Theater Intervention to Promote Latino Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication.

    PubMed

    Noone, Joanne; Castillo, Nancy; Allen, Tiffany L; Esqueda, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Latina teen pregnancy rates continue to be a health disparity in the United States. This study evaluated a parenting intervention using interactive theater to facilitate Latino parent-adolescent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention. The intervention, conducted in Spanish and with teen actors, consisted of scenes involving the audience. Fifty-nine parents participated in this 3-month prospective study. Spanish measures of comfort with communication, general communication, and parent-child sexual communication were employed comparing paired t tests for each scale. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed and demonstrated. Eighty-six percent of parents used information from the performance to talk to their child. Improvements in general communication (p < .02), sexual communication (p < .001), and comfort (p < .001) occurred. Interactive theater is an innovative approach to facilitate Latino parent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention.

  14. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  15. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946…

  16. Promoting correct car seat use in parents of young children: challenges, recommendations, and implications for health communication.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Nancy L; Brixey, Suzanne N; Williams, Janice; Nansel, Tonja R

    2013-03-01

    Injuries involving motor vehicles continue to be the biggest threat to the safety of children. Although child safety seats (CSS) have been established as a central countermeasure in decreasing injury risk, the majority of parents do not use the correct car seat correctly. There are many challenges in promoting correct car seat use, which itself is a complex behavior. To advance this critical protective behavior, the public health community would benefit from clarifying CSS messaging, communicating clearly, and addressing the conflicting recommendations of product use. In this article, we present current challenges in promoting CSS use and draw on health communication and other fields to offer recommendations for future work in this area.

  17. Willingness to have unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Foster, Diana Greene; Higgins, Jenny A; Biggs, M Antonia; McCain, Christy; Holtby, Sue; Brindis, Claire D

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about people's willingness to engage in sex without protection from unwanted pregnancy. This study surveyed 1,497 women and men at 75 clinics and physician offices across California after their reproductive health care visits in late 2007 and early 2008. When asked if they would have sex without contraception, 30% said definitively that yes, they would have unprotected sex, and 20% indicated they would "sometimes" or "maybe" engage in unprotected sex. In multivariate models, compared to non-Latino White respondents, Latinos who responded to the survey in English were 52% more likely and African Americans were 75% more likely to report willingness to have unprotected intercourse. Wanting a child within the next three years was associated with increased willingness to have unprotected sex. Age, gender, parity, and relationship status were not significant in multivariate models. A considerable proportion of women and men may be willing to have unprotected sex, even with access to subsidized contraceptive services and even when recently counseled about birth control. The dominant behavioral models of contraceptive use need to acknowledge the widespread likelihood of occasional unprotected sex, even among people motivated to usually use contraceptives. Findings underscore the need to make contraceptive methods accessible, easy to use, and even pleasurable.

  18. Translating self-persuasion into an adolescent HPV vaccine promotion intervention for parents attending safety-net clinics.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Austin S; Denman, Deanna C; Sala, Margarita; Marks, Emily G; Shay, L Aubree; Fuller, Sobha; Persaud, Donna; Lee, Simon Craddock; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Wiebe, Deborah J; Tiro, Jasmin A

    2017-04-01

    Self-persuasion is an effective behavior change strategy, but has not been translated for low-income, less educated, uninsured populations attending safety-net clinics or to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We developed a tablet-based application (in English and Spanish) to elicit parental self-persuasion for adolescent HPV vaccination and evaluated its feasibility in a safety-net population. Parents (N=45) of age-eligible adolescents used the self-persuasion application. Then, during cognitive interviews, staff gathered quantitative and qualitative feedback on the self-persuasion tasks including parental decision stage. The self-persuasion tasks were rated as easy to complete and helpful. We identified six question prompts rated as uniformly helpful, not difficult to answer, and generated non-redundant responses from participants. Among the 33 parents with unvaccinated adolescents, 27 (81.8%) reported deciding to get their adolescent vaccinated after completing the self-persuasion tasks. The self-persuasion application was feasible and resulted in a change in parents' decision stage. Future studies can now test the efficacy of the tablet-based application on HPV vaccination. The self-persuasion application facilitates verbalization of reasons for HPV vaccination in low literacy, safety-net settings. This self-administered application has the potential to be more easily incorporated into clinical practice than other patient education approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Promoting the Development of Adaptive Expertise: Exploring a Simulation Model for Sharing a Diagnosis of Autism With Parents.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Anne; Mylopoulos, Maria; Orsino, Angela; Jimenez, Elizabeth; McNaughton, Nancy

    2016-11-01

    To explore how a simulation model promoted the development of integrated competencies associated with adaptive expertise in senior health professions trainees as they learned to share a diagnosis of autism with parents. A qualitative instrumental case study method was used at the University of Toronto in 2014 to explore what eight developmental pediatrics residents and two clinical psychology interns learned from participating in a simulation model designed to enable trainees to practice sharing a diagnosis of autism with parents. This model incorporated variability (three cases), active experimentation in a safe environment, and feedback from multiple perspectives (peers, faculty, standardized patients, and a parent). Field notes were collected, and semistructured interviews were conducted to explore what participants learned. Constant comparative analysis was used to identify themes iteratively. Team analysis continued until a stable thematic structure was developed and applied to the entire data set. Four themes were identified. Three themes described how participating in the simulation model changed residents' and interns' approaches to sharing a diagnosis of autism with parents from using a structured, scripted framework to share the diagnosis; to being flexible within the structured framework; and, finally, to being attentive and responsive to parents by adapting and creating new approaches for sharing the diagnosis. The fourth theme described how the multiple perspectives in the simulation model prompted learners to develop adaptive approaches. This simulation model helped residents and interns move beyond use of a structured, scripted communication framework toward development of adaptive expertise.

  20. A comparison between willingness to pay and willingness to give up time.

    PubMed

    van Helvoort-Postulart, Debby; Dirksen, Carmen D; Kessels, Alfons G H; van Engelshoven, Jos M A; Myriam Hunink, M G

    2009-02-01

    We compared the willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time methods to assess preferences for digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Respondents were hypertensive patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis. Data were gathered using telephone interviews. Both the willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time methods revealed that patients preferred CTA to MRA in order to avoid DSA. The agreement between willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time responses was high (kappa 0.65-0.85). The willingness-to-pay method yielded relatively more protest answers (12%) as compared to willingness to give up time (2%). So, our results provided evidence for the comparability of willingness to pay and willingness to give up time. The high percentage of protest answers on the willingness-to-pay questions raises questions with respect to the application of the willingness-to-pay method in a broad decision-making context. On the other hand, the strength of willingness-to-pay is that the method directly arrives at a monetary measure well founded in economic theory, whereas the willingness to give up time method requires conversion to monetary units.

  1. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  2. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  3. A Few Steps along the Road? Promoting Support for Parents with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarleton, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of research and development work around parenting by adults with a learning difficulty undertaken at the Norah Fry Research Centre (NFRC) since 2005. It discusses how our understanding of the support needs of parents with learning difficulties grew through an initial mapping study which led to the concept of…

  4. Increasing Parental Involvement to Promote Dropout Prevention. Lessons from an RCT in Italian Lower Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argentin, Gianluca; Barbetta, Gian Paolo; Maci, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that socio-economic background matters in determining student performance. Systematic reviews confirm that a key role in shaping this association is played by parental involvement. Not surprisingly, successful interventions in education frequently have parental engagement as a key ingredient of their protocol, and the attention…

  5. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  6. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  7. Preparing Parents for Change: Promoting a Sense of Well-Being for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Identifies ways to prepare parents for small early childhood education/care program changes (planned staff absences, changes of the environment or schedule, changes of classmates, changes of classroom pets, and classroom visitors) and large changes (funding, regulations, staff, building, administration). Suggests ways to keep parents informed,…

  8. Changing Teacher Attitudes and Actions To Promote Better Parent-Teacher Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweiker-Marra, Karyn E.

    2000-01-01

    Using qualitative information (faculty meeting transcripts) and a survey, researchers showed that seven statements pertaining to parent-teacher communication at a large rural middle school were poorly rated. A subsequent survey showed improved teacher attitudes, thanks to a monthly newspaper, parent hotline, web page, and other changes. (Contains…

  9. Promoting Immigrant Parental Involvement in Culturally-Diverse Schools through a Multiple Perspectives Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2016-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this paper is to provide a number of important insights into immigrant parents' school involvement in Cyprus. Therefore, it examines the perspectives of all actors involved in the school-family partnership--namely head-teachers, teachers, immigrant and native parents, and immigrant and native children--through a multiple…

  10. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  11. Parent and Clinician Preferences for an Asthma App to Promote Adolescent Self-Management: A Formative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Courtney A; Sage, Adam J; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Sleath, Betsy L; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2016-01-01

    Background Most youth asthma apps are not designed with parent and clinician use in mind, and rarely is the app development process informed by parent or clinician input. Objective This study was conducted to generate formative data on the use, attitudes, and preferences for asthma mHealth app features among parents and clinicians, the important stakeholders who support adolescents with asthma and promote adolescent self-management skills. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods study from 2013 to 2014 employing a user-centered design philosophy to acquire feedback from a convenience sample of 20 parents and 6 clinicians. Participants were given an iPod Touch and asked to evaluate 10 features on 2 existing asthma apps. Participant experiences using the apps were collected from questionnaires and a thematic analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed (verbatim) interviews using MAXQDA. Descriptive statistics were calculated to characterize the study sample and app feature feedback. Independent samples t tests were performed to compare parent and clinician ratings of app feature usefulness (ratings: 1=not at all useful to 5=very useful). Results All parents were female (n=20), 45% were black, 20% had an income ≥US $50,000, and 45% had a bachelor’s degree or higher education. The clinician sample included 2 nurses and 4 physicians with a mean practice time of 13 years. Three main themes provided an understanding of how participants perceived their roles and use of asthma app features to support adolescent asthma self-management: monitoring and supervision, education, and communication/information sharing. Parents rated the doctor report feature highest, and clinicians rated the doctor appointment reminder highest of all evaluated app features on usefulness. The peak flow monitoring feature was the lowest ranked feature by both parents and clinicians. Parents reported higher usefulness for the doctor report (t(10)=2.7, P<.02), diary (t(10)=2.7, P<.03), and self

  12. Parent and Clinician Preferences for an Asthma App to Promote Adolescent Self-Management: A Formative Study.

    PubMed

    Geryk, Lorie L; Roberts, Courtney A; Sage, Adam J; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Sleath, Betsy L; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2016-12-06

    Most youth asthma apps are not designed with parent and clinician use in mind, and rarely is the app development process informed by parent or clinician input. This study was conducted to generate formative data on the use, attitudes, and preferences for asthma mHealth app features among parents and clinicians, the important stakeholders who support adolescents with asthma and promote adolescent self-management skills. We conducted a mixed-methods study from 2013 to 2014 employing a user-centered design philosophy to acquire feedback from a convenience sample of 20 parents and 6 clinicians. Participants were given an iPod Touch and asked to evaluate 10 features on 2 existing asthma apps. Participant experiences using the apps were collected from questionnaires and a thematic analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed (verbatim) interviews using MAXQDA. Descriptive statistics were calculated to characterize the study sample and app feature feedback. Independent samples t tests were performed to compare parent and clinician ratings of app feature usefulness (ratings: 1=not at all useful to 5=very useful). All parents were female (n=20), 45% were black, 20% had an income ≥US $50,000, and 45% had a bachelor's degree or higher education. The clinician sample included 2 nurses and 4 physicians with a mean practice time of 13 years. Three main themes provided an understanding of how participants perceived their roles and use of asthma app features to support adolescent asthma self-management: monitoring and supervision, education, and communication/information sharing. Parents rated the doctor report feature highest, and clinicians rated the doctor appointment reminder highest of all evaluated app features on usefulness. The peak flow monitoring feature was the lowest ranked feature by both parents and clinicians. Parents reported higher usefulness for the doctor report (t(10)=2.7, P<.02), diary (t(10)=2.7, P<.03), and self-check quiz (t(14)=2.5, P<.02) features than

  13. Partnering with parents in interprofessional leadership graduate education to promote family-professional partnerships.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lewis H; Fahje Steber, Kathryn; Rosenberg, Angela; Palmer, Ann; Rounds, Kathleen; Wells, Marlyn

    2017-03-13

    Evidence supports the benefits to families of relationships with professionals that build on the concept of partnership, but there are few studies in the literature of strategies involving joint education for parents and professionals to enhance the capacity of parents of children with special healthcare needs to be effective interprofessional partners. Since 2007, parents of children with special healthcare needs have participated alongside graduate students from five different profession-based training programmes in a structured interprofessional leadership programme. The aims of this summative evaluation study were to elicit the influences of this training model on parents' capacity to partner with both health professionals and other parents and explore features of the training that facilitated these partnership skills. Using qualitative analysis, a semi-structured interview, guided by sensitising concepts informing leadership development, was conducted with 17 of the 23 parents who participated in the training. Transcriptions of the interviews were used for creating codes and categories for analysis. Parents described how the programme enhanced abilities to see other points of view, skills in communicating across professions, skills in conflict management, and feelings of confidence and equality with providers that influenced their relationships with their own providers and their capacity to assist other parents in addressing challenges in the care of their children. Parents reported that building concrete skills, organised opportunities to hear other viewpoints, structured time for learning and self-reflection, and learning in the context of a trusting relationship facilitated the development of partnership skills. These findings suggest that the leaders of interprofessional training programmes should involve parents and graduate students as equal partners to enhance partnership skills.

  14. Children’s Food and Beverage Promotion on Television to Parents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marietta E.; Mathur, Suman J.; Sargent, James D.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutritionally poor foods are heavily advertised to children on television. Whether those same products are also advertised to parents on television has not been systematically examined. METHODS: This study is a content analysis of advertisements for children’s packaged foods and beverages aired over US network, cable, and syndicated television for 1 year (2012 to 2013). The target audience of each advertisement was defined as children or parents based on advertisement content, where parent-directed advertisements included emotional appeals related to family bonding and love. Advertisement characteristics and patterns of airtime were compared across target audience, and the proportion of total airtime devoted to advertisements targeting parents was computed. RESULTS: Fifty-one children’s food or beverage products were advertised over the study year, 25 (49%) of which were advertised directly to parents. Parent-directed advertisements more often featured nutrition and health messaging and an active lifestyle than child-directed advertisements, whereas child-directed advertisements more frequently highlighted fun and product taste. Over all products, 42.4% of total airtime was devoted to advertisements that targeted parents. The products with the most amount of airtime over the study year were ready-to-eat cereals, sugar-sweetened beverages, and children’s yogurt, and the proportion of total advertisement airtime for those products devoted to parents was 24.4%, 72.8%, and 25.8%, respectively. DISCUSSION: Television advertisements for children’s packaged foods and beverages frequently targeted parents with emotional appeals and messaging related to nutrition and health. Findings are of concern if exposure to such advertisements among parents may shape their beliefs about the appropriateness of nutritionally questionable children’s foods and beverages. PMID:26553181

  15. Parental reflective functioning: Analysis and promotion of the concept for pediatric nursing

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Monica Roosa; Sadler, Lois S.; Dixon, Jane; Slade, Arietta

    2014-01-01

    Aim To identify the definitional elements of parental reflective functioning (RF) and develop a framework for nurses to apply this concept in their clinical work with families. Background: In recent years, researchers have concluded that parental RF is a key mechanism in the development of child attachment security leading to lifelong mental and physical health benefits. Despite its clinical relevance, little has been published in the nursing literature on this concept. Design Concept analysis. Methods The Walker and Avant (2011) method of concept analysis and the Whittemore and Knafl (2005) method of integrative review were used. A search of the literature published from 1989 to 2013 was conducted using edited texts and online databases - Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychInfo. Among the 85 sources, 31 empirical studies, 17 book chapters, 32 review papers, and 5 case studies were identified concerning parental RF. Results The concept of RF, defined as the capacity to envision the mental states of self and other, was first described in 1989 by Fonagy. Slade (2005) expanded the concept specifically for parents (i.e. parental RF). Results of this concept analysis describe seven defining attributes and five antecedent conditions. Consequences of parental RF are related to a child’s attachment early in life and behavior later in life. A model case is provided to contextualize the concept. To date, there are three measures for parental RF. Conclusions While parental RF has been predominately featured in psychology and parenting interventions, the potential consequences of secure attachment and longer term children’s behavioral outcomes suggest that the concept has global implications for pediatric nurses and primary health care clinicians. Relevance to clinical practice Parental RF offers exciting and promising opportunities for pediatric health and new approaches for those who provide pediatric health care. PMID:24750548

  16. Primary care providers' willingness to see unaccompanied adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bravender, Terrill; Price, C Nicole; English, Abigail

    2004-01-01

    To describe primary care practitioners' office policies and willingness to provide medical care for unaccompanied adolescents aged 11-17 years. A unique 32-item survey was mailed in June and July, 2001 to 1979 office-based pediatricians and family practitioners randomly selected from the American Medical Association's physician database. The survey included questions regarding demographic information, number of adolescents seen in the practice, office policies regarding adolescents alone in the clinic, and 5-point Likert scales regarding their willingness to see patients in various situations, as well as to see patients in 12 brief clinical scenarios. Predictors of the willingness to see adolescents alone were identified and entered into binomial logistic regression models. Specific policies included on the surveys were coded into groups. Survey responses (n = 710) represented a 36% response rate. This sample included 288 family practitioners and 368 pediatricians; 43.3% of physicians reported having a specific policy regarding seeing adolescents without their parents present. Family practitioners were more likely than pediatricians to report having such a policy (51.3% vs. 38.2%, p =.001,), yet pediatricians reported a higher percentage of adolescents in their practices than family practitioners (22.6% vs. 12.4%, p <.0005). Not having a policy was an independent predictor of "often" or "always" seeing an adolescent alone for routine health maintenance (OR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.91-4.24) and urgent care visits (OR = 3.01, 95% CI 1.90-4.77). Specific policies varied, and many physicians assessed each case on an individual basis. Specific policies are associated with a decreased willingness of physicians to see adolescents who are unaccompanied by a parent. Carefully developed clinic policies that are consistent with legal guidelines should be implemented in order to maximize adolescents' abilities to access care.

  17. Community factors to promote parents' quality of child-nurturing life.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Megumi; Wei, Chang Nian; Chang-nian, Wei; Harada, Koichi; Ueda, Kimiyo; Takano, Miyuki; Ueda, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of community factors in parents' quality of child-nurturing life (QCNL). We developed a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of QCNL and determine the structural factors related to QCNL as community factors related to parents' QCNL derived from focus group interviews and the Delphi technique. The questionnaire also included the battery of the self-rating depression scale and Tsumori-Inage Infant's Developmental Test. Using the questionnaire, we then conducted a quantitative survey of parents whose children attended nursery schools in Kumamoto Prefecture. Factor analysis, calculation of the mean score and/or ratio to each item, Pearson's correlation coefficient, t test, multiple regression analysis, and covariance structure analysis were performed. The questionnaire we developed consisted of seven items with 75 elements, involving ten elements as community factors. Subjects included 699 parents (mean age 33.6 ± 5.4 years) and 965 children (age range 0-6 years). Factor analysis revealed that community factors consisted of five factors, such as "lifestyle rooted in the ground," "balance of housekeeping and work," "community network," "amenity," and "regeneration of life". These factors may be dominant in a rural area. Finally, we developed a structural model with "community factors," QCNL, QOL, and "child growth" by covariance structural analysis. The analysis revealed that community factors had a positive relation to parents' QCNL (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) and that parental SDS score had a negative relation to parents' QCNL (r = -0.59, p < 0.001). The analysis did show that community factors were positively related to the sound growth of children. The covariance structure analysis revealed that community factors were associated with parents' QCNL, SDS, and "child growth."

  18. Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

    2014-07-01

    Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways.

  19. Client Self-Management: Promoting Self-Help for Parents of Children in Foster-Care

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Bjørn Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon Foucault's concepts of power, this article shows how a course given to parents whose children are in foster-care encourages a particular form of self-management—most notably, that their internal dialogues must be altered so that the parents can view themselves as people in control of their behaviour who are in a position to choose new behaviour. The article is based on a qualitative study conducted in Norway and centres on the support and development of participants in the course. Study results show increased self-confidence and self-respect in the participants, both as individuals and as parents. In addition, significant benefits were stated as finding that they could verbalise and describe difficult events and emotions, experiencing being ‘normal’ within a group and receiving feedback. From the perspective of child protective services, dialogue with parents is central, as it not only commits clients to specific behaviours, but—more importantly—commits them to a particular inner dialogue about parenthood. The course can be seen as a management tool in which the parent's ‘self’ becomes the central object, seeking to contradict the conventional conception of parents with children in foster-care as having nothing to contribute to their children's upbringing. PMID:27559212

  20. Influence of serotonin transporter promoter variation on the effects of separation from parent/partner on depression.

    PubMed

    Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Wei, Yabin; Aberg, Elin; Sjöholm, Louise K; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2013-01-25

    Loss of parent during childhood or loss of partner has been associated with adulthood depression. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has been reported to moderate stress sensitivity reflected for example in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression. Therefore, the effect of 5-HTT promoter variation on the relationship between the loss of parent or partner and depression was examined. 411 depressive cases and 1347 control subjects from a large well-characterized longitudinal population-based sample of adult Swedes with data on life history and life situation, including psychiatric diagnostic instruments, were studied. Their DNA was genotyped for the mini-haplotype 5-HTTLPR-rs25531. Individuals with low 5-HTT activity variants had an increased risk of depression given loss of partner last year compared to those with high activity variants. Conversely, 5-HTT activity variation appeared not to strongly influence the risk of depression given loss of parent during childhood. Small sample size for those with losses of both parent and partner. Limited power to detect small interaction effects. The increased risk of depression given last year loss of partner appeared to be influenced by genetic variation regulating 5-HTT activity. This adds to previous findings of 5-HTT x stressful life events interactions on depression and is in agreement with stronger GxE effects when using objective environmental measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Animal-assisted dyadic therapy: A therapy model promoting development of the reflective function in the parent-child bond.

    PubMed

    Shani, Liat

    2017-01-01

    Animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) inherently incorporates standpoints, interventions, and ways of action promoting the development of the reflective function and mentalization, and thus has special value for parent-child psychotherapy. Two central tools in AAP contribute to this process. The first is the ethical stance of the therapist, who sees the animals as full partners in the therapy situation, respecting them as subjects with needs, desires, and thoughts of their own. The second tool combines nonverbal communication with animals together with the relating, in the here and now, to the understanding and decoding of body language of everyone in the setting. Nonverbal communication in AAP enables access to implicit communication patterns occurring between parent and child. This article provides a survey of theoretical development and research constituting a basis for the development of therapeutic approaches for the improvement of parent-children dynamics, followed by a description of a dyadic therapy model of a mentalization-based treatment originating from a psychoanalytic-relational orientation. Clinical examples are provided to illustrate AAP processes in parent-child psychotherapy (consent was received for examples that were not aggregated).

  2. Evaluation of the Families Matter! Program in Tanzania: An Intervention to Promote Effective Parent-Child Communication About Sex, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Reduction.

    PubMed

    Kamala, Benjamin A; Rosecrans, Kathryn D; Shoo, Tiransia A; Al-Alawy, Hamid Z; Berrier, Faith; Bwogi, David F; Miller, Kim S

    2017-04-01

    The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is a curriculum-based intervention designed to give parents and other primary caregivers the knowledge, skills, comfort, and confidence to deliver messages to their 9-12-year-old children about sexuality and practice positive parenting skills. A pre- and post-intervention evaluation study on FMP outcomes was conducted with 658 parent participants and their preadolescent children in two administrative wards in Tanzania in 2014. There was an increase in the proportion of study participants (parent-preadolescent pairs) that had positive attitudes toward sex education. On parent-child communication, the majority of participants (59-87%) reported having had more sexuality discussions. On communication responsiveness about sexual issues, scores improved in the period between surveys, with parents showing more improvements than preadolescents. Our results corroborate evidence from previous FMP evaluations, lending support to the conclusion that FMP is successful in promoting attitude and behavior change among parents and preadolescents in different cultural contexts.

  3. Teasing Apart the Child Care Conundrum: A Factorial Survey Analysis of Perceptions of Child Care Quality, Fair Market Price and Willingness to Pay by Low-Income, African American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlay, Anne B.; Tran, Henry; Weinraub, Marsha; Harmon, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Child care quality plays a crucial role in children's social and cognitive development. While child care quality is a critical issue for all children, it matters more for low-income children. Policy makers have increased the emphasis on allowing parents, not government, to make decisions about the type of care they want for their children. Yet…

  4. Teasing Apart the Child Care Conundrum: A Factorial Survey Analysis of Perceptions of Child Care Quality, Fair Market Price and Willingness to Pay by Low-Income, African American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlay, Anne B.; Tran, Henry; Weinraub, Marsha; Harmon, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Child care quality plays a crucial role in children's social and cognitive development. While child care quality is a critical issue for all children, it matters more for low-income children. Policy makers have increased the emphasis on allowing parents, not government, to make decisions about the type of care they want for their children. Yet…

  5. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households.

  6. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  7. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  8. Parental Social Coaching Promotes Adolescent Peer Acceptance Across the Middle School Transition.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S

    2017-03-20

    The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Parental perspectives on adolescent hearing loss risk and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Deepa L; Clark, Sarah J; Davis, Matthew M; Singer, Dianne C; Paul, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Data indicate that 1 in 6 adolescents has high-frequency hearing loss, which is typically noise related and preventable. Parental participation improves the success of adolescent behavioral interventions, yet little is known about parental perspectives regarding adolescent noise-induced hearing loss. To perform a survey to determine parental knowledge of adolescent hearing loss and willingness to promote hearing conservation to discern information that is critical to design adolescent hearing loss prevention programs. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative online sample of parents of 13- to 17-year-olds. A survey conducted with the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health, a recurring online survey. Parental knowledge of adolescent hearing loss and willingness to promote hearing conservation. Of 716 eligible respondents, 96.3% of parents reported that their adolescent was slightly or not at all at risk of hearing problems from excessive noise, and 69.0% had not spoken with their adolescent about noise exposure, mainly because of the perceived low risk. Nonetheless, to protect their adolescents' hearing, more than 65.0% of parents are either willing or very willing to consider limiting time listening to music, limiting access to excessively noisy situations, or insisting on the use of hearing protection (earplugs or earmuffs). Higher parental education increased the odds of promoting hearing-protective strategies. Parents were less likely to insist on hearing protection for older adolescents. Parents who understood that both volume and time of exposure affect hearing damage were more likely to have discussed hearing loss with their adolescent (odds ratio [OR], 1.98; 95% CI, 1.29-3.03). The odds of discussing hearing loss were also increased for those who were willing or very willing to limit time listening to music (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.19-2.26) and to insist on hearing protection (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1

  10. Downsizing and the Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Stephen E.; Hwang, Alvin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how employee perceptions of organizational context relate to willingness to mentor. This research will help organizations to understand the relationship between organizational context and willingness to mentor to encourage mentoring. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey approach. Employees who…

  11. Promoting Correct Car Seat Use in Parents of Young Children: Challenges, Recommendations, and Implications for Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Nancy L.; Brixey, Suzanne N.; Williams, Janice; Nansel, Tonja R.

    2013-01-01

    Injuries involving motor vehicles continue to be the biggest threat to the safety of children. Although child safety seats (CSS) have been established as a central countermeasure in decreasing injury risk, the majority of parents do not use the correct car seat correctly. There are many challenges in promoting correct car seat use, which itself is a complex behavior. To advance this critical protective behavior, the public health community would benefit from clarifying CSS messaging, communicating clearly, and addressing the conflicting recommendations of product use. In this article, we present current challenges in promoting CSS use and draw on health communication and other fields to offer recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:22991278

  12. Informing parent targeted interventions to promote increased physical activity among youth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This was an invited commentary on the qualitative evaluation of a Canadian public service campaign, ParticipACTION "Think Again" described by Faulkner et al in a special issue of the Journal of Applied Research on Children, Family Well-Being and Social Environments. The campaign aimed to make parent...

  13. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  14. It Takes a Village: Promoting Parent and Family Education on Healthy Lifestyles for Minnesota Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Grannon, Katherine; Davey, Cynthia S.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examines school strategies to educate parents over time about physical activity and nutrition and how those strategies are related to adolescent health behaviors. Methods: Data from the Minnesota School Health Profiles Lead Health Education Teacher survey (2008-2012) and the Minnesota Student Survey (MSS, 2013) included…

  15. It Takes a Village: Promoting Parent and Family Education on Healthy Lifestyles for Minnesota Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Grannon, Katherine; Davey, Cynthia S.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examines school strategies to educate parents over time about physical activity and nutrition and how those strategies are related to adolescent health behaviors. Methods: Data from the Minnesota School Health Profiles Lead Health Education Teacher survey (2008-2012) and the Minnesota Student Survey (MSS, 2013) included…

  16. It's PTA Showtime, Baby! Promoting Physical Activity among Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tammy; Berg, Kim; Martin, Amanda Shoe; Martin, Gary; Lux, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors state, that to help children value and participate in regular physical activity, it is important that significant adults in their lives do the same. Furthermore, research has consistently shown that adults, particularly parents, influence children's participation in physical activity (e.g., Brustad, 1996; Freedson &…

  17. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  18. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby

    2005-01-01

    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  19. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby

    2005-01-01

    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  20. Infant Massage: A Strategy to Promote Self-Efficacy in Parents of Blind Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Grace

    2006-01-01

    For successful communication to exist between a caregiver and infant, the caregiver must feel confident about her/his ability to parent and also have specific and accurate knowledge about the behaviours required for optimal care-giving; lack of this knowledge may lead to feelings of uncertainty and less than optimal communication. Studies indicate…

  1. Home Visiting: Strengthening Families by Promoting Parenting Success. Policy Brief No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This practice/policy brief focuses on early childhood home visiting as a place-based family strengthening strategy that supports parent/caregivers as a key influence on the lives of young children. ("Place-based family strengthening" means that "children do better when their families are strong, and families do better when they live in communities…

  2. Parents' Interactions with Preschoolers during Shared Book Reading: Three Strategies for Promoting Quality Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that home environments play a critical role in developing children's early literacy skills. Given the importance of developing early literacy skills to bolster children's chances for subsequent academic success, this article highlights the role of parent-child shared book reading. Summarizing research on different types of…

  3. Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting Education: Promoting Family Mindfulness during the Perinatal Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Bardacke, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We present the conceptual and empirical foundation and curriculum content of the Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) program and the results of a pilot study of n = 27 pregnant women participating in MBCP during their third trimester of pregnancy. MBCP is a formal adaptation of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program and was…

  4. Infant Massage: A Strategy to Promote Self-Efficacy in Parents of Blind Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Grace

    2006-01-01

    For successful communication to exist between a caregiver and infant, the caregiver must feel confident about her/his ability to parent and also have specific and accurate knowledge about the behaviours required for optimal care-giving; lack of this knowledge may lead to feelings of uncertainty and less than optimal communication. Studies indicate…

  5. Evaluation of a Radionovela to Promote HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Hispanic Parents

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Rodriguez, Hector P.; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women have more than a 1.5-fold increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control recommends the HPV vaccine for females at ages 11 and 12 years, though it is approved for females aged 9–26 to protect against the primary types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Few culturally-tailored Spanish HPV vaccine awareness programs have been developed. This study evaluates the efficacy of a Spanish radionovela as an educational tool. Rural Hispanic parents of daughters aged 9–17 (n = 88; 78 mothers and 10 fathers) were randomized to listen to the HPV vaccine radionovela or to another public service announcement. Participants completed a 30 min pretest posttest questionnaire. Parents who listened to the HPV radionovela (intervention group) scored higher on six knowledge and belief items. They were more likely to confirm that HPV is a common infection (70% vs. 48%, P = .002), to deny that women are able to detect HPV (53% vs. 31%, P = .003), to know vaccine age recommendations (87% vs. 68%, P = .003), and to confirm multiple doses (48% vs. 26%, P = .03) than control group parents. The HPV vaccine radionovela improved HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes. Radionovela health education may be an efficacious strategy to increase HPV vaccine awareness among Hispanic parents. PMID:21452030

  6. Postnatal reproductive autonomy: promoting relational autonomy and self-trust in new parents.

    PubMed

    Goering, Sara

    2009-01-01

    New parents suddenly come face to face with myriad issues that demand careful attention but appear in a context unlikely to provide opportunities for extended or clear-headed critical reflection, whether at home with a new baby or in the neonatal intensive care unit. As such, their capacity for autonomy may be compromised. Attending to new parental autonomy as an extension of reproductive autonomy, and as a complicated phenomenon in its own right rather than simply as a matter to be balanced against other autonomy rights, can help us to see how new parents might be aided in their quest for competency and good decision making. In this paper I show how a relational view of autonomy--attentive to the coercive effects of oppressive social norms and to the importance of developing autonomy competency, especially as related to self-trust--can improve our understanding of the situation of new parents and signal ways to cultivate and to better respect their autonomy.

  7. Parents' Interactions with Preschoolers during Shared Book Reading: Three Strategies for Promoting Quality Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that home environments play a critical role in developing children's early literacy skills. Given the importance of developing early literacy skills to bolster children's chances for subsequent academic success, this article highlights the role of parent-child shared book reading. Summarizing research on different types of…

  8. Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting Education: Promoting Family Mindfulness during the Perinatal Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Bardacke, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We present the conceptual and empirical foundation and curriculum content of the Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) program and the results of a pilot study of n = 27 pregnant women participating in MBCP during their third trimester of pregnancy. MBCP is a formal adaptation of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program and was…

  9. Promoting a Culture of Parent Collaboration and Trust: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of formalized and centralized school structures on 2 emergent concepts in the study of school reform, trust, and collaboration. Trust and collaboration were examined from the perspective of parents, as opposed to internal school agents such as teachers or students. Three hierarchical multiple regressions…

  10. Promoting Parent–Child Sexual Health Dialogue with an Intergenerational Game: Parent and Youth Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Jina; Santa Maria, Diane; Dube, Sara; Markham, Christine; McLaughlin, Jeffrey; Wilkerson, Johnny M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Tortolero, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Sexual health discussions between parents and their preadolescent youth can delay sexual debut and increase condom and contraceptive use. However, parents frequently report being uncomfortable talking with their youth about sex, often reporting a lack of self-efficacy and skills to inform and motivate responsible decision making by youth. Intergenerational games may support parent–youth sexual health communication. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and youth perspectives on a proposed intergenerational game designed to increase effective parent–youth sexual health communication and skills training. Materials and Methods: Eight focus groups were conducted: four with parents (n=20) and four with their 11–14-year-old youth (n=19), to identify similarities and differences in perspectives on gaming context, delivery channel, content, and design (components, features, and function) that might facilitate dyadic sexual health communication. Results: Participants concurred that a sex education game could improve communication while being responsive to family time constraints. They affirmed the demand for an immersive story-based educational adventure game using mobile platforms and flexible communication modalities. Emergent themes informed the development of a features inventory (including educational and gaming strategies, communication components, channel, and setting) and upper-level program flow to guide future game development. Conclusions: This study supports the potential of a game to be a viable medium to bring a shared dyadic sexual health educational experience to parents and youth that could engage them in a motivationally appealing way to meaningfully impact their sexual health communication and youth sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26181805

  11. Ways of knowing and willingness to argue.

    PubMed

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Easter, Marilyn

    2009-03-01

    Willingness to argue is associated with higher level thinking. The authors tested the relation between ways of knowing-involving separate knowing (i.e., playing the devil's advocate) and connected knowing (i.e., empathic understanding)--and students' willingness to argue. Participants were 171 male and 231 female college undergraduates who completed assessments in ways of knowing and willingness to argue. Also, the participants defined the word argument in their own words. After the authors controlled for demographic variables, endorsement of separate knowing predicted willingness to argue. Students with high scores in separate knowing (objective, adversarial knowing) and connected knowing (subjective, empathic knowing) indicated more willingness to argue. Furthermore, these same students defined argument as a constructive form of communication. Students with low scores in separate knowing defined argument as an emotional battle with the goal of psychological harm. This negative perspective could be an impediment to engaging students in classroom debate and critical thinking.

  12. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  13. Efficacy of a parent-youth teamwork intervention to promote adherence in pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christina L; Hogan, Mary Beth; Tien, Karen J; Graves, Montserrat M; Chorney, Jill Maclaren; Zettler, Melissa Demore; Koven, Lesley; Wilson, Nevin W; Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether a parent-youth teamwork intervention improved medication adherence and related outcomes among youth with asthma. We used a randomized clinical trial with 48 youth (aged 9-15 years) assigned to 1 of 3 groups: Teamwork Intervention (TI), Asthma Education (AE), or Standard Care (SC). Treatment occurred across 2 months, with a 3-month follow-up assessment. Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids was assessed via the MDILog-II. Parent-adolescent conflict, asthma functional severity, and spirometry assessments were obtained pre-treatment, post-treatment, and on follow-up. Mixed linear model analysis was used to evaluate group and time effects for outcome measures. TI group had significantly higher adherence and lower functional severity scores than AE or SC conditions, and lower parent-reported conflict and a trend for higher spirometry values compared with the SC group. Results suggest support for the efficacy of TI for improving medication adherence as youth acquire more responsibility for their asthma management.

  14. Promoting careers in health care for urban youth: What students, parents and educators can teach us

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Lynne; Rumala, Bernice; Carson, Patricia; Siegel, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    There are many obstacles that urban youth experience in pursuing health careers, but the benefits of diversifying the classroom and workforce are clear. This is especially true today as educators and policymakers seek to enhance underrepresented minority students’ access to health careers, and also achieve the health workforce needed to support the Affordable Care Act. The creation of student pipeline programs began more than 40 years ago, but success has been equivocal. In 2008, Mentoring in Medicine (MIM) conducted a research project to identify how students learn about health careers; develop strategies for an integrated, experiential learning program that encourages underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health; and translate these into best practices for supporting students through their entire preparatory journey. Six focus groups were conducted with educators, students, and their parents. The inclusion of parents was unusual in studies of this kind. The outcome yielded important and surprising differences between student and parent knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. They informed our understanding of the factors that motivate and deter underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health care. Specific programmatic strategies emerged that found their place in the subsequent development of new MIM programming that falls into the following three categories: community-based, school-based and Internet based. Best practices derived from these MIM programs are summarized and offered for consideration by other health career education program developers targeting underrepresented minority students, particularly those located in urban settings. PMID:25580044

  15. Promoting careers in health care for urban youth: What students, parents and educators can teach us.

    PubMed

    Holden, Lynne; Rumala, Bernice; Carson, Patricia; Siegel, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    There are many obstacles that urban youth experience in pursuing health careers, but the benefits of diversifying the classroom and workforce are clear. This is especially true today as educators and policymakers seek to enhance underrepresented minority students' access to health careers, and also achieve the health workforce needed to support the Affordable Care Act. The creation of student pipeline programs began more than 40 years ago, but success has been equivocal. In 2008, Mentoring in Medicine (MIM) conducted a research project to identify how students learn about health careers; develop strategies for an integrated, experiential learning program that encourages underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health; and translate these into best practices for supporting students through their entire preparatory journey. Six focus groups were conducted with educators, students, and their parents. The inclusion of parents was unusual in studies of this kind. The outcome yielded important and surprising differences between student and parent knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. They informed our understanding of the factors that motivate and deter underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health care. Specific programmatic strategies emerged that found their place in the subsequent development of new MIM programming that falls into the following three categories: community-based, school-based and Internet based. Best practices derived from these MIM programs are summarized and offered for consideration by other health career education program developers targeting underrepresented minority students, particularly those located in urban settings.

  16. The role of midwives and health visitors in promoting intergenerational language maintenance in the bilingual setting: perceptions of parents and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Siobhan; Irvine, Fiona; Roberts, Gwerfyl; Spencer, Llinos; Jones, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The increasing status and regard of indigenous minority languages across Europe, means the advantages of bilingualism for individuals and communities are now well established. We set out to elicit parents' and health professionals' views of the role of health visitors and midwives in promoting bilingualism in the family and to consider whether health professionals acknowledge the contribution that bilingualism makes to public health. A three-year study was completed to measure the impact of a language transmission initiative which depends on the input of midwives and health visitors with new parents and how its effect could be improved. This paper reports on one element of that study. A qualitative approach was used. Six focus group interviews were conducted with health visitors and midwives and 33 postnatal interviews were completed with parents across four counties in Wales. Thematic content analysis was undertaken by two researchers, a third trailed decision processes and scrutinised categories and themes. Findings suggest that health visitors and midwives perceive their roles relating to the promotion of bilingualism differently. Influences on their involvement include their language profile, contact with parents, personal experience, timing of the interaction and time in their workload. The relationship between promoting bilingualism and public health was accepted by some and denied by others. Data from the interviews with parents suggested that few health professionals discuss issues of language transmission with new parents. Some individual health visitors and midwives are willing to promote bilingualism with parents. However, there are challenges in enlisting the support of health visitors and midwives to discuss language transmission and bilingualism with parents. These findings challenge practitioners to consider their role in promoting bilingualism and its effect on public health and suggest the need for more defined responsibilities. © 2010 Blackwell

  17. Preventing rapid repeat pregnancy and promoting positive parenting among young mothers in foster care.

    PubMed

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Murray, Kantahyanee W; O'Connor, Julia M; Rushovich, Berenice R; Dixon, Desyree A; Barth, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Young mothers in foster care face considerable challenges above and beyond that of their non-foster care peers. Child welfare workers have few resources to guide them in the selection of evidence-informed programs, models, and strategies that address the unique risk factors and needs of youth in foster care who are at risk for rapid repeat pregnancy and inadequate parenting practices. Workers need knowledge of the evidence about which programs are most likely to improve key health and well-being outcomes. The article assesses the evidence-based programs identified and yields a list that reflects the best evidence for efficacy and effectiveness.

  18. Do Parents Think It Takes a Village? Parents' Attitudes towards Nonparental Adults' Involvement in the Upbringing and Nurture of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselring, Marije; de Winter, Micha; Horjus, Bob; van de Schoot, Rens; van Yperen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored parents' attitudes towards nonparental adults' involvement in childrearing practices. Parents' attitudes were operationalized in their willingness to share parenting responsibility and interest to participate in parenting activities. Data were collected through a quantitative survey with 1,090 parents from 17 Dutch…

  19. Implementation Planning to Promote Parents' Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Feinberg, Adam B.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions delivered across home and school settings can promote positive outcomes for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, stakeholders who deliver these interventions may struggle to implement interventions as intended. Low levels of treatment integrity can undermine potentially positive intervention outcomes. One way…

  20. Parental Involvement in Middle School: A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Strategies that Promote Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Tyson, Diana F.

    2009-01-01

    Early adolescence is often marked by changes in school context, family relationships, and developmental processes. In the context of these changes, academic performance often declines, while at the same time the long-term implications of academic performance increase. In promoting achievement across elementary and secondary school levels, the…

  1. Divorce Transitions: Identifying Risk and Promoting Resilience for Children and Their Parental Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gill Gorrell

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. Describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and post-divorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. Some interactions that may promote resilience in…

  2. Implementation Planning to Promote Parents' Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Feinberg, Adam B.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions delivered across home and school settings can promote positive outcomes for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, stakeholders who deliver these interventions may struggle to implement interventions as intended. Low levels of treatment integrity can undermine potentially positive intervention outcomes. One way…

  3. Divorce Transitions: Identifying Risk and Promoting Resilience for Children and Their Parental Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gill Gorrell

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. Describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and post-divorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. Some interactions that may promote resilience in…

  4. [Parents as partners in school-based health promotion and addiction prevention: an empirical study for the example of Class2000].

    PubMed

    Kraus, D; Duprée, T; Bölcskei, P L

    2003-06-01

    Starting from the premise of the incomparable importance of the parent-child relationship for development, Class2000, a wide-reaching programme for the promotion of health and prevention of addiction in primary schools, focuses especially on the integration of parents. A questionnaire survey among 1430 parents in Hesse with children in the second primary class shows that the overriding majority of pupils (90 %) speak about Class2000 at home and initiate discussions with their parents on health-related topics. The various Class2000 information materials are acknowledged by up to 77 % of parents (comparatively more rarely in the case of the fathers) and are read, as a rule, with interest. Specific information on the contents of the programme is for the parents rather more important than general stimuli. Invitations to special informative events are accepted by well 80 % of the parents. Class2000 convinces more than 82 % of the participants. 71 % of the parents are prepared to contribute to the costs of Class2000. 12 % are undecided in this regard. Participation in parent evenings increases the readiness for financial involvement.

  5. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  6. American parents’ willingness to prescribe psychoactive drugs to children: a test of cultural mediators

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank R.; Gladwin, Hugh; Rosa, Mario De La

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the USA, white children receive psychoactive drugs more often than black or Hispanic children. This study investigates whether cultural attitudes statistically mediate differences between American parents’ self-identified racial–ethnic group membership and their willingness to medicate children for behavioral problems. Methods Using data from telephone interviews with 1,145 parents in two Florida counties, structural models tested associations between each group compared with the other, in willingness to medicate children exhibiting different problematic behaviors and hypothesized cultural (familism, fatalism, attitude toward corporal punishment, religiosity, concern about treatment stigma, birth abroad, language of interview) and other mediators (views about medications and causes of children’s problems). Respondent gender, age, socioeconomic status, parent-type household, taking psychoactive medication, and having a child with behavioral problems were used as covariates. Results Race–ethnicity was strongly associated with specific cultural attitudes and views about medications and problems, but only Hispanics distinguished themselves significantly from whites in willingness to medicate children. Across groups, parents who viewed medication favorably and endorsed biomedical causes for problems were more willing to medicate. In Hispanic–white and Hispanic–black comparisons, being interviewed in Spanish was the sole but modest cultural mediator of willingness, and in black–white comparisons, only concern about treatment stigma weakly mediated differences in willingness. Conclusions These findings provide faint support for a parent-centered cultural explanation of reported prescription differences among youths of different racial–ethnic groups in the USA. However, structural and professional components of a broader cultural hypothesis for such differences, within the USA and between different countries, still require evaluation. PMID

  7. Fathers' beliefs about parenting and fathers' clubs to promote child health in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Gebrian, Bette; Astone, Nan Marie

    2012-04-01

    Health care providers are challenged to use culturally appropriate, low-technology approaches to improve child health in resource-poor countries. Village fathers' clubs is one approach used in rural Haiti since 1994. Fathers meet regularly for health education and community-building activities. Our aim was to investigate parenting practices and beliefs among Haitian fathers of young children and to explore their views on fathers' clubs. We conducted semistructured interviews with 18 fathers. Themes identified were fathers' involvement in routine care of their children, the close partnerships of fathers and mothers in child care, fathers' responsibilities to their communities, and fathers' clubs as an important supportive institution for the Haitian fathers and their families. Rural Haitian fathers reported taking a very active role in the lives of their families and children. Increased involvement of fathers should be explored as a strategy to improve child health and survival in other parts of Haiti and throughout the world.

  8. Functional New World monkey oxytocin forms elicit an altered signaling profile and promotes parental care in rats.

    PubMed

    Parreiras-E-Silva, Lucas T; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Duarte, Diego A; Longo, Dânae; Espinoza Pardo, Grace Violeta; Dulor Finkler, Andrea; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Paré, Pâmela; Rovaris, Diego L; Oliveira, Eduardo B; Caceres, Rafael Andrade; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Bouvier, Michel; Salzano, Francisco M; Lucion, Aldo B; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2017-08-22

    The neurohormone oxytocin is a key player in the modulation of reproductive and social behavioral traits, such as parental care. Recently, a correlation between different forms of oxytocin and behavioral phenotypes has been described in the New World Monkeys (NWMs). Here, we demonstrate that, compared with the Leu(8)OXT found in most placental mammals, the Cebidae Pro(8)OXT and Saguinus Val(3)Pro(8)OXT taxon-specific variants act as equi-efficacious agonists for the Gq-dependent pathway but are weaker agonists for the β-arrestin engagement and subsequent endocytosis toward the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). Upon interaction with the AVPR1a, Pro(8)OXT and the common Leu(8)OXT yielded similar signaling profiles, being equally efficacious on Gq and β-arrestin, while Val(3)Pro(8)OXT showed reduced relative efficacy toward β-arrestin. Intranasal treatment with either of the variants increased maternal behavior and also promoted unusual paternal care in rats, as measured by pup-retrieval tests. We therefore suggest that Val(3)Pro(8)OXT and Pro(8)OXT are functional variants, which might have been evolutionarily co-opted as an essential part of the adaptive genetic repertoire that allowed the emergence of taxon-specific complex social behaviors, such as intense parental care in the Cebidae and the genus Saguinus.

  9. Promoting child development through group-based parent support within a cash transfer program: Experimental effects on children's outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Knauer, Heather A; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2017-02-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program (Educación Inicial - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program (Prospera, originally Oportunidades and Progresa). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in final sample), stratified by community indigenous status, and assigned to receive either: (T0) CCT only; (T1) CCT plus availability of EI in the community; or (T2) T1 plus promotion of the EI program by the CCT program. Interviews were conducted with the mother or primary caregiver of each child at baseline (2008, children 0-18 months old), and at follow-up (2012, children 3-5 years old); the intervention began after baseline and continued for all eligible households. Cognitive development was assessed with the Extended Ages and Stages Questionnaire (baseline) and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Development (follow-up); assessors were blinded to treatment. All analyses were intention to treat. There were significant effects on child development when EI received support and promotion from the CCT program (T₂ vs. T₀: General Cognitive Index, β = 3.90; 95% CI [0.51, 7.30], Verbal Score, β = 4.28; 95% CI [0.51, 8.05], and Memory Score, β = 4.14; 95% CI [0.62, 7.66]), effects equivalent to 0.26-0.29 SD. There were no significant benefits when the programs operated independently (T₁ vs. T₀). In stratified analyses, EI showed significant effects in indigenous communities only. We found consistent results in regressions controlling for covariates, with some reductions in magnitude of differences. Our findings suggest that group-based, parenting support programs can improve child outcomes within the context of a CCT, but only when the 2 programs are integrated and mutually supportive. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Process Evaluation of the Project SHINE Intervention for African American Families: An Integrated Positive Parenting and Peer Monitoring Approach to Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; McDaniel, Tyler; Alia, Kassandra A

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the process evaluation of Project SHINE, a randomized family-based health promotion intervention that integrated parenting and peer monitoring for improving sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet in African American families. Adolescent-parent dyads (n = 89) were randomized to a 6-week behavioral, positive parenting, and peer monitoring skills intervention or a general health education comparison condition. Process evaluation included observational ratings of fidelity, attendance records, psychosocial measures, and qualitative interviews. Results indicated that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity based on facilitator adherence (>98% of content delivered) and competent use of theoretically based behavior change and positive parenting skills (100% of ratings >3 on a 1-4 scale). Although only 43% of peers attended the "bring a friend" session, overall attendance was high (4.39 ± 1.51 sessions) as was the retention rate (88%). Parents in the intervention condition reported significant improvements in communication related to adolescents' engagement in health behaviors both on their own and with peers. These findings were supported by qualitative themes related to improvements in family communication and connectedness. This study provides an innovative example of how future family-based health promotion trials can expand their process evaluation approaches by assessing theoretically relevant positive parenting variables as part of ongoing monitoring.

  11. Does prompting for revision influence subjects' offers in willingness to accept - willingness to pay lab experiments?

    Treesearch

    David C. Kingsley; Thomas C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    The willingness to accept - willingness to pay disparity raises questions about accepted economic theory. Plott and Zeiler (2005) have suggested that the disparity is the result of subject misconception about experimental procedures and, in an experiment designed to control for subject misconception, they show that the disparity can be turned on and off. This paper...

  12. Paired comparison estimates of willingness to accept versus contingent valuation estimates of willingness to pay

    Treesearch

    John B. Loomis; George Peterson; Patricia A. Champ; Thomas C. Brown; Beatrice Lucero

    1998-01-01

    Estimating empirical measures of an individual's willingness to accept that are consistent with conventional economic theory, has proven difficult. The method of paired comparison offers a promising approach to estimate willingness to accept. This method involves having individuals make binary choices between receiving a particular good or a sum of money....

  13. Key Theoretical Frameworks for Intervention: Understanding and Promoting Behavior Change in Parent-Infant Feeding Choices in a Low-Income Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Silk, Kami; Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mercer, Laura; Olson, Beth

    2009-01-01

    The early introduction of solids to infants is a risk factor associated with later health problems including allergies, overweight, and diabetes. The Infant Feeding Series (TIFS), a newly designed curriculum that promotes the appropriate transition to solids through parenting education and behavior change among low-income mothers, used the Theory…

  14. Key Theoretical Frameworks for Intervention: Understanding and Promoting Behavior Change in Parent-Infant Feeding Choices in a Low-Income Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Silk, Kami; Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mercer, Laura; Olson, Beth

    2009-01-01

    The early introduction of solids to infants is a risk factor associated with later health problems including allergies, overweight, and diabetes. The Infant Feeding Series (TIFS), a newly designed curriculum that promotes the appropriate transition to solids through parenting education and behavior change among low-income mothers, used the Theory…

  15. Instrumental and Integrative Orientations: Predictors of Willingness to Communicate in the Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbarpour, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Given that promoting learners' communicative competence in a second language (L2) is one of the primary foci of communicative language teaching approaches, the late 1980s saw an expansion in research into willingness to communicate (WTC), which is deemed to affect individuals' predisposition towards the initiation of L2 communication. The…

  16. Managing the initiation and early implementation of health promotion interventions: a study of a parental support programme in primary care.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Anna; Garvare, Rickard; Nyström, Monica E; Eurenius, Eva; Lindkvist, Marie; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2017-03-01

    Mental health problems are increasing among children and adolescents worldwide, and parental support programmes have been suggested as one preventive intervention. However, the actual impact and low rates of adoption and sustainability of prevention programmes have proven to be a concern, and thus, further studies on their implementation are needed. This study focused on the initial implementation of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in primary care. The aim was to investigate the involved actors' views on factors likely to affect implementation and the strategies used to manage them. A case study design with a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative data from questionnaires and interviews was used. Eighty-two professionals at different positions in the involved organisations participated. Directed content analysis was used for analyses, focusing on perceived levels of importance and the manifestation of implementation factors. Interviews and questionnaires provided descriptions of factors influencing the initial ICDP implementation. Uncertainty on how to manage important factors and vague change strategies was reported. Discrepancies in the perceived levels of importance versus manifestation were found regarding several factors, including hands-on support, time and resources, communication and information, a comprehensive plan of action, follow-ups, and external and internal collaborations. Manifested factors were a need for change, motivation and the ICDP's compatibility with existing norms, values and practices. Implementing a parental support programme in a complex setting will benefit from being preceded by a thorough examination of the intervention and the target context and the development of clear implementation strategies based on the results of that examination. This study provides insights into how and by whom knowledge on implementation is applied during the launch of a health promotion programme, and these

  17. Confident body, confident child: A randomized controlled trial evaluation of a parenting resource for promoting healthy body image and eating patterns in 2- to 6-year old children.

    PubMed

    Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-05-01

    Body image and eating patterns develop in early childhood and are influenced by the family environment. This research evaluated Confident Body, Confident Child (CBCC), an intervention for parents of 2- to 6-year-old children, designed to promote body satisfaction, healthy eating, and weight management in early childhood. A randomized controlled trial compared four groups: (A) received the CBCC resource pack and a workshop, (B) received the CBCC resource pack only, (C) received a nutrition-only resource and (D) received no interventions until all questionnaires were completed (i.e., functioned as waitlist control). Measures of parenting variables relevant to child body image and eating patterns, parent-report of child weight, and evaluation questions about the resource, were implemented pre- and post-intervention. At 6-weeks post-intervention, the CBCC resource was associated with significant reductions in parents' intentions to use behaviors that increase the risk of negative body attitudes or unhealthy eating in their children, in parents' use of feeding practices associated with childhood overweight, and in television watching during family meals. Significant increases in parents' intentions to use positive behaviors and knowledge of child body image and healthy eating patterns were also found. Superior results were found for the CBCC resource + workshop condition, suggesting it is the preferred delivery method. CBCC positively impacts parenting variables associated with childhood risk for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy eating and weight. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:458-472). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Parental Involvement Practices in Formalized Home-School Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeck, Unn-Doris Karlsen

    2010-01-01

    The topic for this article is parents' participation and willingness to participate in formalized home-school cooperation. The analyses are based on a nationwide survey among parents in lower secondary schools in Norway. A main finding is that parental involvement practices differ according to parents' level of education in the sense that parents…

  19. Parental Involvement Practices in Formalized Home-School Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeck, Unn-Doris Karlsen

    2010-01-01

    The topic for this article is parents' participation and willingness to participate in formalized home-school cooperation. The analyses are based on a nationwide survey among parents in lower secondary schools in Norway. A main finding is that parental involvement practices differ according to parents' level of education in the sense that parents…

  20. What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Four focus groups were conducted between June and October 2012 at worksites during lunch break. A total of 21 unrelated parents of primary schoolchildren (6 fathers, 15 mothers) participated. A short written questionnaire introduced typical difficult situations derived from parental anecdotal reports, concerning healthy diet, PA and SB. These situations formed the backbone for the subsequent focus group discussion. In October 2012, discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed in Nvivo to identify key response items using thematic analysis. Results Parents experienced explaining why the child should behave healthily, monitoring, being consistent, offering alternatives, reacting empathetically, modeling, motivating, increasing intrinsic value and availability, and using time-out as effective practices, whereas anger was considered ineffective. Opinions were mixed about the effectiveness of giving as much freedom as possible, obliging, rewarding and punishing, and setting rules and agreements. Parenting practices were consistent with principles from both SDT and SCT. Conclusions Parents identified numerous perceived effective practices to respond to their child’s health-related behavior. Since many of them coincide with the evidence base and the success of a parenting program depends upon the degree to which parents’ concerns and motivations are integrated into the program design, important opportunities are created for future

  1. Promoting Effective Parenting Practices and Preventing Child Behavior Problems in School among Ethnically Diverse Families from Underserved, Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kingston, Sharon; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Schwab, Amihai; Petkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of "ParentCorps" among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. "ParentCorps" includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health…

  2. How Do Parent Expectations Promote Child Academic Achievement in Early Elementary School? A Test of Three Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin-Presnal, John; Bierman, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Using a longitudinal mediation framework and a low-income sample, this study had 2 aims: (a) to model bidirectional associations between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes from first through fifth grade, and (b) to explore 3 mediators of parental influence: parent involvement in child schooling, child learning behaviors, and…

  3. Communication Technology Used among Parents and Their College Teens: Implications for College Health Promotion and Risk Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Robert; Belden, Calum

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the nature of parent-teen communication in college to re-evaluate the potential for parent inclusion in college success and risk prevention programs. During September 2006, 290 first-year college students were assessed for the frequency and form (e.g., cell phone, e-mail, text) of communication with their parents. Latent…

  4. Promoting Effective Parenting Practices and Preventing Child Behavior Problems in School among Ethnically Diverse Families from Underserved, Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kingston, Sharon; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Schwab, Amihai; Petkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of "ParentCorps" among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. "ParentCorps" includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health…

  5. Moving Past Assumptions: Recognizing Parents as Allies in Promoting the Sexual Literacies of Adolescents through a University-Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stacey S.; Peter, Christina R.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Sullivan, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    This article recounts how a university-community collaborative challenged prevailing assumptions about parents as barriers to the provision of gender and sexuality information to their children, allowing for the recognition of parents as critical stakeholders and partners in sexual literacy work with youth. We provide evidence that parents'…

  6. Communication Technology Used among Parents and Their College Teens: Implications for College Health Promotion and Risk Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Robert; Belden, Calum

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the nature of parent-teen communication in college to re-evaluate the potential for parent inclusion in college success and risk prevention programs. During September 2006, 290 first-year college students were assessed for the frequency and form (e.g., cell phone, e-mail, text) of communication with their parents. Latent…

  7. Including All Families in Education: School District-Level Efforts to Promote Parent Engagement in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…

  8. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent–child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent–child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate anxiety symptoms. Sixteen children (ages 3–5) and at least one of their parents participated in Strengthening Early Emotional Development (SEED), a new 10-week intervention with concurrent groups for parents and children. Outcome measures included clinician-rated and parent-rated assessments of anxiety symptoms, as well as measures of emotion knowledge, parent anxiety, and parental attitudes about children’s anxiety. Participation in SEED was associated with reduced child anxiety symptoms and improved emotion understanding skills. Parents reported decreases in their own anxiety, along with attitudes reflecting enhanced confidence in their children’s ability to cope with anxiety. Reductions in child and parent anxiety were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings suggest that a parent–child cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention may hold promise for young children with mild to moderate anxiety. Improvements in parent anxiety and parental attitudes may support the utility of intervening with parents. Fostering increased willingness to encourage their children to engage in new and anxiety-provoking situations may help promote continued mastery of new skills and successful coping with anxiety. PMID:22331442

  9. Willingness to pay and willingness to accept in a patient-centered blood pressure control study.

    PubMed

    Gleason-Comstock, Julie; Streater, Alicia; Goodman, Allen; Janisse, James; Brody, Aaron; Mango, LynnMarie; Dawood, Rachelle; Levy, Phillip

    2017-08-07

    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke but patients often discount recommended behavioral changes and prescribed medications. While effective interventions to promote adherence have been developed, cost-effectiveness from the patient's perspective, has not been well studied. The valuation of patient time and out of pocket expenses should be included while performing cost effectiveness evaluation. The Achieve BP study uses the contingent valuation method to assess willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) among patients with a history of uncontrolled blood pressure discharged from an urban emergency department and enrolled in a larger randomized controlled trial. WTA and WTP were assessed by asking patients a series of questions about time and travel costs and time value related to their study participation. A survey was conducted during the final study visit with patients to investigate the effectiveness of a kiosk-based educational intervention on blood pressure control. All study patients, regardless of study arm, received the same clinical protocol of commonly prescribed antihypertensive medication and met with research clinicians four times as part of the study procedures. Thirty-eight patients were offered the opportunity to participate in the cost-effectiveness study and all completed the survey. Statistical comparisons revealed these 38 patients were similar in representation to the entire RCT study population. All 38 (100.0%) were African-American, with an average age of 49.1 years; 55.3% were male, 21.1% were married, 78.9% had a high school or higher education, and 44.7% were working. 55.9% did not have a primary care provider and 50.0% did not have health insurance. Time price linear regression analysis was performed to estimate predictors of WTA and WTP. WTP and WTA may generate different results, and the elasticities were proportional to the estimated coefficients, with WTP about twice as

  10. Age differences in alcohol prototype perceptions and willingness to drink in U.K. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emma L; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David R

    2016-01-01

    Using the prototype willingness model (PWM) as a framework, this study sought to explore the relationship between prototype perceptions, willingness and alcohol consumption in a sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom (UK). Adolescents aged 11-17 were asked about their alcohol prototype perceptions, willingness to drink, intentions, alcohol consumption, drunkenness and harms using a cross-sectional online survey. Participants were recruited through opportunity sampling via schools and parents. The survey was completed by 178 respondents (51% female; 91 aged 11-15, 87 aged 16-17). Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between participants aged 11-15 and 16-17 on PWM measures, even when experience with drinking was accounted for (p < .001). There were significant interactions (p < .001) between age and prototype perceptions; younger participants rated non-drinker prototypes as more favourable and more similar to the self than 16- and 17-year-old participants. Willingness and intentions interacted with age; both measures were similar in 16- and 17-year-olds, whereas younger participants scored significantly higher on willingness than intentions (p < .001). Three distinct scales of prototype descriptions were identified in principal components analysis. Characteristics related to sociability significantly predicted willingness to drink alcohol in the sample (p < .001). This study extends previous research by demonstrating that the PWM can provide a theoretical explanation of adolescent drinking in the UK. The results suggest that 11- to 15-year-olds may be the most suitable age for an intervention that targets alcohol prototypes, with a focus on sociability characteristics.

  11. Willingness to Pay for a Newborn Screening Test for Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Yeh, Wei-Shi; Neumann, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    The current US mandatory newborn screening panel does not include spinal muscular atrophy, the most common fatal genetic disease among children. We assessed population preferences for newborn screening for spinal muscular atrophy, and how test preferences varied depending on immediate treatment implications. We conducted an online willingness-to-pay survey of US adults (n = 982). Respondents were asked to imagine being parents of a newborn. Each respondent was presented with two hypothetical scenarios following the spinal muscular atrophy screening test: current standard of care (no treatment available) and one of three randomly assigned scenarios (new treatment available to improve functioning, survival, or both). We used a bidding game to elicit willingness to pay for the spinal muscular atrophy test, and performed a two-part model to estimate median and mean willingness-to-pay values. Most respondents (79% to 87%) would prefer screening their newborns for spinal muscular atrophy. People expressed a willingness to pay for spinal muscular atrophy screening even without an available therapy (median: $142; mean: $253). Willingness to pay increased with treatment availability (median: $161 to $182; mean: $270 to $297) and respondent income. Most respondents considered test accuracy, treatment availability, and treatment effectiveness very important or important factors in deciding willingness to pay. Most people would prefer and would be willing to pay for testing their newborn for spinal muscular atrophy, even in the absence of direct treatment. People perceive the spinal muscular atrophy test more valuable if treatment were available to improve the newborn's functioning and survival. Despite preferences for the test information, adding spinal muscular atrophy to newborn screening programs remains controversial. Future studies are needed to determine how early detection may impact long-term patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stigma starts early: gender differences in teen willingness to use mental health services.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Anita; Minkovitz, Cynthia S

    2006-06-01

    To explore gender differences and the role of stigma in teen willingness to use mental health services. Self-administered, written questionnaires were conducted with 274 eighth graders in a suburban community in a mid-Atlantic state. Teens reported on social support for emotional concerns, mental health experience and knowledge, and stigma and barriers associated with mental health service use. Data analysis included chi-square statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine associations between gender and independent variables of interest. Logistic regression analyses assessed the relationship of gender, stigma, and willingness to use mental health services, adjusting for race and receipt of mental health services. More girls than boys turned to a friend for help for an emotional concern, whereas more boys turned to a family member first. Boys had less mental health knowledge and experience and higher mental health stigma than girls. In adjusted analyses, girls were twice as likely as boys to report willingness to use mental health services (odds ratio [OR] 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-4.99). Parental disapproval and perceived stigma helped to explain the relationship between gender and willingness to use mental health services (OR 1.65, 95% CI .72-3.77). Gender differences in negative mental health attitudes and willingness to use mental health services are present early in adolescence. Enhanced mental health education and services in middle school may reduce gender disparities by incorporating stigma reduction efforts that actively involve parents and address differences in knowledge and exposure to mental health issues.

  13. Willingness to Communicate and Action Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Doucette, Jesslyn

    2010-01-01

    Being willing to communicate is part of becoming fluent in a second language, which often is the ultimate goal of L2 learners. Julius Kuhl's theory of action control is introduced as an expansion of the conceptual framework for the study of Willingness to Communicate. Kuhl proposed three key concepts, preoccupation, volatility, and hesitation,…

  14. Willingness to Communicate and Action Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Doucette, Jesslyn

    2010-01-01

    Being willing to communicate is part of becoming fluent in a second language, which often is the ultimate goal of L2 learners. Julius Kuhl's theory of action control is introduced as an expansion of the conceptual framework for the study of Willingness to Communicate. Kuhl proposed three key concepts, preoccupation, volatility, and hesitation,…

  15. Perception of Pollution and Willingness to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, E. D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Two northern Canadian communities, Flin Flon and The Pas, are studied to ascertain social and psychological factors influencing perception of pollution and willingness to engage in corrective action. In spite of overwhelming, contrary evidence, residents felt environmental contamination was not a problem and were not prepared to contend with it.…

  16. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: impact on parenting and child conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-02-01

    Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families.

  17. Short-term impact of a stress management and health promotion program on perceived stress, parental stress, health locus of control, and cortisol levels in parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tsiouli, Eleni; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George; Darviri, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (DT1) usually experience high stress levels, as they have to cope with multiple demands in their everyday life. Different complex interventions have been implemented, which sometimes have led to opposite results. The purpose of this study was to assess stress levels in parents of children and adolescents with DT1 and to evaluate the effectiveness of a stress management program (progressive muscle relaxation combined with diaphragmatic breathing) in reducing perceived and parenting stress, increasing internal locus of control, promoting healthy lifestyle, and normalizing cortisol levels. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 44 parents were randomly assigned to the intervention group (performing relaxation for eight weeks, n = 19) and control group (n = 25). Pre-post measurements included cortisol levels, lifestyle characteristics, perceived stress, perception of health, and parenting stress. A statistically significant decrease in perceived stress (from 27.21 to 19.00, P = .001), as well as in parenting stress (from 85.79 to 73.68, P = .003), was observed in the intervention group. A statistically significant difference was found in perceived stress between the two groups after the intervention (Dmean = 6.64, P = .010). No significant difference was revealed between or within the groups in cortisol levels. Significant improvement was reported by the subjects of the intervention group in various lifestyle parameters. Relaxation techniques seem to have a positive impact on stress and on various lifestyle factors in parents of children and adolescents with DT1. Future research on long-term benefits of an intervention program comprising of various relaxation schemes is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Willingness to Communicate: The Construct and Its Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, James C.; Baer, J. Elaine

    Because a review of literature revealed that no valid instrument for measuring a person's willingness to communicate existed, a willingness to communicate (WTC) instrument was developed. The basis of this construct is the assumption that willingness to communicate is a personality-based, trait-like predisposition which is fairly consistent across…

  19. The impact of parents' categorization of their own weight and their child's weight on healthy lifestyle promoting beliefs and practices.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky-Meni, Allison C; Gillepsie, Scott E; Hardy, Trisha; Welsh, Jean A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate parents' beliefs and practices related to childhood obesity and determine if these are influenced by parent's perception of their own weight or their child's weight. Parents of obese (n = 689) or normal weight (n = 1122) children 4-15 years in Georgia, USA, were randomly selected to complete a telephone survey. Frequency of child obesity-related perceptions, beliefs, and practices were assessed, stratified by parent-perceived self-weight and child weight status, and compared using Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression. Most parents, regardless of perceived child weight, agreed that child overweight/obesity can cause serious illness (95%) but only one-half believed it was a problem in Georgia. Many (42.4%) failed to recognize obesity in their own children. More parents who perceived their child as overweight versus normal weight reported concern about their child's diet and activity and indicated readiness for lifestyle change. Parents' perception of their own weight had little additional impact. While awareness of child overweight as a modifiable health risk is high, many parents fail to recognize it in their own families and communities, reducing the likelihood of positive lifestyle change. Additional efforts to help parents understand their role in facilitating behavior change and to assist them in identifying at-risk children are required.

  20. The Impact of Parents' Categorization of Their Own Weight and Their Child's Weight on Healthy Lifestyle Promoting Beliefs and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Sylvetsky-Meni, Allison C.; Gillepsie, Scott E.; Hardy, Trisha; Welsh, Jean A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate parents' beliefs and practices related to childhood obesity and determine if these are influenced by parent's perception of their own weight or their child's weight. Methods. Parents of obese (n = 689) or normal weight (n = 1122) children 4–15 years in Georgia, USA, were randomly selected to complete a telephone survey. Frequency of child obesity-related perceptions, beliefs, and practices were assessed, stratified by parent-perceived self-weight and child weight status, and compared using Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Most parents, regardless of perceived child weight, agreed that child overweight/obesity can cause serious illness (95%) but only one-half believed it was a problem in Georgia. Many (42.4%) failed to recognize obesity in their own children. More parents who perceived their child as overweight versus normal weight reported concern about their child's diet and activity and indicated readiness for lifestyle change. Parents' perception of their own weight had little additional impact. Conclusions. While awareness of child overweight as a modifiable health risk is high, many parents fail to recognize it in their own families and communities, reducing the likelihood of positive lifestyle change. Additional efforts to help parents understand their role in facilitating behavior change and to assist them in identifying at-risk children are required. PMID:25861468

  1. Parents of children with eating disorders: developing theory-based health communication messages to promote caregiver well-being.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheetal; Shafer, Autumn; Brown, Jane; Bulik, Cynthia; Zucker, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with eating disorders experience extreme emotional burden because of the intensity and duration of the recovery process. While parental involvement in a child's eating disorder treatment improves outcomes, parents often neglect their own well-being, which can impede their child's recovery. This study extends the research on caregivers and on health theory in practice by conducting formative research to develop a theory-based communication intervention encouraging parents to engage in adaptive coping and self-care behaviors. The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping and the Transtheoretical Model guided qualitative assessments of the determinants of parents' coping behaviors. Three focus groups with 19 parents of children with eating disorders and 19 semi-structured interviews with experts specializing in eating disorders were conducted. Findings indicate that parents and experts see parents' need for permission to take time for themselves as the main barrier to self-care. The main motivator for parents to engage in coping behaviors is awareness of a connection between self-care and their child's health outcomes. Participant evaluation of six potential messages for main themes and effectiveness revealed that theory-based elements, such as certain processes of change within the Transtheoretical Model, were important to changing health behavior.

  2. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: Impact on parenting and child conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior and health by strengthening parenting, early childhood classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a “pre-kindergarten education as usual” control condition. Intervention included a family program (13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88%) of the pre-kindergarten population (N=1050; age 4) enrolled in the trial and nearly 60% of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on knowledge, positive behavior support and teacher-rated parent involvement in early learning. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23% of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412

  3. Efficacy of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline in Twin Families (VIPP-Twins): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van den Bulk, Bianca G; Linting, Mariëlle; Damsteegt, Rani C; Vrijhof, Claudia I; van Wijk, Ilse C; Crone, Eveline A; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-06-06

    Intervention programs with the aim of enhancing parenting quality have been found to be differentially effective in decreasing negative child outcomes such as externalizing behavioral problems, resulting in modest overall effect sizes. Here we present the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline for Twin Families (VIPP-Twins) on parenting quality and children's behavioral control and social competence. In addition, we aim to test the differential susceptibility theory; we examine differential efficacy of the intervention based on genetic make-up or temperament for both parents and children. Lastly, we explore neurobiological mechanisms underlying intervention effects on children's developmental outcomes. The original VIPP-SD was adapted for use in families with twins. The VIPP-Twins consists of five biweekly sessions in which the families are visited at home, parent-child interactions are videotaped and parents receive positive feedback on selected video fragments. Families (N = 225) with a same sex twin (mean age = 3.6 years) were recruited to participate in the study. The study consists of four assessments. After two baseline assessments in year 1 and year 2, a random 40 % of the sample will receive the VIPP-Twins program. The first post-test assessment will be carried out one month after the intervention and there will be a long term follow-up assessment two years after the intervention. Measures include observational assessments of parenting and children's social competence and behavioral control, and neurobiological assessments (i.e., hormonal functioning and neural (re-)activity). Results of the study will provide insights in the efficacy of the VIPP-Twins and reveal moderators and mediators of program efficacy. Overall the randomized controlled trial is an experimental test of the differential susceptibility theory. Dutch Trial

  4. Increasing Parental Involvement in Our Schools: The Need to Overcome Obstacles, Promote Critical Behaviors, and Provide Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Gregory V.

    2007-01-01

    An ever growing body of research indicates that parental involvement is a key factor in the success of children in school. Studies have shown that children whose parents take an active interest in their education benefit in a number of ways. These children generally have higher academic achievement, better attendance, a sense of well-being, a…

  5. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. "I Don't Have to Do This by Myself?" Parent-Led Community Conversations to Promote Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik; Swedeen, Beth; Cooney, Molly; Walter, Martha; Moss, Colleen K.

    2012-01-01

    Parents have long played a pivotal and powerful role in advocating for improved services, supports, and increased opportunities for their children with significant disabilities. Yet inclusive opportunities remain strikingly limited in many schools and communities. We examined the viability and impact of parent-led community conversation events as…

  8. From Middle School to College: Developing Aspirations, Promoting Engagement, and Indirect Pathways from Parenting to Post High School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Wang, Ming-Te

    2015-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal sample of 1,452 African American and European American adolescents and their parents, parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, warmth, and autonomy support) at 7th grade had significant indirect effects on college enrollment 3 years post high school, through their effects on aspirations, school engagement, and grade point…

  9. From Middle School to College: Developing Aspirations, Promoting Engagement, and Indirect Pathways from Parenting to Post High School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Wang, Ming-Te

    2015-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal sample of 1,452 African American and European American adolescents and their parents, parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, warmth, and autonomy support) at 7th grade had significant indirect effects on college enrollment 3 years post high school, through their effects on aspirations, school engagement, and grade point…

  10. Promoting School Readiness in the Context of Socio-Economic Adversity: Associations with Parental Demoralization and Support for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Existing research suggests that parenting stress and demoralization, as well as provision of learning activities at home, significantly affect child school readiness. However, the degree to which these dimensions of parenting uniquely influence child school readiness remains unclear. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that…

  11. "I Don't Have to Do This by Myself?" Parent-Led Community Conversations to Promote Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik; Swedeen, Beth; Cooney, Molly; Walter, Martha; Moss, Colleen K.

    2012-01-01

    Parents have long played a pivotal and powerful role in advocating for improved services, supports, and increased opportunities for their children with significant disabilities. Yet inclusive opportunities remain strikingly limited in many schools and communities. We examined the viability and impact of parent-led community conversation events as…

  12. Promoting School Readiness in the Context of Socio-Economic Adversity: Associations with Parental Demoralization and Support for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Existing research suggests that parenting stress and demoralization, as well as provision of learning activities at home, significantly affect child school readiness. However, the degree to which these dimensions of parenting uniquely influence child school readiness remains unclear. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that…

  13. Promoting Positive Interactions in the Classroom: Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a Universal Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Rachel A.; Lyon, Aaron R.; Budd, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    The adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an empirically-supported dyadic parent training intervention, to a preschool setting may provide an opportunity to enhance the well-being of both teachers and children by improving the teacher-child relationship and supplying teachers with effective tools for behavior management. The…

  14. Parental Support for School Referenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Micheal W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Social status, powerlessness, specific support, and taxpayer revolt are evaluated for their effects on willingness of white parents of school-age children to vote for school taxes in desegregating Florida school districts. (Available from Southern Political Science Association, 107 Peabody Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.)…

  15. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  16. Teacher Perspectives on Parental Involvement in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannix-Lesh, Delane Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that parental involvement impacts student performance, but many schools struggle to maintain parents' involvement. The relationship between teacher invitations and parents' willingness to get involved has been studied as part of the struggle. This correlational study investigated the association between the beliefs of…

  17. School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) in the City of Acre: Promoting Arab and Jewish Parents' Role as Facilitators of Children's Literacy Development and as Agents of Coexistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelniker, Tamar; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    A two-year (1998-2000) School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) programme was implemented in Acre, a mixed Jewish-Arab city in Israel, to promote parents' role as facilitators of their children literacy development and to empower parents to advance coexistence and inter-group relations. The SFPC program was part of a five-year (1995-2000)…

  18. School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) in the City of Acre: Promoting Arab and Jewish Parents' Role as Facilitators of Children's Literacy Development and as Agents of Coexistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelniker, Tamar; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    A two-year (1998-2000) School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) programme was implemented in Acre, a mixed Jewish-Arab city in Israel, to promote parents' role as facilitators of their children literacy development and to empower parents to advance coexistence and inter-group relations. The SFPC program was part of a five-year (1995-2000)…

  19. Family communication patterns moderate the relationship between psychological reactance and willingness to talk about organ donation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Allison M; Quick, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research has investigated how psychological reactance affects individuals' responses to health promotion messages, but little is known about how family processes might moderate the reactance process. In this study, 301 participants were exposed to a persuasive message about organ donation. The moderating role of family communication patterns in the reactance process was tested using hierarchical regression. We found that family conversation orientation had a direct effect on willingness to talk with family members about being an organ donor and that family conformity orientation and family conversation orientation each interacted with reactance to predict willingness to communicate with family about donation. Theoretically, these results extend psychological reactance theory by considering how interpersonal factors affect the reactance process. Practically, the findings suggest that for optimal impact, family processes should be considered in the design of messages promoting organ donation.

  20. How do parent expectations promote child academic achievement in early elementary school? A test of three mediators.

    PubMed

    Loughlin-Presnal, John; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    Using a longitudinal mediation framework and a low-income sample, this study had 2 aims: (a) to model bidirectional associations between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes from first through fifth grade, and (b) to explore 3 mediators of parental influence: parent involvement in child schooling, child learning behaviors, and child perceived academic competence. Participants included 356 children and their caregivers (89% mothers) recruited from Head Start centers (58% European American, 25% African American, 17% Latino). At each time point (grades 1, 2, 3, 5), parents rated their academic expectations, teachers rated parent involvement and child learning behaviors, and children rated their self-perceptions of their academic competence. Bidirectional longitudinal associations emerged between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes. Child learning behaviors mediated this association from first to third grade, whereas child perceived academic competence mediated from second to fifth grade. Parallel cross-lagged models replicated these findings with child academic outcomes assessed using a test of reading achievement and teacher ratings of academic performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Adolescents' eating behaviour in general and in the peer context: testing the prototype-willingness model.

    PubMed

    Dohnke, Birte; Steinhilber, Amina; Fuchs, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prototype-willingness model (PWM) for eating behaviour in general and in the peer context in order to gain further evidence on the PWM and social-reactive processes in adolescents' eating behaviour. A longitudinal study was conducted. PWM variables for unhealthy and healthy eating were assessed at baseline in 356 adolescents (mean age 12.61 years). Eating behaviour was measured four weeks after baseline by two indicators: general eating pattern index (self-report) and consumption of unhealthy and healthy snacks in the peer context (behavioural observation). For both, structural equation models were conducted introducing PWM variables for either unhealthy or healthy eating. The PWM was mainly confirmed for the eating pattern index; intention, willingness and prototype perception had direct effects. Differences between unhealthy and healthy eating were found. Moreover, the PWM contributed to the prediction of healthy, but not unhealthy, snack consumption over and above current hunger; willingness had a direct effect. The PWM can be applied to predict and understand adolescents' eating behaviour. Social-reactive processes, namely willingness and prototype perception, are behavioural determinants that should be considered in theory and as novel targets in health promotion interventions.

  2. Promoting children's sustainable access to early schooling in Africa: reflections on the roles of parents in their children's early childhood care and education.

    PubMed

    Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has predominantly rural populations unable to offer children sustainable access to early literacy and childhood care and education. Children's literacy development starts very early in life through participation and experiences in the home and preschool. My research in rural Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania shows that the transition from home to school is compromised by acute barriers such as lack of parental participation, lack of encouragement and support from teachers, and unavailability of learning materials. However, rural homes and communities are well endowed with a stock of practices, knowledge, and skills relevant to the promotion of literacy development. In this chapter, I reflect on how to empower parents to draw on knowledge and resources within the local context to become better involved in their children's education while also empowering teachers to better recognize and take advantage of local knowledge and resources to enrich instruction and enhance meaningful learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Survey of parents, nurses, and school principals on their perceptions of the controversial role of schools in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Gross, Samuel; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the perceptions of parents, nurses, and school principals of the role of the health services in elementary schools. A questionnaire was distributed to the heads of parents' committees, school nurses, and school principals of 35 randomly selected elementary public schools in Israel. Respondents were asked to qualify the degree of importance of the traditional and contemporary roles of the school health-care team. Response rates were 80.0% for parents, 100% for nurses, and 97.1% for principals. All respondents agreed that both the traditional and new roles are very important. Nurses rated three interconnected roles significantly lower than parents and school principals: 'Evaluation of students with behavioral problems', 'Evaluation of students with low academic performance', and 'Follow up and care of students with behavioral problems and low performance'. Nurses, parents and school principals in Israel agree that the traditional roles of health teams in elementary schools, that is, providing first aid and ensuring school hygiene, are very important. Most are ready to accept a move from an illness-based to a social-based model, with less time spent on screening and surveillance and more on identifying and managing special needs of children and staff.

  4. Willingness for treatment as a predictor of retention and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J R; Stevens, S; McKnight, P; Figueredo, A J

    1995-01-01

    Retention in drug treatment is important to successful outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test assumptions made in the development and implementation of the ASSET project. The three assumptions were that living conditions of the homeless adult drug user influence willingness for treatment; willingness relates to treatment tenure; and, conditions, willingness and time in treatment influence treatment outcomes. Data on alcohol use, drug use, employment and housing as well as motivation, readiness and suitability of treatment were collected from 494 homeless adults at baseline and at follow-up. Data were subjected to multivariate causal analysis using factor analytic structural equations modeling. Practical fit indices were acceptable. The measurement model confirmed a higher order construct labelled willingness encompassing motivation, readiness and suitability. The structural model demonstrated that willingness positively related to treatment tenure; willingness positively influenced change in drug use and housing; and, tenure related positively to change in housing.

  5. A willingness to go there: Nurses and spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Minton, Mary E; Isaacson, Mary J; Varilek, Brandon Michael; Stadick, Jessica L; O'Connell-Persaud, Shannon

    2017-05-05

    To describe rural and urban palliative/hospice care nurses' communication strategies while providing spiritual care for patients and families at end of life. Nurses aim to provide holistic care consisting of physical, psychological and spiritual components. However, it is well documented that spiritual care is largely missing from nursing care. Internationally, spiritual care is a growing topic of interest, yet many nurses feel unprepared to deliver spiritual care. This qualitative study used Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis method. As part of a larger multimethod study, this study shares the narrative descriptions from 10 experienced palliative/hospice care nurses. Individual, face-to-face interviews were conducted and lasted 45-60 minutes. Each interview started with the same lead-in questions, was audio-recorded and was transcribed verbatim. The research team used an inductive analysis approach and met several times reviewing and analysing the detected themes until reaching consensus. The primary theme, sentience includes the capacity to act, a willingness to enter into the unknown and the ability to have deep meaningful conversations with patients regardless of the path it may yield. Subthemes include: (i) Willingness to Go There, (ii) Being in "A" Moment and (iii) Sagacious Insight. Nurses are integral in the provision of spiritual care for patients/families across the lifespan and at end of life. Nurses must feel confident and competent before they are willing to enter uncomfortable spaces with patients/families. Nursing curriculum must include purposeful engagement and focused debriefing in spiritual assessment and care. There is a dire need to prepare undergraduate and graduate students to assess and support a patient's spiritual needs. Addressing spiritual care content as a clinical and educational priority will promote a patient-centred approach for spiritual care and can further shape nursing curricula, policies, guidelines and assessment tools.

  6. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  7. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  8. Relationships between and Changes in Preservice Classroom Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs, Willingness to Integrate Movement, and Perceived Barriers to Movement Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Parks, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study used an uncontrolled pre-post design in the context of a 16-week comprehensive school physical activity promotion (CSPAP) course to examine relationships between and changes in preservice classroom teachers' (PCTs; N = 103) efficacy beliefs about integrating movement in the academic classroom, willingness to integrate movement, and…

  9. Relationships between and Changes in Preservice Classroom Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs, Willingness to Integrate Movement, and Perceived Barriers to Movement Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Parks, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study used an uncontrolled pre-post design in the context of a 16-week comprehensive school physical activity promotion (CSPAP) course to examine relationships between and changes in preservice classroom teachers' (PCTs; N = 103) efficacy beliefs about integrating movement in the academic classroom, willingness to integrate movement, and…

  10. Willingness and preferences of nurses related to learning with technology.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W; Bedford, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    To what extent are nurses willing to learn with technology-enhanced tools, such as online education, podcasts, webcasts, mobile learning, and realistic simulations? What factors influence their willingness? This article includes a description of a mixed methodology study that addressed these questions. Nurses of all ages indicated a willingness to learn with a variety of technological tools. Primary determinants of willingness were associated with ease of use, familiarity, convenience, and perceived benefit.

  11. Asian American adolescents' willingness to donate organs and engage in family discussion about organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trompeta, Joyce A; Cooper, Bruce A; Ascher, Nancy L; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Christine M; Chen, Jyu-Lin

    2012-03-01

    Despite the growing need for organ donation among Asian Americans, studies suggest that they are reluctant to donate. To examine the association of attitudes and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation with willingness to donate and willingness to engage in family discussion about organ donation among Asian American adolescents. A cross-sectional study. The Big Island of Hawaii. Self-identified Asian American adolescents (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean), ages 16 to 17 years old, and each adolescent's parent or guardian. Asian American adolescents provided demographic information and completed the Modified Organ Donation Attitude Survey, the Organ Donation and Transplantation Knowledge Survey, and the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. A parent or guardian also provided demographic information. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations with willingness to donate and to engage in family discussion about organ discussion. Willingness to donate was associated with positive knowledge related to general aspects about organ donation and cultural limitations in receiving an organ transplant, a high level of acculturation, and a low level of negative attitudes (R2 = 0.402, F = 18.86, P = .005). Asian American adolescents with approving or positive attitudes were likely to engage in family discussion about organ donation (R2 = 0.195, F = 27.93, P = .005). To reinforce and maintain high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, organ donation education is most likely needed in high schools.

  12. Effects of statewide health promotion in primary schools on children's sick days, visits to a physician and parental absence from work: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Lauer, Romy; Traub, Meike; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2016-12-12

    Based on the World Health Organization's global school health initiative we investigate intervention effects of statewide health promotion in schools on the numbers of children's sick days and visits to a physician, and parental days off work due to child illness. Cluster-randomized trial with 1-year follow-up in primary schools in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measurements of first and second grade school children were taken by trained staff. Parents filled in questionnaires for information about socio-demographics, health-related variables, numbers of children's sick days, visits to a physician, and days parents had to stay off work to care for a sick child. Longitudinal differences in the outcome variables were calculated between baseline and follow-up. Intraclass correlation coefficients were determined to quantify a possible clustering of data in schools. Accordingly, linear models and linear mixed models were applied to identify relationships and ascertain significances. Data from 1943 children (1(st) grade n = 1024, 6.6 ± 0.4 years old; 2(nd) grade n = 919, 7.6 ± 0.4 years old) were available at baseline. Unadjusted differences regarding both grades were found between mean longitudinal changes in intervention and control group in children's sick days (-3.2 ± 7.1 vs. -2.3 ± 5.6, p = 0.013), and maternal days off work (-0.9 ± 2.4 vs. -0.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.019). The intervention effect on sick days was adjusted in a linear regression for baseline values, gender and migration background and confirmed for first grade children (B = -0.83, p = 0.003). The intervention effect on maternal days off work lost its significance after adjusting for baseline values. No significant differences were detected in the numbers of children's visits to a physician and paternal days off work. School-based health promotion slightly reduces sick days in first grade children. Subsequently, parents may not

  13. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  14. Formative evaluation for promoting adoption of the DGA, 2005 among African American parents and children in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Formative research was conducted to increase adherence to the healthful food and physical activity patterns set forth in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (DGA, 2005) and thereby reduce weight gain and risk factors for obesity-related chronic diseases in African American parents and their c...

  15. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  16. A Head Start to Learning: Exploration of a Parent-Directed Intervention to Promote Early Literacy Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a parent-led intervention focused on developing children's early literacy skills within the home setting. The lesson plans contain scripted steps for completing activities to teach letter names and phonological awareness skills. Archival data were analyzed from a study conducted with 26 families from three…

  17. A Guide for Parents about Retention and Promotion = Una Guia para los Padres de Familia sobre Retencion y Promocion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Oneonta. Coll. at Oneonta. Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training.

    This bilingual (English and Spanish) brochure explains why retention is common among migrant students and what parents can do to help their children succeed in school. By second grade, nearly 50 percent of migrant students in the nation are older than their classmates and only about 50 percent of migrant students graduate from high school.…

  18. A Head Start to Learning: Exploration of a Parent-Directed Intervention to Promote Early Literacy Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a parent-led intervention focused on developing children's early literacy skills within the home setting. The lesson plans contain scripted steps for completing activities to teach letter names and phonological awareness skills. Archival data were analyzed from a study conducted with 26 families from three…

  19. The Promotion of Gross and Fine Motor Development for Infants and Toddlers: Developmentally Appropriate Activities for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debra S.

    In recognition of the close relationship between motor skill and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life, this guide presents 78 developmentally appropriate activities that parents and teachers can use to enhance infant and toddler motor development. Activities are categorized by age group as follows: (1) 16 activities for newborn to…

  20. Primary Care Strategies for Promoting Parent-Child Interactions and School Readiness in At-Risk Families

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Huberman, Harris S.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Morrow, Lesley M.; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of pediatric primary care interventions on parent-child interactions in families with low socioeconomic status. Design In this randomized controlled trial, participants were randomized to 1 of 2 interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP] or Building Blocks [BB]) or the control group. Setting Urban public hospital pediatric primary care clinic. Participants Mother-newborn dyads enrolled post partum from November 1, 2005, through October 31, 2008. Interventions In the VIP group, mothers and newborns participated in 1-on-1 sessions with a child development specialist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading by reviewing videos made of the parent and child on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided. In the BB group, parenting materials, including age-specific newsletters suggesting interactive activities, learning materials, and parent-completed developmental questionnaires, were mailed to the mothers. Main Outcome Measures Parent-child interactions were assessed at 6 months with the StimQ-Infant and a 24-hour shared reading recall diary. Results A total of 410 families were assessed. The VIP group had a higher increased StimQ score (mean difference, 3.6 points; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 5.6 points; Cohen d, 0.51; 0.22 to 0.81) and more reading activities compared to the control group. The BB group also had an increased overall StimQ score compared with the control group (Cohen d, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.60). The greatest effects for the VIP group were found for mothers with a ninth-grade or higher reading level (Cohen d, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.33 to 1.03). Conclusions The VIP and BB groups each led to increased parent-child interactions. Pediatric primary care represents a significant opportunity for enhancing developmental trajectories in at-risk children. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00212576 PMID:21199978

  1. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants.

    PubMed

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  2. A Parenting Program to Promote an Alcohol-Free Childhood: Influence on Parents’ Readiness to Prevent Child Sipping

    PubMed Central

    Ennett, Susan T.; Jackson, Christine; Choi, Seulki; Hayes, Kim A.; Dickinson, Denise M.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study reports effects of a parenting program to increase parents’ readiness to socialize their children against early alcohol use. Method: A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted with a nonprobability sample of 816 mothers. Participants were recruited from school districts located primarily in North Carolina and completed telephone interviews at baseline and 6 and 18 months after delivery of a parenting program to the treatment group mothers. Mothers reported on psychological indicators of readiness to prevent child alcohol use (e.g., attitude toward child sipping) and on parenting behaviors with potential to prevent such use (e.g., setting rules about child sipping). Multivariate analysis of variance models tested program effects on composite sets of psychological and behavioral outcomes; step-down analysis identified the individual outcomes driving overall program effects. Moderation of program effects by mother’s alcohol use, established beliefs about the consequences of child sipping, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity was tested. Results: The program had significant overall effects on each composite set of psychological and behavioral outcomes. Effects on psychological outcomes were moderated by mother’s alcohol use, beliefs about the consequences of child sipping, and educational attainment; effects on the behavioral outcomes were moderated by mother’s race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The parenting program had favorable, sustained effects on targeted outcomes intended to increase parental readiness to socialize children against early alcohol use. Mothers expected to be least receptive to the program—those who, at baseline, believed that allowing children to sip alcohol can have beneficial consequences—were most changed by it. PMID:26997191

  3. Substance-abusing mothers and fathers' willingness to allow their children to receive mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Henson, James M; Cotten, Cayla

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes of substance-abusing mothers and fathers entering outpatient treatment toward allowing their children to participate in individual- or family-based interventions. Data were collected from a brief anonymous survey completed by adults at intake into a large substance abuse treatment program in western New York. Only one-third of parents reported that they would be willing to allow their children to participate in any form of mental health treatment. Results of chi-square analyses revealed that a significantly greater proportion of mothers reported that they would allow their children to participate in mental health treatment (41%) compared to fathers (28%). Results of logistic regression analyses revealed even after controlling for child age, mothers were more likely than fathers to indicate their willingness to allow their children to receive mental health treatment; however, type of substance abuse (alcohol versus drug abuse) was not associated with parents' willingness to allow their children to receive treatment. Parental reluctance to allow their children to receive individual or family-based treatment is a significant barrier in efforts to intervene with these at-risk children.

  4. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.

  5. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children's Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2016-05-25

    Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals' emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children's affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children's willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences.

  6. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children’s Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J.; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals’ emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children’s affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children’s willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences. PMID:27231925

  7. Dentists' training and willingness to treat adolescents with learning disabilities: the mediating role of social and clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Coyle, C F; Humphris, G M; Freeman, R

    2013-12-01

    To test a theoretical model based on Cohen's dental profession factors (training; practitioner attitudes; geography) to investigate practitioners' willingness to treat adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) in primary dental care. A sample of all 537 primary care dentists working in a mainly urban area of Northern Ireland and a more rural area of Scotland. Willingness to treat adolescents with LD. Questionnaire survey of demographic profile, undergraduate education, current knowledge, attitudes towards individuals with LD and willingness to treat this patient group. A path analytical approach (multiple meditational model) was used. Three hundred dentists participated giving a valid response rate of 61%. Undergraduate education and current knowledge (training) strengthened a social model perspective promoting positive attitudes and willingness to treat adolescents with LD. Undergraduate education and current knowledge about disability did not significantly contribute to dentists whose attitudes were underpinned by the medical model of disability. Therefore geography (rural or urban location) was not an influential factor in willingness to treat adolescents with LD. This does not exclude the possibility that area of work may have an influence as a consequence of undergraduate university attended. This model identifies the importance of undergraduate and continuing dental education with regard to modifying professional attitudes (social and clinical factors) to assist practitioners treat adolescents with LD and provide them with inclusive dental services in primary dental care.

  8. Promoting productive interactions between parents and physicians in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, William B; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2011-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral condition that impairs functioning throughout childhood and adolescence. Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of ADHD recommend recognizing ADHD as a chronic condition. The chronic care model for child health emphasizes the need for productive interactions between an informed, activated family and a prepared, proactive practice team. Key parent-physician interactions in the treatment of a child with ADHD include: family education, treatment goal setting, treatment plan formation, cardiovascular screening, medication titration and ongoing monitoring and treatment plan revision. Most care for children/adolescents with ADHD is provided in community-based primary care settings where there are significant barriers to delivering high-quality care to children with chronic conditions. This article reviews recommended physician-parent interactions, examines current practice patterns and identifies facilitators and barriers to the implementation of recommended practices for ADHD care.

  9. Surviving or thriving: quality assurance mechanisms to promote innovation in the development of evidence-based parenting interventions.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Matthew R; Kirby, James N

    2015-04-01

    Parenting interventions have the potential to make a significant impact to the prevention and treatment of major social and mental health problems of children. However, parenting interventions fail to do so because program developers pay insufficient attention to the broader ecological context that influences the adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions. This context includes the professional and scientific community, end users, consumers, and broader sociopolitical environment within which parenting services are delivered. This paper presents an iterative stage model of quality assurance steps to guide ongoing research and development particularly those related to program innovations including theory building, intervention development, pilot testing, efficacy and effectiveness trials, program refinement, dissemination, and planning for implementation and political advocacy. The key challenges associated with each phase of the research and development process are identified. Stronger consumer participation throughout the entire process from initial program design to wider community dissemination is an important, but an often ignored part of the process. Specific quality assurance mechanisms are discussed that increase accountability, professional, and consumer confidence in an intervention and the evidence supporting its efficacy.

  10. Views of parents, teachers and children on health promotion in kindergarten--first results from formative focus groups and observations.

    PubMed

    Sansolios, Sanne; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to capture the views of children, parents and teachers on the topic of physical activity in kindergarten through observation and focus group interviews. The study was conducted in the kindergartens from the sampling group in the Danish part of PERISCOPE. 1(st) methodology: Children interviewed inside by the researcher on preferable movements and settings and then observed outside during their playtime. 2(nd) methodology: Children asked to draw themselves playing their most preferred physical activity. Parents and kindergarten teachers interviewed in two different groups, using an identical guide. Children are skilled in taking advantage of the space and facilities available for physical activity; girls need more support than boys to initiate physical activity; children are happy with the facilities and the toys available in the kindergarten. Teachers feel an increasing pressure to take more responsibility and initiatives for the children's health habits. Parents state that if more physical activity is initiated in the kindergarten, it could make children request domestic activity. Physical activity and movement concept are too abstract for children of this age to talk about: they quickly lose their focus and concentration. The new methodology of videotaping gives the researcher the chance to interpret facial expressions to capture movement, talk and actions, and to make a distinction among children, as they tend to interrupt each other. However, this method contains a weakness, if used alone, by the fact that the shooting is only a reflection of what the video camera has recorded.

  11. Willingness To Pay for Information: An Analyst's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Hatcher, Charles B.

    2001-01-01

    Compares methods for estimating consumer willingness to pay for information: contingent valuation, experimental auction, conjoint analysis, and hedonic price equations. Shows how, in the case of food dating, measurement of willingness is complicated by the question of whether the information adds to the product's value. (Contains 31 references.)…

  12. Social Goals and Willingness to Seek Help for School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between students' social goals and their willingness to seek help for school violence was examined. Four hundred and sixty-two students from sixth, eighth, and tenth grades responded to vignettes used to assess willingness to seek help from teachers and friends for dealing with relational and physical violence. Intimacy goals enhanced…

  13. Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

  14. Attitudes toward Counseling and Counseling Willingness of Air Force Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeson, Gilbert W., Jr.

    This study attempts to measure the attitudes of Air Force personnel toward counseling, the willingness of Air Force personnel to seek counseling for personal problems, and the relationships which exist between selected variables and attitude-counseling willingness. The variables examined were technical versus non-technical occupations, length of…

  15. Willingness to treat infectious diseases: what do students think?

    PubMed

    Milikovsky, Dan Zeharia; Ben Yona, Renana; Akselrod, Dikla; Glick, Shimon M; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of serious communicable infectious diseases remain a major global medical problem and force healthcare workers to make hard choices with limited information, resources and time. While information regarding physicians' opinions about such dilemmas is available, research discussing students' opinions is more limited. Medical students were surveyed about their willingness to perform medical procedures on patients with communicable diseases as students and as physicians. Students were asked about their opinions regarding the duty to treat in such cases. 74% of respondents felt that by deciding to enter medical school they were morally obliged to treat any patient despite the risks. Students' willingness to treat as physicians is significantly higher than their willingness to treat as students. HIV was significantly the most tolerated disease with respect to performing mouth to mouth resuscitation. Among preclinical students, we found that willingness to treat during the later years is significantly greater than during the earlier years. Among clinical students, the opposite was observed. Students' greater willingness to treat as physicians is mostly attributed to perceptions of higher obligations as a qualified doctor. There is greater but not total willingness to perform resuscitation on patients with HIV relative to other diseases. The increased willingness of preclinical students and the decreased willingness of clinical students both emphasise the importance of patient-physician communication and ethics studies during medical school.

  16. Social Goals and Willingness to Seek Help for School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between students' social goals and their willingness to seek help for school violence was examined. Four hundred and sixty-two students from sixth, eighth, and tenth grades responded to vignettes used to assess willingness to seek help from teachers and friends for dealing with relational and physical violence. Intimacy goals enhanced…

  17. Willingness To Pay for Information: An Analyst's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Hatcher, Charles B.

    2001-01-01

    Compares methods for estimating consumer willingness to pay for information: contingent valuation, experimental auction, conjoint analysis, and hedonic price equations. Shows how, in the case of food dating, measurement of willingness is complicated by the question of whether the information adds to the product's value. (Contains 31 references.)…

  18. Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

  19. Willingness to Study Abroad: An Examination of Kuwaiti Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Kathawala, Yunus; Hayes, John

    2014-01-01

    International education is an increasingly important part of business programs throughout the world. This paper investigates the willingness of Kuwaiti business students to study abroad. It tests the hypotheses that student willingness to study abroad is related to a number of variables, including self-efficacy, perceived benefit of study abroad,…

  20. A comparison of parental views of their pre-school children's 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Lynch, John; Campbell, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Despite recommended dietary guidelines, recent population surveys have recorded low fruit and vegetable and high non-core food consumption by Australian children. Young children rely on parents or primary carers to provide their diets; therefore pre-school age is an optimal time to promote and encourage healthy child eating behaviours. Identified contributing factors to a child's eating behaviour and diet in the home environment include parenting style, parent feeding practices and attitudes, parent nutrition knowledge, and home food availability. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore perceptions, perceived influences, facilitators and barriers when providing healthy foods for young children via focus groups with parents of children with 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. Thematic analysis identified similarities across both groups including an intention to provide healthy food for their children with most parents involving their child in some level of meal preparation and most families dining together for the evening meal. Main points of difference included parents in the 'healthy' group having more partner support in relation to child diet, a willingness to say 'no' without wavering, and considering their child's daily physical activity when deciding appropriate food options. A majority of parents in the 'unhealthy' group attempted to disguise vegetables and healthy foods for their child and reported experiencing increased levels of stress regarding their child's fussy eating.

  1. Hospital Employee Willingness to Work during Earthquakes Versus Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Charney, Rachel L; Rebmann, Terri; Flood, Robert G

    2015-11-01

    Research indicates that licensed health care workers are less willing to work during a pandemic and that the willingness of nonlicensed staff to work has had limited assessment. We sought to assess and compare the willingness to work in all hospital workers during pandemics and earthquakes. An online survey was distributed to Missouri hospital employees. Participants were presented with 2 disaster scenarios (pandemic influenza and earthquake); willingness, ability, and barriers to work were measured. T tests compared willingness to work during a pandemic vs. an earthquake. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to describe factors associated with a higher willingness to work. One thousand eight hundred twenty-two employees participated (15% response rate). More willingness to work was reported for an earthquake than a pandemic (93.3% vs. 84.8%; t = 17.1; p < 0.001). Significantly fewer respondents reported the ability to work during a pandemic (83.5%; t = 17.1; p < 0.001) or an earthquake (89.8%; t = 13.3; p < 0.001) compared to their willingness to work. From multivariate linear regression, factors associated with pandemic willingness to work were as follows: 1) no children ≤3 years of age; 2) older children; 3) working full-time; 4) less concern for family; 5) less fear of job loss; and 6) vaccine availability. Earthquake willingness factors included: 1) not having children with special needs and 2) not working a different role. Improving care for dependent family members, worker protection, cross training, and job importance education may increase willingness to work during disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Willingness to Pay for Groundwater Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Steven D.; Lindsay, Bruce E.

    1990-09-01

    To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) for a hypothetical groundwater protection plan in Dover, New Hampshire, a mail contingent valuation survey was conducted. The median WTP value among Dover residents was estimated to be 40 per household, and the community WTP value is estimated to be at least 100,000 annually for a groundwater protection plan. The assessed land values of respondents as well as their incomes were shown to positively influence their WTP values, while their ages had a negative influence on WTP. A variety of other socioeconomic variables were shown to have no influence on individuals WTP for groundwater protection. This research illustrates a methodology that other researchers, and water resource managers can use to estimate the value which people place on various water resources and can help to predict whether water policies and projects will be accepted by the public.

  3. Acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccine among parents of junior middle school students in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xia; Zou, Huachun; Zhao, Fanghui; Wang, Shaoming; Zhang, Shaokai; Zhao, Yong; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-05-21

    To determine the level of awareness on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and acceptance of HPV vaccination among parents of junior middle school students. A cross sectional survey employing cluster sampling was conducted in Jinan, Shandong Province of China in January of 2013. A total of 400 parents of junior middle school students participated in the questionnaire survey, among whom 360 (90%) completed valid questionnaires. About 88 (22.63%) parents had ever heard of HPV. Only one in ten (10.2%) knew about HPV vaccine. Parents willing to accept HPV vaccination for children accounted for 40.8%. Factors associated willing to accept HPV vaccination for children among parents were: female parent (AOR: 0.38, 95%CI: 0.21-0.67), having ever heard of HPV vaccine (AOR: 2.38, 95%CI: 1.01-5.61), thinking HPV vaccination should commence before sexual debut(AOR: 2.16, 95%CI: 1.21-3.85), thinking HPV vaccination should commence before 12 years old (AOR: 2.76, 95%CI: 1.02-7.46) or 13-15 years old (AOR: 4.75, 95%CI: 1.79-12.61), concern about suffering from cervical cancer and/or genital warts (AOR: 2.43, 95%CI: 1.31-4.50). About 60% of parents were in favor of future HPV vaccination promoting in China believing that HPV vaccine could efficiently prevent cervical cancer, anal cancer or genital warts, 37.4% of parents with expectation of governmental subsidy and price regulation. Parental awareness level of HPV vaccine and willingness to accept HPV vaccination for children was low. However, the general attitude of many participants toward future promoting of HPV vaccination in China was encouraging, particularly if certain expectations were met. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoting Single-Parent Family Children's Attitudes toward Science and Science Performance through Extracurricular Science Intervention in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang; Lawrenz, Frances

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of extracurricular science intervention in promoting students' science learning performance and attitudes toward science. The Junior High School Student Questionnaire (JSSQ) was used to measure attitudes toward science, sexist attitudes and perceptions of the classroom learning environment. Twenty-eight eighth…

  5. Promoting Single-Parent Family Children's Attitudes toward Science and Science Performance through Extracurricular Science Intervention in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang; Lawrenz, Frances

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of extracurricular science intervention in promoting students' science learning performance and attitudes toward science. The Junior High School Student Questionnaire (JSSQ) was used to measure attitudes toward science, sexist attitudes and perceptions of the classroom learning environment. Twenty-eight eighth…

  6. Promoting Relationship Building and Connection: Adapting an Evidence-Based Parenting Program for Families Involved in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Sherman, Emma L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Mattos, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The high needs of youth involved in the child welfare system and the poor long-term outcomes of former foster youth represent a significant systemic challenge. As part of a process to adapt an evidence-based parenting program for a child welfare population, we conducted a series of focus groups with child welfare staff, foster caregivers, and young adults who were involved in the foster system as teens. From these focus groups we learned that, although there is a need for evidence-based parenting programs for families involved in the child welfare setting, one of the significant barriers to program implementation is the lack of meaningful connection between caregivers and youth in their care. We will provide an in-depth discussion on the proposed adaptations to make Staying Connected more relevant for foster families, including the addition of skills training to help overcome some of the barriers to connection. Staying Connected holds the promise of cultivating more supportive home environments that have the capacity to nurture youths’ healthy development, including the avoidance of high-risk behaviors. PMID:24347754

  7. What promotes secure attachment in early adoption? The protective roles of infants' temperament and adoptive parents' attachment.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Life before adoption is characterized by the lack of sensitive and stable caregiving, putting infants at risk for non-secure attachment patterns. What leads to adoptees' attachment security in their adoptive families has not been conclusively determined. We investigated the roles of children's temperament and adoptive parents' attachment on adoptees' attachment security. The variables were studied in a sample of 30 early-placed adoptees (age at adoption placement M = 5.37 months, SD = 4.43) and their adoptive mothers and fathers. Attachment patterns were investigated by means of the Strange Situation Procedure and the Adult Attachment Interview, and temperament via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed that mothers' secure attachment, but not fathers' attachment or adoptees' temperament, increased the chance of secure attachment in adoptees. Temperament moderated the mother-child attachment match.

  8. TV Viewing and Parental Guidance. Education Consumer Guide, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, David; Singh, Ram

    This newsletter issue focuses on the role of parents in monitoring their children's television viewing habits. The newsletter first discusses the current status of parental concerns about the content of television programming, noting the industry's increased willingness to provide more information, and the advent of a rating system and…

  9. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Salut Programme: a universal health promotion intervention for parents and children—protocol of a register-based retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Inna; Eurenius, Eva; Häggström, Jenny; Sampaio, Filipa; Lindkvist, Marie; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is inadequate evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Salut Programme aims to reach all parents and children in the Västerbotten County of Sweden with a combination of health promotion interventions initiated during pregnancy and continued over the childhood period. This study protocol describes an effectiveness study and an economic evaluation study, where the ongoing Salut Programme is compared to care-as-usual over the periods of pregnancy, delivery and the child's first 2 years of life. Methods A register-based retrospective observational study design will be used with existing data sources with respect to exposures and outcomes. Outcomes of interest are clustered at 3 points: around the child's birth, 1 month after the child's birth and 2 years after the child's birth. We will simulate an experiment by retrospectively identifying and comparing children and their parents in the geographical areas where the Salut Programme was implemented since 2006 and onwards, and the areas where the Programme was not implemented before 2009. Outcomes will be analysed and compared for the premeasure period, and the postmeasure period for both groups. Our analysis combines difference-in-difference estimation with matching. A complementary analysis will be carried out on the longitudinal subsample of mothers who gave birth at least once during each of the time periods. The economic evaluation aims to capture the wider societal costs and benefits of the Salut Programme for the first 2 years of the children's lives. Incremental costs will be compared with incremental health gains and the results will be presented as a cost-consequence analysis. Ethics and dissemination The Regional Ethical Review Board in Umeå has given clearance for the Salut Programme research (2010-63-31M). No individual's identity will be revealed when presenting results. This study will provide information that can guide

  10. [The willingness-to-pay concept in question].

    PubMed

    Mould Quevedo, Joaquín F; Contreras Hernández, Iris; Garduño Espinosa, Juan; Salinas Escudero, Guillermo

    2009-04-01

    The adequacy of the concept of willingness to pay within health economics evaluations is reviewed. A considerable number of researchers in the literature have pointed out multiple methodological issues involving willingness-to-pay estimates. On the other hand, the theoretical discussion about the aggregation of individual preferences within an aggregate demand remains open. However, over the last 20 years, willingness-to-pay estimates alongside health economics research significantly increased and in many cases they are one of the key factors for decision making on issues of health policies. The article describes some limitations of this approach as well as the potential distorting effect that it might have on health economics evaluations.

  11. Influence of empathy, beliefs, attitudes, and demographic variables on willingness to donate organs.

    PubMed

    Wilczek-Rużyczka, E; Milaniak, I; Przybyłowski, P; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J

    2014-10-01

    As organ transplantation has become a more routine medical procedure, there has been a growing interest in studying people's attitudes and knowledge concerning organ donation. Trait empathy and self-interest influence different pro-social behaviors to a great extent; still, their role in the promotion of organ donation registration and willingness to donate organs remains unclear. However, people with higher levels of empathy report more altruistic beliefs. We assessed the influence of empathy, beliefs, and demographic variables on willingness to donate organs. We included 191 subjects (135 female, 56 male) aged 16-61 years (mean, 26.86 ± 12.88), who participated in educational meetings concerning organ donation. The group was composed of students, teachers, and nurses. Survey tools included the Individual Questionnaire: Study of Attitudes Towards Transplantation, consisting of 26 closed-ended questions (with the consent of the Krakow Statistical Office) and the Empathy Scale by Mehrabian and Epstein. Of the respondents, 97.4% accept transplantation from living donors, 95.8% accept deceased donations, and 78.5% agree with posthumous life-saving organ donation. The majority of respondents (73%) achieved an average level of empathy, and 20.4% of respondents exhibited considerably higher empathy levels. There was a significant difference between the respondents' sex and their agreement to make a life-saving organ donation. Differences were found among the groups, the attitudes and willingness to donate organs, and between the level of empathy and agreement/consent for organ donation. Our findings show that the group in general has favorable beliefs about transplantation and declares a willingness to make a posthumous organ donation. These beliefs vary based on demographic variables. Education about organ and tissue donation a has a positive impact on donation and transplantation rates.

  12. Primary care nurses’ awareness of and willingness to perform children’s oral health care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of young children receive no early dental examination while attending primary health care for routine check-ups. Our aim was to study primary care nurses’ knowledge of oral health care (OHC) and their attitudes toward delivering OHC, as well as to assess their willingness to obtain OHC information. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all primary-care nurses working in the public health centres of Tehran city. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire queried their knowledge in paediatric-, general and medicine-related areas of dentistry, providing knowledge scores for three domains. The nurses’ attitudes toward OHC and their willingness to obtain OHC information underwent evaluation with statements utilizing a five-point Likert scale. Altogether 680 nurses took part in the survey. The Chi-square test, t-test, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression model served for statistical analyses. Result The mean score for the paediatric dentistry domain (3.6, SD: 1.5) was lower than for the medical (4.4, SD: 2.3) and dental domains (5.8, SD: 1.5). Obtaining higher scores in the paediatric (OR = 1.2) and dental (OR = 1.3) domains, and a greater willingness to receive OHC information (OR = 5.3), were associated with a positive attitude toward OHC. Nurses with a lower education (OR = 1.9) and better oral health behaviour (OR = 1.1) as well as those working in a non-affluent region (OR = 1.6) had a more positive attitude toward OHC. Conclusion Primary care nurses’ low level of knowledge in OHC and their positive attitude and willingness to obtain more information point to the need for appropriate OHC training and encouragement for the nurses to promote oral health and prevent dental diseases. PMID:24670004

  13. 'Croque&bouge': A feasible and acceptable programme for obesity prevention in preschoolers at risk and their parents.

    PubMed

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie; Dudley-Martin, Fiona; Kruseman, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    To conceptualize and pilot test a programme of three workshops aiming to prevent the development of overweight in susceptible preschool children. Three workshops were conducted, targeting both parents and children. The curriculum for parents included discussions on feeding responsibilities, healthy eating, taste development, neophobia and physical activity recommendations. Children participated in various play activities with fruits and vegetables and read stories about hunger and satiety feelings. Recruitment was organized through paediatricians and child-care centres. Evaluation of the programme focused on feasibility, adequacy for children's age, parents' perception of impact and, for children, change of the ability to recognize and willingness to taste fruits and vegetables. A total of 21 children and one of their parents participated in the programme. The programme was found to be feasible and adequate for the targeted community. Parents reported perceiving a positive impact of the intervention; however, this finding was not statistically significant. The major difficulty was identifying and recruiting families and engaging the parents in a discussion about weight. This short programme aiming to improve parents' ability to offer healthy environment and promote healthy eating behaviour was feasible and acceptable for families with young children. When developing and implementing such programmes, close collaboration with paediatricians and other health providers should be sought in order to identify and reach children at risk of obesity and their family.

  14. Physicians' willingness to grant requests for assistance in dying for children: a study of hypothetical cases.

    PubMed

    Vrakking, Astrid M; van der Heide, Agnes; Looman, Caspar W N; van Delden, Johannes J M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2005-05-01

    To study the willingness of Dutch physicians to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for severely ill children. We asked 63 pediatricians about their approach to 10 hypothetical cases of children with cancer. The age of the child (15, 11, or 6 years), the child's (explicit) request, and the opinion of the parents varied. Two hypothetical cases were also presented to 125 general practitioners and 208 clinical specialists. Most pediatricians were willing to increase morphine in all cases. A total of 48% to 60% of pediatricians were willing to use lethal drugs in children at the child's request, when the parents agreed; when parents requested ending of life of their unconscious child, 37% to 42% of pediatricians were willing; 13% to 28% of pediatricians were willing when parents did not agree with their child's request. General practitioners and clinical specialists were as willing as pediatricians to use lethal drugs at the child's request, but less willing to grant a request of parents for their unconscious child. Many Dutch pediatricians are willing to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for children. The legal limit of 12 years, as the age under which voluntary euthanasia is forbidden, is not fully supported by Dutch physicians.

  15. Willingness to pay for wholesome canteen takeaway.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Jonas

    2012-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a new intervention at the workplace: wholesome canteen takeaways (CTA), i.e. a low fat meal with a large amount of vegetables prepared at the workplace canteen that only requires re-heating. The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the WTP. Two surveys were carried out in Denmark; one large-scale Internet based survey and one survey at a workplace that introduced CTA. The results from the large-scale survey suggest that this concept attracts relevant target groups; groups of individuals with a less healthy diet, low physical activity and a high body mass index. For males and individuals with low education, who also constitute relevant target groups, the results suggest no significant difference in WTP between males and females, whereas low educated individuals have a significantly lower WTP than highly educated individuals. However, the workplace study, carried out at a hospital, found that females have a significantly higher WTP for CTA compared with males. In conclusion, the concept appears to attract relevant target groups, although for a given price a smaller fraction of low educated individuals compared to high educated individuals would be willing to buy CTA.

  16. Community Violence Exposure and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Adolescents: Testing Parental Support as a Promotive Versus Protective Factor.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tess; Ammons, Chrissy; Dahl, Alexandra; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    Although callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with maladjustment in youth, literature predicting CU using prospective designs is rare. In the present study we examine associations between exposure to community violence, supportive relationships with caregivers, and CU in a sample of 236 low-income youth (M age = 13.00 yrs, SD = 1.56 yrs; 43% male; 92% African American) participating in a 3-wave longitudinal study of violence exposure and adjustment. Both promotive and protective models of linkages between exposure to community violence, support, and CU were investigated. Given known sex differences in CU, sex was explored as a moderator. Regression analysis revealed that witnessing and hearing about community violence, aggregated over 2 waves, were positively associated with CU at the final study wave. Supportive relationships with caregivers, aggregated over 2 waves, were negatively associated with CU but did not interact with violence exposure, suggesting that supportive relationships with caregivers has a promotive but not a protective association with CU in the context of exposure to violence. The pattern of associations did not vary by sex. This study informs our understanding of factors that contribute to the development of CU.

  17. Community Violence Exposure and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Adolescents: Testing Parental Support as a Promotive Versus Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tess; Ammons, Chrissy; Dahl, Alexandra; Kliewer, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Although callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with maladjustment in youth, literature predicting CU using prospective designs is rare. In the present study we examine associations between exposure to community violence, supportive relationships with caregivers, and CU in a sample of 236 low-income youth (M age = 13.00 yrs, SD = 1.56 yrs; 43% male; 92% African American) participating in a 3-wave longitudinal study of violence exposure and adjustment. Both promotive and protective models of linkages between exposure to community violence, support, and CU were investigated. Given known sex differences in CU, sex was explored as a moderator. Regression analysis revealed that witnessing and hearing about community violence, aggregated over 2 waves, were positively associated with CU at the final study wave. Supportive relationships with caregivers, aggregated over 2 waves, were negatively associated with CU but did not interact with violence exposure, suggesting that supportive relationships with caregivers has a promotive but not a protective association with CU in the context of exposure to violence. The pattern of associations did not vary by sex. This study informs our understanding of factors that contribute to the development of CU. PMID:25580047

  18. Sexual conflict over parental care promotes the evolution of sex differences in care and the ability to care.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Wolf, Max

    2015-03-22

    Strong asymmetries in parental care, with one sex providing more care than the other, are widespread across the animal kingdom. At present, two factors are thought to ultimately cause sex differences in care: certainty of parentage and sexual selection. By contrast, we here show that the coevolution of care and the ability to care can result in strong asymmetries in both the ability to care and the level of care, even in the absence of these factors. While the coevolution of care and the ability to care does not predict which sex evolves to care more than the other, once other factors give rise to even the slightest differences in the cost and benefits of care between the sexes (e.g. differences in certainty in parentage), a clear directionality emerges; the sex with the lower cost or higher benefit of care evolves both to be more able to care and to provide much higher levels of care than the other sex. Our findings suggest that the coevolution of levels of care and the ability to care may be a key factor underlying the evolution of sex differences in care.

  19. Hypothetical and factual willingness to participate in biobank research.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Rafnar, Thorunn; Halldorsdottir, Ingibjorg; Chia, Kee-Seng; Eriksson, Stefan; Hansson, Mats G

    2010-11-01

    In the debate on biobank regulation, arguments often draw upon findings in surveys on public attitudes. However, surveys on willingness to participate in research may not always predict actual participation rates. We compared hypothetical willingness as estimated in 11 surveys conducted in Sweden, Iceland, United Kingdom, Ireland, United States and Singapore to factual participation rates in 12 biobank studies. Studies were matched by country and approximate time frame. Of 22 pairwise comparisons, 12 suggest that factual willingness to participate in biobank research is greater than hypothetical, six indicate the converse relationship, and four are inconclusive. Factual donors, in particular when recruited in health care or otherwise face-to-face with the researcher, are possibly motivated by factors that are less influential in a hypothetical context, such as altruism, trust, and sense of duty. The value of surveys in assessing factual willingness may thus be limited.

  20. Hypothetical and factual willingness to participate in biobank research

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Rafnar, Thorunn; Halldorsdottir, Ingibjorg; Chia, Kee-Seng; Eriksson, Stefan; Hansson, Mats G

    2010-01-01

    In the debate on biobank regulation, arguments often draw upon findings in surveys on public attitudes. However, surveys on willingness to participate in research may not always predict actual participation rates. We compared hypothetical willingness as estimated in 11 surveys conducted in Sweden, Iceland, United Kingdom, Ireland, United States and Singapore to factual participation rates in 12 biobank studies. Studies were matched by country and approximate time frame. Of 22 pairwise comparisons, 12 suggest that factual willingness to participate in biobank research is greater than hypothetical, six indicate the converse relationship, and four are inconclusive. Factual donors, in particular when recruited in health care or otherwise face-to-face with the researcher, are possibly motivated by factors that are less influential in a hypothetical context, such as altruism, trust, and sense of duty. The value of surveys in assessing factual willingness may thus be limited. PMID:20648060

  1. Factors that contribute to the willingness to try "street hypnosis".

    PubMed

    Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.

  2. Stated Preference Survey Estimating the Willingness to Pay ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A national stated preference survey designed to elicit household willingness to pay for reductions in impinged and entrained fish at cooling water intake structures. To improve estimation of environmental benefits estimation

  3. Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan.

  4. Trauma-Informed Care for Children in the Child Welfare System: An Initial Evaluation of a Trauma-Informed Parenting Workshop.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly M; Murray, Kathryn J; Ake, George S

    2016-05-01

    An essential but often overlooked component to promoting trauma-informed care within the child welfare system is educating and empowering foster, adoptive, and kinship caregivers (resource parents) with a trauma-informed perspective to use in their parenting as well as when advocating for services for their child. In this first evaluation of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's trauma-informed parenting workshop (Caring for Children who Have Experienced Trauma, also known as the Resource Parent Curriculum), participant acceptance and satisfaction and changes in caregiver knowledge and beliefs related to trauma-informed parenting were examined. Data from 159 ethnically diverse resource parents were collected before and after they participated in the workshop. Results demonstrate that kinship and nonkinship caregivers showed significant increases in their knowledge of trauma-informed parenting and their perceived self-efficacy parenting a child who experienced trauma. Nonkinship caregivers increased on their willingness to tolerate difficult child behaviors, whereas kinship caregivers did not show a significant change. Participants also demonstrated high levels of satisfaction with the workshop. Although these preliminary results are important as the first empirical study supporting the workshop's effectiveness, the limitations of this study and the directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Measuring the value of time for methadone maintenance clients: willingness to pay, willingness to accept, and the wage rate.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Natalia N; Goodman, Allen C

    2003-04-01

    Three measures of the value of time - willingness to pay (WTP) for a reduction in travel time, willingness to accept (WTA) a monetary compensation to forgo it, and the wage rate - are evaluated and compared. WTP and WTA were estimated from the two-part regressions of time price, using contingent valuation methods with primary survey data. Systematic differences are found in comparisons of WTP and WTA with the wage rate. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The joint moderating effect of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle on consumers' willingness to use functional foods in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2011-08-01

    Functional foods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functional foods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functional foods and will vary in their willingness to use them. Regression analysis of this empirical study verifies that consumers' attitudes toward functional foods do have an impact on their willingness to use such foods. Moreover, moderated regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the joint moderator of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle indeed exerts an impact on consumers' willingness to consume functional foods. Finally, one-way ANOVA tests show that there are some differences between the consumers of the "Healthy Life Attentive" group and those of the "Healthy Life Inattentive" one both in attitudes toward and in willingness to consume functional foods. The empirical results and findings from this study would be valuable for the marketers in the functional food industry to formulate marketing communication strategies and facilitate this industry's development.

  7. Willingness to pay for obesity pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Scott; Lloyd, Andrew; Birt, Julie; Curtis, Bradley; Ali, Shehzad; Godbey, Kecia; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for obesity have received regulatory approval, but health insurers and other payers typically refuse to support access to them. Thus, patients are left to bear significant out-of-pocket costs for obesity pharmacotherapy. This study aimed to assess preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for obesity medications among people seeking weight loss in the United States and United Kingdom. An online survey was developed based on literature review, clinician interviews, and profiles of available therapies. Participants indicated their preference for hypothetical treatments which varied by seven attributes: percentage of weight loss, long-term health risk reduction, time to noticeable weight loss, delivery mode, side effects, lifestyle modification, and cost; 502 obese participants completed the survey (mean BMI 37.12 kg/m(2) (±4.63); 73.5% female; 47.7 (±12.9) years of age). The participants deemed weight loss of >21 kg (United Kingdom) and >28 kg (United State) as "acceptable". All treatment attributes were important (P < 0.001) except "time to noticeable weight loss." The survey found that percentage weight loss was the most important factor for patients and a reduction in long-term health risk was relatively less important. Patients were willing to pay £6.51/$10.49 per month per percentage point of weight loss that a pharmacotherapy could provide. Participants also highly valued therapies that did not require substantial lifestyle modifications and were willing to pay £17.78/$30.77 more per month for a one-pill-per-day treatment vs. a weekly injectable. Participants placed a high value on weight loss and avoiding changes to their lifestyle, and less value on reducing long-term risks to health.

  8. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission. PMID:21827698

  9. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kotha, S Rani; Johnson, Jennifer C; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Asabir, Kwesi; Kwansah, Janet; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Snow, Rachel C; Kruk, Margaret E

    2011-08-09

    Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  10. Implicit alcohol attitudes predict drinking behaviour over and above intentions and willingness in young adults but willingness is more important in adolescents: Implications for the Prototype Willingness Model.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emma L; Paltoglou, Aspasia E; Foxcroft, David R

    2017-05-01

    Dual process models, such as the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM), propose to account for both intentional and reactive drinking behaviour. Current methods of measuring constructs in the PWM rely on self-report, thus require a level of conscious deliberation. Implicit measures of attitudes may overcome this limitation and contribute to our understanding of how prototypes and willingness influence alcohol consumption in young people. This study aimed to explore whether implicit alcohol attitudes were related to PWM constructs and whether they would add to the prediction of risky drinking. The study involved a cross-sectional design. The sample included 501 participants from the United Kingdom (Mage 18.92; range 11-51; 63% female); 230 school pupils and 271 university students. Participants completed explicit measures of alcohol prototype perceptions, willingness, drunkenness, harms, and intentions. They also completed an implicit measure of alcohol attitudes, using the Implicit Association Test. Implicit alcohol attitudes were only weakly related to the explicit measures. When looking at the whole sample, implicit alcohol attitudes did not add to the prediction of willingness over and above prototype perceptions. However, for university students implicit attitudes added to the prediction of behaviour, over and above intentions and willingness. For school pupils, willingness was a stronger predictor of behaviour than intentions or implicit attitudes. Adding implicit measures to the PWM may contribute to our understanding of the development of alcohol behaviours in young people. Further research could explore how implicit attitudes develop alongside the shift from reactive to planned behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Young people's drinking tends to occur in social situations and is driven in part by social reactions within these contexts. The Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) attempts to explain such reactive behaviour as

  11. Parental responsibility of African-American unwed adolescent fathers.

    PubMed

    Christmon, K

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated factors related to adolescent fathers' willingness to take parental responsibility for their children. Data were collected on a convenience sample of 43 African-American unwed adolescent fathers. Demographic information was gathered, and self-image was measured using the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. An author-developed questionnaire measured father's parental responsibility, his own role expectations, and the perceived role expectations of his partner and parents. The findings indicated that father's parental responsibility was influenced by his own role expectations and self-image. The perceived role expectations of his partner and parents were not related to his willingness to take parental responsibility. This study helps adolescent care providers in various settings to become familiar with some of the issues related to teenage fathers, and assists them in determining appropriate interventions.

  12. Adolescent Participation in HPV Vaccine Clinical Trials: Are Parents Willing?

    PubMed

    Erves, Jennifer Cunningham; Mayo-Gamble, Tilicia L; Hull, Pamela C; Duke, Lauren; Miller, Stephania T

    2017-03-21

    Approximately one-quarter of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are acquired by adolescents, with a higher burden among racial/ethnic minorities. However, racial/ethnic minorities have been underrepresented in previous HPV vaccine trials. Ongoing and future HPV vaccine optimization trials would benefit from racially- and ethnically-diverse sample of adolescent trial participants. This study examined factors influencing parental willingness to consent to their adolescents' participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials and tested for possible racial differences. A convenience sample of parents of adolescents (N = 256) completed a cross-sectional survey. Chi square analyses were used to assess racial differences in parental HPV vaccine awareness and intentions and willingness to consent to their child participating in an HPV vaccine clinical trial. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with willingness. Approximately 47% of parents were willing to allow their adolescent to participate in HPV vaccine clinical trials (30.7% African American and 48.3% Caucasian, p = .081). African Americans had lower HPV vaccine awareness (p = .006) but not lower intentions to vaccinate (p = .086). Parental willingness was positively associated with the following variables: Child's age (p < .039), Perceived Advantages of HPV Vaccination for Adolescents (p = .002), Parental Trust in Medical Researchers (p < .001), and Level of Ease in Understanding Clinical Trial Information (p = .010). Educating parents about the advantages of HPV vaccines for younger adolescents using low-literacy educational materials and building trust between parents and researchers may increase parental willingness to consent to adolescent participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials.

  13. Taste education reduces food neophobia and increases willingness to try novel foods in school children.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo-Kyung; Cho, Mi-Sook

    2016-04-01

    This study measured the effects of a taste education program developed in Korea on food neophobia and willingness to try novel foods in school children. One-hundred and twenty school children (aged 7-9 years) residing in Seoul participated in 12 sessions of a taste education program for 3 months. The Korean taste education program was adapted from "Les classes du goût" by J. Puisais and modified to suit a Korean education environment. The study subjected school children to pre- and post-programs on food neophobia and willingness to try novel foods (WTNF), in addition to children's food neophobia in their parents. A total of 101 survey data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. Regarding the effects of taste education, scores of food neophobia significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in the posttest, mean (m) score (4.10 ± 1.19) decreased compared to the pretest (4.39 ± 1.00), and WTNF significantly increased (P < 0.001) in the pretest (m) score (0.48 ± 0.33) compared to the pretest (0.32 ± 0.34). This result indicates verification of the study hypothesis. Food neophobia scale (FNS), an index that measures personal food preference [12], showed a very weak correlation with behavioral willingness to taste novel foods (WTNF). Therefore, it is expected that the two scales measure different things. However, considering that the traits of food neophobia are not easily changed, the taste education program was administered in a remarkably effective manner.

  14. Taste education reduces food neophobia and increases willingness to try novel foods in school children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study measured the effects of a taste education program developed in Korea on food neophobia and willingness to try novel foods in school children. SUBJECTS/METHODS One-hundred and twenty school children (aged 7-9 years) residing in Seoul participated in 12 sessions of a taste education program for 3 months. The Korean taste education program was adapted from "Les classes du goût" by J. Puisais and modified to suit a Korean education environment. The study subjected school children to pre- and post-programs on food neophobia and willingness to try novel foods (WTNF), in addition to children's food neophobia in their parents. A total of 101 survey data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. RESULTS Regarding the effects of taste education, scores of food neophobia significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in the posttest, mean (m) score (4.10 ± 1.19) decreased compared to the pretest (4.39 ± 1.00), and WTNF significantly increased (P < 0.001) in the pretest (m) score (0.48 ± 0.33) compared to the pretest (0.32 ± 0.34). This result indicates verification of the study hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS Food neophobia scale (FNS), an index that measures personal food preference [12], showed a very weak correlation with behavioral willingness to taste novel foods (WTNF). Therefore, it is expected that the two scales measure different things. However, considering that the traits of food neophobia are not easily changed, the taste education program was administered in a remarkably effective manner. PMID:27087907

  15. Measuring patient preferences by willingness to pay to avoid: the case of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Sorum, P C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid as a method of eliciting relative values for use in expected-value (EV) decision making. Parents' preferences for the events and outcomes associated with acute otitis media (AOM) and its treatment were quantified by means of a questionnaire asking how much they would be willing to pay to avoid them. Their responses were then used to calculate the EVs of treating or not treating presumed AOM with antibiotics. The advantages of the WTP method were its simplicity, its analogy with everyday financial transactions, its explicit recognition of illness and its management as involving decreases in value, and its face validity. The disadvantages included the need to use another method (the standard gamble) to derive a value for death and the wide ranges and the poor test-retest reliability of individual parents' responses. Nonetheless, median WTP values and their ranges may prove useful in defining for physicians and policymakers the parameters of their practical management decisions. In the case of AOM, the EV of treating with antibiotics was, for the aggregate sample and for most individual parents, robustly superior because of parents' desire to avoid any increased risk of their children's death.

  16. Does promoting parents' negative attitudes to underage drinking reduce adolescents' drinking? The mediating process and moderators of the effects of the Örebro Prevention Programme.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Metin; Koutakis, Nikolaus

    2016-02-01

    The Örebro Prevention Programme (ÖPP) was found previously to be effective in reducing drunkenness among adolescents [Cohen's d = 0.35, number needed to treat (NNT) = 7.7]. The current study tested the mediating role of parents' restrictive attitudes to underage drinking in explaining the effectiveness of the ÖPP, and the potential moderating role of gender, immigration status, peers' and parents' drinking and parent-adolescent relationship quality. A quasi-experimental matched-control group study with assessments at baseline, and at 18- and 30-month follow-ups. Of the 895 target youths at ages 12-13 years, 811 youths and 651 parents at baseline, 653 youths and 524 parents at 18-month and 705 youths and 506 parents at 30-month follow-up participated in the study. Youths reported on their past month drunkenness, their parents' and peers' alcohol use and the quality of their relationship with parents. Parents reported on their attitudes to underage drinking. The mediation analyses, using latent growth curve modeling, showed that changes in parents' restrictive attitudes to underage drinking explained the impact of the ÖPP on changes in youth drunkenness, which was reduced, and onset of monthly drunkenness, which was delayed, relative to controls. Mediation effect explained 57 and 45% of the effects on drunkenness and onset of monthly drunkenness, respectively. The programme effects on both parents' attitudes and youth drunkenness were similar across gender, immigrant status, parents' and peers' alcohol use and parent-youth relationship quality. Increasing parents' restrictive attitudes to youth drinking appears to be an effective and robust strategy for reducing heavy underage drinking regardless of the adolescents' gender, cultural origin, peers' and parents' drinking and relationship quality with parents. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Do Father-Friendly Policies Promote Father-Friendly Child-Rearing Practices? A Review of Swedish Parental Leave and Child Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Michael B.; Sarkadi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, we looked at how parental leave policies in Sweden have influenced two well-defined areas of early father involvement: participating in parental leave and at visits/activities at the Child Health Centers. Sweden has one of the most comprehensive and egalitarian parental leave policies in the world, permitting parents…

  18. Developing a willingness to change: treatment-seeking processes for people with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Annika; Hensing, Gunnel; Spak, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The study explores treatment-seeking processes in men and women with alcohol problems, focusing on promoting and hindering factors. Open interviews were held with five women and seven men within a month of their first voluntary treatment for alcohol problems. The interview protocols were analysed consecutively in accordance with grounded theory methodology. Developing a willingness to change was found to be the basic psychosocial process that lead to treatment-seeking. Categories that constituted sub-processes and supported willingness to change were: (i) actuating inner forces; (ii) dealing with conflicting feelings and thoughts; and (iii) hoping to turn the situation around. These processes were continuously assisted by demanding and caring support from partners, friends or professionals. The processes that precede treatment-seeking were highly complex, and both internal and external factors promoted and hindered treatment entry. The social significance of alcohol and the grief related to thoughts of abstaining were the most striking hindering factors. Such feelings need to be considered when motivating people to seek treatment for alcohol problems.

  19. Climate change concerns, weather expectations, and willingness to adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Bruine de Bruin, W.; Dessai, S.; Lefevre, C.; Taylor, A.

    2016-12-01

    Adaptation will become necessary as climate change causes more extreme weather worldwide. People with lower climate change concerns may be less willing to act. Yet, people who dismiss climate change may still perceive that extreme weather events are becoming more frequent or more intense. It is possible that weather perceptions and change concerns are partially independent constructs, even if they do inform each other. In this research, we ask: 1) How likely do people think that wet, windy, and hot weather events will become worse by 2050? 2) How willing are people to implement climate change adaptation? and 3) Is willingness to adapt to climate change motivated by perceptions of extreme weather, independent of concerns about climate change? To answer these questions, we surveyed two areas with different political views on climate change and extreme weather events, the United States (474 participants) and the United Kingdom (607 participants). We find expectations for extreme weather and willingness to adapt vary between countries; US residents expect hot weather to worsen the most, and for UK residents the least. Willingness to adapt varies as well. Yet, for each type of weather, weather expectations and climate change concerns independently predict willingness to adapt, in the US and the UK. Our findings have implications for communications about climate change adaptation. Willingness to prepare for extreme weather may be higher among individuals with low climate change concerns if the term `climate change' is omitted from communications.

  20. Doctors' willingness to intervene in patients' drug and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Roche, A M; Richard, G P

    1991-01-01

    A telephone survey of 103 Sydney general practitioners (GPs) was conducted to assess the extent of agreement or disagreement with 15 statements originating from an earlier, focus groups study, concerning patients' drug and alcohol problems. Another aim of the present study was to determine whether the results provided evidence for a typology of general practitioners. A cluster analysis indicated the presence of three groups: Interactive Problem Solvers; Traditionalist Healers and; Distant Technologists. However, a subsequent principal components analysis and re-examination of the distributions of scores lead to the preferred explanation that the survey was measuring a continuous dimension--"Willingness To Intervene" (WTI). Overall, the GPs' responses suggested high levels of willingness to intervene, although older doctors showed less willingness to intervene than younger doctors. Implications of these findings for medical educators are discussed in relation to evidence that, in practice, doctors often fail to intervene in patients' drug and alcohol problems. Willingness to intervene is viewed as one of several necessary factors, such as knowledge, clinical skills and self efficacy, none of which are sufficient alone to guarantee intervention. Arising from consideration of the willingness to intervene dimension, a general model of probability of medical intervention is outlined.

  1. Using the prototype willingness model to predict doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L; Long, J; Petróczi, A; Backhouse, S H

    2014-10-01

    To enable preventive measures to be designed, it is important to identify modifiable distal and proximal factors underlying doping behavior. This study investigated aspects of the prototype willingness model in relation to doping. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 729 competitive athletes. Following ethical approval, athletes (mean age = 28.8 ± 10.1 years; 63% male) completed an online questionnaire, which assessed doping-related attitudes, norms, prototype perceptions, outcome expectancies, and behavioral willingness. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, 54.4% of the total variance in willingness to dope was explained. Specifically, past doping, attitudes, and favorability of performance enhancing substance user prototypes were the strongest unique predictors of willingness to dope. Athletes appeared most willing to dope if they were to suffer an injury, a dip in performance, or think others are doping and getting away with it. National-level athletes displayed significantly greater willingness to dope (Kruskal-Wallis γ2 = 35.9, P < 0.001) and perceived themselves as significantly more similar to a doper (Kruskal-Wallis γ2 = 13.4, P = 0.004) than athletes competing at any other level. The findings highlight the importance of extending anti-doping provision beyond elite-level sport and the need to target athletes' doping-related perceptions.

  2. Willingness to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation by health care providers: a survey.

    PubMed

    Boucek, Charles D; Phrampus, Paul; Lutz, John; Dongilli, Thomas; Bircher, Nicholas G

    2009-08-01

    During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MTM) is only effective if rescuers are willing to perform it. To assess the degree of willingness or reluctance in performing MTM, a survey including 17 hypothetical scenarios was created. In each scenario health hazards for the rescuer needed to be balanced against the patient's need for MTM. Respondents were recruited from health care workers attending courses at a medical simulation center. Respondents reported their willingness or reluctance to perform MTM for each scenario using a 4 point scale. The questionnaire had responses by 560 health care workers. Reluctance to perform MTM varied with the scenario. Some health care workers refused to ventilate patients who could benefit from MTM. In all scenarios even when resuscitation was both futile and potentially hazardous, some health care workers were willing to perform MTM. Age and level of experience tend to reduce the propensity to engage in MTM. Parental propensity to ventilate one's own child was stronger than any other motivator. HIV infection is not the only condition for which rescuers hesitate to perform MTM. Bag-valve-mask devices for mechanical ventilation should be available in all locations where health care workers may be called upon to resuscitate apneic patients making the decision to perform MTM moot.

  3. Factors influencing Chinese university students' willingness to performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cui; Jin, Ying-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Tong; Ma, Wen-Jing; Wang, Yun-Yun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yao

    2017-05-01

    Low rates of bystander-initiated CPR are a major obstacle to improved survival rates, and the aim of this study is to elucidate the factors associated with university students' attitudes toward performing bystander CPR. Questionnaires were distributed to 18 universities across three metropolises in China. One question asking for respondents' attitudes toward performing bystander CPR was set as the dependent variable, and the logistic regression models were used to extract independent factors for respondents' attitudes toward performing bystander CPR. 2934 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 81.5%. Results suggested that predictors of willingness to perform bystander CPR were: previous experience of performing bystander CPR, higher self-perceived ability to perform bystander CPR properly after instruction, medicine and law discipline, male gender, not being the single child of their parents, higher participation in university societies, being used to taking decisive action immediately, less self-perceived life stress and higher self-perceived knowledge level of CPR. Persons having previous experience of performing bystander CPR and those who thought they would have the ability to perform bystander CPR properly are predominantly associated with willingness to perform bystander CPR. Psychological and cultural factors need further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Willingness to seek HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, A K; Brieger, W R; Mafe, M A; Adeneye, A A; Salami, K K; Titiloye, M A; Adewole, T A; Agomo, P U

    HIV counseling and testing (CT) is slowly being introduced as one of several key components of the comprehensive package of HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Nigeria, particularly in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A cross-sectional survey of 804 women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in Ogun State, Nigeria was done using questionnaires to assess their willingness to seek and undergo CT and know the determinants. Focus group discussions were also held in the general community: 84.3% of respondents believed in AIDS reality, while 24.3% thought they were at risk of HIV infection. Only 27% knew about MTCT, while 69.7% of 723 who had heard of HIV/AIDS did not know about CT. Only 71 (8.8%) had thought about CT and 33 (4.5%) mentioned HIV testing as one of antenatal tests. After health education on CT, 89% of the women expressed willingness to be tested. Their willingness for CT was positively associated with education (p < 0.05), ranging from 77% (no education) to 93% (post-secondary). More of those with self-perceived risk expressed willingness to test for HIV (p < 0.05). Those willing to be tested had a higher knowledge score on how HIV spreads than those not willing. Multiple regressions identified four key factors that were associated with willingness for CT: increasing educational level; not fearing a blood test; perception that the clinic offered privacy; and perceptions of higher levels of social support from relatives and peers. Those unwilling or undecided about CT expressed strong fear of social stigma/rejection if tested positive. The results provided insights for planning promotional programs and showed that not only are IEC efforts needed to boost knowledge about HIV/AIDS, but that change in clinic setting and community are imperative in creating supportive environment to encourage uptake of CT services.

  5. Parents as their infant's primary caregivers in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg; Engvall, Gunn

    2009-04-01

    The aim was to explore parents' and professionals' opinions about parental performance of care in a neonatal intensive care unit. Forty-three parents and 85 nurses completed questionnaires composed of a list of 95 caregiving activities; 14 nurses and 4 neonatologists participated in four focus group interviews. Considerable differences appeared in parents' and nurses' responses about parents' participation in their infants' care. All listed activities were marked as optional by at least a few parents. Agreement was reached about parents as their infants' primary caregivers, based on individual assessment of parents' willingness and ability, with nurses acting as educators and supporters instead of caregivers.

  6. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  7. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  8. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  9. Willingness to Consider Non-Directed Kidney Donation.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Diane B V; Kuntz, Kristin K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether factors, including knowledge about living kidney donation or acquaintance with a donor or recipient, are related to willingness to consider donating a kidney. Participants were randomly assigned to read (n = 78) or not read (n = 71) educational materials regarding living donation. All participants then completed a living donation knowledge quiz, indicated whether they knew a donor or recipient, and indicated their support for living donation. Knowledge was not related to willingness to consider donation. Acquaintance with a living donor predicated greater willingness to act as a non-directed living donor, as did acquaintance with a transplant recipient. Decisions regarding whether to consider acting as a living organ donor may be related to whether a person is acquainted with an organ donor or a recipient. Emphasizing personal connections to transplant may lead to increased acceptance of living donation.

  10. Assessing willingness to pay for health care quality improvements.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Md Sadik; Chakrabarty, Sayan; Gow, Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Contingent valuation (CV) is used to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of consumers for specific attributes to improve the quality of health care they received in three hospitals in Bangladesh. Random sample of 252 patients were interviewed to measure their willingness to pay for seven specified improvements in the quality of delivered medical care. Partial tobit regression and corresponding marginal effects analysis were used to analyze the data and obtain WTP estimates. Patients are willing to pay more if their satisfaction with three attributes of care are increased. These are: a closer doctor-patient relationship, increased drug availability and increased chances of recovery. The doctor patient relationship is considered most important by patients and exhibited the highest willingness to pay. This study provides important information to policy makers about the monetary valuation of patients for improvements in certain attributes of health care in Bangladesh.

  11. Multiple pathways to compliance: mothers' willingness to cooperate and knowledge of their children's reactions to discipline.

    PubMed

    Davidov, Maayan; Grusec, Joan E

    2006-12-01

    Mothers of 59 children with ages from 6 to 9 years were assessed for their general willingness to cooperate with their children's desires and their accurate predictions of their children's evaluations of different discipline strategies. Mothers asked their children to clean up a playroom in their absence, with some children protesting and others not protesting. Results showed that maternal willing cooperation predicted children's compliance in the absence but not in the presence of protest. Conversely, maternal accuracy concerning their children's evaluations of discipline facilitated children's compliance in dyads in which children expressed initial resistance but not if children indicated no opposition. Mothers' responsive reactions to protest mediated between maternal accuracy and children's ultimate compliance. Results indicate that specific features of parenting facilitate compliance in specific situations.

  12. Assessment of the Willingness to Collaborate in Enterprise Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, João; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    The success of a partnership depends fundamentally on the partners' active and vigorous participation in the achievement of the common goals. The commitment to these goals is associated to each partner's attitudes and intentions. These intentions, in turn, are linked to the partner's beliefs concerning the expected outcomes of a collaboration opportunity. This work proposes an approach to assess organizations' willingness to collaborate. This approach follows a behavioral perspective, which is based on the Theory of the Planned Behavior. A tool named Intentions Query Mechanism selects a number of appropriate questions from a knowledge-base, from which the answers allow to estimate the level of an organization's willingness to collaborate.

  13. The Willingness to Change Risky Health Behaviors among Chinese Rural Residents: What We Learned from a Population-Based Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengfei; Zhang, Chanyuan; Cai, Hong; Liu, Fangfang; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Guo, Chuanhai; He, Zhonghu; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of health interventions can be impaired by low socio-economic status and poor living conditions of the target population. However, the specifics of this problem in rural China are still unclear, and appropriate strategies should be explored. Methods In 2013, we conducted a questionnaire-based investigation among 410 participants from a population-based esophageal cancer cohort study in rural Anyang, China. Information regarding their demographic characteristics, levels of exposure to four health-risk behaviors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, risky dietary behaviors and poor hygiene, as well as willingness to change these behaviors, and data on potential predictors of willingness to change behaviors were collected. Results In this study, 33.3% (23/69), 25.0% (13/52), 60.7% (68/112) and 62.2% (237/381) of respondents reported that they were willing to change smoking, alcohol consumption, risky dietary behaviors and poor hygiene, respectively. Older people had higher exposure levels and less willingness to change these four health-risk behaviors. The levels of these four health-risk behaviors were negatively associated with willingness to change, while faith in people and behavioral change in surrounding people increased willingness to change risky behaviors. Conclusions In behavior-intervention-based health-promotion programs in rural China, the elderly and highly exposed populations should be the most difficult part and community- or household-based intervention would be more efficient. PMID:27575990

  14. Are parents more willing to vaccinate their children than themselves?

    PubMed

    Tang, Mei Yee; Shahab, Lion; Robb, Kathryn A; Gardner, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Risk perception studies have focused on personal risks; yet many decisions are taken for others. Some studies have suggested that parents are especially sensitive to risks to their children. We compared 245 parents' willingness to vaccinate their child versus themselves in nine hypothetical scenarios relating to influenza strains. Scenarios varied according to non-vaccination risk (low, medium and high) and 'risk target' (oneself, one's child or, as a comparator, one's elderly parent). Participants were more willing to vaccinate their child (61% acceptance) than themselves (54%) or their parent (56%). Parents may be more risk-sensitive when deciding for their child than for themselves. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Seeing and Being Green? The Effect of Money Priming on Willingness to Perform Sustainable Actions, Social Connectedness, and Prosociality.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Colin A; Zelenski, John M

    2016-01-01

    This investigation attempted to conceptually replicate/extend research that suggests that reminders of money can inhibit prosociality, promote self-sufficiency, and influence political beliefs. Based on these results, we hypothesized that money primes would decrease willingness to engage in sustainable actions. We also predicted that people would distribute points less prosocially and feel less socially connected when money was primed. Individuals were recruited from an undergraduate participant pool and MTurk. Meta-analytic results across the two samples revealed that money priming did not have a significant impact on willingness to act sustainably, but it did cause participants to distribute points less prosocially and report lower social connectedness than individuals in the control condition. While effects were smaller than those reported in Vohs, Mead, and Goode (2006), this study still offers support for the detrimental impact of reminders of money on interpersonal relations.

  16. Parent-to-Parent Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sue; Doyle, Phyllis

    1984-01-01

    A parent-to-parent support program was begun to provide early support for parents of handicapped children. New parents are carefully matched with helping parents, who have been trained in communication, resource finding, and referral making. (CL)

  17. Parental perceptions of clinical research in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Lucy E; Paulsen, Elizabeth L; Monuteaux, Michael C; Berry, Mark P; Neuman, Mark I

    2013-08-01

    There is a paucity of information about parental perceptions of clinical research in children, particularly in the emergency department (ED) setting. Parents accompanying their child to the ED completed a self-administered survey gauging perceptions of research and willingness to enroll a child in a clinical research study. Factor analysis was used to correlate survey responses into domains representing parents' feeling about participation in a research study. Logistic regression was used to assess the predictors of caregivers' amenability to research participation for their child. Three hundred eighty-eight parents were enrolled. Most subjects were willing to enroll their child in a study involving follow-up after ED care (87%) and collection of a urine or saliva sample (79% and 81%, respectively) and extant blood (69%). Fewer were amenable to studies that involve an investigational medication (26%) or additional phlebotomy (27%). Overall, more than 90% of parents felt that research was needed to help other children and was conducted in a way that is morally right, and 25% felt that research may compromise their child's confidentiality. Factor analyses yielded 3 factors that accounted for the variance across the survey questions. Patient and parent demographics, including the patient's triage acuity level, were not associated with willingness to participate in research. Most parents are amenable to having their child participate in a research study in the ED setting. Most parents share a sense of altruism that research is needed to help children, and this belief is predictive of willingness to participate in a research study.

  18. Help Me Learn, Help Me Grow = Ayudame a Aprender, Ayudame a Crecer: A Community Action Guide To Promote the Health/Education Connection among Parents and Parents-To-Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington, DC.

    Good health is important to a child's ability to learn in school and succeed in life. This guide is intended for the use of health and education professionals who are working with a national campaign designed to teach parents and parents-to-be the critical connection between good health and their children's ability to learn. The campaign deals…

  19. Help Me Learn, Help Me Grow = Ayudame a Aprender, Ayudame a Crecer: A Community Action Guide To Promote the Health/Education Connection among Parents and Parents-To-Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington, DC.

    Good health is important to a child's ability to learn in school and succeed in life. This guide is intended for the use of health and education professionals who are working with a national campaign designed to teach parents and parents-to-be the critical connection between good health and their children's ability to learn. The campaign deals…

  20. Higher-hazard, no benefit research involving children: parental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Tanya; Morris, Marilyn C

    2013-11-01

    US regulations allow local institutional review boards to approve greater than minimal risk, no-benefit research when the research enrolls children with the condition under study but not when it enrolls healthy children. We aim to describe the opinions of parents regarding higher-hazard, no-benefit research Quantitative and qualitative interviews with parents of children without heart disease or chronic medical conditions (no heart disease [noHD], n = 30), children with fully correctable heart disease (FCHD, n = 30), and children with life-altering heart disease (LAHD, n = 30). Parents of children with heart disease endorse higher-hazard, no-benefit heart disease research more strongly than noHD parents. Eight of 30 noHD parents, 19 of 30 FCHD parents, and 26 of 30 LAHD parents reported willingness to enroll their children in a heart disease research study involving an otherwise unnecessary chest radiograph (P < .01). There was no difference among groups in willingness to enroll their children in a similar study focused on childhood cancer. Twenty-two of 30 FCHD and 30 of 30 LAHD parents reported that parents have a responsibility to enroll their children in medical research to help future children with heart disease. Twenty-one of 30 noHD parents, 29 of 30 FCHD parents, and 30 of 30 LAHD parents feel able to evaluate the risks of medical research (P = .01). Parental opinions regarding higher-hazard, no-benefit research align with federal regulations. Parental willingness to enroll their children in higher-hazard, no-benefit research is driven in part by a sense of obligation to a community of families affected by childhood heart disease.

  1. Topical xylitol administration by parents for the promotion of oral health in infants: a caries prevention experiment at a Finnish Public Health Centre.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Kauko K; Järvinen, Kirsti L; Anttila, Carita H; Luntamo, Leena M; Vahlberg, Tero

    2013-08-01

    This demonstration programme tested topical use of xylitol as a possible oral health promoting regimen in infants at a Finnish Public Health Centre in 2002-2011. Parents (usually mothers) began once- or twice-daily administration of a 45% solution of xylitol (2.96 m) onto all available deciduous teeth of their children at the age of approximately 6-8 months. The treatment (xylitol swabbing), which continued till the age of approximately 36 months (total duration 26-28 months), was carried out using cotton swabs or a children's toothbrush; the approximate daily xylitol usage was 13.5 mg per each deciduous tooth. At the age of 7 years, caries data on the deciduous dentition of 80 children were compared with those obtained from similar, untreated children (n = 90). Xylitol swabbing resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the incidence of enamel and dentine caries compared with the comparison subjects (relative risk 2.1 and 4.0, respectively; 95% confidence intervals 1.42-3.09 and 2.01-7.98, respectively). Similar findings were obtained when the children were 5 or 6 years old. The treatment reduced the need of tooth filling relative risk and 95% confidence intervals at 7 years: 11.86 and 6.36-22.10, respectively; P < 0.001). Compared with untreated subjects, the oral counts of mutans streptococci were reduced significantly (P < 0.001). Considerable improvement in dental health was accomplished in infants participating in a topical at-home xylitol administration experiment, which was offered to families in the area by the Public Health Centre as a supplement to standard oral health care. Caregiver assessment of the programme was mostly rated as high or satisfactory. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Willingness to Communicate in English among Saudi Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik

    2016-01-01

    Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…

  3. Measuring rural homeowners' willingness to pay for land conservation easements

    Treesearch

    Seong-Hoon Cho; David H. Newman; J. Michael Bowker

    2005-01-01

    Rapid growth of rural communities in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Macon County, North Carolina has been giving rise to concerns over declining environmental quality and increasing need for land-use policy. This paper examines willingness to pay (WTP) for hypothetical conservation easements as an alternative land-use policy for the county. Despite the fact that Macon...

  4. An Empirical Study of Student Willingness to Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Borozan, Anci

    2012-01-01

    Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…

  5. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  6. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  7. Development and Validation of an Instructional Willingness to Communicate Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Nourzadeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The current study was undertaken with the purpose of developing and validating a willingness to communicate (WTC) questionnaire for instructional language teaching and learning contexts. Six instructional WTC (IWTC) components were identified after (1) undertaking a comprehensive review of the literature on second language (L2) WTC and other…

  8. Multiple Motivational Goals, Values, and Willingness to Cheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental importance of motives, values and goals to academic behaviour has been noted by many social theorists. This paper reports the results of a survey investigation on the relationship of gender, professional career aspirations and the combined influence of materialism, religiosity, and achievement goals on students' willingness to…

  9. Multiple Motivational Goals, Values, and Willingness to Cheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental importance of motives, values and goals to academic behaviour has been noted by many social theorists. This paper reports the results of a survey investigation on the relationship of gender, professional career aspirations and the combined influence of materialism, religiosity, and achievement goals on students' willingness to…

  10. Willingness to pay as a measure of health benefits.

    PubMed

    Bala, M V; Mauskopf, J A; Wood, L L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for evaluating new healthcare interventions, present the theoretical basis for the use of willingness to pay as a method for valuing benefits in a CBA and describe how to obtain willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures of health benefits and how to use these values in a CBA. We review selected economic studies on consumer demand and consumer surplus and studies presenting WTP estimates for healthcare interventions. The theoretical foundations of willingness to pay as a measure of commodity value are rooted in consumer demand theory. The area under the fixed income consumer demand curve represents the consumer's maximum willingness to pay for the commodity. We identify 3 types of potential benefits from a new healthcare intervention, namely patient benefits, option value and altruistic value, and suggest WTP questions for valuing different combinations of these benefits. We demonstrate how responses to these questions can be adjusted for income effects and incorporated into economic evaluations. We suggest that the lack of popularity of CBAs in the health area is related to the perceived difficulty in valuing health benefits as well as concern over how CBA incorporates the distribution of income. We show that health benefits can be valued using simple survey techniques and that these values can be adjusted to any desired income distribution.

  11. Willingness of Medical Students for Hepatitis B & C Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahsud, Muhammad Amin Jan; Hussain, Javed; Khan, Muhammad Hussain; Khan, Habibullah; Noman, Nargis; Rabi, Fazle, Din, Siraj ud

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care workers including medical students are vulnerable to hepatitis B & C virus infections. The objective of this study was to determine the level of willingness for screening among medical students. Methodology: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at Gomal Medical College, Dera Ismail Khan from 1st April 2010 to 15…

  12. Private Schools and the Willingness to Pay for Public Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasington, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Households pay a premium to live in houses assigned to high quality public schools, and the housing market yields information about the demand for public school quality. The current study estimates a two-stage house price hedonic emphasizing the role that private schools play in the willingness to pay for public school quality. The elasticity of…

  13. A Chinese Conceptualisation of Willingness To Communicate in ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, W. P.; Clement, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Amends the willingness to communicate (WTC) model to reflect more closely the situation found in English language Chinese classrooms. Changes some structural relationships between constructs included in the model and reinterprets some of the variables from a Chinese perspective. Gives an account of linguistic, communicative, and social…

  14. Making Asian Learners Talk: Encouraging Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vongsila, Vatsana; Reinders, Hayo

    2016-01-01

    Developing English for communicative purposes is a key objective of language classes in many parts of the world. As a logical prerequisite to communication practice, learners need to have Willingness to Communicate (WTC) before they will engage in L2 interaction (Macintyre et al., 1998). Teachers can play an important role in helping learners to…

  15. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Second Language Classroom Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a multiple case study that investigated the dynamic and situated nature of learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in second language (L2) classrooms. Framed within a sociocognitive perspective on L2 learning which draws together social, environmental, and individual factors, this study traced WTC among six learners of…

  16. The Prediction of University Students' Willingness to Seek Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan, Serdar; Ozbay, Yasar; Cihangir-Cankaya, Zeynep; Terzi, Serife

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the variables that qualify the help seeking behavior (willingness to seek counseling) of Turkish university students. A total of 5829 college students (2974 females, 2841 males, 14 unknown) from eleven universities in Turkey have participated in the study. Personal Form, Self Concealment Scale, Willingness…

  17. Psychosocial variables associated with willingness to donate organs.

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, B E; Spanos, N P

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 108 university psychology students to investigate attitudes and behaviour related to organ donation. Three groups (committed, uncommitted and opposed) were identified. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that, compared with uncommitted donors, committed donors felt better informed about organ donation, had discussed donation more often with family members and knew more people who had signed donor cards. The subjects in the opposed group and those in the uncommitted group cited different reasons for not signing a donor card. Empathy, religious beliefs and attitudes about death did not affect willingness to donate. Analyses of the interaction between willingness to donate one's own organs and willingness to donate those of a family member revealed a monotonic increase in willingness to donate the organs of a family member as the type of recipient became more personally relevant. Our findings indicate that when health care professionals request donor organs the potential recipients must be presented to the potential donors in a personally relevant manner. Educational programs must be developed to train medical personnel in how to effectively ask for organs without coercing the potential donor or invading the privacy of the potential recipient. PMID:2731099

  18. Development and Validation of an Instructional Willingness to Communicate Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Nourzadeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The current study was undertaken with the purpose of developing and validating a willingness to communicate (WTC) questionnaire for instructional language teaching and learning contexts. Six instructional WTC (IWTC) components were identified after (1) undertaking a comprehensive review of the literature on second language (L2) WTC and other…

  19. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Second Language Classroom Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a multiple case study that investigated the dynamic and situated nature of learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in second language (L2) classrooms. Framed within a sociocognitive perspective on L2 learning which draws together social, environmental, and individual factors, this study traced WTC among six learners of…

  20. Making Asian Learners Talk: Encouraging Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vongsila, Vatsana; Reinders, Hayo

    2016-01-01

    Developing English for communicative purposes is a key objective of language classes in many parts of the world. As a logical prerequisite to communication practice, learners need to have Willingness to Communicate (WTC) before they will engage in L2 interaction (Macintyre et al., 1998). Teachers can play an important role in helping learners to…

  1. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  2. A Chinese Conceptualisation of Willingness To Communicate in ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, W. P.; Clement, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Amends the willingness to communicate (WTC) model to reflect more closely the situation found in English language Chinese classrooms. Changes some structural relationships between constructs included in the model and reinterprets some of the variables from a Chinese perspective. Gives an account of linguistic, communicative, and social…

  3. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  4. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  5. Private Schools and the Willingness to Pay for Public Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasington, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Households pay a premium to live in houses assigned to high quality public schools, and the housing market yields information about the demand for public school quality. The current study estimates a two-stage house price hedonic emphasizing the role that private schools play in the willingness to pay for public school quality. The elasticity of…

  6. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  7. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  8. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  9. Willingness to Communicate in English among Iranian EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Kamangar, Mohsen; Khany, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written on the determinants that can expedite or hinder learners' willingness to communicate in second and foreign language contexts. Though the literature is abundant with studies on many of these variables, little if any can be found to have targeted EFL students of private institutes in Iran. An effort was made in this study to…

  10. Perceived usefulness of personal protective equipment in pesticide use predicts farmers' willingness to use it.

    PubMed

    Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Sharif; Damalas, Christos A; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2017-12-31

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) can substantially reduce the risk exposure from pesticide spraying, but compliance is rather low, particularly among small-scale farmers. In this study the connection between farmers' willingness to use PPE in pesticide handling and perceptions of PPE usefulness was examined through a survey of 341 small-scale farmers in Gorgan county of Golestan Province, Iran. Farmers who were not using PPE when working with pesticides were purposively selected to better serve the objective of the study. Multinomial logit regression models were employed to examine differences in farmers' willingness to use PPE in the future. Almost four out of ten farmers (38.1%) showed willingness to use PPE. However, 36.7% of the farmers showed unwillingness and 25.2% were unsure about using PPE. The average score of farmers' perceptions of PPE disadvantages (x=0.55) was significantly higher than the corresponding score of PPE advantages (x=0.38). Low availability and high price were considered the most important constraints in PPE use by the majority of farmers (75.4% and 74.8% of the farmers, respectively). Farmers who perceived usefulness of PPE, such as effectiveness, safety, and ease of use, were more willing to use PPE in the future. Those who perceived non-usefulness of PPE, driven by unavailability, high price, lack of use by neighbors or colleagues, and ignorance of PPE in extension trainings, were less likely to use PPE in the future. Findings revealed that willingness to use PPE among small-scale farmers when working with pesticides is strongly linked to their perception of PPE usefulness. Findings raise our understanding of the important role of farmers' knowledge in PPE acceptance and use and can motivate policy-makers to pay more attention to the role of farmers' perceptions and awareness in the success or failure of health and safety programs. It is necessary to incorporate farmers' preferences in extension programs to promote safety measures

  11. [Willingness of Warsaw inhabitants to cooperate with health service. I. Opinions on health reforms].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Car, Justyna; Debska, Anna; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Social participation in undertaking public decisions is one of the main determinants of good governance. Recognizing to what extent people are ready to participate in the process of reforming health care as an active partners seems to be necessary. Therefore, in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Education Department of NIPH-NIH the study aimed at examining citizen's willingness to cooperate with health staff and gathering their opinions on health reform was carried out. The not-addressed questionnaires were conveyed to 1700 households in Warsaw and 402 correct completed were received. Our findings indicate that one of four Warsaw citizens was ready to participate jointly with health workers in health reform. The willingness was higher in women, older people, higher educated and pensioners. From perspective of their own health, respondents perceived the following issues as requiring a change in the time of health reform: easier access to specialist treatment (60,9%), changing the health insurance system (17,3%), reduction in medicines price (14,8%), improving the quality of medical services (14,0%), easier access to diagnostic tests (13,6%) and to primary care physicians (10,7%), improving the health and social security of old people (9,0%), easier access and wider range of preventive examinations (7,4%), facilitate the sanatorium treatment (4,1%) and rehabilitation (3,7%).

  12. Buffering Boys and Boosting Girls: The Protective and Promotive Effects of Early Head Start for Children's Expressive Language in the Context of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallotton, C. D.; Harewood, T.; Ayoub, C. A.; Pan, B.; Mastergeorge, A. M.; Brophy-Herb, H.

    2012-01-01

    Children's characteristics, including gender, influence their development by eliciting differential responses from their environments, and by influencing differential responses to their environments. Parenting-related stress, associated with poverty environments, negatively influences children's language, likely through its impact on parent-child…

  13. "Every Child Matters": Change for Parents/Carers and Families? Can Schools Work with Families to Promote Knowledge and Understanding of Government Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argent, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The "Every Child Matters" agenda places emphasis on the need for parents/carers and families to work in partnership with schools. At the heart of this is the importance of a shared definition of family learning that values parents as equal partners. The extent to which schools are responsible for putting government policy into practice…

  14. Involving Parents in a Summer Book Reading Program to Promote Reading Comprehension, Fluency, and Vocabulary in Grade 3 and Grade 5 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique

    2014-01-01

    In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…

  15. Buffering Boys and Boosting Girls: The Protective and Promotive Effects of Early Head Start for Children's Expressive Language in the Context of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallotton, C. D.; Harewood, T.; Ayoub, C. A.; Pan, B.; Mastergeorge, A. M.; Brophy-Herb, H.

    2012-01-01

    Children's characteristics, including gender, influence their development by eliciting differential responses from their environments, and by influencing differential responses to their environments. Parenting-related stress, associated with poverty environments, negatively influences children's language, likely through its impact on parent-child…

  16. "Every Child Matters": Change for Parents/Carers and Families? Can Schools Work with Families to Promote Knowledge and Understanding of Government Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argent, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The "Every Child Matters" agenda places emphasis on the need for parents/carers and families to work in partnership with schools. At the heart of this is the importance of a shared definition of family learning that values parents as equal partners. The extent to which schools are responsible for putting government policy into practice…

  17. Infant Signs as Intervention? Promoting Symbolic Gestures for Preverbal Children in Low-Income Families Supports Responsive Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallotton, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…

  18. Infant Signs as Intervention? Promoting Symbolic Gestures for Preverbal Children in Low-Income Families Supports Responsive Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallotton, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…

  19. Willingness to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures.

    PubMed

    Borges, A P; Reis, A; Anjos, J

    2017-03-01

    The need to improve the sustainability of public health expenditure, in a climate of growing pressure on national budgets, inevitably leads to a discussion about resource rationing, and the extent of society's responsibility for those expenditures. To contribute to this discussion empirically, this study evaluated the willingness of Portuguese respondents to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures through out-of-pocket payments. A questionnaire addressed to the general public was developed, with 296 respondents. The survey was divided into three sections: (i) sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents; (ii) health-related habits; and (iii) willingness to pay other individuals' healthcare expenditures and, if so, how much. Logit and ordered logit models were applied. Respondents were divided fairly even between those who were willing to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures and those who were not. Respondents with health insurance contracts were more willing to contribute, and the contribution value was higher. Having a degree-level education was associated with reduced willingness to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures, and reduced probability of paying a larger amount, which may be associated with holding individuals accountable for their choices. Considering self-reported risky behaviours, the respondents who consumed alcohol were more likely to be willing to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures, and to a greater extent, whereas smokers were less likely to pay larger amounts. These effects suggest that respondents with different unhealthy behaviours are not equally altruistic. These findings highlight the need to combine health policy and social beliefs. The respondents seem to be interested to discuss healthcare funding, given that they agreed to reveal their willingness to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures. Moreover, respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and health

  20. Characterizing hospital workers' willingness to respond to a radiological event.

    PubMed

    Balicer, Ran D; Catlett, Christina L; Barnett, Daniel J; Thompson, Carol B; Hsu, Edbert B; Morton, Melinda J; Semon, Natalie L; Watson, Christopher M; Gwon, Howard S; Links, Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD, or "dirty bomb"), which combines a conventional explosive device with radiological materials, is among the National Planning Scenarios of the United States government. Understanding employee willingness to respond is critical for planning experts. Previous research has demonstrated that perception of threat and efficacy is key in the assessing willingness to respond to a RDD event. An anonymous online survey was used to evaluate the willingness of hospital employees to respond to a RDD event. Agreement with a series of belief statements was assessed, following a methodology validated in previous work. The survey was available online to all 18,612 employees of the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January to March 2009. Surveys were completed by 3426 employees (18.4%), whose demographic distribution was similar to overall hospital staff. 39% of hospital workers were not willing to respond to a RDD scenario if asked but not required to do so. Only 11% more were willing if required. Workers who were hesitant to agree to work additional hours when required were 20 times less likely to report during a RDD emergency. Respondents who perceived their peers as likely to report to work in a RDD emergency were 17 times more likely to respond during a RDD event if asked. Only 27.9% of the hospital employees with a perception of low efficacy declared willingness to respond to a severe RDD event. Perception of threat had little impact on willingness to respond among hospital workers. Radiological scenarios such as RDDs are among the most dreaded emergency events yet studied. Several attitudinal indicators can help to identify hospital employees unlikely to respond. These risk-perception modifiers must then be addressed through training to enable effective hospital response to a RDD event.