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Sample records for pargo rojo lutjanus

  1. Pargo Chasma and its relationship to global tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Pargo Chasma was first identified on Pioneer Venus data as a 10,000 km long lineation extending from Atla Regio in the north terminating in the plains south of Phoebe Regio. More recent Magellan data have revealed this feature to be one of the longest chains of coronae so far identified on the planet. Stofan et al have identified 60 coronae and 2 related features associated with this chain; other estimates differ according to the classification scheme adopted, for example Head et al. identify only 29 coronae but 43 arachnoids in the same region. This highlights one of the major problems associated with the preliminary mapping of the Magellan data: there has been an emphasis on identifying particular features on Venus without a universally accepted scheme to classify those features. Nevertheless, Pargo Chasma is clearly identified as a major tectonic belt of global significance. Together with the Artemis-Atla-Beta tectonic zone and the Beta-Phoebe rift belt, Pargo Chasma defines a region on Venus with an unusually high concentration of tectonic and volcanic features. Thus, an understanding of the processes involved in the formation of Pargo Chasma may lend significant insight into the evolution of the region and the planet as a whole. I have produced a detailed 1 to 10 million scale map of Pargo Chasma and the surrounding area from preliminary USGS controlled mosaiced image maps of Venus constructed from Magellan data. In view of the problems highlighted above in relation the efforts already made at identifying a particular set of features I have mapped the region purely on the basis of the geomorphology visible in the magellan data without any attempt at identifying a particular set or class of features. Thus, the map produced distinguishes between areas of different brightness and texture. This has the advantage of highlighting the tectonic fabric of Pargo Chasma and clearly illustrates the close inter-relationship between individual coronae and the surrounding

  2. Complete mitogenome sequences of the pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) and the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus gutattus).

    PubMed

    Bayona-Vásquez, Natalia Juliana; Hernández-Álvarez, Cristóbal Alejandro; Glenn, Travis; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel; Díaz-Jaimes, Píndaro

    2017-03-01

    The structure of the mitochondrial genome for the Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru, and the spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus gutattus, of specimens collected in the eastern Pacific is similar to the reported for other teleosts and shares the same configuration with other members of the family Lutjanidae. It has a total length of 16 502 and 16 508 base pairs (bp) for Lutjanus peru and L. gutattus, respectively; on average the base composition was A (27.9%), T (24.8%) C (30.9%), and G (16.4%), containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes; and the leucine (Leu) tRNA is duplicated.

  3. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P<0.05) was achieved by combining extender with pH 8.2 with 10% concentration of dimethylsulfoxide and cooling rate 60°C -min, 1 minute of equilibration time and 1:3 (v/v) dilution ratio. The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates >60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  4. Maps showing characteristics of the Cabo Rojo West offshore sand deposit, southwestern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trumbull, James V.A.; Trias, Juan L.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on a deposit of well-sorted coarse calcareous sand in water depths of 10-20 m in an area between 1 and 6 km west and southwest fo the promontory of Cabo Rojo, the southwesternmost corner of Puerto Rico. 

  5. Microbiota of wild-caught Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus.

    PubMed

    Tarnecki, Andrea M; Patterson, William F; Arias, Covadonga R

    2016-10-21

    The microbiota plays an essential role in host health, particularly through competition with opportunistic pathogens. Changes in total bacterial load and microbiota structure can indicate early stages of disease, and information on the composition of bacterial communities is essential to understanding fish health. Although Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is an economically important species in recreational fisheries and a primary aquaculture candidate, no information is available on the microbial communities of this species. The aim of this study was to survey the microbiota of apparently healthy, wild-caught Red Snapper from the Gulf of Mexico. Sampled Red Snapper showed no physical signs of disease. Tissues that are either primary entry routes for pathogens (feces, gill) or essential to disease diagnosis (blood) were sampled. Bacteria were enumerated using culture-based techniques and characterized by pyrosequencing. Aerobic counts of feces and gill samples were 10(7) and 10(4) CFU g(-1), respectively. All individuals had positive blood cultures with counts up to 23 CFU g(-1). Gammaproteobacteria dominated the microbiota of all sample types, including the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Photobacterium in feces and Pseudomonas in blood and gill. Gill samples were also dominated by Vibrio while blood samples had high abundances of Nevskia. High variability in microbiota composition was observed between individuals, with percent differences in community composition ranging from 6 to 76 % in feces, 10 to 58 % in gill, and 52 to 64 % in blood. This study provides the first characterization of the microbiota of the economically significant Red Snapper via pyrosequencing. Its role in fish health highlights the importance of understanding microbiota composition for future work on disease prevention using microbial manipulation.

  6. Effect of controlled atmospheres on maintaining quality of persimmon fruit cv. "Rojo Brillante".

    PubMed

    Arnal, L; Besada, C; Navarro, P; Salvador, A

    2008-01-01

    Astringent "Rojo Brillante" persimmon fruits were stored in air or in 2 different controlled atmospheres: 10% CO(2)+ 90% N(2) (CA1) or 97 % N(2)+ air (CA2) for up 50 d at 15 degrees C. After different periods, the fruit were treated with 95% CO(2) for 24 h at 20 degrees C in order to remove astringency, and then transferred to 20 degrees C in air free of CO(2) for 5 d to simulate shelf life. Other fruits were directly transferred to shelf life without being submitted to deastringency treatment. Storage under CA2 allowed storability of persimmon "Rojo Brillante" during 30 d at 15 degrees C, maintaining commercial firmness. Moreover, CA2 had an effect on removing astringency when fruits were stored for 30 d at 15 degrees C, or after 20 d following to shelf life. As consequence, deastringency treatment could be avoided when the fruits were previously stored under this controlled atmosphere.

  7. Nutritional value and acceptability of homemade maize/sorghum-based weaning mixtures supplemented with rojo bean flour, ground sardines and peanut paste.

    PubMed

    Mosha, Theobald C E; Vicent, Mary M

    2004-06-01

    Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning diets (namely, maize-rojo beans-peanut, maize-peanut-sardines, maize-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, maize-peanut-soaked rojo beans, maize-peanut-germinated rojo beans, sorghum-rojo beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked rojo beans, and sorghum-peanut-germinated rojo beans) were formulated and assayed for proximate composition, energy, mineral density, tannin content and residual urease activity. The diets were also evaluated for storage stability under ambient conditions, sensory quality and overall acceptability. Results of the study indicated that, concentrations of protein, fat, ash, calcium, iron, zinc and copper were significantly (P<0.05) increased when plain maize and sorghum gruels were enriched with rojo beans, peanut paste and/or ground sardines. Soaking and germinating the rojo beans and dehulling the sorghum reduced the concentration of tannins in the gruels significantly (P<0.05). Residual urease activity ranged between 0.00 and 0.07 units, about 10-fold lower than the maximum level (0.8 units) allowed in weaning foods. Both maize and sorghum-based composite gruels had a short shelf-life under ambient conditions (26.4 degrees C) ranging between 4 and 6 h, with gruels containing ground sardines showing a tendency to spoil faster. All composite gruels except those containing germinated rojo beans were highly liked and accepted by consumers (P<0.05), similar to the plain maize and sorghum gruels. The maize and sorghum-based composite products therefore have a potential for use as weaning and/or supplementary foods for older infants and young children. Further investigations are suggested to extend the shelf-life of the composite products and improve the organoleptic quality of the diets containing germinated rojo beans.

  8. Mitogenomes of genus Pristipomoides, Lutjanus and Pterocaesio confirm Caesionidae nests in Lutjanidae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yusong; Bai, Qin; Yan, Tao; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Goldbanded jobfish (Perciformes: Lutjanidae: Etelinae: Pristipomoides multidens) was sequenced using long-PCR amplification (Accession No.: KF430626). The mitochondrial genome is highly homologous to those of other teleosts. Consensus tree based on phylogeny analysis of nucleotide sequences using the protein-coding regions combined sequences (apart from ND6) in 11 species supports the fact that Pristipomoides multidens of Etelinae and the cluster of Subfamily Lutjaninae remain the sister relationship, consistent with the traditional taxonomy, while the fusiliers (Pterocaesio tile) of family Caesionidae nested within the genus Lutjanus of family Lutjanidae and showed more closely relationship with the non-reddish snappers cluster including L. russellii and L. argentimaculatus. Conclusively, this mitogenomic phylogeny indicates that the Caesionidae is a synonym of family Lutjanidae. Given the morphologic and feeding diversity, we hypothesize that the variation of feeding systems of genus Lutjanus may drive the speciation of snappers and fusiliers.

  9. The Presence and Origin of Enterococcus faecalis in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachman, A. J.; Sturm, P.; Viqueira Ríos, R.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, a watershed management plan is being developed for Cabo Rojo region in Southwest Puerto Rico. This project fills in major gaps for water quality data on the Rio Viejo, a tributary on the Guanajibio River. The Rio Viejo flows through the town of Cabo Rojo, a town of 51,245 people. The project has identified 5 sites along the river to track bacterial loads. In the tropics, Enterococcus faecalis is an important indicator for fecal contamination in surface waters as it does not reproduce as quickly soils as E. coli. A combination of EPA 1600 and 9230B from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for identification of E. faecalis were utilized. The assay is a four step procedure that identifies the four criteria of bacteria in the group D Streptococcus system. The criteria require that the bacteria are Gram-positive cocci and Esculin-positive. There also must be growth in Brain Heart Infusion Broth at 35C and 45C as well as growth in Brain Heart Infusion broth + 6.5% NaCl. Further research will be conducted at North Carolina State University to ascertain the vertebrate species that is the source of the contamination through the use of qPCR.

  10. USE OF PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES TO STUDY THE MICROBIAL COMPOSITION OF CYANOBACTERIAL MATS IN CABO ROJO SOLAR SALTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cabo Rojo Saltern located in the West side of Puerto Rico is a hypersaline ecosystem that consists of crystallizer ponds surrounded by series of cyanobacterial mats. Although this ecosystem harbors a variety of microorganisms not much is known about their identity and relati...

  11. USE OF PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES TO STUDY THE MICROBIAL COMPOSITION OF CYANOBACTERIAL MATS IN CABO ROJO SOLAR SALTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cabo Rojo Saltern located in the West side of Puerto Rico is a hypersaline ecosystem that consists of crystallizer ponds surrounded by series of cyanobacterial mats. Although this ecosystem harbors a variety of microorganisms not much is known about their identity and relati...

  12. Secondary forest succession and tree planting at the Laguna Cartagena and Cabo Rojo wildlife refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    P.L. Weaver; J.J. Schwagerl

    2008-01-01

    Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat...

  13. Use of riverine through reef habitat systems by dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu ) in eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Chaves, Eduardo M.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.

    2011-11-01

    The early life history of Western Atlantic snappers from the Southern hemisphere is largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories) of the dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu) was examined across the largest South Atlantic reef-estuarine complex (Abrolhos Shelf, Brazil, 16-19° S). Visual surveys were conducted in different habitats across the shelf (estuary, inner-shelf reefs and mid-shelf reefs). Lutjanus jocu showed higher densities on inner-shelf habitats, with a clear increase in fish size across the shelf. Individuals <7 cm were associated with both the estuary (mangrove and rocky habitats) and inner-shelf reefs (particularly shallow fore-reefs and tide pools). Individuals ranging 10-30 cm were broadly distributed, but consistently more abundant on inner-shelf reefs. Individuals between 30 and 40 cm were more common on mid-shelf reefs, while individuals >40 cm were recorded only on mid-shelf reefs. Literature data indicate that individuals ranging 70-80 cm are common on deep offshore reefs. This pattern suggests that the dog snapper performs ontogenetic cross-shelf migrations. Protecting portions of the different habitats used by the dog snapper during its post-settlement life cycle is highlighted as an important conservation and management measure.

  14. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  15. [Bacteriological load of the fishes Cynoscion squamipinnis and Lutjanus gutattus in the marketing chain, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Marín, Carolina; Fonseca, Cristian; Arias, Sidey; Villegas, Irene; García, Andrea; Ishihara, Hikaru

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriological load of the fishes Cynoscion squamipinnis and Lutjanus gutattus in the marketing chain, Costa Rica. To determine the bacteriological quality of fishery products in the different stages from commercialization, monthly samples were taken during March 2004 and February 2006 from a Costa Rica marketing chain. Microbiological analyses were made to determine total coliforms (CT), faecal coliforms (CF), Escherichia coli (EC), aerobic total count (RTA), Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Three body zones were analyzed: skin, belly and muscle. There were differences in the amount of CT between parts: skin had the highest counts, 11% of samples were identified as E. coli. and 2.5% of total counts were higher than the legal limit. Only 1.3% of the samples were S. aureus-positive. Salmonella sp., V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus were absent.

  16. Interactions between range-expanding tropical fishes and the northern Gulf of Mexico red snapper Lutjanus campechanus.

    PubMed

    Marshak, A R; Heck, K L

    2017-09-14

    Experimental investigation of the intensity of potential competitive interactions among increasingly abundant tropically-associated grey Lutjanus griseus and lane snapper Lutjanus synagris and resident northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) red snapper Lutjanus campechanus was undertaken in large outdoor mesocosms. In pair-wise interaction trials, compared with L. synagris, L. campechanus demonstrated significantly increased roving behaviour and predatory activity. While no significant difference in these activities was observed between L. campechanus and L. griseus, when all three snappers (Lutjanidae) were grouped together L. campechanus swimming activity significantly decreased in the presence of both tropically-associated species. Overall, L. campechanus were more active and aggressive predators and appear to be competitively resistant to L. griseus and L. synagris. As lower latitude species have continued to become increasingly prevalent in nGOM habitats and regional warming continues to affect resident reef-associated fishes, these findings contribute to the assessment of the effects of warming-related species shifts upon nGOM fishes and document current partial resilience of L. campechanus to climate-related expansions of tropical confamilials. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan Rojo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaraque, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; González-Barrio, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Surface physics and magnetism, in particular the connection between surface defects, reduced dimensionality or size, crystal structure, electronic density of states and the mechanical and magnetic properties of solids, were always at the core of Juan Rojo's scientific interest and output. Both fields seem to meet at the nanoscale, a privileged playing field which is ideal for testing theoretical concepts, exploring new physics or probing a wealth of new, stunning and unheard-of applications. Upon reducing size or dimensionality, either in bulk systems or in thin films, surfaces and surface effects are telling. Thus, for instance, an ultra-thin coating can make nanoparticles of non-magnetic materials exhibit magnetic behaviour; or atomic steps can modify the local mechanical properties of a metallic single crystal. In this special section there are eight invited papers by disciples and close collaborators of Juan Rojo, that cover an ample spectrum of the above mentioned topics. The first paper, by Palacio et al, investigates the temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions for FeO mono- and bi-layer growth on Ru(0001). The following paper, by Cortés-Gil et al, reports on the dramatic change in the electric resistivity of the manganite perovskite (La0.5Ca0.5)z MnO3 as a function of Ca content, an effect related to the removal of a charge-ordered state and a magnetic transition. Baeza et al study biomaterials for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as targeted magnetic nanoparticles used for intracell hyperthermia in cancer therapies. In the following paper, Marcano et al, assisted by a multi-technique approach, revisit the extraordinarily rich magnetic phase diagram of the Kondo system CeNi1- x Cux down to 100 mK temperatures. The magnetic field dependence of the martensitic transition temperature of the meta-magnetic shape memory alloy Ni50Mn34.5In15.5 in a crystalline and amorphous phase, in fields up to 13 T, is the subject of the paper

  18. [Reproductive biology of Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Utria National Park, Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Correa-Herrera, Tatiana; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Protected areas are important for natural population conservation since they work as refuge, feeding and breeding areas, where specimens should be exempt from human pressure. The generation of better criteria for management decisions and conservation of fishery resources, is based on the reproductive aspects of species that support fishing activities, since this information is related to the abundance, size and frequency of capture. With this aim, the reproductive biology of the spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus was studied from April 2008 and February 2009 at the Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific. For this, we analyzed the volume of catch, size structure, sex ratio, fecundity, maturity size, breeding areas and seasons (n = 278), of daily landings of 21 units of artisanal fisheries in ten fishing grounds in the Park. Form all landings, we evaluated a total of 4319 individuals belonging to 84 species. Based on the number of individuals, Lutjanus guttatus ranked third in catches representing 6.4% (278 individuals), and 16th with 1.8% (95.79kg), based on catch biomass. The average weight was 0.34 kg +/- 0.25 kg, while 29 cm +/- 6.4 cm for total length. The total length-weight relationship had the best fit (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05, n = 272) with the equation P(T) = 0.00000885* LT3.09. The occurrence of mature fish and high condition factors suggested a spawning season in June, September and October in sandy and rocky shores. This species showed an asynchronical gonadal development, with a mean sexual maturity size estimated in 23.5cm total length, and an absolute fecundity of 156 253.11 oocytes (mode of 4 microm diameter). We concluded that L. guttatus medium sizes observed indicated a fishing pressure on small size specimens (the minimum size being 18cm); thus, we recommend the implementation of minimum catch sizes based on the criterion of size at maturity LT100 (25.5 cm) and to apply seasonal fishing closures during the highest reproductive activity (June

  19. Diet variation of a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, across an estuarine gradient: trade-offs of quantity for quality?

    PubMed

    Yeager, L A; Layman, C A; Hammerschlag-Peyer, C M

    2014-08-01

    This study examined diet, prey quality and growth for a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, at five sites across an estuarine gradient in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida, U.S.A. Lutjanus griseus diets shifted from dominance by low quality, intertidal crabs upstream to an increased reliance on higher quality shrimp, fishes and benthic crabs downstream. Frequency of L. griseus with empty stomachs was higher at downstream sites. Lutjanus griseus growth rates did not vary among sites. Results indicate that L. griseus may be able to compensate for lower quality prey upstream by consuming more, and thus individuals are able to maintain similar levels of energy balance and growth rates across the estuarine gradient. Elucidating mechanisms, such as compensatory feeding, that enable generalist species to remain successful across habitat conditions are critical to understanding their organismal ecology and may facilitate predictions about the response of generalists to landscape alteration.

  20. Mercury pollution by mining activities in Rayo Rojo mining district, Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran-Mita, T.; Faz Cano, A.; Muñoz, M.; Millán, R.; Salvador, F.

    2009-04-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important causes of the environmental degradation. This is the case of the Natural Integrated Management Area of Apolobamba (Department of La Paz, Bolivia), where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to present days, with very little gold extraction and very scarce mineral processing technology. In Apolobamba mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes and this might conduct to high Hg contents. Inhabitants of this area consume fish from lakes and rivers, and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate mercury impact into the soil-plant-water system. The Technical University of Cartagena, Spain, through the Research Group "Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water", carried out a research, in the most intense affected gold extraction zones in Apolobamba, among them Rayo Rojo, where mining activity is mainly gold extraction, although the extracted mineral volume and technology used is low. Rayo Rojo is located in the central part of ANMI - Apolobamba (in the andean region), inside of Pelechuco municipality; the area belongs biogeographically to the Altoandina and Puna. This district, located in Apolobamba mountain-range, where altitudes above 5.000 m.a.s.l are reached. Water, soil, sediment and plant samples were taken around the operations mining sites and total mercury analysed. Mercury content was determined by AMA-254 model, based on the thermal decomposition of the sample and collection of the Hg vapour on a gold amalgamator. The analysis is performed from solid samples without any further preparation. Samples are initially dried at 125°C and then thermally decomposed at the temperature of 550°C. Mercury vapour is then trapped on the gold amalgamator. AMA-254 method certificated standards were BCR 62-BCR 281. Preliminary results show high Hg concentrations

  1. Oocyte development and fecundity type of the Brazilian Snapper Lutjanus alexandrei Moura & Lindeman, 2007 (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C A F; Oliveira, P G V; Oliveira, C H B; Hazin, F H V; Travassos, P

    2016-02-01

    Lutjanid species exhibit multiple spawning behaviour during an extended spawning season in warm months, asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity. Although early studies have contributed to knowledge of the reproductive cycle of many species within the group, they have not considered aspects about the number of cortical alveoli oocyte stage throughout maturity phases along spawning season. The latter aspect is also considered very important to confirm indeterminate fecundity hypothesis. In the present study, were analyzed 154 Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei female gonads obtained from artisanal fisheries in Pernambuco State (Brazil) between October 2010 and March 2011. Were measured oocyte size frequency distribution for maturity phases (developing, spawning capable and actively spawning), and oocyte development stage (unyolked oocytes, cortical alveoli, primary, secondary and tertiary vitellogenic oocytes and hydrated oocytes), and also the oocyte stage frequency during spawning season. The frequency of cortical alveoli oocyte stage was constantly found in the spawning period (>37%), showing slight variation throughout maturity phases. The absence of gap in the oocyte size frequency distribution between primary and secondary oocyte growth stages during spawning season is a strong indicator of continuous oocyte recruitment from reserve stocks. In addition, co-occurrence of tertiary vitellogenic oocytes, hydrated oocytes, post-ovulatory follicles and yellow-brown bodies in the histological sections of ovaries reinforce indeterminate fecundity hypothesis.

  2. Characterization of chitin and chitosan synthesized from red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) scale's waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarina, N. D.; Fanani, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Chitin and chitosan are natural biopolymer which are useful for industrial, medical and environmental field. Study about using fish scale sources especially saltwater fish is still limited. Red snapper (Lutjanus sp) is common tropical saltwater fish that known as important source of marine products, particularly in Indonesia. Correspondingly, the consumption of this species has generated significant amount of discarded scale wastes recently and hence can cause adverse impact on the environment. Utilizing the fish scale as alternative sources of chitin and chitosan can be one solution dealing with environmental problem. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize the chitin and chitosan derived from the red snapper scale wastes. Chitin were extracted by deproteination and demineralization while chitosan using deacetylation. Morphology of the chitin and chitosan were analyzed using electron dispersal spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), while degree of deacetylation using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Proximate analysis showed that content of moisture, ash, and nitrogen in chitin were 3.20 %, 2.40 %, 0.04 %, respectively while in chitosan were 6.14 %, 1.18 %, 0.03 % respectively. Furthermore, amount of C, O, Na, Al, P and Ca elements were obtained from chitin and chitosan samples by energy dispersed spectroscopy respectively. The degree of deacetylation for both chitin and chitosan showed high value more than 75 %. Hence, by considering the chemical properties of red snapper scales, it confirms that this species is a promising alternative source for both chitin and chitosan.

  3. [Reproductive biology of the golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource management programs. To support the possible establishment of closed seasons and catch levels for the area, our study aimed to evaluate the spawning season of the Golden snapper (Lutjanus inermis). For this, fish caught by artisanal fisheries in the Navidad, Tenacatita and Chamela bays (Jalisco, Mexico) were sampled monthly from 1999-2008, and analyzed sex ratios, spawning season and size at first maturity. A total of 311 (53.1%) females and 275 (46.9%) males were caught, and the observed sex ratio was 1:0.88. The total length range was 14.4-37.0cm and total weight range from 48-575g. The length at first maturity was 23.9cm TL for females and 23.6cm TL for males. The gonadosomatic index showed two principal reproductive periods in the year (February-April and September-November), when the largest number of mature gonads were observed. Ovaries were of asynchronic development type and seven oocyte development stages were identified. Testicles showed lobular development and spermatozoa were observed in the center of the cysts and in the collecting ducts. It is important to mention that our results support the current suitable exploitation of this species in the area.

  4. Salinity selection and preference of the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus: field and laboratory observations.

    PubMed

    Serrano, X; Grosell, M; Serafy, J E

    2010-05-01

    Field observations were supplemented with laboratory experiments to reveal patterns of salinity selection and preference for grey snapper Lutjanus griseus (c. 21 cm total length, L(T)), an ecologically and economically important species in the south-eastern U.S.A. Fish abundance data were examined from a long-term field survey conducted in the mangrove habitats of Biscayne Bay, Florida, where salinities ranged from <1 to 40. First, regression analyses indicated significant, positive linear relationships with salinity for both L. griseus frequency of occurrence and concentration (density when present). These patterns are inconsistent with physiological expectations of minimizing energetic osmoregulatory costs. Next, the salinity preference and swimming activity of 11 L. griseus (ranging from 18 to 23 cm L(T)) were investigated using a newly developed electronic shuttlebox system. In the laboratory, fish preferred intermediate salinities in the range of 9-23. Swimming activity (measured in terms of spontaneous swimming speed) followed a parabolic relationship with salinity, with reduced activity at salinity extremes perhaps reflecting compensation for higher osmoregulatory costs. It is suspected that the basis of the discrepancy between laboratory and field observations for size classes at or near maturity ultimately relates to the reproductive imperative to move towards offshore (high-salinity) coral-reef habitats, a necessity that probably overrides the strategy of minimizing osmoregulatory energetic costs.

  5. Helminth parasites of the red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from the reef Santiaguillo, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Jiménez-Badillo, Lourdes; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2014-12-01

    A total of 21 helminth species were recovered from 52 specimens of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus , captured in the reef Santiaguillo, Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, State of Veracruz, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. These helminths included 9 trematodes (7 adults and 2 metacercariae), 4 nematodes (3 adults and 1 larva), 4 acanthocephalans (1 adult and 3 juvenile), 2 cestodes (both larvae), and 2 monogeneans. Sixteen of the 21 species are new host records; 7 are common species with a prevalence >40% and mean intensity >4.1. The monogenean Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus was the most-prevalent parasite with a prevalence of 78.8%, followed by the intestinal plerocercoids of Tetraphyllidea with a prevalence of 59.6%. The richness (S = 21), and diversity (Shannon index H = 2.17) in the component community, as well as in the infracommunity level (S = 5.1 ± 2.2, H = 0.92 ± 0.4), was similar to those found in other marine fish of temperate and tropical latitudes. The present study suggests that the composition of the parasite community is associated with the host feeding habits because 18/21 of the recorded species are trophically transmitted.

  6. Optimisation of Deacetylation Process for Chitosan Production from Red Snapper (Lutjanus sp.) Scale Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarina, N. D.; Indah, A. B.; Nasrul, A. A.; Nurmarina, A.; Saefumillah, A.; Fanani, A. A.; Loka, K. D. P.

    2017-02-01

    Red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) is common tropical fish that known as important source of marine product in particular Indonesia. This research aimed to optimise the chitosan synthesis from the red snapper scale waste through deacetylation process. Method in this research was divided into three stages which were deproteination, demineralization, and deacetylation. Deproteination stage was done with solution containing 4.2% w/v NaOH and heated at 60° C for 5 hours and followed by the demineralization stage with solution containing 52% v/v 2 N HCl at room temperature for 6 hours. The comparison between fish scales and solutions was 1: 6. After that, process continued with the deacetylation. Several treatment during the deacetylation process were taken into consideration to determine the effective concentration for yielding optimum chitosan output. Chitosan produced were having moisture content of 2.88%, ash content of 1.10%, and nitrogen content of 0.0136%. Optimal Degree of Deacetylation (DDA) was up to 90.83% that obtained by heating treatment at a temperature of 110° C with solution containing 80% NaOH for 4 hours, and comparison between chitin : solution was 1 : 3. This result indicated that chitosan extracted from red snapper scale is very potential and can be applied to industry.

  7. Is there a cryptic species of the golden snapper (Lutjanus johnii)?

    PubMed

    Adibah, A B; Darlina, M N

    2014-10-07

    For centuries, morphology-based fish identification has been applied without molecular evaluation. Many studies showed that specimens with a similar morphology are frequently found to be quite genetically distinct. One of the fish species that still remains taxonomically problematic is a commercial snapper species, Lutjanus johnii. Because of morphological ambiguities among local fish taxonomists in Malaysia, we examined the ability of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene to genetically examine the taxonomic status of L. johnii. A 626-base pair COI region was successfully amplified and aligned with conspecific sequences that were retrieved from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree obtained showed two major clusters; the first cluster consists of L. johnii from Straits of Malacca, Thailand, Australia, and China while the second cluster comprises L. johnii from China and India. The latter group showed sequence divergence greater than 3.5%. After observing this, we suspected that there might be a cryptic species between the South China Sea and Indian Ocean. This is the first molecular report concerning the commercial species of snapper, L. johnii, in Malaysia, which had only gained provisional recognition from morphological examination.

  8. Temperature and ultra low oxygen effects and involvement of ethylene in chilling injury of 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon fruit.

    PubMed

    Orihuel-Iranzo, B; Miranda, M; Zacarías, L; Lafuente, M T

    2010-04-01

    The effects of storage temperature, inhibition of ethylene action by treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ultra low oxygen (ULO) atmosphere on chilling injury (CI), fruit firmness and ethylene production in the astringent 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon fruit were investigated. CI symptoms were manifested as a very dramatic loss of firmness after fruit transfer from cold storage to shelf-life conditions (18 °C). During cold storage, fruit softening appeared more rapidly in fruit stored at the intermediate temperature of 10 °C than at 1 °C or 14.5 °C. Ethylene production increased with storage time at the chilling temperature (1 °C) but a sharp increase took place upon fruit transfer from 1 °C to ambient temperature. This ethylene increase was accompanied by a loss of fruit firmness associated with chilling damage development. A pre-treatment with the competitive inhibitor of ethylene action 1-MCP, at 1 μL/L, reduced firmness loss and mitigated CI damage but considerably increased ethylene production in fruit transferred to shelf-life conditions after a prolonged cold storage period. Collectively, these results suggest a role of ethylene in the reduction of flesh firmness and consequently in the induction of CI in persimmon fruit. Moreover, ethylene exerts a negative feedback regulation of cold-induced ethylene biosynthesis. Storage of 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon fruit under ULO (1.3-1.8% O₂, v/v) atmosphere did not affect the incidence of CI but reduced fruit astringency, suggesting that ULO may be an alternative postharvest storage system for 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon fruit.

  9. Cucullanus pargi sp. n. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus off the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Tuz-Paredes, Vielka M; Quintal-Loria, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    A new nematode species, Cucullanus pargi sp. n., is described from the intestine and pyloric caeca of the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), off the southern Quintana Roo coast, Mexico. This species shows similar morphological features as cucullanids occurring in marine and brackish-water fishes; however, it differs from all other species in the length of spicules, arrangement and number of caudal papillae, position of the excretory pore and deirids. Cucullanus pargi is the third species of this genus described from fishes in Mexico and the second one from Mexican marine fishes.

  10. Physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional quality of fresh-cut "Rojo Brillante" persimmon affected by maturity stage and antibrowning agents.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, Elena; Mateos, Milagros; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2016-10-01

    To prevent enzymatic browning of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon, different combinations of ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) with calcium chloride (CaCl2) were tested in fruit harvested at two maturity stages (MS1 and MS2). Color, firmness, sensory quality, total vitamin C, radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, and carotenoids were evaluated over nine days of storage at 5 ℃. Antibrowning dips reduced enzymatic browning if compared with the control samples. Selecting fruits with good firmness and the addition of 10 g/l CaCl2 help prevent loss of firmness of fresh-cut "Rojo Brillante" persimmons treated with acidic solutions as antibrowning agents to control enzymatic browning. The limit of marketability of the persimmon fruit processed at MS1 was significantly reduced by the burst of the disorder known as "flesh browning," and only the samples treated with 10 g/l CA + 10 g/l CaCl2 maintained a limit of marketability close to seven days. At MS2, all the antibrowning solutions allowed a limit of marketability of seven storage days at 5 ℃. Nutritional quality was not affected by either antibrowning dips or cutting processes, but MS at harvest was.

  11. Characterization of 32 microsatellite loci for the Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru, through next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Paz-García, David A; Munguía-Vega, Adrián; Plomozo-Lugo, Tomas; Weaver, Amy Hudson

    2017-04-01

    We developed a set of hypervariable microsatellite markers for the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru), an economically important marine fish for small-scale fisheries in the west coast of Mexico. We performed shotgun genome sequencing with the 454 XL titanium chemistry and used bioinformatic tools to search for perfect microsatellite loci. We selected 66 primer pairs that were synthesized and genotyped in an ABI PRISM 3730XL DNA sequencer in 32 individuals from the Gulf of California. We estimated levels of genetic diversity, deviations from linkage and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, estimated the frequency of null alleles and the probability of individual identity for the new markers. We reanalyzed 16 loci in 16 individuals to estimate genotyping error rates. Eighteen loci failed to amplify, 16 loci were discarded due to unspecific amplifications and 32 loci (14 tetranucleotide and 18 dinucleotide) were successfully scored. The average number of alleles per locus was 21 (±6.87, SD) and ranged from 8 to 34. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.787 (±0.144 SD, range 0.250-0.935) and 0.909 (±0.122 SD, range 0.381-0.965), respectively. No significant linkage was detected. Eight loci showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and from these, four loci showed moderate null allele frequencies (0.104-0.220). The probability of individual identity for the new loci was 1.46(-62). Genotyping error rates averaged 9.58%. The new markers will be useful to investigate patterns of larval dispersal, metapopulation dynamics, fine-scale genetic structure and diversity aimed to inform the implementation of spatially explicit fisheries management strategies in the Gulf of California.

  12. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in snappers (Lutjanus) fish from the Navachiste Lagoon complex, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Granados-Galván, Ingrid Alejandra; Rodríguez-Meza, Durga Guadalupe; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in fillets of Lutjanus colorado, L. argentiventris, and L. novemfasciatus. Fillet samples were collected bimonthly from February 2012 to February 2013. OCPs average concentrations do not differ significantly according to size, weight, or season, nor do they relate with the physico-chemical parameters of the sea water. The highest concentration and most frequently encountered OCPs were endosulfan sulfate, δ-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide, which indicates their use in the recent past and confirms their persistence. Average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, and ∑heptachlor in samples were above cancer MRLs according to data from monthly consumed portions. HCHs and heptachlor are listed in Appendix III of the Rotterdam Convention of chemicals placed on a prior informed consent procedure for import and export purposes; they are considered illegal in Mexico. The OCPs concentrations above cancer MRLs in Lutjanus spp. turn its frequent consumption into a human health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rosa L Soto; Mejía-Arana, Fernando; Palacios, J A; Hiramatsu, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The fish Lutjanus guttatus is important in the fisheries of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica where they are captured with varied gear mainly by the artisanal fleet. We measured specimens from the commercial catch of 2002-2006. Gonadal state was determined macroscopically and age with otoliths The total length-total weight relationship was y = 0.0236x(2.8153) and total length-eviscerated weight y = 0.0216x(2.8129). Simplified relationships were y = 0.0173x3 and y = 0.0162x3. There is year-round reproduction with peaks in March (dry season) and September (rainy season). Male-female sexual ratio was 1:1. The age-length key for the gulf shows availability until the 6 years of age. The von Bertalanffy growth curve is L(t) = 65,9 (1-e(-0.13(t+2,66))).

  14. Effect of particle size on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of two persimmon flours from Diospyros kaki Thunb. vars. 'Rojo Brillante' and 'Triumph' co-products.

    PubMed

    Lucas-González, Raquel; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2017-06-14

    This contribution studies the influence of the particle size of persimmon flours (from two cultivars, 'Rojo Brillante' and 'Triumph') on their primary (sugars and organic acids) and secondary (polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) metabolite content, and also on their antioxidant activity, to assess whether these flours could find applications in the food industry as a potential functional ingredient. The main sugars were fructose and glucose and the principal organic acid was malic acid. The highest content of total phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids was found in flour fractions from cv. 'Rojo Brillante'. The phenol profile determined by HPLC identified six phenolic compounds in both persimmon flours, the most abundant being gallic acid. The greatest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing power were found in flour fractions from cv. 'Rojo Brillante'. Although the influence of particle size on all these properties was not always evident, in general, the higher bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity were in the finest particles. Co-products from cvs. 'Rojo Brillante' and 'Triumph' persimmon juice extraction can be processed to obtain flours rich in sugars, organic acids and bioactive compounds, suggesting their possible use as a functional ingredient (with antioxidant properties) in different food products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-04-07

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct.

  16. Change in numbers of resident and migratory shorebirds at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA (1985–2014)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, Morgan A.; Collazo, Jaime; Colon, Jose A.; Ramos Alvarez, Katsi R.; Diaz, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    North American migratory shorebirds have declined markedly since the 1980s, underscoring the importance of population surveys to conduct status and trend assessments. Shorebird surveys were conducted during three multi-year periods between 1985 and 2014 and used to assess changes in numbers and species composition at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA, a site of regional importance in the eastern Caribbean. Eight fewer species (total = 21) were recorded in 2013–2014 as compared to the 29 from 1985–1992; all eight species were Nearctic migrants. Small calidrids had the highest population counts; however, this suite of species and all others experienced a ≥ 70% decline. Combined counts from the salt flats and neighboring wetlands in 2013–2014 were lower than counts only from the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats in two previous multi-year survey periods, which indicated a real change in numbers not just a shift in wetland use. Invertebrate prey density was lower in 2013–2014 than in 1994. Body fat condition of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), an index of habitat quality, did not differ between 1985–1992 and 2013–2014. These findings do not exclude the possibility that other species might be affected by lower prey density, or that local declines in numbers reflect changes at hemispheric, not local, scales. The magnitude of change between local and hemispheric scales closely matched for some species. Continued monitoring at the salt flats is warranted to help gauge the status of shorebirds in Puerto Rico and discern the probable cause of declines. Monitoring other sites in the Caribbean is needed for stronger inferences about regional status and trends.

  17. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Work, Thierry M

    2012-04-26

    The blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) are cosmopolitan in the Indo-Pacific but were introduced into Oahu, Hawaii, USA, in the 1950s and have since colonized most of the archipelago. Studies of microparasites in blue-striped snappers from Hawaii revealed chlamydia-like organisms (CLO) infecting the spleen and kidney, characterized by intracellular basophilic granular inclusions containing Gram-negative and Gimenez-positive bacteria similar in appearance to epitheliocysts when seen under light microscopy. We provide molecular evidence that CLO are a new member of Chlamydiae, i.e. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, that represents the first reported case of chlamydial infection in organs other than the gill in fishes.

  18. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the detection and quantification of dactylogyrid parasites infecting Lutjanus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, L C; García-Gasca, A; Fajer-Ávila, E J

    2017-03-07

    Severe infections of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus resulting from dactylogyrid monogeneans present a risk to aquaculture. Currently, the diagnosis of this infection requires the morphological identification and manual quantification of parasites. Based on the characterization of the 28S rRNA gene of dactylogyrid species present in L. guttatus, specific primers were designed for real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using EvaGreen® chemistry. The standard curve method estimated the number of dactylogyrids accurately. A total of 85 gill samples from cage-cultured fish infected with dactylogyrids were analysed. The estimated number of dactylogyrids using this molecular method was very similar to the manual count that was performed initially. The standardized qPCR approach will be helpful as a complementary method for the early routine monitoring of dactylogyrid infections and for epidemiological studies in which a high number of fish must be studied.

  19. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region.

  20. Seed rain under native and non-native tree species in the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Arias Garcia, Andrea; Chinea, J Danilo

    2014-09-01

    Seed dispersal is a fundamental process in plant ecology and is of critical importance for the restoration of tropical communities. The lands of the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), formerly under agriculture, were abandoned in the 1970s and colonized mainly by non-native tree species of degraded pastures. Here we described the seed rain under the most common native and non-native trees in the refuge in an attempt to determine if focal tree geographic origin (native versus non-native) influences seed dispersal. For this, seed rain was sampled for one year under the canopies of four native and four non-native tree species common in this refuge using 40 seed traps. No significant differences were found for the abundance of seeds, or their diversity, dispersing under native versus non-native focal tree species, nor under the different tree species. A significantly different seed species composition was observed reaching native versus non-native focal species. However, this last result could be more easily explained as a function of distance of the closest adults of the two most abundantly dispersed plant species to the seed traps than as a function of the geographic origin of the focal species. We suggest to continue the practice of planting native tree species, not only as a way to restore the community to a condition similar to the original one, but also to reduce the distances needed for effective dispersal.

  1. Secondary forest succession and tree planting at the Laguna Cartagena and Cabo Rojo wildlife refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Peter L; Schwagerl, Joseph J

    2008-12-01

    Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat of grass fires and to restore wildlife habitat. A 2007 survey of 9-y-old tree plantings on the Lagoon tract showed satisfactory growth rates for 16 native species. Multiple stems from individual trees at ground level were common. A sampling of secondary forest on the entire 109 ha Tinaja tract disclosed 141 native tree species, or 25% of Puerto Rico's native tree flora, along with 20 exotics. Five tree species made up about 58% of the total basal area, and seven species were island endemics. Between 1998 and 2003, tree numbers and basal area, as well as tree heights and diameter at breast height values (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground), increased on the lower 30 ha of the Tinaja tract. In this area, much of it subject to fires and grazing through 1996, exotic trees made up 25% of the species. Dry forest throughout the tropics is an endangered habitat, and its recovery (i.e., in biomass, structure, and species composition) at Tinaja may exceed 500 y. Future forests, however, will likely contain some exotics.

  2. Cross-continent comparisons reveal differing environmental drivers of growth of the coral reef fish, Lutjanus bohar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Joyce J. L.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Marriott, Ross J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2017-03-01

    Biochronologies provide important insights into the growth responses of fishes to past variability in physical and biological environments and, in so doing, allow modelling of likely responses to climate change in the future. We examined spatial variability in the key drivers of inter-annual growth patterns of a widespread, tropical snapper, Lutjanus bohar, at similar tropical latitudes on the north-western and north-eastern coasts of the continent of Australia. For this study, we developed biochronologies from otoliths that provided proxies of somatic growth and these were analysed using mixed-effects models to examine the historical drivers of growth. Our analyses demonstrated that growth patterns of fish were driven by different climatic and biological factors in each region, including Pacific Ocean climate indices, regional sea level and the size structure of the fish community. Our results showed that the local oceanographic and biological context of reef systems strongly influenced the growth of L. bohar and that a single age-related growth trend cannot be assumed for separate populations of this species that are likely to experience different environmental conditions. Generalised predictions about the growth response of fishes to climate change will thus require adequate characterisation of the spatial variability in growth determinants likely to be found throughout the range of species that have cosmopolitan distributions.

  3. Two new gonad-infecting Philometra species (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the marine fish Lutjanus vitta (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2011-11-01

    Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Philometridae), P. brevicollis sp. n. and P. mira sp. n., are described from the ovary of the brownstripe red snapper, Lutjanus vitta (Quoy et Gaimard) (Lutjanidae, Perciformes), from the South Pacific Ocean off the coast of New Caledonia. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, these new nematodes are compared with all other gonad-infecting species of Philometra. The former species (males and mature and gravid females available) mainly differs from its congeners in the length of males (5.39-5.92 mm), equally long spicules (279-312 microm), and the gubernaculum (151-168 microm), in that the distal end of the gubernaculum bears dorsolateral transverse lamella-like structures, and in the structure of the male caudal end. The latter species (only males available) is characterized by the length of males (3.47-3.66 mm), equally long spicules (96-105 microm), and the gubernaculum (78-84 microm), the absence of a dorsal reflected barb or lamella-like structures on the distal end of gubernaculum, and by the structure of the male caudal end. Judging from the occurrence in the host, P. brevicollis is the main philometrid parasitizing the gonads of L. vitta, in which it can reproduce, whereas this fish probably serves as only the paradefinitive host for P. mira. Both P. brevicollis and P. mira are the first nominal species of Philometra described from fishes of the family Lutjanidae.

  4. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  5. Morphology and phylogeny of Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae), infecting the gills of the marine fish Lutjanus jocu.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carlos; Rocha, Sónia; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson; Oliveira, Elsa; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Casal, Graça

    2014-04-01

    Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae) is described from the gill lamellae of the marine teleost fish Lutjanus jocu, with a focus on ultrastructural and molecular features. This myxosporean forms subspherical cysts up to ∼260 μm × 130 μm long, and develops asynchronously. Mature myxospores ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore length 10.9 ± 0.4 μm (n=50); width, 8.2 ± 0.3 μm (n=50); and thickness, 2.9 ± 0.5 μm (n=50). Two equal caudal processes, 34.1±1.0 μm long (n=50); and total myxospore length, 45.2 ± 1.0 μm (n=50). Two symmetric valves surround two ellipsoidal polar capsules, 5.0 ± 0.3 × 1.4 ± 0.2 μm (n=20), each containing an isofilar polar filament forming 4-5 coils along the inner wall of these structures, as well as a binucleated sporoplasm presenting a spherical vacuole and several globular sporoplasmosomes. Both the morphological data and molecular analysis of the SSU rDNA gene identify this parasite as a new species of the genus Henneguya. Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony analyses further indicate that the parasite clusters within others marine Myxobolidae species, forming a group alongside other Henneguya species described from marine hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William T.; Drymon, J. Marcus; Powers, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka’s niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research. PMID:26630481

  7. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens).

    PubMed

    Davis, William T; Drymon, J Marcus; Powers, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka's niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research.

  8. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  9. Trophic and reproductive ecology of Red Snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, on natural and artificial reefs in the western Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajemian, M. J.; Wetz, J. J.; Brewton, R. A.; Downey, C. H.; Stunz, G. W.

    2016-02-01

    Energy exploration in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) has resulted in the addition of numerous oil and gas production rigs that have added structurally complex habitat to an area otherwise dominated by bare bottom. The impact of these artificial structures on fish populations is largely unknown and there is ongoing debate about their functionality. Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), an ecologically and economically important sportfish to the region, use natural as well as the artificial reefs created by standing and reefed (toppled or cutoff) oil and gas rigs. However, little is known about how trophic and reproductive characteristics of Red Snapper vary over these multiple habitat types. We analyzed stable isotopic composition (δ13C, δ 15N) of epaxial muscle and compared reproductive potential of Red Snapper (155-855 mm TL) from standing rigs, reefed rigs, and natural hard-bottom habitats off Texas. Red Snapper from standing rig sites were isotopically enriched in δ 15N compared to lower relief habitats, suggesting they were feeding at a higher trophic level on standing rigs. While gonadosomatic indices (GSI) and comparative histology implied a similar spawning season among structure types, GSI was highest for both sexes at standing rigs. These initial results suggest that while standing rigs appear to provide more enriched food resources leading to higher Red Snapper reproductive capacity, the productivity of this species is similar between currently permitted rig decommissioning options (i.e., cutoff and toppled rigs) and natural hard-bottom habitats in the Gulf of Mexico.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of high mobility group box1 (Ls-HMGB1) from humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia; Xia, Hongli; Huang, Yucong; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2014-10-01

    High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) is a kind of chromatin-associated nonhistone protein important for nucleosome formation, transcriptional regulation and inflammation. However, the reports about HMGB1 of marine fish were still limited. Here, we cloned and characterized a HMGB1 gene from humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus (Ls-HMGB1). The Ls-HMGB1 cDNA composed of 1199 bp with a 70 bp of 5'-UTR, 630 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 499 bp 3'-UTR, encoded a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (GenBank Accession No: KJ783442). Sequence alignment of Ls-HMGB1 showed the highest similarity of 91% with Sciaenops ocellatus HMGB1 protein. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ls-HMGB1 had relatively high expression level in skin, kidney and heart. After Vibrio harveyi and poly I:C stimulation, transcripts of Ls-HMGB1 were significantly increased and reached to peak at 18 h p.i. The L. sanguineus interleukin-6 (Ls-IL6) transcription in HK leukocytes was significantly induced by recombinant LsHMGB1 (rLsHMGB1). These results indicated that Ls-HMGB1 may play an important role in immune response of L. sanguineus during pathogen challenge.

  11. Morphological Characters and Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Black Skin and Red Skin in Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Duo; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Chu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05) were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers. PMID:26569232

  12. Expression and activity of trypsin and pepsin during larval development of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Mario A; García-Ortega, Armando; Gisbert, Enric; López, Lus M; Gasca, Alejandra García

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph). The mouth opened between 2 and 3 dph, at that moment the digestive tract was barely differentiated into the anterior and posterior intestine, although the liver and pancreas were already present. Gastric glands were observed until 20 dph, followed by the differentiation of the stomach between 20 and 25 dph. Trypsinogen expression and trypsin activity were detected at hatching, increasing concomitantly to larval development and the change in the type of food. Maximum levels of trypsinogen expression were observed at 25 dph, when animals were fed with Artemia nauplii, and maximum trypsin activity was detected at 35 dph, when larvae were fed with an artificial diet. On the other hand, pepsinogen gene expression was detected at 18 dph, two days before pepsin enzymatic activity and appearance of gastric glands. Maximum pepsin activity was also observed at 35 dph. These results suggest that in this species weaning could be initiated at an earlier age than is currently practiced (between 28 and 30 dph), since larvae of spotted rose snapper develop a functional stomach between days 20 and 25 post-hatch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anatomical and surface morphology of Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. (Nematoda: Hedruridae) from the common marinewater fish Lutjanus synagris in Damietta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M M; Awad, E R; Taha, R G

    2014-08-01

    The description and tegumental ultrastructure of nematode Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. collected from marine Lane Snapper fish Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 collected at Manzala Lake, Damietta, Egypt was studied by light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The new species is mainly characterized by that the buccal capsule is surrounded by four pseudolapia; one small and three larger pseudolapia, each one bears a number of papillae arranged irregularly on its surface and the presence of one pair of precloacal papillae and nine pairs of postcloacal ones in males.

  14. Regional variation in mercury and stable isotopes of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Zapp Sluis, Michelle; Boswell, Kevin M; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wells, R J David; Soulen, Brianne; Cowan, James H

    2013-02-01

    The presence of total mercury (Hg) in fish tissue and the potential associated health risks has become a global concern in marine ecosystems. Few studies have examined basin-scale variation in Hg accumulation in marine ecosystems, and determining if Hg concentrations in fish tissue vary across marine ecosystems is a key monitoring question. The present study evaluated Hg concentrations in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) tissue across three regions of the northern Gulf of Mexico (Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas, USA) and between two habitat types (oil and gas platforms and nonplatforms) within each region. Nitrogen (δ(15)N), carbon (δ(13)C), and sulfur (δ(34)S) stable isotopes were used to investigate ecological differences that may affect Hg concentrations among regions and between habitats. Mercury concentrations in red snapper tissue were positively correlated with fish total length. Regional differences in Hg concentrations were significant, with fish collected from Alabama having the highest concentrations and fish collected from Louisiana having the lowest. No significant difference existed in Hg concentrations between habitats, suggesting that association with platforms may not be a significant factor contributing to red snapper Hg concentrations. While δ(15)N did not differ significantly among the three regions, Texas red snapper were more enriched in δ(34)S and depleted in δ(13)C compared with Alabama and Louisiana red snapper. Although the majority of red snapper collected in the present study had Hg concentrations below safe consumption guidelines, regional differences suggest that spatially explicit monitoring programs may be important for basin-wide assessments.

  15. Metal contents in the tissues of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Smith 1949) and Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal 1775) collected from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Al-Ghais, S.M.

    1996-12-01

    The role heavy metals (the non-degradable and commutative chemicals) play as pollutants is widely recognized. In the sea, accumulation of pollutants may cause the toxicity to the aquatic organism and subsequently transferred to man through the food chain. Among the major sources of metal contamination are industrial activities and mining. Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, erosion and wind are also important. At many places, industrial and agricultural discharges were found primary source of metal poisoning of fish e.g. Poland, Canada. Highway or motorboat traffic has also been reported as a major contributor of the problem. Exposure to heavy metals through air, water and/or the food chain is known to induce a wide variety of toxic effects in humans and animals. Some of these heavy metals are considered as essential elements for normal physiological functions of the human as well as for the most of animals micronutrients but the higher levels may be toxic or harmful. Extensive studies have been carried out in many parts of the world to determine toxicity and bio-accumulation of these metals in fish and other marine flora and fauna. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the kind and extent of marine pollution by heavy metals around the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the resultant contamination of the aquatic habitat. In continuation of our interest in marine environment, this study was designed to investigate and to compare the concentrations of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the skin, muscle and liver, and mercury in the muscle tissues only of Lutjanus fulviflamma and Epinephelus tauvina. These species have been selected as these are among the highly commercial fish species found in the trap fishery of United Arab Emirates. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses.

  17. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  18. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  19. Draft genome sequence of Halorubrum tropicale strain V5, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Nieves, Rubén; Facciotti, Marc T; Saavedra-Collado, Sofía; Dávila-Santiago, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Carrero, Roy; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The genus Halorubrum is a member of the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has the highest number of described species (31) of all the haloarchaea. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain V5, a new species within this genus that was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Assembly was performed and rendered the genome into 17 contigs (N50 = 515,834 bp), the largest of which contains 1,031,026 bp. The genome consists of 3.57 MB in length with G + C content of 67.6%. In general, the genome includes 4 rRNAs, 52 tRNAs, and 3246 protein-coding sequences. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIST00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9000.

  20. Draft genome sequence of Halorubrum tropicale strain V5, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Nieves, Rubén; Facciotti, Marc T.; Saavedra-Collado, Sofía; Dávila-Santiago, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Carrero, Roy; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The genus Halorubrum is a member of the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has the highest number of described species (31) of all the haloarchaea. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain V5, a new species within this genus that was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Assembly was performed and rendered the genome into 17 contigs (N50 = 515,834 bp), the largest of which contains 1,031,026 bp. The genome consists of 3.57 MB in length with G + C content of 67.6%. In general, the genome includes 4 rRNAs, 52 tRNAs, and 3246 protein-coding sequences. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIST00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9000. PMID:26981427

  1. Effect of antibrowning dips and controlled atmosphere storage on the physico-chemical, visual and nutritional quality of minimally processed "Rojo Brillante" persimmons.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, Elena; Mateos, Milagros; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The combined effect of antibrowning dips and controlled atmosphere storage on fresh-cut "Rojo Brillante" persimmon quality was investigated. Persimmon slices were dipped in 10 g L(-1) ascorbic acid, 10 g L(-1) citric acid or water and were stored in different controlled atmospheres at 5 ℃. Controlled atmosphere conditions were 21 kPa O2 + 10 kPa CO2 (Atm-B), 21 kPa O2 + 20 kPa CO2 (Atm-C), 5 kPa O2 + 10 kPa CO2 (Atm-D) and 5 kPa O2 in the absence of CO2 (Atm-E). Air (Atm-A) was used as a control. Atmospheres with high CO2 concentrations induced darkening, associated with a flesh disorder known as "internal flesh browning". Only the samples placed in Atm-E, and treated with 10 g L(-1) ascorbic acid or 10 g L(-1) citric acid, controlled enzymatic browning, reduced firmness loss and prevented the "internal flesh browning" disorder. The maximum limit of marketability was achieved in the samples treated with 10 g L(-1) citric acid and stored in Atm-E for nine storage days at 5 ℃. The total vitamin C, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and total carotenoids of the fresh-cut "Rojo Brillante" persimmons were affected by maturity stage at harvest, whereas antibrowning dips and controlled atmosphere storage had no clear effect.

  2. [Feeding habits and trophic ecology of the fish Lutjanus griseus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) associated with submerged vegetation in Laguna de Términos, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Emma; Alvarez, Hernán; Mascaró, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Sánchez, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In Campeche, Mexico, the Laguna de Términos has Thalassia testudinum beds inhabited by the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus 1758). Along one year, we collected 994 individuals and 672 had food in their stomachs; we recorded number, weight, and frequency oftrophic groups, and the index of relative importance. Dominant food components were Farfantepenaeus duorarum and Palemonetes octaviae, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier 1830) and Libinia dubia. Salinity and temperature were related to the number of individuals collected and with greater fish consumption by large L. griseus. The trophic niche breadth index was calculated for six size-classes of fish. The smallest and the largest fish had the lowest index values, whereas medium-size snappers had higher values. This snapper has a preference for habitats with submerged vegetation. The percentage of fish with food in their stomachs was higher during dark hours, providing evidence of the nocturnal habits of this fish.

  3. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  4. Effects of dietary protein level on growth and utilization of protein and energy by juvenile mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Abbas; Khalid, Jamil; Rukhsana, Akhtar; Lin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating water system to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization, hepatosomatic index and liver lipid deposition of juvenile red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (average initial wet weight 8.0 ± 0.39 g and total length 3.14 ± 0.3 cm). In the experiment, six fishmeal-based diets were formulated to contain various protein levels (20% to 45% in 5% increments), with dietary energy ranging from 2210.7kJ lOOg to 2250.2kJlOOg dry matter. The protein to energy ratios of diets ranged from 8.58 mg protein kJ-1 to 20.03 mg protein kJ-1. Diets were fed for 90d to triplicate groups of fish stocked in 0.128m3 seawater tanks, 25 individuals each. The daily ration of 2% wet body weight was offered to the fish thrice a day. The fish at the end of the study had more than ten-fold (77.0g) increase in weight compared to the initial (8.0g). Fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein produced significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain of 77.2g and 76.5g, and specific growth rate (SGR) of 2.65% and 2.62% than those of 67.0 g and 68.3g, and 2.49% and 2.51% of the other diets. The broken-line regression of SGR against dietary protein level yielded an optimum dietary protein requirement of 42.6% (Y=-1.6295 + 0.1114 X 2,P<0.05). Survival remained 100% among groups. Feed conversion ratio decreased from 0.45 for fish fed 20% dietary protein to 0.35 for fish fed 45% dietary protein. Nitrogen intake increased with an increase in dietary protein, which in turn resulted in an increase in nitrogen gain of fish whole body. Fish fed 40% and 45% protein diets showed higher (P<0.05) nitrogen gain (0.27g and 0.26g) than those (0.23g and 025g) fed all other diets. Gross energy intake (GEI) in fish fed 45% protein was lower (600.67kJ) than that (607.97 kJ) of 40% protein diet, though the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05); GEI ranging from 677.31 kJ to 663.20 kJ at remaining four diets (20% to 35% protein

  5. Draft genome of Haloarcula rubripromontorii strain SL3, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Nieves, Rubén; Facciotti, Marc; Saavedra-Collado, Sofía; Dávila-Santiago, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Carrero, Roy; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The genus Haloarcula belongs to the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has 10 valid species. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain SL3, a new species within this genus, isolated from the Solar Salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Genome assembly performed using NGEN Assembler resulted in 18 contigs (N50 = 601,911 bp), the largest of which contains 1,023,775 bp. The genome consists of 3.97 MB and has a GC content of 61.97%. Like all species of Haloarcula, the genome encodes heterogeneous copies of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. In addition, the genome includes 6 rRNAs, 48 tRNAs, and 3797 protein coding sequences. Several carbohydrate-active enzymes genes were found, as well as enzymes involved in the dihydroxyacetone processing pathway which are not found in other Haloarcula species. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIUF00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9001.

  6. Draft genome of Haloarcula rubripromontorii strain SL3, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Nieves, Rubén; Facciotti, Marc; Saavedra-Collado, Sofía; Dávila-Santiago, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Carrero, Roy; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The genus Haloarcula belongs to the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has 10 valid species. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain SL3, a new species within this genus, isolated from the Solar Salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Genome assembly performed using NGEN Assembler resulted in 18 contigs (N50 = 601,911 bp), the largest of which contains 1,023,775 bp. The genome consists of 3.97 MB and has a GC content of 61.97%. Like all species of Haloarcula, the genome encodes heterogeneous copies of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. In addition, the genome includes 6 rRNAs, 48 tRNAs, and 3797 protein coding sequences. Several carbohydrate-active enzymes genes were found, as well as enzymes involved in the dihydroxyacetone processing pathway which are not found in other Haloarcula species. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIUF00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9001. PMID:26981428

  7. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure and pasteurization on the structure and the extractability of bioactive compounds of persimmon “Rojo Brillante”.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Carrión, M; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, J L; Hernando, I; Quiles, A

    2014-01-01

    Rojo Brillante is an astringent oriental persimmon variety with high levels of bioactive compounds such as soluble tannins, carotenoids, phenolic acids, and dietary fiber. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and pasteurization on the structure of the fruit and on the extractability of certain bioactive compounds. The microstructure was studied using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and certain physicochemical properties (carotenoid and total soluble tannin content, antioxidant activity, fiber content, color, and texture properties) were measured. The structural changes induced by HHP caused a rise in solute circulation in the tissues that could be responsible for the increased carotenoid level and the unchanged antioxidant activity in comparison with the untreated persimmon. In contrast, the changes that took place during pasteurization lowered the tannin content and antioxidant activity. Consequently, HHP treatment could improve the extraction of potentially bioactive compoundsxsts from persimmons. A high nutritional value ingredient to be used when formulating new functional foods could be obtained using HHP.

  8. Neobenedenia melleni Parasite of Red Snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus, with Regression Statistical Analysis between Fish Length, Temperature, and Parasitic Intensity in Infected Fish, Cultured at Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The fish parasites collected from Lutjanus erythropterus fish species showed a correlation with parasitic intensity, fish size, and temperature, and statistical model summary was produced using SPSS version 20, statistical software. Statistical model summary concluded that among the variables which significantly predict the prevalence of Neobenedenia melleni parasites are fish length and water temperature, both significant at 1% and 5%. Furthermore, the increase in one unit of fish length, holding other variables constant, increases the prevalence of parasite by approximately 1 (0.7≈1) unit. Also, increasing the temperature from 32°C to 33°C will positively increase the number of parasites by approximately 0.32 units, holding other variables constant. The model can be summarized as estimated number of Neobenedenia melleni parasites = 8.2 + 0.7 ⁎ (fish length) + 0.32 ⁎ (water temperature). Next, this study has also shown the DNA sequence and parasitic morphology of Neobenedenia melleni. Nucleotide sequence for 18s ribosomal gene RNA in this study showed 99% similarity with N. melleni EU707804.1 from GenBank. Finally, all the sequence of Neobenedenia melleni in this study was deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KU843501, KU843502, KU843503, and KU843504. PMID:27190634

  9. Development of Formaldehyde Biosensor for Determination of Formalin in Fish Samples; Malabar Red Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol)

    PubMed Central

    Noor Aini, Bohari; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Ampon, Kamaruzaman

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The developed formaldehyde biosensor was analyzed for sensitivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and detection limits. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator for increasing the electron transfer in the electrochemical cell. The developed biosensor measured the NADH electron from the NAD+ reduction at a potential of 0.4 V. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method detected a wider linear range of formaldehyde concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm within 5 s, with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The proposed method was successfully detected with the presence of formalin in fish samples, Lutjanus malabaricus and Thunnus Tonggol. The proposed method is a simple, rapid, and highly accurate, compared to the existing technique. PMID:27376338

  10. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae – Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  11. Development of Formaldehyde Biosensor for Determination of Formalin in Fish Samples; Malabar Red Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol).

    PubMed

    Noor Aini, Bohari; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Ampon, Kamaruzaman

    2016-06-30

    Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The developed formaldehyde biosensor was analyzed for sensitivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and detection limits. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator for increasing the electron transfer in the electrochemical cell. The developed biosensor measured the NADH electron from the NAD⁺ reduction at a potential of 0.4 V. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method detected a wider linear range of formaldehyde concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm within 5 s, with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The proposed method was successfully detected with the presence of formalin in fish samples, Lutjanus malabaricus and Thunnus Tonggol. The proposed method is a simple, rapid, and highly accurate, compared to the existing technique.

  12. Dietary administration of microalgae alone or supplemented with Lactobacillus sakei affects immune response and intestinal morphology of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Angulo, Carlos; Estrada, Norma; Murillo, Ylenia; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary microalgae Navicula sp single or in combination with Lactobacillus sakei on growth performance, humoral immune parameters and intestinal morphology in Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru. The experimental fish were grouped into four treatment diets which were a control diet (commercial diet, Control), silage microalgae Navicula sp plus L. sakei (10(6) CFU g(-1), Navicula + L. sakei), lyophilized microalgae (Navicula) and L. sakei (10(6) CFU g(-1), L. sakei). The blood and intestine samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The weight gain showed an additive effect of Navicula + L. sakei at 8 weeks of treatment compared with fish fed control diet. Overall, physiological parameters such as total protein and hemoglobin were increased in fish fed with Navicula and L. sakei diets at 4 and 8 weeks of feeding assay, respectively. There was a significant improvement in immune parameters, principally in myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, total antiproteases activities and IgM in fish fed with Navicula + L. sakei and L. sakei diets at 4 or 8 weeks of treatments. Serum antioxidant capabilities revealed significant increase in phosphatase alkaline, esterase, protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase in groups which received diet supplemented with Navicula + L. sakei and L. sakei diets. Finally, light microscopy observations revealed no effect of experimental diets on microvilli height. Curiously, the presence of vacuoles inside the enterocytes was significant higher in the intestine of L. sakei group after four or six weeks of feeding. Elevated intraepithelial leucocyte levels and melanomacrophages centers were observed in fish fed Navicula or control diets at any time of the experiment. To conclude, the results of the present study demonstrate that the fish that were fed with Navicula + L. sakei or L. sakei diets yielded significantly better immune status and antioxidant capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Astrid S; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L

    2013-12-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf.

  14. Effects of marine silages enriched with Lactobacillus sakei 5-4 on haemato-immunological and growth response in Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) exposed to Aeromonas veronii.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Macias, María Esther; Maldonado, Minerva; Rojas, Maurilia; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2012-10-01

    Combined effects of marine silages enriched with Lactobacillus sakei 5-4 were evaluated on growth performance, immune activity and disease resistance of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) against Aeromonas veronii infection. The experimental fish were divided into three groups which were fed with each one of the following diets: silage-probiotic-free diet (control, C group), Pacific creole-fish silage diet supplemented with live L. sakei (10(6) CFU g(-1)) (FSLact group) and Humboldt squid silage diet supplemented with live L. sakei (10(6) CFU g(-1)) (SSLact group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, fish were immunocompromised with pathogenic A. veronii and spleen and liver samples were processed for histopathological studies. Generally, the results showed enhanced growth performance in fish fed the diet containing SSLact at 6 and 7 weeks compared with fish fed control diet. Addition of SSLact had an increase in plasmatic protein at week 6 and post-challenge. Hemoglobin concentration increased after challenge in fish fed with SSLact compared to control group. At week 6 and post-challenge the results indicated that, the fish groups which received diet supplemented with SSLact revealed significant increase in humoral immune parameters. Histologically, fish fed C diets showed marked fatty degeneration and great activation of melanomacrophage centers compare with SSLact and FSLact groups. These results support the idea that the marine silages with squid as protein source enriched or combined with L. sakei 5-4 increases the body weight and stimulates the physiological and humoral immune parameters in Pacific red snapper infected with A. veronii.

  15. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801)*

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species. PMID:27487803

  16. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P.; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf. PMID:24533325

  17. Contrasting patterns of reef utilization and recruitment of coral trout ( Plectropomus leopardus) and snapper ( Lutjanus carponotatus) at One Tree Island, southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsford, M. J.

    2009-03-01

    Patterns of abundance, age structure and recruitment of coral trout ( Plectropomus leopardus) and snapper ( Lutjanus carponotatus) were described in different environments, which varied in benthic cover, in a 12-yr study at One Tree Island. It was hypothesized that both taxa would show strong preferences to different environments and benthic cover and that patterns would be consistent through time. Plectropomus leopardus were abundant on the reef slope and seaward edge of the lagoon, where live coral cover was high, and recruitment was generally low, in all environments. The population was sustained by a trickle of recruits, and total abundance varied little after 10 to 25 yr of protection in a no-take area, suggesting P. leopardus had reached an environment-related carrying capacity. Protogynous P. leopardus recruited to shallow environments at sites with 20% or more hard live coral and age data indicated the abundance of fish on the reef slope was from redistribution. Most recruits of gonochoristic L. carponotatus (<150 mm Standard length, SL) were found in the lagoonal environments, and adults were rare on the reef slope. Abundance of recruit L. carponotatus and P. leopardus did not correlate with percent cover of live and soft coral within environments. Recruits of L. carponotatus were usually rare in all lagoonal environments, but in 2003, many recruits (80 to 120 mm SL) were found in lagoonal environments with low and high hard live coral cover. A substantial proportion of the population (age max 18 yr) was from strong recruitment events. In 2003 and 2004, total abundance of L. carponotatus was supported by 1 year class 51.7 and 41% respectively. The utilization of environments and types of substrata varied among taxa and in some cases among life-history stages. There was also temporal variation in the importance of some environments (e.g. Lagoon Centre).

  18. Nutrition and feeding research in the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus), new species for marine aquaculture.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, Armando

    2009-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) are fish species from the tropical Eastern Pacific for which controlled production of larvae and juveniles has been accomplished in recent years. Diverse topics relating to their biology and aquaculture production are currently under study, in particular the nutrition and feeding aspects required to formulate practical feeds and rearing protocols. Improvements in larval growth and survival are possible by feeding live food organisms with natural or enhanced essential fatty acids content and highly digestible artificial microdiets. The ontogeny of the digestive tract and the expression and activity of digestive enzymes have been described for S. annulatus larvae. The effect of various protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization has been studied in juvenile and on-growing fish. Both species have carnivorous feeding habits and require high levels of protein in their diets, from 40% to 45% (dry weight) in spotted rose snapper and above 50% in bullseye puffer, with the younger stages requiring the highest protein levels. Encouraging results have been obtained in feeding experiments with different sources of dietary protein from animal and plant origin to evaluate their suitability as feed ingredients in practical diets. Optimization of fish culture practices through feeding management has also been investigated. Trials with various fish densities and feeding frequencies in intensive culture systems are providing information to improve feed utilization and growth in on-growing fish. Further research is underway to evaluate factors in broodstock nutrition which have an impact on egg and larval quality, and into the use of various commercially available oil sources in on-growing diets. In this paper, the results on nutrition and feeding research with both species are reviewed and research needs to support their commercial production in the region are discussed.

  19. Ontogeny changes and weaning effects in gene expression patterns of digestive enzymes and regulatory digestive factors in spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) larvae.

    PubMed

    Moguel-Hernández, I; Peña, R; Andree, K B; Tovar-Ramirez, D; Bonacic, K; Dumas, S; Gisbert, E

    2016-10-01

    The study of digestive physiology is an important issue in species that have been introduced in aquaculture like the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus). The aims of this study were to describe the expression of digestive enzymes (trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, α-amylase, lipoprotein lipase, phospholipase A and pepsinogen) and their relation with orexigenic (neuropeptide Y, NPY) and anorexigenic (cholecystokinin, CCK) factors during the larval development and to evaluate the effect of weaning in their expression. The results showed that the transcripts of all the assayed digestive enzymes, with the exception of pepsinogen, and NPY and CCK were already present in L. guttatus from the hatching stage. The expression of all the enzymes was low during the yolk-sac stage (0-2 days after hatching, DAH), whereas after the onset of exogenous feeding at 2 DAH, their expression increased and fluctuated throughout larval development, which followed a similar pattern as in other marine fish species and reflected changes in different types of food items and the progressive maturation of the digestive system. On the other hand, weaning of L. guttatus larvae from live prey onto a microdiet between 25 and 35 DAH significantly affected the relative expression of most pancreatic digestive enzymes during the first weaning days, whereas chymotrypsinogen 2 and lipoprotein lipase remained stable during this period. At the end of co-feeding, larvae showed similar levels of gene expression regardless of the diet (live prey vs. microdiet), which indicated that larvae of L. guttatus were able to adapt their digestive capacities to the microdiet. In contrast, feeding L. guttatus larvae with live feed or microdiet did not affect the expression of CCK and NPY. The relevance of these findings with regard to current larval rearing procedures of L. guttatus is discussed.

  20. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd

    2016-08-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species.

  1. Refuge-seeking impairments mirror metabolic recovery following fisheries-related stressors in the Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Messmer, Vanessa; Tobin, Andrew J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Clark, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries and marine park management strategies for large predatory reef fish can mean that a large proportion of captured fish are released. Despite being released, these fish may experience high mortality while they traverse the water column to locate suitable refuge to avoid predators, all the while recovering from the stress of capture. The predatory reef fish Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) is frequently released because of a minimum-size or bag limit or by fishers targeting more desirable species. Using L. carponotatus as a model, we tested whether simulated fishing stress (exercise and air exposure) resulted in impairments in reflexes (e.g., response to stimuli) and the ability to identify and use refuge in a laboratory arena and whether any impairments were associated with blood physiology or metabolic recovery. Control fish were consistently responsive to reflex tests and rapidly located and entered refugia in the arena within seconds. Conversely, treatment fish (exhausted and air exposed) were unresponsive to stimuli, took longer to search for refugia, and were more apprehensive to enter the refuge once it was located. Consequently, treatment fish took more than 70 times longer than control fish to enter the coral refuge (26.12 vs. 0.36 min, respectively). The finding that fish exposed to stress were hesitant to use refugia suggests that there was likely cognitive, visual, and/or physiological impairment. Blood lactate, glucose, and hematocrit measures were perturbed at 15 and 30 min after the stressor, relative to controls. However, measurements of oxygen consumption rate revealed that about 50% of metabolic recovery occurred within 30 min after the stressor, coinciding with apparent cognitive/visual/physiological recovery. Recovering the treatment fish in aerated, flow-through chambers for 30 min before introduction to the behavioral arena restored reflexes, and "recovered" fish behaved more similarly to controls. Therefore, we suggest that

  2. Growth, Age Validation, Mortality, and other Population Characteristics of the Red Emperor Snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of North-Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Dunk, I. J.

    2002-07-01

    Red emperor, Lutjanus sebae, were examined from commercial catches in the Northern Demersal Scalefish Fishery (NDSF) of north-western Australia from 1997 to 1999. Specimens ranged from 183 to 728 mm fork length (FL); males had a mean FL of 509 mm, and were significantly larger than females that had a mean FL of 451 mm. Ages were estimated from thin sections of sagittal otoliths. Marginal increment analysis of sagittal otoliths showed a single annual minimum during September and October and indicated that one annulus is formed each year. Male L. sebae (n=977; 211-728 mm FL) ranged from age 2 to 30 years and females (n=1384; 183-584 mm FL) ranged from age 1 to 34 years. Sagittal otolith weight and height were significantly correlated with age for each sex. There was significant differential growth between sexes. The relationship of observed fork length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth equation for males, Lt=627·8 {1-exp [-0·151 (t+0·595)]} and females, Lt=482·6 {1-exp [-0·271 (t-0·065)]}. The slow growth, long life span and large size and age at maturity of L. sebae indicate that this species has a low production potential and hence spatial area closures are vulnerable to over-exploitation. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) ranged from 0·104 to 0·122. The optimum rate of fishing mortality was estimated to be 0·052-0·061. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) estimated from catch at age data for fully recruited ages, was 0·374 in 1997/98 and 0·242 in 1998/99. Hence, the NDSF population of L. sebae is exploited above optimum levels. Given their low production potential, populations of L. sebae in north-western Australia and elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region require prudent management. Furthermore, fishery managers need to consider as part of any harvest strategy for these fish to preserve significant levels of the spawning stock.

  3. Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante).

    PubMed

    Sanchís, Elena; Ghidelli, Christian; Sheth, Chirag C; Mateos, Milagros; Palou, Lluís; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL(-1) nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg(-1) citric acid and 10 g kg(-1) calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO2 emission and O2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the

  5. 76 FR 24511 - Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Puerto Rico west of the Gu nica Commonwealth Forest remaining in public ownership. The native vegetation is classified as subtropical dry forest under the Holdridge classification of world life zones. At... would continue to restore and maintain existing sub-tropical dryland forests, salt lagoons, and...

  6. Population identification of red-fin pargo, Parargyrops edita Tanaka, in Taiwan strait and Beibu Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiyong; Cai, Zeping; Xu, Xucai

    1985-06-01

    This paper deals with population identification of Parargyrops edita Tanaka. Samples of spawning stocks were collected from Niushan-Penghu, Minnan-Taiwan shoal (Southern Fujian-Taiwan shoal) and Beibu Gulf during the spawning period 1981 1982. Morphological characters, both meristic and morphometric, are counted and measured respectively. The stock concept and intraspecific categories have been discussed. Some meristic characters as the number of left or right ventral fin spine, right ventral fin rays and abdominal vertebrae of this fish may be constant, others as the numbers of left or right pectoral fin rays and gill-rakers may have obvious geographical variation. Morphological characters have not attained the level of subspecific distinctness, no sub-species could be found among these stocks by means of coefficient of difference (C.D.). Basing upon the comparative analysis of M diff, the authors consider that stocks of Minnan-Taiwan shoal and Niushan-Penghu belong to the same local population, Taiwan Strait local population. By means of the discriminant function analysis and linear relationship analysis, statistical differences will be found to exist in meristic characters between the stock of Minnan-Taiwan shoal and that of Niushan-Penghu, so that the two are virtually different stocks or subpopulations. The stock of Beibu Gulf belongs to another called the Beibu Gulf local population. These two local populations are of allopatric distribution and show statistically significant difference between themselves. Among these stocks, the Minnan-Taiwan shoal stock is strongly influenced by the much more complicated environmental conditions of the mixed boundary region of the subtropical Sino-Japanese Subregion in the north and the tropical Indo-Malayan Subregion in the south. Thus its coefficient of variability (C.V.) is greater than those of the other two in the mean values of various meristic characters.

  7. Molecular protocol for authentication of snappers (Lutjanidae-Perciformes) based on multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Veneza, Ivana; da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2017-10-01

    Fraud involving fish products is regularly reported and investigated using genetic methods. However, no such approach has been applied to snappers, despite the commercial relevance of these fish. This study proposes an authentication protocol with multiplex PCR for three species of snappers (Lutjanus purpureus, L. synagris, and Ocyurus chrysurus). The protocol yielded a distinct triple-banding pattern for L. purpureus, whereas L. synagris and O. chrysurus showed a double banding pattern of different sizes, thereby allowing differentiation of the three species. The protocol was validated using fillets labeled as snapper or "Pargo" in Brazil, previously identified using DNA sequencing, amongst which substitution with Rhomboplites aurorubens was detected. When subjected to the new protocol, banding characteristic of L. purpureus were detected whilst R. aurorubens generated only the control band. Our study provides a practical tool for investigating substitutions and might assist in quality control and increase food safety for consumers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Grupos de galaxias con corrimiento al rojo intermedio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, J. M.; Muriel, H.; Alonso, M. V.; Valotto, C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the construction of a catalog of groups of galaxies obtained through a sample of 677 spectra obtained with VIMOS-MOS spectrograph at the VLT. The sample has a redshift range and includes randomly selected galaxies brighter than in the R band. Groups of galaxies are identified using the algorithm Friends-of-friends (FOF). Linking lengths are taken as and . We also performed a visual reconstruction of the FOF groups. Finally, the basic properties of groups were estimated: velocity dispersion, virial mass and radius.

  9. Análisis extendido al rojo de espectros estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    En trabajos anteriores hemos estudiado las atmósferas de 8 estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso (14 Hya, {κ Cnc, 28 Her, 3 CenA, HR4487, HR4817, HR7245 y μ Lep) y 7 Sex, usando espectros obtenidos con el espectrógrafo REOSC del CASLEO. Con observaciones realizadas recientemente podemos extender el análisis hasta los 650 nm. Se muestra que en la región comprendida entre los 460 y 650 nm hay suficiente cantidad de líneas espectrales como para realizar una muy buena determinación de abundancias que nos permita obtener una mejor caracterización de las estrellas estudiadas.

  10. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. [Lutjanus griseus; Lutjanus synagris; Lutjanus analis; Ocyurus chrysurus

    SciTech Connect

    Bortone, S.A.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    These four snapper species have similar morphologies as well as life history and environmental requirements. With some exceptions they are restricted to tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the western Atlantic. Adults often associate with coral reef and other hard-bottom communities. Juveniles and pre-adults usually inhabit shallow, inshore areas and are often found in seagrass beds. Reproduction usually takes place offshore in the warmer months of the year. Fecundity is positively related to female body size, but there is substantial variation both within and among the species. Juveniles obtain adult body proportions at about 50 mm SL. Approximate total maximum lengths of adults are 900 mm for gray snapper, 446 mm for lane snapper, and 750 mm for mutton and yellowtail snappers. Otoliths are the most preferred body part used to determine age. Most snappers attain sexual maturity after 3 to 5 years at a size range of 180 to 350 mm FL. Males mature at a smaller size than females. Recent commercial catches of gray and lane snappers have been increasing, whereas mutton and yellowtail snappers show no clear trends. Sport fishing probably has a substantial impact on the stocks of all four species. All four snappers feed predominantly on small benthic fishes and crustaceans, but yellowtail snapper feed on more pelagic animals. Upper water temperature tolerance limits are 27.2 to 32.5/sup 0/C and lower limits are 11 to 14/sup 0/C.

  11. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology, ecology, and control of the pathogenic fungi of common beans in the field. PMID:27997595

  12. Biogeological signatures of microboring cyanobacterial communities in marine carbonates from Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, Elizabeth; Berrendero, Esther; Garcia Pichel, Ferran

    2006-03-01

    The occurrence of carbonate-boring organisms in marine and continental environments is well known and accounts for substantial rates of sediment and sedimentary rock reworking at the geological scale. Many case studies have documented the importance of cyanobacteria in near-surface environments, but nearly all have relied upon morphological descriptions. In this study we applied a polyphasic approach to evaluate euendolithic cyanobacterial assemblages from a variety of carbonaceous marine substrates, using electron microscopy, cultivation, and molecular genetic techniques. The limitations and biases of the different methods became evident: none could be deemed optimal, and each failed to detect much or some of the extant diversity in the samples. In general, SEM tended to underestimate the diversity of morphologically simple community members, and cultivation yielded a very biased view of the community. All approaches, however, congruently detected differences in community structure between soft substrates and hard substrates, with the latter displaying communities of higher complexity. In spite of these differences, the geological and sedimentary imprints of the boring community, exemplified in the formation of well-structured micritic envelopes of re-worked carbonate, were uniform throughout the samples, implying that the mechanism of action is common and most likely universal. Our results speak for the merits of a multidisciplinary approach and provide cautionary implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  13. Protozoal and epitheliocystis-like infections in the introduced bluestripe snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, Robert; Takata, Geraldine; Kent, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    The bluestripe snapper, or taape, was introduced into Hawaii in the 1950s and has since become very abundant throughout the archipelago. As part of a health survey of reef fish in Hawaii, we necropsied 120 taape collected from various coastal areas south of Oahu and examined fish histology for extraintestinal organisms. Forty-seven percent of taape were infected with an apicomplexan protozoan compatible with a coccidian. Infection was evident mainly in the spleen and, less commonly, the kidney. Prevalence of this coccidian increased with size of fish, and we saw no significant pathology associated with the organism. Twenty-six percent of taape were also infected with an epitheliocystis-like organism that occurred mainly in the kidney and, less commonly, the spleen. In contrast to the coccidian, fish mounted a notable inflammatory response to the epitheliocystis-like organism, and this inflammation appeared to increase in severity with age. Prevalence of the epitheliocystis-like organism infection increased with age, but infection was not seen in fish greater than 26.5 cm fork length. The high prevalence of coccidial infection in introduced taape prompts the concern that these organisms, along with the epitheliocystis-like organism, have the potential to be transmitted to native reef fish. Given the impact of other introduced microbial organisms on native Hawaiian fauna, there is a clear need to assess whether protozoa and bacteria are endemic to Hawaii, and whether they negatively impact native reef fish that closely associate with taape.

  14. Age, growth, and natural mortality of schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Michael L.; Myers, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Ages of schoolmaster (n = 136) from the southeastern Florida coast from 1981–2015 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming March–July (peaking in May–June). Schoolmaster ranged in age from 1–42 years; the largest fish measured 505 mm total length (TL) and was 19 years old. The oldest fish measured 440 mm TL. Estimated body size relationships for schoolmaster were: W = 9.26 × 10−6 TL3.11 (n = 256, r2 = 0.95); W = 2.13 × 10−5 FL2.99 (n = 161, r2 = 0.95); TL = 1.03 FL + 10.36 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.96 TL − 8.41 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in g, FL = fork length in mm, and TL in mm. The fitted von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 482 (1 − e−0.12(t+2.79)) (n = 136). Based on published life history relationships, a point estimate of natural mortality for schoolmaster was M = 0.10, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.57–0.18 for ages 1–42. PMID:27761332

  15. Protozoal and epitheliocystis-like infections in the introduced bluestripe snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Takata, G.; Kent, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The bluestripe snapper, or taape, was introduced into Hawaii in the 1950s and has since become very abundant throughout the archipelago. As part of a health survey of reef fish in Hawaii, we necropsied 120 taape collected from various coastal areas south of Oahu and examined fish histology for extraintestinal organisms. Forty-seven percent of taape were infected with an apicomplexan protozoan compatible with a coccidian. Infection was evident mainly in the spleen and, less commonly, the kidney. Prevalence of this coccidian increased with size of fish, and we saw no significant pathology associated with the organism. Twenty-six percent of taape were also infected with an epitheliocystis-like organism that occurred mainly in the kidney and, less commonly, the spleen. In contrast to the coccidian, fish mounted a notable inflammatory response to the epitheliocystis-like organism, and this inflammation appeared to increase in severity with age. Prevalence of the epitheliocystis-like organism infection increased with age, but infection was not seen in fish greater than 26.5 cm fork length. The high prevalence of coccidial infection in introduced taape prompts the concern that these organisms, along with the epitheliocystis-like organism, have the potential to be transmitted to native reef fish. Given the impact of other introduced microbial organisms on native Hawaiian fauna, there is a clear need to assess whether protozoa and bacteria are endemic to Hawaii, and whether they negatively impact native reef fish that closely associate with taape.

  16. Validated environmental and physiological data from the CELSS Breadboard Projects Biomass Production Chamber. BWT931 (Wheat cv. Yecora Rojo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, G. W.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Markwell, G. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    This KSC database is being made available to the scientific research community to facilitate the development of crop development models, to test monitoring and control strategies, and to identify environmental limitations in crop production systems. The KSC validated dataset consists of 17 parameters necessary to maintain bioregenerative life support functions: water purification, CO2 removal, O2 production, and biomass production. The data are available on disk as either a DATABASE SUBSET (one week of 5-minute data) or DATABASE SUMMARY (daily averages of parameters). Online access to the VALIDATED DATABASE will be made available to institutions with specific programmatic requirements. Availability and access to the KSC validated database are subject to approval and limitations implicit in KSC computer security policies.

  17. 77 FR 51044 - Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, PR; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... observation, wildlife photography, environmental education, and interpretation; bicycling, hiking, walking... opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, and environmental education...

  18. Culture-induced variation in plants of Coffea arabica cv. caturra rojo, regenerated by direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Teyer, L Felipe; Quiroz-Figueroa, Francisco; Loyola-Vargas, Victor; Infante, Diogenes

    2003-02-01

    Amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to evaluate the stability of DNA in regenerated plantlets of Coffea arabica obtained by direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA), showed no specific grouping pattern related to the type of embryogenesis. These results suggest that the somatic embryogenesis (SE) process has a mechanism for the selection of normal and competent cells. Bulked DNA from regenerated plants obtained by DSE and ISE, and from the mother plants, was used to characterize specific AFLP fragments associated with each SE process. Twenty-three primer combinations were tested. A total of 1446 bands were analyzed, with 11.4% being polymorphic and 84% being specific for regenerated plants. Furthermore, specific bands were detected for DSE, ISE, and the mother plants. These results indicate that the SE process induces rearrangements at the DNA level and demonstrates discrepancies between the mechanisms involved in each SE process. Coffea arabica breeding programs that involve DSE and ISE can use AFLP as an additional tool for assessing DNA stability.

  19. Reproductive biology of black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii, threadfin porgy Evynnis cardinalis and red pargo Pagrus major in the northern South China Sea with consideration of fishery status and management needs.

    PubMed

    Law, C S W; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y

    2017-07-01

    The reproductive biology of three commercially significant seabream species (family: Sparidae) Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Evynnis cardinalis and Pagrus major, taken from Hong Kong and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) waters, were investigated for their sexual patterns, spawning seasons, length at maturity and exploitation in relation to their conservation and management status. Histological analysis showed E. cardinalis and P. major to be functionally gonochoristic, the latter having a bisexual juvenile stage and being a rudimentary hermaphrodite. Acanthopagrus schlegelii is a protandric hermaphrodite. Standard length (LS ) at 50% sex change for A. schlegelii is 291 mm. LS at 50% female maturity for E. cardinalis and P. major are 117 and 332 mm, respectively. For all three species, the spawning period falls between November and March. The study highlights geographical differences in reproductive biology among the species and a paucity of fishery or other population-related data. While heavy fishing pressure, life-history characteristics and absence of effective management throughout the geographic ranges of these species make them susceptible to overfishing, they nonetheless appear to be generally more resilient than many other taxa that comprise the multi-species fisheries of the region, possibly due to their relatively rapid sexual maturation and spatial movement patterns. Overall, however, little is known of the biology, fishing history and current fishery status of sparids in general in the northern SCS and the current study is one of the first to examine such aspects of this family in the region and to consider appropriate management options. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. The acid solvent experimental studies on gelatin producing by utilizing snapper fishes scales waste (Lutjanus camphecanus sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faradiella, Hanandyta; Ningsih, Putri Dewi Fatwa; Triastuti, Warlinda Eka

    2017-03-01

    Had done research processing scales red snapper (Lutjanjus campechanus sp.) into gelatin by process of maseration a solution of citric acid, acetate acid, hydrochloric acid, and phosphoric acid an then continued with hydrolysis process. Concentration of solvent used 5% (% v/v) for 3 and 6 days. Gelatin produces then were analyzed fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proximate analysis include yield and the water content, analysis of physical-chemist properties include analysis viscosity and pH, organoleptic test (color, texture, odor). Analyst ftir results showed the presence of a cluster functions 0-H, C-H, C=0, N-H and C-C aromatis similar to those of spectra that are found on commercial gelatin. Gelatin best results obtained maseration on with phosphoricacid 5% viscosity of gelatin 3,91 cP, the water content 2,569%, pH 6,98 and yield 11,7448%.

  1. In vitro immunostimulatory potential of fungal β-glucans in pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) cells.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Reyna, Tomás; Angulo, Carlos; Guluarte, Crystal; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Reyes-Becerril, Martha

    2017-12-01

    This study attempts to describe the immunostimulatory effects of three fungal glucans on innate immunity responses in an in vitro assays using Pacific red snapper leukocytes. First, the yield glucans obtained was higher in Aspergillus niger, follow by Aspergillus ochraceus and Alternaria botrytis (40, 20 and 10%, respectively). Structural characterization of these fungal glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. The immunostimulatory activity of fungal glucans were assessed in head-kidney leukocytes at 24 h using colorimetric assays and molecular gene expression. In addition, the response against bacterial infection using Aeromonas hydrophila was evaluated by flow cytometry with annexin V/propidium iodide. Leukocytes responded positively to fungal glucans where the viability was higher than 80%. Interestingly, A. niger β-glucans enhanced the phagocytic ability and capacity in head-kidney leukocytes. Immunological assays reveled an increased in nitric oxide production, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, in fish stimulated with A. niger β-glucans. Induction of cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12) were more pronounced in A. niger β-glucans leukocytes stimulated compared to other group. Finally, flow cytometry assay showed that A. botrytis and A. niger β-glucans were able to inhibit apoptosis caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in the Pacific red snapper leukocytes indicating an immunostimulant potent response by fungi derived-glucans. These results strongly support the idea that fungal β-glucans can stimulate the immune mechanism in head-kidney leukocytes and that Aspergillus niger β-glucan possess immunostimulatory properties cell increasing viability, and reducing necrotic cell death caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Condition of larval red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) relative to environmental variability and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. J., Jr.; Filbrun, J. E.; Fang, J.; Ransom, J. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) spatially and temporally overlapped with the spawning of many fish species, including Red Snapper, one of the most economically important reef fish in the Gulf of Mexico. To investigate potential impacts of the DWHOS on larval Red Snapper, data from a long-term ichthyoplankton survey off the coast of Alabama were used to examine: (1) larval abundances among pre-impact (2007-2009), impact (2010), and post-impact (2011, 2013) periods; (2) proxies for larval condition (size-adjusted morphometric relationships and dry weight) among the same periods; and (3) the effects of background environmental variation on larval condition. We found that larval Red Snapper were in poorer body condition during 2010, 2011, and 2013 as compared to the 2007-2009 period, a trend that was strongly (and negatively) related to variation in Mobile Bay freshwater discharge. However, larvae collected during and after 2010 were in relatively poor condition even after accounting for variation in freshwater discharge and other environmental variables. By contrast, no differences in larval abundance were detected during these survey years. Taken together, larval supply did not change relative to the timing of the DWHOS, but larval condition was negatively impacted. Even small changes in condition can affect larval survival, so these trends may have consequences for recruitment of larvae to juvenile and adult life stages.

  3. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  4. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  5. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  6. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  7. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  8. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kafayat, A Fakoya; Martins, A Anetekhai; Shehu, L Akintola; Abdulwakil, O Sabal; Abass, Mikhail A

    2015-03-01

    The Gorean snapper, Lutanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life-history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90 cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10 cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance ofjuveniles (<20 cm) and sub-adults (20-35 cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99 cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99 cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean +/- SD; 16.19 +/- 3.73 cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89 +/- 6.14 cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous studies demonstrated that juvenile L. goreensis displays estuarine dependency and habitat flexibility. Hence, this underscores the importance of preserving estuarine environments as essential fish habitats to prevent overfishing. The study also concludes that the species is vulnerable to recruitment overfishing in the marine environment especially as a consequence of shrimping. Consequently, it advocates for ban on all fishing activities during peak spawning periods in breeding grounds and shrimp ground assemblage.

  9. Projecting Range Limits with Coupled Thermal Tolerance - Climate Change Models: An Example Based on Gray Snapper (Lutjanus griseus) along the U.S. East Coast

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Jonathan A.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Kimball, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    We couple a species range limit hypothesis with the output of an ensemble of general circulation models to project the poleward range limit of gray snapper. Using laboratory-derived thermal limits and statistical downscaling from IPCC AR4 general circulation models, we project that gray snapper will shift northwards; the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the magnitude of climate change. We also evaluate the uncertainty in our projection and find that statistical uncertainty associated with the experimentally-derived thermal limits is the largest contributor (∼ 65%) to overall quantified uncertainty. This finding argues for more experimental work aimed at understanding and parameterizing the effects of climate change and variability on marine species. PMID:23284974

  10. B-cell activating CpG ODN 1668 enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) exposed to Vibrio parahaemolitycus.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Reyna, Tomás; Angulo, Carlos; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Velázquez-Lizárraga, Esteban; Reyes-Becerril, Martha

    2016-09-01

    B-class CpG ODN 1668 is known to possess clear immunostimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the potential ability of CpG ODN 1668 to enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper exposed to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Four different treatments were evaluated in Pacific red snapper: (1) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668, (2) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668 and V. parahaemolyticus, (3) exposure only to V. parahaemolyticus and (4) PBS. Samples were taken at 24, 72, 168 and 240 h of stimulation/infection. The results show that intraperitoneal injection of CpG-ODN 1668 enhanced the anti-protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in serum. CpG ODN 1668 upregulated TLR9 and IgM gene expression in head-kidney, intestine and skin, with higher expression in head-kidney. A higher correlation was observed between TLR9 and IgM in head-kidney and intestine. Finally, no histopathological damages were observed in fish stimulated with CpG ODN 1668. In contrast, melanomacrophages-like structures were present in higher numbers in infected fish. Taken together, these results indicate that CpG ODN 1668 activates innate immune response and upregulate the TLR9 and IgM-mediated immune response. These results may be exploited for the control of Vibriosis in farmed Pacific red snapper.

  11. Debaryomyces hansenii up regulates superoxide dismutase gene expression and enhances the immune response and survival in Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) leukocytes after Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Carlos; Maldonado, Minerva; Delgado, Karen; Reyes-Becerril, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Application of yeast is increasing to improve welfare and promotes growth in aquaculture. The halotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii is normally a non-pathogenic yeast with probiotic properties and potential source of antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase. Here, first, we characterized the sequence features of MnSOD and icCu/ZnSOD from Pacific red snapper, and second, we evaluated the potential antioxidant immune responses of the marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii strain CBS004 in leukocytes which were then subjected to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. In silico analysis revealed that LpMnSOD consisted of 1186 bp, with an ORF of 678 bp encoding a 225 amino acid protein and LpicCu/ZnSOD consisted of 1090 bp in length with an ORF of 465 bp encoding a 154 amino acid protein. Multiple alignment analyzes revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. In vitro assays using head-kidney and spleen leukocytes immunostimulated with D. hansenii and zymosan in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection reveled that D. hansenii strain CBS004 significantly increased transcriptions of MnSOD and icCu/ZnSOD genes. Flow cytometry assay showed that D. hansenii was able to inhibit apoptosis caused by V. parahaemolyticus in the Pacific red snapper leukocytes and enhanced the phagocytic capacity in head-kidney leukocytes. Immunological assays reveled an increased in superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, as well as, in nitric oxide production and reactive oxygen species production (respiratory burst) in fish stimulated with D. hansenii. Finally, our results. These results strongly support the idea that marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii strain CBS004 can stimulate the antioxidant immune mechanism in head-kidney and spleen leukocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal and spatial comparisons of the reproductive biology of northern Gulf of Mexico (USA) red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) collected a decade apart.

    PubMed

    Kulaw, Dannielle H; Cowan, James H; Jackson, Melissa W

    2017-01-01

    In studies done a decade apart, we provide evidence of a recent shift toward a slower progression to sexual maturity as well as reduced egg production, especially among young, small female red snapper, in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). Slower maturation rates (among fish ≤6 years old), lower GSI values and decreased spawning frequency were observed, and were especially pronounced in the northwestern Gulf. Furthermore, an Index of Reproductive Importance showed that young fish (ages 2-7) are contributing far less to the spawning stock in recent years, while older fish (>8 years) are contributing more, when compared to fish from the same age groups sampled in the previous decade. Coincident with these changes in reproductive output, fishing pressure has steadily declined gulf-wide, and spawning stock biomass and spawning potential ratio have increased. Thus, it is possible that the age structure of the red snapper stock is becoming less truncated, or that reproductive effort observed is due to the temporary influence of recent strong year classes produced in 2004 and 2006 as they begin to reach full reproductive potential. If the latter is true, careful documentation of the stock's reproductive dynamics during a time of population growth provides new understanding at the meta-population spatial and decadal temporal scales. In contrast, if the former is true, a truncated age structure due to overharvest can limit the productivity of the Gulf red snapper stock. In addition, we have learned that red snapper females in the northwestern Gulf collected on natural reefs and banks have much higher reproductive output than those on artificial reefs in the form of standing and toppled oil and gas platforms, thus making the need to know the relative abundance of females found on these disparate habitats an important next step toward better-understanding factors impacting the reproductive dynamics of this species.

  13. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  14. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  15. Temporal and spatial comparisons of the reproductive biology of northern Gulf of Mexico (USA) red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) collected a decade apart

    PubMed Central

    Kulaw, Dannielle H.; Jackson, Melissa W.

    2017-01-01

    In studies done a decade apart, we provide evidence of a recent shift toward a slower progression to sexual maturity as well as reduced egg production, especially among young, small female red snapper, in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). Slower maturation rates (among fish ≤6 years old), lower GSI values and decreased spawning frequency were observed, and were especially pronounced in the northwestern Gulf. Furthermore, an Index of Reproductive Importance showed that young fish (ages 2–7) are contributing far less to the spawning stock in recent years, while older fish (>8 years) are contributing more, when compared to fish from the same age groups sampled in the previous decade. Coincident with these changes in reproductive output, fishing pressure has steadily declined gulf-wide, and spawning stock biomass and spawning potential ratio have increased. Thus, it is possible that the age structure of the red snapper stock is becoming less truncated, or that reproductive effort observed is due to the temporary influence of recent strong year classes produced in 2004 and 2006 as they begin to reach full reproductive potential. If the latter is true, careful documentation of the stock’s reproductive dynamics during a time of population growth provides new understanding at the meta-population spatial and decadal temporal scales. In contrast, if the former is true, a truncated age structure due to overharvest can limit the productivity of the Gulf red snapper stock. In addition, we have learned that red snapper females in the northwestern Gulf collected on natural reefs and banks have much higher reproductive output than those on artificial reefs in the form of standing and toppled oil and gas platforms, thus making the need to know the relative abundance of females found on these disparate habitats an important next step toward better-understanding factors impacting the reproductive dynamics of this species. PMID:28355239

  16. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges and other nearby reserves in Southwestern Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver; Joseph J. Schwagerl

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to summarize information about the Cabo Rojo and Laguna Cartagena National Wildlife Refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico. The Cabo Rojo (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) occupy 1174 ha and are part of the 10 231-ha Caribbean system of nine refuges. Their major geologic and physiographic...

  17. Elucidating the Role of Truncated ErB2 Receptor (p95) in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    growth. Oncogene. 2010; 29: 325-34. 13. Saez R, Molina MA, Ramsey EE, Rojo F, Keenan EJ, Albanell J, et al. p95HER-2 predicts worse outcome...prognostic factors in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 5123-9. 15. Scaltriti M, Rojo F, Ocana A, Anido J, Guzman M, Cortes J, et al

  18. Properties of the State of the Art of Bulk III-V Nitride Substrates and Homoepitaxial Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Schwalter L J, Susterman Y, Wang R, Bhat I, Arunmozhi G and Slack G A 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 985 [25] Schwalter L J, Rojo J C, Slack G A, Susterman Y...Wang R, Bhat I and Arunmozhi G 2000 J. Cryst. Growth 211 78 [26] Rojo J C, Slack G A, Morgan K, Raghothamachar B, Dudley M and Schwalter L J 2000 J

  19. Ciguatera incidence and fish toxicity in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Naomasa; Yogi, Kentaro; Asato, Shuko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Tamanaha, Koji; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Inafuku, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    Okinawa being located in the subtropical region has the highest incidence of ciguatera in Japan. Officially, 33 outbreaks involving 103 patients have been reported between 1997 and 2006. The implicated species were Variola louti, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus monostigma, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, unidentified Lutjanus sp., Plectropomus areolatus, Oplegnathus punctatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, Caranx ignobilis and moray eel. Toxicities of the leftover meals, as determined by mouse bioassays, ranged from 0.025 to 0.8 MU/g or above (equivalent to 0.175-5.6 ngCTX1B/g). We collected 612 specimens of fish belonging to L. monostigma, L. bohar, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus russellii, V. louti, Variola albimarginata, and E. fuscoguttatus from the coasts around Okinawa and examined the toxicity of the flesh by the mouse bioassay. The rate of toxic fish was as follows: L. monostigma: 32.3%, L. bohar: 11.9%, V. louti: 14.3%, E. fuscoguttatus: 20.8%. Only one out of 36 samples of V. albimarginata and two of 74 samples of L. russellii were found toxic. None of the 35 samples of L. argentimaculatus was toxic. Nor the L. bohar samples weighing less than 4 kg were toxic. In all toxic samples, CTX1B was detected by LC/MS analysis but CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were not. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    PubMed

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fishes for sale in Shantou].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Xia; Xu, Guang-Xing; Huang, Jian-Yun; Chen, Hong-Hui; Shi, Shi-Zun; Wu, Xiu-Yang; Liang, Jing-Jing

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the infection status of Anisakis simplex larvae in marine fishes for sale in Shantou. Marine fishes were randomly collected from markets in Shantou City from February to December 2013, and then classified. The viscera and muscle of each fish were carefully dissected and thoroughly examined for anisakids. The larvae were examined under a light microscope. The infection rate and intensity of Anisakis simplex larvae were calculated. A total of 382 fish specimens belonging to 52 species were examined. 42 out of 52 species (80.8%) were found infected by A. simplex larvae. The overall infection rate reached 47.4% (181/382), and average 5.5 larvae parasitized per infected fish (995/181). The survival rate of larvae was 100%. The highest infection rate observed was 100% in Scomber australasicus (4/4), Trachurus japonicus (9/9), Decapterus maruadsi (8/8), Lutjanus lutjanus (9/9), Argyrosomus argentatus (4/4), Nibea albiflora (4/4), Nemipterus bathybius (12/12), Trachinocephalus myops (7/7) and Mene maculata (9/9), followed by 16/18 in Pneumatophorus japonicus, 6/7 in Lutjanus ophuysenii and 5/6 in Lutjanus fulvus. A. simplex larvae were not detected in 10 fish species, namely, Megalaspis cordyla, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus fulviflamma, Acanthopagrus australis, Acanthopagrus latus, Plectorhinchus nigrus, Dentex tumifrons, Psenopsis anomala, Scatophagus argus, and Seriola lalandi. The infection intensity was the highest in Lutjanus fulvus (21.0 per fish), followed by Trachinocephalus myops (16.7 per fish), Saurida filamentosa (14.0 per fish) and Mene maculate (10.1 per fish). The lowest infection intensity was found in Rastrelliger kanagurta, Kaiwarinus equula, Atule mate, Lutjanus russellii, Plectorhinchus cinctus, Priacanthus tayenus, Branchiostegus argentatus, Branchiostegus albus, Sphyraena pinguis, Formio niger, Trachinotus blochii, Siganus fuscescens and Choerodon azurio (less than 2 per fish). The highest infection rate (34.3%, 131/382) was

  2. 77 FR 27716 - Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... (Lutjanus Campechanus) data scoping assessment process webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 31 assessment of the Gulf... notice is for a webinar associated with the Data portion of the SEDAR process. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The SEDAR 31 Data Workshop data scoping webinar will be held on July 11, 2012, 1 p.m. to 5...

  3. A Study of Some Problems in Network Information Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Sudeep Uday

    2013-01-01

    Red snapper, "Lutjanus campechanus," were sampled with hook and line at natural (n = 33) and artificial (n = 27) reef sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico from 2009-2011. Stomachs (n = 708) were extracted and their contents preserved for gut content analysis, and muscle tissue samples (n = 200) were dissected and frozen for stable…

  4. Fisheries Management of Red Snapper in the Gulf of Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joy N.; Snyder, Stephanie M.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian R.; McMullin, Steve L.

    2009-01-01

    In the Gulf of Mexico, the overfished population of red snapper ("Lutjanus campechanus") is a major source of revenue resulting in a dichotomy between maintaining the health of the fishery and meeting the demands of the local economies. In order to govern marine fisheries the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of…

  5. Fisheries Management of Red Snapper in the Gulf of Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joy N.; Snyder, Stephanie M.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian R.; McMullin, Steve L.

    2009-01-01

    In the Gulf of Mexico, the overfished population of red snapper ("Lutjanus campechanus") is a major source of revenue resulting in a dichotomy between maintaining the health of the fishery and meeting the demands of the local economies. In order to govern marine fisheries the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of…

  6. A Study of Some Problems in Network Information Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Sudeep Uday

    2013-01-01

    Red snapper, "Lutjanus campechanus," were sampled with hook and line at natural (n = 33) and artificial (n = 27) reef sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico from 2009-2011. Stomachs (n = 708) were extracted and their contents preserved for gut content analysis, and muscle tissue samples (n = 200) were dissected and frozen for stable…

  7. About the possible observation and magnetic characterization of amorphous Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, J. M.; Muñiz, P.; Andres, J. P.; Lopez de la Torre, M. A.

    1998-09-01

    Recently Rojo et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1996) 4833; Phys. Rev. B 56 (1997) 5039) have reported the observation and magnetic characterization of Ni in amorphous state, as an intermediate phase that is produced during the crystallization process of the Ni 80B 20 metallic glass. In the present work we have reproduced the main experiments which gave rise to this observation, as well as carried out new ones. Our results are in contradiction with those obtained by Rojo et al. and raise doubts as to whether they observed amorphous Ni in their experiments and, of course, their magnetic characterization.

  8. Study of the Brazil and Falkland currents using their images of Nimbus 5 and oceanographic data in 1972 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. C.; Inostroza, H. M. V.; Kumar, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Western Edge of the Sub-tropical Convergence of the South-western Atlantic Ocean, called the Front, which is a thermal discontinuity between the Brazil and Falkland Currents, was studied utilizing the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) of Nimbus V in the 10.5 to 12.5 micrometers channel and historical oceanographic data. Some important results obtained are: the oceanographic Front could be detected from Nimbus THIR data; oceanographic charts showed that the transition zone where the Brazil and the Falkland Currents meet was the Front detected from satellite data; ocean current speeds calculated with THIR data were of the same order of magnitude as those calculated oceanographically; fisheries statistics for Pargo Roseo showed that the maximum catches were in September of 1973, in the period when the Front was observed most distinctly and clearly. The results showed the great potentiality of satellite data to study surface thermal structures, surface currents and oceanic fisheries.

  9. Data from the Arizona FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) experiments on wheat at ample and limiting levels of water and nitrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments were conducted on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) at Maricopa, Arizona, U.S.A. from December, 1992 through May, 1997. The first two were conducted at ample and limited (50% of ample) supplies of water, and second two at ample (350 kg N ha-...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS OF SOLAR SALTERNS USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cabo Rojo Solar Salterns located on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico are composed of two main ecosystems (i.e., salt ponds and microbial mats). Even though these locations are characterized by high solar radiation (mean light intensity of 39 mol photons m-2d-1) they harbor ...

  11. The flower fly genus Allograpta: Classification with description of a new subgenus and species (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new subgenus and one species of flower flies are described from the Neotropical biotic region (Allograpta (Costarica Mengual, Rojo, Ruiz, Ståhls & Thompson), type Allograpta zumbadoi Thompson & Allograpta (Costarica) nishida Thompson, type-locality: Costa Rica, type-depository: Instituto Nacional ...

  12. Negotiating Power Relations and Ethnicity in a Sociolinguistic Ethnography in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Adriana Patino

    2011-01-01

    One of the major dilemmas when practising critical sociolinguistic ethnography within the field of education is the ethnographer's degree of implication within the studied site (Goldstein, 2003; Martin Rojo, 2003; Unamuno, 2004). How far should the researcher intervene within the daily practices he/she is observing? This exercise of methodological…

  13. Negotiating Power Relations and Ethnicity in a Sociolinguistic Ethnography in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Adriana Patino

    2011-01-01

    One of the major dilemmas when practising critical sociolinguistic ethnography within the field of education is the ethnographer's degree of implication within the studied site (Goldstein, 2003; Martin Rojo, 2003; Unamuno, 2004). How far should the researcher intervene within the daily practices he/she is observing? This exercise of methodological…

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS OF SOLAR SALTERNS USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cabo Rojo Solar Salterns located on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico are composed of two main ecosystems (i.e., salt ponds and microbial mats). Even though these locations are characterized by high solar radiation (mean light intensity of 39 mol photons m-2d-1) they harbor ...

  15. Correction: Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Miguel Muñoz; Martín, Jaime; Grauby, Stéphane; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Dilhaire, Stefan; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2015-02-01

    Correction for `Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials' by Miguel Muñoz Rojo et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 7858-7865.

  16. Pesa Large Red Dry Bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Released in 2006, Pesa was derived from the single cross Rojo x Kablanketi made in Dec-Jan 1992-93. The parent ‘Rojo’ is a large red-seeded cultivar released by SUA in 1997. It has I bc-12 resistance to BCMV and BCMNV, resistance to the prevalent races of ALS, and moderate resistance to CBB, and H...

  17. Ecosystem Warming Affects Vertical Distribution of Leaf Gas Exchange Properties and Water Relations of Spring Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The vertical distribution of gas exchange and water relations responses to full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming were evaluated for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semiarid desert region of the Southwest USA. A Temperature Free-Air Contro...

  18. Gas Exchange and Water Relations Responses of Spring Wheat to Full-Season Infrared Warming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gas exchange and water relations were evaluated under full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semiarid desert region of the southwest USA. A temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) apparatus u...

  19. Gas exchange and water relations responses of spring wheat to full-season infrared warming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gas exchange and water relations responses to full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming were evaluated for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semi-arid desert region of the Southwest USA. A Temperature Free-Air Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) ap...

  20. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in south-western Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cuev...

  1. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Image and Video Library

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  2. Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) parasitizing fish caught in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eiras, Jorge Costa; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Madi, Rubens Riscala; Jeraldo, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe; Melo, Cláudia Moura de; Souza, Jônatas Dos Santos de; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the fish species Lutjanus analis, Bagre marinus, Aspistor luniscutis and Lutjanus jocu, which were caught in Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil. The parasites formed oval plasmodia around the esophagus of L. analis, and elongated plasmodia inside the skeletal muscle of B. marinus, A. luniscutis and L. jocu. Host myoliquefaction was not observed in all the cases studied. The current study provides a morphological and morphometric description of each parasite as well as a comparison with all the species described worldwide. Lack of molecular data impaired specific identification of the parasites. The importance of these parasites is discussed and the need for further studies on infections in Brazilian fish is emphasized because of the high economic impact of some Kudoa species which cause liquefaction in hosts' muscles and render these fish unsuitable for consumption.

  3. Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Habitat Fish Common snook a Centropomus undecimalis NL SSC Uses mangroves for spawning. Mammals Florida mouse Podomys floridanus NL SSC Prefers...gopher frog, Florida mouse , and burrowing owl) because other species use inactive gopher tortoise burrows for shelter (GTC 2001). Removal and...Lutjanus synagris -- X X -- Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus -- X X X Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus -- X -- X Spiny lobster Panulirus argus

  4. Location of volatile odor sources by ghost crabOcypode quadrata (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Wellins, C A; Rittschof, D; Wachowiak, M

    1989-04-01

    The ghost crab,Ocypode quadrata, was tested in the field for its ability to locate sources of volatile cues. The pure compound skatole, 3-methylindole, was a potent attractant. Crabs also located sources of complex odors such as dead fish,Lutjanus campechanus, dead mole crabs,Emerita talpoida; and peeled bananas. Ghost crabs possess concealed and reduced antennules that may not be the primary olfactory organs. Chemosensory hairs borne on the dactyls may be the primary detection system.

  5. Theoretical study of the devitrification of the metallic glass Ni80B20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoza, J. A.; Gallego, L. J.

    2000-02-01

    The devitrification of Ni80B20 metallic glass has recently been investigated experimentally by two different groups with contradictory results. Rojo et al. interpret their data as showing that devitrification occurs in two successive processes separated by a state in which pure amorphous Ni is present. By contrast, Riveiro et al. have suggested that the ``intermediate'' state consists of two crystalline phases. Using a semiempirical treatment which combines classical elasticity theory and Miedema's model for the heat of formation of alloys, we have constructed the free energy diagram for Ni-B. We found that it supports Riveiro et al.'s account of the devitrification of Ni80B20 glass rather than Rojo et al.'s.

  6. KSC-388c2096-08

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-02

    Original photo and caption dated June 22, 1988: "A dwarf wheat variety known as Yecoro Rojo flourishes in KSC's Biomass Production Chamber. Researchers are gathering information on the crop's ability to produce food, water and oxygen, and then remove carbon dioxide. The confined quarters associated with space travel require researchers to focus on smaller plants that yield proportionately large amounts of biomass. This wheat crop takes about 85 days to grow before harvest."

  7. Distribución en gran escala de los cúmulos globulares en Fornax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Para analizar los cúmulos globulares azules y rojos de NGC 1399 asociados con NGC 1399 en particular, o si los cúmulos azules representaban un sistema asociado con el cúmulo de Fornax en general, se obtuvieron imágenes CCD de gran formato con el telescopio de 4m del CTIO, en las bandas C y T1. Se describe el método empleado y lo encontrado.

  8. Surprising resistivity decrease in manganites with constant electronic density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés-Gil, R.; Ruiz-González, M. L.; Alonso, J. M.; Martínez, J. L.; Hernando, A.; Vallet-Regí, M.; González-Calbet, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    A decrease of eight orders of magnitude in the resistance of (La0.5Ca0.5)zMnO3 has been detected when the electronic density is kept constant while the calcium content is modified by introducing cationic vacancies. This effect is related to the disappearance of the charge ordering state and the emergence of an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition. Moreover, high values of the colossal magnetoresistance above room temperature are attained. Dedicated to Professor J M Rojo.

  9. Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Mapping of Halo Blight Resistance in Common Bean to Race 6 of the Globally Important Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Tock, Andrew J.; Fourie, Deidré; Walley, Peter G.; Holub, Eric B.; Soler, Alvaro; Cichy, Karen A.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A.; Song, Qijian; Porch, Timothy G.; Hart, John P.; Vasconcellos, Renato C. C.; Vicente, Joana G.; Barker, Guy C.; Miklas, Phillip N.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psph) Race 6 is a globally prevalent and broadly virulent bacterial pathogen with devastating impact causing halo blight of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Common bean lines PI 150414 and CAL 143 are known sources of resistance against this pathogen. We constructed high-resolution linkage maps for three recombinant inbred populations to map resistance to Psph Race 6 derived from the two common bean lines. This was complemented with a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Race 6 resistance in an Andean Diversity Panel of common bean. Race 6 resistance from PI 150414 maps to a single major-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL; HB4.2) on chromosome Pv04 and confers broad-spectrum resistance to eight other races of the pathogen. Resistance segregating in a Rojo × CAL 143 population maps to five chromosome arms and includes HB4.2. GWAS detected one QTL (HB5.1) on chromosome Pv05 for resistance to Race 6 with significant influence on seed yield. The same HB5.1 QTL, found in both Canadian Wonder × PI 150414 and Rojo × CAL 143 populations, was effective against Race 6 but lacks broad resistance. This study provides evidence for marker-assisted breeding for more durable halo blight control in common bean by combining alleles of race-nonspecific resistance (HB4.2 from PI 150414) and race-specific resistance (HB5.1 from cv. Rojo). PMID:28736566

  10. Prediction and verification of possible reef-fish spawning aggregation sites in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Boomhower, J; Romero, M; Posada, J; Kobara, S; Heyman, W

    2010-09-01

    This study attempts to predict and verify possible spawning aggregation sites and times in the Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela, based on physical reef characteristics and the knowledge of experienced local fishermen. Three possible aggregation sites were selected for monitoring based on satellite images, low-cost bathymetric mapping and interviews with experienced local fishermen. Abundances and sizes of 18 species that are known to form reproductive aggregations were monitored at these sites using underwater visual census for 7 days after each full moon from February to August, 2007. While spawning events were not observed, possible indirect evidence of spawning aggregations was found for Lutjanus analis at Cayo Sal and Boca de Sebastopol, Lutjanus apodus at Cayo Sal, Lutjanus cyanopterus at Cayo Sal and Piedra La Guasa and Epinephelus guttatus at Bajo California and Cayo de Agua. Additionally, indirect evidence was identified for the past existence of a spawning aggregation of Epinephelus striatus in the northern part of the archipelago, which may have been eliminated by overfishing c.15 years ago. Bathymetric mapping showed that the shelf edge at sites monitored in this study was shallower than at spawning aggregation sites in other parts of the Caribbean, and that sites were not proximal to deep water. While this study does not prove the existence or locations of spawning aggregations of reef fishes in the archipelago, it does add insight to a growing understanding of generalities in the relationship between seafloor characteristics and the locations of transient reef-fish spawning aggregations in the Caribbean. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  12. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-03-16

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  13. Shipboard assessment of hearing sensitivity of tropical fishes immediately after exposure to seismic air gun emissions at Scott Reef.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Mardi C; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the potential effects of emissions from an air gun array on hearing of tropical reef fish using AEP thresholds measured in the field. Over 7 days, 51 Chromis viridis,47 Lutjanus kasmira, 20 Myripristis murdjan, and 10 Sargocentron spiniferum were tested. AEP thresholds were determined before and after exposure to emissions from one or two passes of an airgun array. Temporary threshold shift resulting from sound exposure was not found in any species,even when cumulative sound exposure levels reached 190 dB re 1 μPa2-s.

  14. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  15. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Toonen, Robert J; Bowen, Brian W

    2012-10-07

    Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai'i began a remarkable, if unintentional, 'experiment' with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (F(ST) = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (F(ST) = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (F(ST) = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range.

  16. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Toonen, Robert J.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai‘i began a remarkable, if unintentional, ‘experiment’ with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (FST = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (FST = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (FST = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

  17. [Risk factors of ciguatera in the French West Indies in Saint-Barthélémy, Saint-Martin and Anguilla].

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, P; Bagnis, R

    1989-01-01

    An epidemiological study on ciguatera fish poisoning in the French West Indies (St-Barthelemy, St-Martin and Anguilla) was conducted during the years 1985-1986. The investigation on intoxications shows a non seasonal significant prevalence. Though it was difficult to list the cases, the morbidity seems to vary between 7 and 30 per thousand. A study of fish toxicity was realised; 46 different species were tested (individually or by pools) by the mosquito bio-test. Observations of intoxications give the following results: High risk species: Caranx bartholomaei, C. lugubris, Seriola dumerili, Lutjanus apodus, L. jocu, Pristipomoides macrophtalmus, Gymnothorax funebris, G. moringa, Scomberomorus cavalla, S. regalis, Mycteroperca venenosa, M. tigris, Epinephelus morio, Sphyraena barracuda. Intermediate species: Caranx latus, C. ruber, Lachnolaimus maximus, Lutjanus analis, L. buccanella, L. griseus, Malacanthus plumieri, Scomberomorus maculatus. Low risk species: Balistes vetula, Alectis ciliaris, Haemulon album, Bodianus rufus, Halichoeres radiatus, Priacanthus arenatus, Alphestes afer. Many species are involved in the toxic food chain. New ones have been identified, but it is difficult to determine the toxic level range. A cartography is presented but no place is free of risk. A research of Gambierdiscus toxicus, the causal agent, on algal surface from dead corals was conducted around St-Barthelemy and St-Martin. The dinoflagellate is found in low or medium populations all around the islands with no difference between North and South. There is a maximal activity during the spring. A model of the epidemiology of the ciguatera in the area is proposed.

  18. Growth and secondary production of an eventual reef fish during mangrove residency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunce, Craig H.; Serafy, Joseph E.

    2008-08-01

    Hierarchical data frameworks have been proposed to determine the relative value of fish habitats. Although conceptually accurate, judgments as to which habitat is more "essential" are limited by a lack of available information. This work provides much needed growth and production rates for gray snapper ( Lutjanus griseus), an ontogenetic habitat shifting reef fish, during mangrove residency. Ages were estimated using modal progression analysis of length-frequency distributions coupled with a biologically-realistic spawning date. Growth estimates place age-1 L. griseus at 155 mm (TL), age-2 at 243, and age-3 at 302 mm. These size-at-age estimates are consistent with otolith-based studies and are a natural extension of linear growth models for early juveniles. Lutjanus griseus primarily use southeastern Florida mangrove shoreline habitats for approximately 2 years between 0.86 and 2.84 years of age. Corresponding production:biomass ratios for these cohorts were 1.51 and 0.90. While these values are similar to other estimates for fishes inhabiting vegetated coastal wetlands in North America, they are much less than new estimates from a Bahamian mangrove creek system. These new data highlight important differences between the habitat value of mangrove shorelines of continental (low-relief) and island (high-relief) systems.

  19. Effects of Seasonal Upwelling on Inorganic and Organic Matter Dynamics in the Water Column of Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Stuhldreier, Ines; Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Morales, Alvaro; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Papagayo at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica experiences pronounced seasonal changes in water parameters caused by wind-driven coastal upwelling. While remote sensing and open water sampling already described the physical nature of this upwelling, the spatial and temporal effects on key parameters and processes in the water column have not been investigated yet, although being highly relevant for coral reef functioning. The present study investigated a range of water parameters on two coral reefs with different exposure to upwelling (Matapalo and Bajo Rojo) in a weekly to monthly resolution over one year (May 2013 to April 2014). Based on air temperature, wind speed and water temperature, three time clusters were defined: a) May to November 2013 without upwelling, b) December 2013 to April 2014 with moderate upwelling, punctuated by c) extreme upwelling events in February, March and April 2014. During upwelling peaks, water temperatures decreased by 7°C (Matapalo) and 9°C (Bajo Rojo) to minima of 20.1 and 15.3°C respectively, while phosphate, ammonia and nitrate concentrations increased 3 to 15-fold to maxima of 1.3 μmol PO43- L-1, 3.0 μmol NH4+ L-1 and 9.7 μmol NO3- L-1. This increased availability of nutrients triggered several successive phytoplankton blooms as indicated by 3- (Matapalo) and 6-fold (Bajo Rojo) increases in chlorophyll a concentrations. Particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PON) increased by 40 and 70% respectively from February to April 2014. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased by 70% in December and stayed elevated for at least 4 months, indicating high organic matter release by primary producers. Such strong cascading effects of upwelling on organic matter dynamics on coral reefs have not been reported previously, although likely impacting many reefs in comparable upwelling systems. PMID:26560464

  20. A Search for Gene Fusions/Translocations in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Rivera E, Arrieta O, Guevara P, Duarte-Rojo A, Sotelo J (2001) AT1 receptor is present in glioma cells; its blockage reduces the growth of rat glioma. Br...throughput sequencing applications. Cell 146, 1044. Han, Y.J., Ma, S.F., Yourek, G., Park , Y.D., and Garcia, J.G. (2011b). A tran- scribed pseudogene of...December 6, 2012; published OnlineFirst February 5, 2013. REFERENCES 1. Weinstein IB , Joe A . Oncogene addiction . Cancer Res 2008 ; 68

  1. Luttinger liquid theory of Coulomb drag in mesoscopic rings,(Supported in part by US DOE.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazyan, T. V.; Ulloa, S. E.

    1997-03-01

    We develop a Luttinger liquid theory of the Coulomb drag of persistent currents, flowing in concentric mesoscopic rings, by incorporating non-linear corrections to the electron dispersion relation. We demonstrate that at low temperatures interactions between electrons in different rings generate an additional phase and thus alter the period of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. The resulting nondissipative(A. G. Rojo and G. D. Mahan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68) 2074 (1992). drag depends strongly on the relative parity of the electron numbers. We also show that interactions set a new temperature scale below which the linear response theory does not apply at certain values of external flux.

  2. Hurricane Hortense: impact on surface water in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto

    1997-01-01

    Late Monday night, September 9, and into the early morning hours of Tuesday, September 10, 1996, Hurricane Hortense passed over the southwestern part of Puerto Rico (inset). Hurricane Hortense made landfall as a Category One Hurricane (74 to 95 miles per hour) on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, with maximum sustained winds of nearly 80 miles per hour. The eye of Hurricane Hortense moved over the towns of Guayanilla, Yauco, Guánica, Lajas, San Germán, Cabo Rojo, Hormigueros, and Mayagüez (fig. 1).

  3. Mössbauer study of archaeological ceramics from Valle del Alto Sinu (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Useche, L. A.; Gaviria, S.; Alabart, J. R.; Fontcuberta, J.

    1990-07-01

    A physico-chemical characterization of ceramic samples from the arachaeological sites of El Cabrero, El Gallo, and El Frasquillo (Valle del Alto Sinú) is presented. Extensive use of Mössbauer spectroscopy data reveals that the currently used typological classification scheme of Dolmatoff is related to the production technology of the different artifacts. In addition, a model for firing conditions for “Rojo Sencillo”, “Tierra Impresa”, “Tierra Incisa”, and “Blanco” types of ceramics is proposed.

  4. The Role of eIF4E Activity in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    estimates of eIF4E activity in tumours, would act as predictive markers for cellular responses to eIF4E directed therapies. 2 Body Tissue micro-arrays...2352–2358 Armengol G, Rojo F, Castellvi J, Iglesias C, Cuatrecasas M, Pons B, Baselga J, Ramon y Cajal S (2007) 4E-binding protein 1: a key...Baselga J, Ramon y Cajal S (2006) Phosphorylated 4E binding protein 1: a hallmark of cell signaling that correlates with survival in ovarian cancer. Cancer

  5. The Linguado, Carapeba, Vermelho, and Marimba giant oil fields, Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stank, C.V.; Esteves, F.R.; Martins, C.C.; Cruz, W.M.; Da Silva Barroso, A.; Horschutz, P.M.C. )

    1990-09-01

    About 40 hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in the Campos basin in the period 1978-1984, including four giant fields in shallow to moderate water depths. The Linguado oil field is located on the extreme south of the producing area of the Campos basin. The pool was discovered in May 1978. The reservoir rocks occur between 1,700 and 3,000 m, and are constituted by fractured Neocomian basalts, Barremian pelecypod coquinas, Albian oolitic calcarenites, and, secondarily, by some Cretaceous turbidite sandstones. The main reservoir is formed by coquinas, which contain 76% of the total recoverable oil volume estimated at 104.6 million bbl. The field is located on a regional high and the accumulation is strongly controlled by stratigraphic and diagenetic factors. High-quality oil is produced through a floating producing system (FPS), and the cumulative oil production amounts to 63.8 million bbl. The Carapeba and Vermelho oil fields are situated in the northern limit of the Campos basin producing area and, together with the smaller Pargo field, make up the so-called Northeast Pole of Campos basin. Carapeba field was discovered in February 1982, and has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 127.8 million bbl. Production comes mainly from two Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstone reservoirs. The Vermelho field in December 1982, and its main reservoir is formed by a massive Eocene turbidite sandstone. The estimated recoverable oil volume amounts to 119.7 million bbl. Both Carapeba and Vermelho fields are structural traps associated with the development of subtle anticlines caused by salt movements. The fields are gradually being put on stream through five fixed platforms installed in water depths ranging from 70 to 90 m. The Marimba field, discovered in March 1984, drilled in a water depth of 383 m, is considered the first deep-water oil strike in the Campos basin. The field has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 115 million bbl of good-quality oil.

  6. Monitoring ethylene emissions from plants cultured for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds by materials and organisms in closed environments will be a major concern in the design and management of advanced life support systems with a bioregenerative component. Ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon synthesized by plants, is involved in the elicitation of a wide range of physiological responses. In closed environments, ethylene may build up to levels which become physiologically active. In several growouts of 'Yecora Rojo' wheat in Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), it was observed that leaf flecking and rolling occurred in the sealed environment and was virtually eliminated when potassium permanganate was used to scrub the atmospheric environment. It was suggested that ethylene, which accumulated to about 60 ppb in the chamber and which was effectively absorbed by potassium permanganate, was responsible for the symptoms. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine rates of ethylene evolution from lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar Waldemann's Green) and wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Yecora Rojo) plants during growth and development; (2) determine the effects of exposure of whole, vegetative stage plants to exogenous ethylene concentrations in the range of what would develop in closed environment growth chambers; and (3) develop predictive functions for changes in ethylene concentration that would develop under different cropping and closed environment configurations. Results will lead to the development of management strategies for ethylene in bioregenerative life support systems.

  7. Alcohol: an alternate energy resource for community use. Final performance report. [Small-scale - 250 gal per year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-29

    The original purpose of the grant was to construct an alcohol producing facility for community use thereby demonstrating that small land owners could, through their initiative, produce fuel from a vegetable grown on small plots of land. The rationale for the program was predicated on increasing fuel costs, decreasing fuel supplies, and on information supplied by Tuskegee Institute about a high dry matter sweet potato (Rojo Blanco, reportedly 42% dry matter and an average yield of 750 bushels/acre) which theoretically would produce at least 1.42 gallons of ethyl alcohol/bushel. Two approaches were undertaken: the production of sweet potatoes and the production of alcohol. In the first year, Rojo Blanco did yield 700 bushels/acre, but in subsequent years, due to drought and inadequate knowledge of proper fertilizer and moisture regimes, that yield was never reached. In alcohol production, a long period of time with laboratory stills was devoted to testing sweet potato varieties to determine the alcohol/bushel ratios. The hypothetical 1.4 gallons/bushel was never attained - because the dry matter never approached 42%. In spite of the low alcohol per bushel results, a 250 gallon batch still was built (cost of over $3000). With cost of fuel for the digester and for the fermentation coupled with the market value of sweet potatoes, we determined that community operated stills using home-grown vegetable sources for alcohol production is not economically feasible at this time.

  8. Yield comparisons and unique characteristics of the dwarf wheat cultivar 'USU-Apogee'.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, B; Koerner, G

    1997-01-01

    Extremely short, high yielding cultivars of all crop plants are needed to optimize the food production of bioregenerative life support systems in space. In the early 1980's, we examined over a thousand wheat genotypes from the world germplasm collection in search of genotypes with appropriate characteristics for food production in space. Here we report the results of 12 years of hybridization and selection for the perfect wheat cultivar. 'USU-Apogee' is a full-dwarf hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed for high yields in controlled environments. USU-Apogee was developed by the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and released in April 1996. USU-Apogee is a shorter, higher yielding alternative to 'Yecora Rojo' and 'Veery-10', the short field genotypes previously selected for use in controlled environments. The yield advantage of USU-Apogee is 10 to 30% over these other cultivars, depending on environmental conditions. USU-Apogee (45-50 cm tall, depending on temperature) is 10 to 15 cm shorter than Yecora Rojo and 1 to 4 cm shorter than Veery-10. USU-Apogee was also selected for resistance to the calcium-induced leaf tip chlorosis that occurs in controlled-environments. Breeder seed of USU-Apogee will be maintained by the Crop Physiology Laboratory and seed is available for testing on request.

  9. Yield comparisons and unique characteristics of the dwarf wheat cultivar `USU-Apogee'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugbee, B.; Koerner, G.

    1997-01-01

    Extremely short, high yielding cultivars of all crop plants are needed to optimize the food production of bioregenerative life support systems in space. In the early 1980's, we examined over a thousand wheat genotypes from the world germplasm collection in search of genotypes with appropriate characteristics for food production in space. Here we report the results of 12 years of hybridization and selection for the perfect wheat cultivar. `USU-Apogee' is a full-dwarf hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed for high yields in controlled environments. USU-Apogee was developed by the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and released in April 1996. USU-Apogee is a shorter, higher yielding alternative to `Yecora Rojo' and `Veery-10', the short field genotypes previously selected for use in controlled environments. The yield advantage of USU-Apogee is 10 to 30% over these other cultivars, depending on environmental conditions. USU-Apogee (45-50 cm tall, depending on temperature) is 10 to 15 cm shorter than Yecora Rojo and 1 to 4 cm shorter than Veery-10. USU-Apogee was also selected for resistance to the calcium-induced leaf tip chlorosis that occurs in controlled-environments. Breeder seed of USU-Apogee will be maintained by the Crop Physiology Laboratory and seed is available for testing on request.

  10. Theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Maldonado, R.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2008-05-01

    We present a first-principles theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures based on the multicomponent self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of colloid dynamics [M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 72, 031107 (2005); M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E76, 039902 (2007)]. We illustrate its application with a description of dynamic arrest in two simple model colloidal mixtures: namely, hard-sphere and repulsive Yukawa binary mixtures. Our results include observation of the two patterns of dynamic arrest, one in which both species become simultaneously arrested and the other involving the sequential arrest of the two species. The latter case gives rise to mixed states in which one species is arrested while the other species remains mobile. We also derive the (”bifurcation” or fixed-point”) equations for the nonergodic parameters of the system, which takes the surprisingly simple form of a system of coupled equations for the localization length of the particles of each species. The solution of this system of equations indicates unambiguously which species is arrested (finite localization length) and which species remains ergodic (infinite localization length). As a result, we are able to draw the entire ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of the binary hard-sphere mixture.

  11. Optimally Squeezed Spin States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    We consider optimally spin-squeezed states that maximize the sensitivity of the Ramsey spectroscopy, and for which the signal to noise ratio scales as the number of particles N. Using the variational principle we prove that these states are eigensolutions of the Hamiltonian H(λ)=λ S_z^2-S_x, and that, for large N, the states become equivalent to the quadrature squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. We present numerical results that illustrate the validity of the equivalence. We also present results of spin squeezing via atom-field interactions within the context of the Tavis-Cummings model. An ensemble of N two-level atoms interacts with a quantized cavity field. For all the atoms initially in their ground states, it is shown that spin squeezing of both the atoms and the field can be achieved provided the initial state of the cavity field has coherence between number states differing by 2. Most of the discussion is restricted to the case of a cavity field initially in a coherent state, but initial squeezed states for the field are also discussed. An analytic solution is found that is valid in the limit that the number of atoms is much greater than unity. References: A. G. Rojo, Phys. Rev A, 68, 013807 (2003); Claudiu Genes, P. R. Berman, and A. G. Rojo Phys. Rev. A 68, 043809 (2003).

  12. GPS and odometer data fusion for outdoor robots continuous positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo-Ruz, Ana; Garcia-Perez, Lia; Garcia-Alegre, Maria C.; Guinea, Domingo; Ribeiro, Angela; Sandoval, Francisco

    2002-02-01

    Present work describes an approximation to obtain the best estimation of the position of the outdoor robot ROJO, a low cost lawnmower to perform unmanned precision agriculture task such are the spraying of pesticides in horticulture. For continuous location of ROJO, two redundant sensors have been installed onboard: a DGPS submetric precision model and an odometric system. DGPS system will allow an absolute positioning of the vehicle in the field, but GPS failures in the reception of the signals due to obstacles and electrical and meteorological disturbance, lead us to the integration of the odometric system. Thus, a robust odometer based upon magnetic strip sensors has been designed and integrated in the vehicle. These sensors continuosly deliver the position of the vehicle relative to its initial position, complementing the DGPS blindness periods. They give an approximated location of the vehicle in the field that can be in turn conveniently updated and corrected by the DGPS. Thus, to provided the best estimation, a fusion algorithm has been proposed and proved, wherein the best estimation is calculated as the maximum value of the join probability function obtained from both position estimation of the onboard sensors. Some results are presented to show the performance of the proposed sensor fusion technique.

  13. Spatial relationships between an introduced snapper and native goatfishes on Hawaiian reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, B.D.; Parrish, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that the introduced blueline snapper (Lutjanus kasmira, Family: Lutjanidae) may adversely affect populations of native fishery species in Hawai'i through competition for spatial or dietary resources, or through predation on young fish. We studied the habitat use patterns of L. kasmira and several native reef fish species using direct observation by SCUBA divers. Habitat use patterns of the yellowtail goatfish (Mulloidichthys vanicolensis, Family: Mullidae) were most similar to those of L. kasmira. Both species were primarily found low in the water column and were closely associated with areas of vertical relief. Individual M. vanicolensis were found higher in the water column when L. kasmirawere present, but L. kasmira were not similarly affected by M. vanicolensis. This finding suggests asymmetrical competition for shelter, in which the dominant L. kasmira displaces M. vanicolensis farther into the water column. This displacement from the protection of the reef could increase the vulnerability of M. vanicolensisto predators and fishers. ?? Springer 2005.

  14. Rare parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) from Egyptian Red Sea fishes.

    PubMed

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2016-10-01

    Two rare species of parasitic copepods belonging to the genus Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) are redescribed in detail, based on material collected from Red Sea fishes, caught at El-Tor, near Sharm El-Sheikh on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Adult females of Lernanthropus sanguineus Song & Chen, 1976 were found on the gills of snapper Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål). This species was known only from its original description based on material from Chinese waters. Adult females of Lernanthropus triangularis Pillai, 1963 were obtained from the gills of mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskål). Both parasite species are new records for Egyptian Red Sea waters and both host records are new.

  15. Distribution of As, Cd, and Pb in seafood in Southern China and their oral bioavailability in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Peng; Tong, Yong-Peng; Tang, Wei-Yang; Wu, Zheng-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Bing

    2017-02-01

    The distribution of the toxic elements As, Cd, and Pb in nine different types of seafood from Shenzhen, China, was investigated by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results revealed that the concentrations of arsenic (As) in fish (Lutjanus erythropterus, Paralichthys olivaceus) and in bivalve (Meretrix meretrix) and cadmium (Cd) in scallop (Argopecten irradians) exceed the limits established by food safety regulations in China and EU (European Union). Furthermore, the bioavailability of As, Cd, and lead (Pb) in mice after 20-day oral ingestion of Crassostrea rivularis was investigated, and the total rate of absorption of toxic elements in samples from the liver and kidney tissues and blood was determined. The results of this in vivo trial indicated that the oral bioavailability of As, Cd, and Pb was approximately 0.33, 0.45, and 0.74%, respectively.

  16. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  17. Changes in mesophotic reef fish assemblages along depth and geographical gradients in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, Atsuko; Kosaki, Randall K.; Wagner, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) extend from 30 to 150 m in depth and support diverse communities of marine organisms. We investigated changes in the structure of mesophotic reef fish assemblages (27-100 m) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) along depth and geographical gradients using open- and closed-circuit trimix diving. There were clear changes in the assemblage structure from the southeastern to the northwestern end of the NWHI and from shallow to deep waters. Interactive effects of depth and location were also detected. MCEs in the NWHI can be treated as three regions: southeastern and mid regions primarily separated by the presence and absence, respectively, of the introduced species Lutjanus kasmira, and a northwestern region where fish assemblages are largely composed of endemic species. These spatial patterns may be explained, at least in part, by differences in temperature among the regions.

  18. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving.

  19. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test.

  20. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  1. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed.

  2. Total and organic mercury in ten fish species for human consumption from the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Hernández-Osuna, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-06-01

    Total mercury and organic mercury were measured in ten fish species from the Mexican Pacific ocean to have a general view on the ratio of total mercury-organic mercury and potential implications on human health. Highest concentration of total mercury was recorded in muscle tissue of Carcharhinus leucas (0.62 μg g⁻¹ wet weight). Organic mercury was more concentrated in Haemulon sexfasciatum (0.4 μg g⁻¹ wet weight). Percentages of organic mercury ranged from 33 to 100%. Hazard indices associated to organic mercury and average fish consumption in Mexico ranged from 0.25 in Lutjanus colorado to 1.65 in Haemulon sexfasciatum.

  3. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Christine; Maher, Safia; Crook, David A.; Saunders, Thor M.; Barton, Diane P.; Taylor, Jonathan A.; Welch, David J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Travers, Michael J.; Saunders, Richard J.; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1–1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10–13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification. PMID:27635362

  4. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  5. Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in sympatric snapper species from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Chesney, Edward; Shine, James P; Maage, Amund; Senn, David B

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of marine fish is a major route of toxic methyl mercury (MeHg) exposure to ocean apex predators and human populations. Here we explore the influence of trophic structure on total mercury (Hg) accumulation in red snapper (RS, Lutjanus campechanus) and gray snapper (GS, Lutjanus griseus) from the coastal Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi River. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the effectiveness of the use of offshore recreational fishing charter boats and marinas as sources of fish samples and (2) compare species differences in Hg bioaccumulation, trophic position, and carbon sources. Our data show that length-normalized Hg concentrations (> or = 97% as MeHg in tissue of both species) were 230% greater in GS in comparison to RS collected from the same general area. Stable C and N isotope signatures (delta15N and delta13C) indicate that GS occupy a slightly higher trophic position (approximately 30% of one trophic position higher) on the Gulf food web in comparison to RS and that GS appear to incorporate higher trophic positioned prey, continually and at smaller sizes. Mercury was strongly correlated with combined delta15N and delta13C in pooled species data, arguing that most of the substantial difference in Hg bioaccumulation between RS and GS can be explained by modest differences in their trophic position and, to a lesser degree, carbon sources, which had low variation and high overlap among species. These observations demonstrate that even minor to moderate differences in trophic position and food habits in sympatric species can create relatively large differences in bioaccumulation regimes and underscores the importance of quantitative characterization of trophic structure in marine MeHg bioaccumulation studies.

  6. Biomass production chamber air analysis of wheat study (BWT931)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Peterson, B. V.; Berdis, E.; Wheeler, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) biomass production chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center provides a test bed for bioregenerative studies using plants to provide food, oxygen, carbon dioxide removal, and potable water to humans during long term space travel. Growing plants in enclosed environments has brought about concerns regarding the level of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emitted from plants and the construction materials that make up the plant growth chambers. In such closed systems, the potential exists for some VOC's to reach toxic levels and lead to poor plant growth, plant death, or health problems for human inhabitants. This study characterized the air in an enclosed environment in which wheat cv. Yocora Rojo was grown. Ninty-four whole air samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry throughout the eighty-four day planting. VOC emissions from plants and materials were characterized and quantified.

  7. Complete genome sequence of Halogeometricum borinquense type strain (PR3T)

    DOE PAGES

    Malfatti, Stephanie; Tindall, Brian J.; Schneider, Susanne; ...

    2009-09-29

    Halogeometricum borinquense Montalvo-Rodríguez et al. 1998 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its distinct location between the halobacterial genera Haloquadratum and Halosarcina. H. borinquense requires extremely high salt (NaCl) concentrations for growth. It can not only grow aerobically but also anaerobically using nitrate as electron acceptor. The strain described in this report is a free-living, motile, pleomorphic, euryarchaeon, which was originally isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completemore » genome sequence of the halobacterial genus Halogeometricum, and this 3,944,467 bp long six replicon genome with its 3937 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.« less

  8. Nitrogen uptake by wheat seedlings, interactive effects of four nitrogen sources: NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, and urea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criddle, R. S.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The net influx (uptake) rates of NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and urea into roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Yecora Rojo) seedlings from complete nutrient solutions containing all four compounds were monitored simultaneously. Although urea uptake was too slow to monitor, its presence had major inhibitory effects on the uptake of each of the other compounds. Rates of NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake depended in a complex fashion on the concentration of all four N compounds. Equations were developed which describe the uptake rates of each of the compounds, and of total N, as functions of concentrations of all N sources. Contour plots of the results show the interactions over the range of concentrations employed. The coefficients of these equations provide quantitative values for evaluating primary and interactive effects of each compound on N uptake.

  9. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated June 22, 1988: 'A dwarf wheat variety known as Yecoro Rojo flourishes in KSC's Biomass Production Chamber. Researchers are gathering information on the crop's ability to produce food, water and oxygen, and then remove carbon dioxide. The confined quarters associated with space travel require researchers to focus on smaller plants that yield proportionately large amounts of biomass. This wheat crop takes about 85 days to grow before harvest.' Plant experiments such as this are the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  10. Growth response of maize plantlets inoculated with Enterobacter spp., as a model for alternative agriculture.

    PubMed

    Morales-García, Yolanda E; Juárez-Hernández, Dalia; Aragón-Hernández, Celia; Mascarua-Esparza, Miguel A; Bustillos-Cristales, María R; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis E; Martinez-Contreras, Rebeca D; Munoz-Rojas, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    A maize rhizosphere isolate was phenotypically and genotypically characterized and identified as Enterobacter spp. bacterium. Germinated seeds were inoculated, the plantlets were sown in vermiculite and in soil and grown under laboratory and field conditions, respectively. The adherence, colonization and plant growth promotion capability of Enterobacter sp. UAPS03001 was evaluated in "Rojo-Criollo" maize under laboratory conditions. Twenty days after inoculation, the treated plantlets showed larger biomass than non-inoculated ones. In field grown plants, the kernel biomass was also greater in inoculated than in non-inoculated plants. The inoculation of maize sprouts with plant growth- promoting bacteria before their sowing in the field would be an alternative practice for achieving successful yield in temporal agriculture.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Halogeometricum borinquense type strain (PR3T)

    PubMed Central

    Malfatti, Stephanie; Tindall, Brian J.; Schneider, Susanne; Fähnrich, Regine; Lapidus, Alla; LaButtii, Kurt; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Anderson, Iain; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; D’haeseleer, Patrik; Göker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chain, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Halogeometricum borinquense Montalvo-Rodríguez et al. 1998 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its distinct location between the halobacterial genera Haloquadratum and Halosarcina. H. borinquense requires extremely high salt (NaCl) concentrations for growth. It can not only grow aerobically but also anaerobically using nitrate as electron acceptor. The strain described in this report is a free-living, motile, pleomorphic, euryarchaeon, which was originally isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the halobacterial genus Halogeometricum, and this 3,944,467 bp long six replicon genome with its 3937 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:21304651

  12. Analysis of remote reflectin spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  13. Analysis of remote reflectin spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  14. Nitrogen uptake by wheat seedlings, interactive effects of four nitrogen sources: NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, and urea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criddle, R. S.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The net influx (uptake) rates of NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and urea into roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Yecora Rojo) seedlings from complete nutrient solutions containing all four compounds were monitored simultaneously. Although urea uptake was too slow to monitor, its presence had major inhibitory effects on the uptake of each of the other compounds. Rates of NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake depended in a complex fashion on the concentration of all four N compounds. Equations were developed which describe the uptake rates of each of the compounds, and of total N, as functions of concentrations of all N sources. Contour plots of the results show the interactions over the range of concentrations employed. The coefficients of these equations provide quantitative values for evaluating primary and interactive effects of each compound on N uptake.

  15. Halogeometricum borinquense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel halophilic archaeon from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Rodríguez, R; Vreeland, R H; Oren, A; Kessel, M; Betancourt, C; López-Garriga, J

    1998-10-01

    A novel extremely halophilic archaeon was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. The organism is very pleomorphic, motile and requires at least 8% (w/v) NaCl to grow. Polar lipid composition revealed the presence of a novel non-sulfate-containing glycolipid and the absence of the glycerol diether analogue of phosphatidylglycerosulfate. The G + C content of the DNA is 59 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence data, the new isolate cannot be classified in one of the recognized genera, but occupies a position that is distantly related to the genus Haloferax. All these features justify the creation of a new genus and a new species for the family Halobacteriaceae, order Halobacteriales. The name Halogeometricum borinquense gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ATCC 700274T.

  16. A Spin Glass Model with Vibrations of Crystal Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yu-Min; Cheng, Li-Min; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2005-01-01

    With the help of the replica method and imaginary-time functional-integrate technique, the spin glass model with the vibrations of crystal lattices is investigated. In the limit of the replica symmetry and the imaginary-time static approximation, the magnetic and thermodynamic quantities have been obtained. By the numerical calculations, we found that the magnetization of the system has the typical spin-glass behaviour. A peak is found in the susceptibility-temperature curve and is shifted to lower temperature with increasing applied field. Due to the lattice contribution, the specific heat increases strongly at high temperature. Due to the magnetic contribution, the anomaly in the specific heat-temperature curve forms a λ-type peak, which agrees with the observation of Rojo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 66 (2002) 094406].

  17. Analysis of remote reflection spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-11-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System CELSS type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  18. Magnon Squeezing in MnF_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jimin; Bragas, A. V.; Merlin, R.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2003-03-01

    We demonstrate spin squeezing by impulsive optical excitation of magnon pairs in antiferromagnetic MnF_2, similar to the squeezing of phonons (G. A. Garrett, A. G. Rojo, A. K. Sood, J. F. Whitaker, R. Merlin, Science, 275), 1638-1640, 14 March 1997.. Femtosecond laser pulses with a central wavelength of 543 nm are used in a transmission pump-probe geometry to impulsively stimulate magnon pairs at ˜3 K. We excite our sample with 50 fs pulses at 10 mW average power. The FFT of the time domain traces shows a peak at ˜100 cm-1. Comparison with Raman data (P. A. Fleury, R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 166), 514-530, 1968., combined with theoretical analysis, gives strong evidence that a squeezed state has been generated. Theoretical considerations indicate that the coherent magnon fields are a combination of both one- and two-mode squeezed states.

  19. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated June 22, 1988: 'A dwarf wheat variety known as Yecoro Rojo flourishes in KSC's Biomass Production Chamber. Researchers are gathering information on the crop's ability to produce food, water and oxygen, and then remove carbon dioxide. The confined quarters associated with space travel require researchers to focus on smaller plants that yield proportionately large amounts of biomass. This wheat crop takes about 85 days to grow before harvest.' Plant experiments such as this are the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  20. Magnetic and Transport Properties of Single Crystal La_0.64Pb_0.36MnO_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jihui; Hu, S.; Bastea, M.; Uher, C.; Han, P. D.; Payne, D. A.

    1998-03-01

    We studied the magnetic susceptibility, magnetoresistance, Hall effect, magneto-thermopower, and the effect of magnetic field on the thermal conductivity of a single crystal of La_0.64Pb_0.36MnO3 in the temperature range 5K to 350 K and with magnetic field up to 8 T. A magnetic transition is found at 210 K. Magnetization measurements along three different orthorhombic crystal axes show no significant difference. The scaling behavior between resistivity and magnetic moment is examined for temperatures both below and above the transition. The temperature and field dependences of the thermal conductivity are compared to the data obtained recently on polycrystalline samples[1]. [1] B. Chen, A. G. Rojo, C. Uher, H. L. Ju and R. L. Greene, Phys. Rev. B 55,1 (1997)

  1. Ground-based Detection of Exoatmospheric Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, P.; Astudillo-Defru, N.

    2014-03-01

    Data acquired with HDS@Subaru for HD209458b is re-analyzed. A new pipeline performs an automated search for the exoatmospheric presence of several elements without any a-priori assumptions on its existence or strength. We analyzed thousands of lines in the full spectral range of this optical echelle spectrograph using a robust method to correct for the telluric contamination. We recover previous detections of Sodium and Halpha, and present the first strong detection of Calcium in an Extrasolar Atmosphere as well as the tentative detection of other elements. The Calcium detection is in disagreement with theoretical thermal-equilibrium models. Results published in Astudillo-Defru and Rojo (2013, A&A 557, 56)

  2. Analysis of remote reflection spectroscopy to monitor plant health.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, R; Heeb, M; Berry, W; Hoshizaki, T; Wood, M

    1994-11-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System CELSS type crops. Lettuce (Lactuca [correction of Latuca] Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  3. Characterization of volatiles in bullock's heart (Annona reticulata L.) fruit cultivars from Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Marbot, Rolando; Fuentes, Victor

    2003-06-18

    Volatile compounds were isolated from four cultivars of bullock's heart fruit (Cenizo, Rojo, Verde, and De Ojo) by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction. Compounds were identified by HRGC and capillary GC-MS. One hundred and eighty compounds were identified in the aroma extracts, of which alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, and germacrene D were found to be the major constituents. Fruit from cv. De Ojo containing the highest concentration of total volatile and the highest major terpenoid content had the highest custard-like and overall fruity aroma intensity. The presence of many terpenic compounds is thought to contribute to the unique flavor of the bullock's heart fruit.

  4. [Treatment of interdigital foot Erythrasma with ozonated olive oil].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Hobak, Lourdes; Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Gorzelewski, Alicia; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el eritrasma es causado por Corinebacterium minutissimum que produce una porfirina que con la luz de Wood emite una fluorescencia rojo coral es la infección bacteriana más frecuente en los pies. El aceite de oliva ozononificado disminuye el citoplasma y daña las proteínas y los lípidos bacterianos. El tratamiento es mediante eritromicina oral y no hay consenso respecto a la terapia tópica de elección. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la eficacia terapéutica del aceite de oliva ozonificado en el eritrasma en una prueba piloto. Métodos: estudio clínico experimental, abierto, observacional, descriptivo y longitudinal, llevado a cabo en la sección de Micología del Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”. Se incluyeron 10 pacientes con eritrasma interdigital de pies, a quines se les administró aceite de oliva ozonificado cada 12 horas por 10 días. Resultados: en todos los pacientes hubo desaparición de la fluorescencia rojo coral, eritema, fisuras, prurito y maceración; en dos de ellos persistió la descamación. Se obtuvo una cura clínica en el 100 % de los pacientes, respuesta similar a la eritromicina oral. Conclusiones: el aceite de oliva ozonificado es una buena opción terapéutica tópica para el eritrasma interdigital, que permite evitar la prescripción de medicamentos por vía oral. Se requieren estudios más extensos.

  5. Identification and multi-filter photometry of HII regions from nearby galaxies with J-PLUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logroño-García, R.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Muniesa, D.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Cenarro, A. J.; J-PLUS, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) has already started the data acquisition phase at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) in Teruel, Spain. Benefiting from the large field of view (2 deg^2) and the 12 filters set of the T80Cam at the T80/JAST telescope, we aim to study the properties of HII regions in nearby galaxies (z < 0.015). In this poster, we apply our procedures to the galaxy Messier 101. We have developed a fully automatized pipeline to identify and characterize the nearby universe HII regions. This pipeline: (1) Homogenizes the PSF in the 12 images of the different filters. (2) Estimates realistic photometric errors following Labbé et al. (2003) method. (3) Constructs a detection image showing the excess of Hα+[NII], following Vilella-Rojo et al. (2015) prescriptions. (4) Performs the photometry in the 12 J-PLUS bands using as reference the Hα+NII detection image. (5) Constructs the photo-spectra for each identified HII region. We demonstrate the capabilities of this method by comparing synthetic aperture photometry from SDSS spectra with the Hα flux measured with J-PLUS data. Such comparison can be found in the poster by Vilella-Rojo et al. Once the pipeline is implemented, we will generate a catalog of nearby HII regions at z<0.015 in the 8500deg^2 of J-PLUS. With this catalog, we will study the impact of environment in the 2D star formation properties of nearby galaxies, taking advantage of the unprecedented large contiguous area that J-PLUS will offer.

  6. Metagenomic Survey of a Military-Impacted Lagoon in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila-Santiago, L.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, N.; LaSanta-Pagan, K. Y.; Kurt, Z.; Padilla-Crespo, E.; Hatt, J.; Spain, J.; Konstantinidis, K.; Massol-Deya, A.

    2016-02-01

    Military practices have left a legacy of contamination worldwide. In Puerto Rico, the east part of the populated Vieques Island was used for over fifty years as a bombing range by the Navy. A year after the base was closed in 2003, the impacted area was designated as a Superfund site. Previous studies have shown elevated levels of heavy metals, explosives (e.g. RDX, TNT, HMX), and other toxic chemicals at the site. The Anones Lagoon, located in the middle of the bombing range is one of the most polluted spots within the site. Intermittently, the lagoon is connected through a channel to the Caribbean Sea. In order to describe the microbial diversity and its potential contribution to natural attenuation of explosives, sediment samples have been collected since 2005. Sediment from reference lagoons (San Juan and Cabo Rojo) have also been sampled and analyzed in parallel for comparisons. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced using Ilumina My-Seq platform. Results indicate that Gammaproteobacteria were abundant in all lagoons samples but the Vieques lagoon harbors overall different microbial taxa. Alpha diversity analysis showed that Anones was less diverse compared to the pristine Cabo Rojo lagoon. Importantly, a clear shift was seen in the Anones Lagoon in 2013 compared to 2005, were Halomonas spp. became dominant (up to 25%) while other groups like Marinobacter showed signs of enrichment as well. Interestingly, these groups have been shown to degrade explosive-related chemicals in tropical sediments. Functional gene annotation of the Anones metagenome showed the presence of RDX degradation genes such as cytochrome p450. This study is the first comparative metagenomic survey of lagoons in Puerto Rico that explored the microbial diversity and biodegradation potential at Vieques.

  7. Discovery of a Satellite to Asteroid Family Member (702) Alauda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Rojo, P.

    2007-10-01

    Rojo and Margot [1] reported the discovery of a satellite to (702) Alauda from adaptive-optics imaging with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. (702) Alauda (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.02, i = 21 deg) has been identified as the largest member of a dynamical family [2,3], suggesting a possible origin of the satellite in the family formation event. The diameter of (702) Alauda is given in the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) as 194.73 +/- 3.2 km [4]. If the primary and secondary have similar albedoes, the diameter of the satellite is about 5.5 km. This is based on the measured flux ratio between primary and secondary of 1250, possibly the largest ever observed for solar system binaries with adaptive optics. This is the first satellite discovered to a large minor planet of type B in the SMASSII taxonomy, which is defined by a linear featureless spectrum with bluish to neutral slope [5]. B-types are carbonaceous asteroids that are not well characterized. The mass and density estimates of B-type (2) Pallas vary by 50% [6,7]. Our ongoing determination of the satellite orbit will provide mass and density estimates for (702) Alauda. [1] Rojo and Margot, CBET 1016, 2007. [2] Foglia and Masi 2004, Minor Planet Bull. 41, 100. [3] Gil-Hutton 2006, Icarus 183, 93. [4] Tedesco 2002, AJ 123, 1056. [5] Bus and Binzel 2002, Icarus 158, 146. [6] Hilton 2002, Asteroids III, 103. [7] Britt et al. 2002, Asteroids III, 485.

  8. Nuevas Galaxias Seyfert 1 Australes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    1987-05-01

    En 1984 se inició una extensión del "survey" de Tololo que de- sarrollara en 1975 Smith, con la cámara Curtis-Schmidt y el prisma UV delgado. Utilizando placas IIIaJ horneadas, sin filtro, expues tas 90 minutos sin ensanchamiento se han obtenido a la fecha más de 150 placas que cubren la zona entre -20° y -45° a latitudes galácticas mayores de 20°; se presenta un detalle de las franjas que comprende el survey Calan-Tololo, indicando el grado de completitud de las mismas. Se ha encontrado un gran número de galaxias con líneas de emisión entre las cuales las más frecuentes, más de 300, son galaxias irregulares con formación estelar violenta ("starburst galaxies"). Se ha encontrado un número de cuasares cercano a 100; casi todos ellos tienen la linea Lyman alfa en la zona entre 3300 y 5300 A, que corresponde a un rango de corrimientosal rojo 1.7< z <3.3 el cuasar con mayor corri- miento al rojo encontrado a la fecha en el survey tiene z = 3.1. La información detallada sobre cuasares y galaxias tipo "starburst" será presentada en otro lugar. Entre los objetos más interesantes encontrados en el survey Calán- Tololo destacan unas 50 nuevas galaxias Seyfert 1. Estas galaxias han sido encontradas por su fuerte exceso UV y su brillante núcleo, más que por sus intensas lineas de emisión. Hemos observado espectroscópicamente, en el Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, 37 de ellas para las cuales se presentan cartas de identificación, coordenadas y los datos espectroscópicos obtenidos.

  9. Characterization of volatile substances in apples from Rosaceae family by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-qMS.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2009-06-01

    The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature, extraction time, sample amount, dilution factor, ionic strength, and desorption time, were optimized and discussed. The SPME fiber coated with 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency of volatile compounds, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 50 degrees C for 30 min with constant magnetic stirring. A qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis between the investigated apple species has been established. It was possible to identify about 100 of volatile compounds among pulp (46, 45, and 39), peel (64, 60, and 64), and entire fruit (65, 43, and 50) in PP, PS, and SS apples, respectively. Ethyl esters, terpenes, and higher alcohols were found to be the most representative volatiles. Alpha-farnesene, hexan-1-ol and hexyl 2-methylbutyrate were the compounds found in the volatile profile of studied apples with the largest GC area, representing, on average, 24.71, 14.06, and 10.80% of the total volatile fraction from PP, PS, and SS apples. In PP entire apple, the most abundant compounds identified were alpha-farnesene (30.49%), the unknown compound m/z (69, 101, 157) (21.82%) and hexyl acetate (6.57%). Regarding PS entire apple the major compounds were alpha-farnesene (16.87%), estragole (15.43%), hexan-1-ol (10.94), and E-2-hexenal (10.67). Alpha-farnesene (30.3%), hexan-1-ol (18.90%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (4.7%), and pentan-1-ol (4.6%) were also found as SS entire apple volatiles present in a higher relative content. Principal

  10. Microhabitat use, not temperature, regulates intensity of Gyrodactylus cichlidarum long-term infection on farmed tilapia--are parasites evading competition or immunity?

    PubMed

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Muñoz-Córdova, Germán; Garduño-Lugo, Mario; Salazar-Ulloa, Martha; Mercado-Vidal, Gabriel

    2012-02-10

    Gyrodactylids (Monogenea) are ectoparasites of fish, some of which negatively affect commercially valuable fishes. Temperature strongly regulates population dynamics of these viviparous flatworms in farmed and wild fish populations, with most gyrodactylid species showing positive temperature-abundance associations. In agreement with epidemiological theory, numerous laboratory studies demonstrate that these parasites cannot persist in confined fish populations without periodic introduction of susceptible hosts. Extinction of gyrodactylid populations is due to host immunity, which develops in several fish species. In this one-year study, we followed populations of the recognized pathogen Gyrodactylus cichlidarum infecting four genetic groups of confined tilapia (wild type Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus, red O. n. niloticus, Mozambique tilapia O. mossambicus and a red synthetic population called Pargo-UNAM) kept under farming conditions and subject to natural environmental fluctuations. Based on the antecedents given, we postulated the following three hypotheses: (1) parasite abundance will be regulated by water temperature; (2) parasites will induce host mortality, particularly during periods of rapid infrapopulation growth; and (3) gyrodactylid populations will eventually become extinct on confined fish hosts. We disproved the three hypotheses: (1) parasite numbers fluctuated independently of temperature but were associated to changes in microhabitat use; (2) although gyrodactylid populations exhibited considerable growth, no evidence was found of negative effects on the hosts; and (3) infections persisted for one year on confined fish. Microhabitat use changed over time, with most worms apparently migrating anteriorly from the caudal fin and ending on the pectoral fins. Gyrodactylid populations followed similar trajectories in all fish, aggregating and dispersing repeatedly. Several instances were found where increased parasite dispersion coincided

  11. Persistent halogenated compounds in two typical marine aquaculture zones of South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Guo, Ying; Bao, Lian-Jun; Qiu, Yao-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-01-01

    Samples of two seawater farmed fish (crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythopterus) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii)), water, air, sediment, fish feed, macroalgae and phytoplankton were collected from two estuarine bays (Daya Bay and Hailing Bay) in South China. The concentrations of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) varied widely with the different sample matrices under investigation. The compositional patterns in fish, fish feed, macroalgae and phytoplankton, as well as the good correlations between the abundances of p,p'-DDT and BDE-209 and their metabolites (i.e., p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE for p,p'-DDT and BDE-47 for BDE-209) in fish indicated the occurrence of DDT and PBDE biotransformation in fish body. Finally, the marine aquaculture environment in South China is somewhat biologically impaired by DDT-contaminated water, sediment and fish feed, and there may be some cancer risk associated with fish consumption for humans, especially for urban residents.

  12. Vertical zonation and functional diversity of fish assemblages revealed by ROV videos at oil platforms in The Gulf.

    PubMed

    Torquato, F; Jensen, H M; Range, P; Bach, S S; Ben-Hamadou, R; Sigsgaard, E E; Thomsen, P F; Møller, P R; Riera, R

    2017-09-01

    An assessment of vertical distribution, diel migration, taxonomic and functional diversity of fishes was carried out at offshore platforms in The (Arabian-Iranian-Persian) Gulf. Video footage was recorded at the Al Shaheen oil field between 2007 and 2014 using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). A total of 12 822 individual fishes, from 83 taxonomic groups were recorded around the platforms. All the species identified are considered native to The Gulf, although Cyclichthys orbicularis and Lutjanus indicus were recorded for the first time in Qatari waters. Several trends were uncovered in the vertical distribution of the fish community; most species were observed between 20 and 50 m depth and fish abundance decreased towards the bottom, with the highest abundances recorded in the upper layers, i.e. down to 40 m depth. Vertical variation in fish diversity, however, was generally not accompanied by differences in vertical movements. Carnivores and invertivores were the dominant trophic groups, being found at each depth range from surface to seabed. The functional indices showed no significant differences between water depths or diel cycles. The study demonstrates that oil platforms represent a hotspot of fish diversity and interesting sites for studying fish communities, abundance and behaviour. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. High population density enhances recruitment and survival of a harvested coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wormald, Clare L; Steele, Mark A; Forrester, Graham E

    2013-03-01

    A negative relationship between population growth and population density (direct density dependence) is necessary for population regulation and is assumed in most models of harvested populations. Experimental tests for density dependence are lacking for large-bodied, harvested fish because of the difficulty of manipulating population density over large areas. We studied a harvested coral reef fish, Lutjanus apodus (schoolmaster snapper), using eight large, isolated natural reefs (0.4-1.6 ha) in the Bahamas as replicates. An initial observational test for density dependence was followed by a manipulation of population density. The manipulation weakened an association between density and shelter-providing habitat features and revealed a positive effect of population density on recruitment and survival (inverse density dependence), but no effect of density on somatic growth. The snappers on an individual reef were organized into a few shoals, and we hypothesize that large shoals on high-density reefs were less vulnerable to large piscivores (groupers and barracudas) than the small shoals on low-density reefs. Reductions in predation risk for individuals in large social groups are well documented, but because snapper shoals occupied reefs the size of small marine reserves, these ecological interactions may influence the outcome of management actions.

  14. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption.

  15. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts.

  16. PAH Exposure in Gulf of Mexico Demersal Fishes, Post-Deepwater Horizon.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Pulster, Erin L; Wetzel, Dana L; Murawski, Steven A

    2015-07-21

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, we surveyed offshore demersal fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) in 2011-2013, to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. Biliary PAH metabolites were estimated in 271 samples of golden tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps), king snake eel (Ophichthus rex), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean concentration of naphthalene metabolites in golden tilefish (240 μg g(-1)) was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than in red snapper (61 μg g(-1)) or king snake eel (38 μg g(-1)). Biliary naphthalene metabolite concentration decreased over the study period in red snapper (58%) and king snake eel (37%), indicating likely episodic exposure, while concentrations were persistently high in golden tilefish. Naphthalene metabolite levels measured in golden tilefish are among the highest concentrations measured in fishes globally, while concentrations for red snapper and king snake eel are similar to pre-DWH levels measured in GoM species. In contrast, concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites were similar for all three species (p = 0.265, mean 220 ng g(-1)) and relatively low when compared to GoM, global data and previous oil spills. These data support previous findings that fish life history and physiology play significant roles in exposure and uptake of PAH pollution.

  17. Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc Contents of Fish Marketed in NW Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Frías-Espericueta, Martín G.; Zamora-Sarabia, Francia K. G.; Osuna-López, J. Isidro; Muy-Rangel, María D.; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; Aguilar-Juárez, Marisela

    2014-01-01

    To assess if they were within the safety limits for human consumption, the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of fish muscles, bought from separate stalls of the fish markets of nine cities of NW Mexico, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considering all fish and markets, the mean contents were Zn: 23.23 ± 5.83, Cu: 1.72 ± 0.63, Cd: 0.27 ± 0.07, and Pb: 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/g (dry weight). Cu, Zn, and Pb did not reach levels of concern for human consumption, but the high Cd values determined in Mazatlán (Mugil cephalus: 0.48 ± 0.15; Diapterus spp.: 0.57 ± 0.33; Lutjanus spp.: 0.72 ± 0.12; small shark: 0.87 ± 0.19 µg/g dry weight) indicate that this was the only metal of concern for human health because the daily individual consumption of fish muscle to reach the PTDI would be within 0.27 and 0.41 kg. PMID:24526908

  18. Otolith chemistry of fishes from Kosi Bay, South Africa: A preliminary multiple analytical methods approach to reconstruct fish migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbach, Andreas; Cowley, Paul D.; Kramar, Utz; Neumann, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Over exploitation of fish stocks in coastal areas is a subject of global concern. Increasing numbers of traditional fish traps, recreational fishing effort and unknown extents of illegal gillnetting are blamed for the declining abundance of estuarine-dependent fish species in the Kosi Bay estuarine lake system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Otoliths from four important fishery species (Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Pomadasys commersonnii, Acanthopagrus vagus, and Rhabdosargus sarba) and water samples collected from throughout the Kosi Bay system were analyzed for trace element constituents and δ18O values, in an attempt to reconstruct fish movements. The applied microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis proved valuable in detecting μm-scale spatially resolved Sr/Ca ratio distributions across otolith thin sections. Sr/Ca ratios and δ18O in otoliths correlated well with ambient water conditions and, thus, enabled us to reconstruct migratory histories of individual fish in the estuarine lake system. The findings are representative of the known biology of these species, although exact spatial and temporal ranges of migrations remain unclear. Interestingly, samples of two species (L. argentimaculatus and R. sarba) did not show any clue of migrations back to sea, which would be necessary for successful spawning. Further laboratory and field investigations with larger sample sizes are necessary to detect fishery impacts on migratory behavior at a population level.

  19. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    PubMed

    Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  20. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBattista, Joseph D.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Piatek, Marek J.; Bowen, Brian W.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Howard Choat, J.; McIlwain, Jennifer H.; Priest, Mark A.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-06-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish ( Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper ( Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  1. Trophic behaviour of juvenile reef fishes inhabiting interlinked mangrove-seagrass habitats in offshore mangrove islets.

    PubMed

    Vaslet, A; Phillips, D L; France, C A M; Feller, I C; Baldwin, C C

    2015-08-01

    Stable isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and gut content analyses were used to investigate size-related feeding habits of four reef fishes (the beaugregory Stegastes leucostictus, the french grunt Haemulon flavolineatum, the schoolmaster snapper Lutjanus apodus and the yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus) inhabiting an offshore (non-estuarine) mangrove islet off Belize, Central America. Comparisons of isotopic niche space and Schoener diet similarity index suggested a low to moderate degree of niche overlap between fish size groups. The δ(13)C gradient between mangrove and seagrass prey as well as results of Bayesian mixing models revealed that sampled fishes relied mostly on seagrass prey items. Only small and large juveniles of the carnivorous species L. apodus derived a part of their diet from mangroves by targeting mangrove-associated Grapsidae crabs and fish prey, respectively. Isotopic niche shifts were particularly obvious for carnivorous fishes that ingested larger prey items (Xanthidae crabs and fishes) during their ontogeny. The utilization of mangrove food resources is less than expected and depends on the ecology and life history of the fish species considered. This research highlights that mangrove-derived carbon contributed relatively little to the diets of four fish taxa from an offshore mangrove islet.

  2. Marine fisheries declines viewed upside down: human impacts on consumer-driven nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Layman, Craig A; Allgeier, Jacob E; Rosemond, Amy D; Dahlgren, Craig P; Yeager, Lauren A

    2011-03-01

    We quantified how two human impacts (overfishing and habitat fragmentation) in nearshore marine ecosystems may affect ecosystem function by altering the role of fish as nutrient vectors. We empirically quantified size-specific excretion rates of one of the most abundant fishes (gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus) in The Bahamas and combined these with surveys of fish abundance to estimate population-level excretion rates. The study was conducted across gradients of two human disturbances: overfishing and ecosystem fragmentation (estuaries bisected by roads), to evaluate how each could result in reduced population-level nutrient cycling by consumers. Mean estimated N and P excretion rates for gray snapper populations were on average 456% and 541% higher, respectively, in unfished sites. Ecosystem fragmentation resulted in significant reductions of recycling rates by snapper, with degree of creek fragmentation explaining 86% and 72% of the variance in estimated excretion for dissolved N and P, respectively. Additionally, we used nutrient limitation assays and primary producer nutrient content to provide a simple example of how marine fishery declines may affect primary production. This study provides an initial step toward integrating marine fishery declines and consumer-driven nutrient recycling to more fully understand the implications of human impacts in marine ecosystems.

  3. Can amino acid carbon isotope ratios distinguish primary producers in a mangrove ecosystem?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Thomas; Wooller, Matthew J; Fogel, Marilyn L; O'Brien, Diane M

    2012-07-15

    The relative contribution of carbon from terrestrial vs. marine primary producers to mangrove-based food webs can be challenging to resolve with bulk carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C). In this study we explore whether patterns of δ(13)C values among amino acids (AAs) can provide an additional tool for resolving terrestrial and marine origins of carbon. Amino acid carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C(AA)) were measured for several terrestrial and marine primary producers in a mangrove ecosystem at Spanish Lookout Caye (SLC), Belize, using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13)C values of essential amino acids (δ(13)C(EAA)) were measured to determine whether they could be used to differentiate terrestrial and marine producers using linear discriminant analysis. Marine and terrestrial producers had distinct patterns of δ(13)C(EAA) values in addition to their differences in bulk δ(13)C values. Microbial mat samples and consumers (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Aratus pisonii, Littoraria sp., Lutjanus griseus) were most similar to marine producers. Patterns of δ(13)C(EAA) values for terrestrial producers were very similar to those described for other terrestrial plants. The findings suggest that δ(13)C(EAA) values may provide another tool for estimating the contribution of terrestrial and marine sources to detrital foodwebs. Preliminary analyses of consumers indicate significant use of aquatic resources, consistent with other studies of mangrove foodwebs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Spatial behavior of two coral reef fishes within a Caribbean marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jessica; Mourier, Johann; Lenfant, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    A better understanding of the key ecological processes of marine organisms is fundamental to improving design and effective implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine biodiversity. The movement behavior of coral reef fish is a complex mechanism that is highly linked to species life-history traits, predation risk and food resources. We used passive acoustic telemetry to study monthly, daily and hourly movement patterns and space use in two species, Schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus apodus) and Stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride). We investigated the spatial overlap between the two species and compared intra-specific spatial overlap between day and night. Presence-absence models showed different diel presence and habitat use patterns between the two species. We constructed a spatial network of the movement patterns, which showed that for both species when fish were detected by the array of receivers most movements were made around the coral reef habitat while occasionally moving to silt habitats. Our results show that most individuals made predictable daily crepuscular migrations between different locations and habitat types, although individual behavioral changes were observed for some individuals across time. Our study also highlights the necessity to consider multiple species during MPA implementation and to take into account the specific biological and ecological traits of each species. The low number of fish detected within the receiver array, as well as the intraspecific variability observed in this study, highlight the need to compare results across species and individuals to be used for MPA management.

  5. Abundance, diversity, and activity of microbial assemblages associated with coral reef fish guts and feces.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Steven; Sandin, Stuart A; Azam, Farooq

    2010-07-01

    Feces and distal gut contents were collected from three coral reef fish species. Bacteria cell abundances, as determined via epifluorescence microscopy, ranged two orders of magnitude among the fishes. Mass-specific and apparent cell-specific hydrolytic enzyme activities in feces from Chlorurus sordidus were very high, suggesting that endogenous fish enzymes were egested into feces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S rRNA genes were more similar among multiple individuals of the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans than among individuals of the parrotfish C. sordidus or the snapper Lutjanus bohar. Analyses of feces-derived 16S rRNA gene clones revealed that at least five bacterial phyla were present in A. nigricans and that Vibrionaceae comprised 10% of the clones. Meanwhile, C. sordidus contained at least five phyla and L. bohar three, but Vibrionaceae comprised 71% and 76% of the clones, respectively. Many sequences clustered phylogenetically to cultured Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. including Vibrio ponticus and Photobacterium damselae. Other Vibrionaceae-like sequences comprised a distinct phylogenetic group that may represent the presence of 'feces-specific' bacteria. The observed differences among fishes may reflect native gut microbiota and/or bacterial assemblages associated with ingested prey.

  6. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Ault, Jerald S; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Steven G; DiNardo, Gerard T

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text])", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold.

  7. Length-Based Assessment of Coral Reef Fish Populations in the Main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nadon, Marc O.; Ault, Jerald S.; Williams, Ivor D.; Smith, Steven G.; DiNardo, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable “average length in the exploited phase of the population (L¯)”, estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  8. Extent of Mangrove Nursery Habitats Determines the Geographic Distribution of a Coral Reef Fish in a South-Pacific Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

  9. Sublethal effects of catch-and-release fishing: measuring capture stress, fish impairment, and predation risk using a condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Patino, Reynaldo; Tolan, J.M.; Strauss, R.E.; Diamond, S.

    2009-01-01

    The sublethal effects of simulated capture of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) were analysed using physiological responses, condition indexing, and performance variables. Simulated catch-and-release fishing included combinations of depth of capture and thermocline exposure reflective of environmental conditions experienced in the Gulf of Mexico. Frequency of occurrence of barotrauma and lack of reflex response exhibited considerable individual variation. When combined into a single condition or impairment index, individual variation was reduced, and impairment showed significant increases as depth increased and with the addition of thermocline exposure. Performance variables, such as burst swimming speed (BSS) and simulated predator approach distance (AD), were also significantly different by depth. BSSs and predator ADs decreased with increasing depth, were lowest immediately after release, and were affected for up to 15 min, with longer recovery times required as depth increased. The impairment score developed was positively correlated with cortisol concentration and negatively correlated with both BSS and simulated predator AD. The impairment index proved to be an efficient method to estimate the overall impairment of red snapper in the laboratory simulations of capture and shows promise for use in field conditions, to estimate release mortality and vulnerability to predation.

  10. Stable isotopes as tracers of residency for fish on inshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the migratory movements of fish between habitats is an important priority for fisheries management. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes were used to evaluate the degree of movement and residency for five fish species collected from coral reefs in Queensland, Australia. Isotope values of fish were measured and compared between slow-turnover muscle tissue and fast-turnover liver tissue, with isotopic agreement between liver and muscle generally indicating resident animals, and relatively low C isotope values in muscle indicating migrants. Three fish species, rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), painted sweetlips (Diagramma labiosum) and Guenther's wrasse (Pseudolabrus guentheri) showed relatively consistent carbon isotope values between muscle and liver tissue as expected for resident populations. One quarter of bream (Acanthopagrus australis) individuals showed much lower δ13C values in muscle than liver. These low values diverged from the -10 to -15‰ values of residents and were more similar to the -20‰ values of fish collected from coastal riverine habitats, the presumed migration source. Moses perch (Lutjanus russelli) also showed substantial differences between muscle and liver C isotopes for about a quarter of individuals, but the overall higher C values of these individuals indicated they may have switched diets within island habitats rather than migrating. Our results were consistent with previous studies of fish residency and indicate that measuring stable isotopes in multiple tissues provides a useful methodology for characterizing fish residency in inshore areas.

  11. Behavior and space utilization of two common fishes within Caribbean mangroves: implications for the protective function of mangrove habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, J. A.; Shahrestani, S.; Weis, J. S.

    2009-09-01

    Behaviors, activity budgets, and spatial locations of reef-associated schoolmaster snapper ( Lutjanus apodus) and non-reef-associated checkered puffer ( Sphoeroides testudineus) were cataloged in mangrove forests in Caribbean Honduras to see how and where they spent their time and whether this changed as they grew. For schoolmasters, swimming was the most common behavior, while checkered puffers spent the majority of their time resting. Both remained completely within (as opposed to outside) the mangrove roots and in the lower half of the water column most of the time. However, as the size of the fish increased there was a clear decrease in the time spent both within the root system and closer to the substrate; the larger fish spent more time higher up in the water column and outside the root system. This was observed in both the schoolmaster and the puffer; the schoolmaster subsequently moves to reefs while the puffer does not. Coupled with limited feeding, the results suggest a primarily protective function for mangroves.

  12. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-06-08

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations.

  13. Predator effects on reef fish settlement depend on predator origin and recruit density.

    PubMed

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E

    2017-04-01

    During major life-history transitions, animals often experience high mortality rates due to predation, making predator avoidance particularly advantageous during these times. There is mixed evidence from a limited number of studies, however, regarding how predator presence influences settlement of coral-reef fishes and it is unknown how other potentially mediating factors, including predator origin (native vs. nonnative) or interactions among conspecific recruits, mediate the non-consumptive effects of predators on reef fish settlement. During a field experiment in the Caribbean, approximately 52% fewer mahogany snapper (Lutjanus mahogoni) recruited to reefs with a native predator (graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata) than to predator-free control reefs and reefs with an invasive predator (red lionfish, Pterois volitans) regardless of predator diet. These results suggest that snapper recruits do not recognize nonnative lionfish as a threat. However, these effects depended on the density of conspecific recruits, with evidence that competition may limit the response of snapper to even native predators at the highest recruit densities. In contrast, there was no effect of predator presence or conspecific density on the recruitment of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). These context-dependent responses of coral-reef fishes to predators during settlement may influence individual survival and shape subsequent population and community dynamics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  15. Artificial propagation and breeding of marine fish in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wan-Shu; Zhang, Qi-Yong

    2002-03-01

    Since the 1990s, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in China have developed by way of increasing species and fry numbers, with special stress laid on valuable species. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture for most species. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in actual production. Fish fry production has entered a period of sustainable development. So far, at least 44 species (21 families) of marine fish have been successfully bred in China. The artificial fry number of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) exceeded 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry numbers have each surpassed 10 million annually are red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus), Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus), cuneate drum ( Nibea miichthioides), spring spawning red seabream ( Pagrosomus major) and threebanded sweetlip ( Plectorhynchus cinctus). Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black porgy ( Sparus macrocephalus), Russell's snapper ( Lutjanus russelli), javelin grunt ( Pomadasys hasta), miiuy croaker ( Miichthys miiuy) and skewband grunt ( Hapalogenys nitens). The fish in the family Sciaenidae are the main species in artificial propagation and breeding. Some problems and prospects on marine fish culture and stock enhancement are also discussed and some proposals for sustainable development are put forward in this article.

  16. The use of biotic and abiotic components of Red Sea coastal areas as indicators of ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted using some biotic (Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii fish) and abiotic (water and sediment) components of the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic along two polluted sites (Al-Dawar beach and Urj village) in comparison to a reference site (Al-Nukhailah beach). The studied fish biomarkers included hepatosomatic index (HSI), condition factor (K), scaled mass index (SMI), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and albumin. In addition, metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) concentrations in water and sediment were measured and sediment pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). The studied metals concentration in water and sediment samples showed significant increase among the polluted sites in comparison to the reference site. Sediment pollution assessment generally confirmed that Urj village was the most contaminated site followed by Al-Dawar beach. Catalase, GST and MDA proved to be the most responsive biomarkers with increased values of GST and MDA at sites influenced by agricultural, urban and industrial activities while catalase, HSI, K, SMI, total protein and albumin showed the opposite trend. This study recommends monitoring of sediment Igeo and EF values as well as SMI, catalase, GST and MDA as sensitive indicators of different anthropogenic activities and their effects on aquatic ecosystems under complex and different gradients of metal pollution. In addition, P. hasta proved to be more sensitive towards the detected pollution condition.

  17. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients.

  18. Philometrid nematodes infecting fishes from the Everglades National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2010-09-01

    The following three species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes of the Everglades National Park (northern Gulf of Mexico), Florida, U.S.A.: Philometra brevispicula sp. n. (male and females) from the subcutaneous tissue of mouth of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) (Lutjanidae), Philometroides grandipapillatus sp. n. (only females) from pectoral fin muscle of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae), and Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza et Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 (females) from the subcutaneous fascia of trunk muscle in crevalle jack C. hippos. Philometra brevispicula is mainly characterized by small cephalic papillae of the external circle, the absence of oesophageal teeth and the presence of small caudal projections in gravid female, markedly short spicules (45 microm) in male, and by its location in the host. Philometroides grandipapillatus differs from congeners mainly in the shape of the cephalic region (narrow, conspicuously protruding), large cephalic papillae of the external circle and the absence of caudal projections in female, and by the site of infection in the host. Caranginema americanum is for the first time recorded from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Nicholas Rountrey, Adam; Jane Meeuwig, Jessica; John Newman, Stephen; Zinke, Jens; Gregory Meekan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  20. [Trophic interactions of the six most abundant fish species in the artisanal fishery in two bays, central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Flores Ortega, J R; Godínez Domínguez, E; Rojo Vázquez, J A; Corgos, A; Galván Piña, V H; Sansón González, G

    2010-03-01

    We surveyed the trophic components in six species of Bahía de Navidad and Bahía de Chamela: Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, L. argentiventris and Mulloidichthys dentatus. Two main seasonal periods were considered: 1) North Equatorial Counter Current NECC period influence (T1) and 2) California Current CC period influence (T2). In Bahía de Navidad 78 prey taxa were identified in the stomachs. From July to December (T1), 64 prey taxa were found, and from January to June (T2), 45 prey items. In Bahía de Chamela 93 prey items were identified; 74 during T1 and 60 during T2. The highest prey number was found in the stomachs of M. dentatus during T1 in Bahía de Navidad and the lowest prey number (7) was recorded in H. flaviguttatum in Bahía de Navidad in the same period. Crustaceans were the most frequently recorded prey items, followed by fishes, mollusks, polychaetes, and echinoderms in both seasonal periods and sites. The six fish species studied are considered as specialist feeders due the low values of the niche breadth index. There was little similarity among the diets.

  1. Trace elements in muscle of three fish species from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, William Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an analysis was performed on the concentrations of the trace elements Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in muscle of two carnivorous and one planktivorous fish species collected at Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The accumulation order of the trace elements in Lutjanus analis was Al >Zn >Fe >Cr >Ba >Ni. In Cetengraulis edentulus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >As. In the species Diapterus rhombeus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >Cd. To determine the risk related to the consumption of fish, toxicity guidelines were used as standard references. It was observed that the species C. edentulus contained concentrations of As exceeding WHO limits, but these concentrations were acceptable according to the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) guidelines. Cd levels were found only in D. rhombeus and in low concentrations according to the determinations of WHO and ANVISA. Pb levels were not detected in any of the three fish species. The analyzed elements did not differ statistically according to the species and feeding habits. The results point to possible risks of human contamination by As related to the consumption of the fish species C. edentulus from the BTS.

  2. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    PubMed

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication.

  3. Species composition of by-catch from milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry fishery in selected sites in the Philippines as determined by DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Destura, Irma; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-05-01

    Milkfish fry fishery, an important industry in the Philippines, uses non-selective fishing gears and push nets in coastal areas which lead to the capture of other non-targeted juvenile aquatic species. Unfortunately, information on the amount and the identity of by-catch species is lacking thus the extent of impact of the fry fishery is not known. In this study, the species composition of milkfish fry fishery by-catch sampled from selected coastal areas that are known to be fry collection sites in the country were identified and assessed through the use of DNA barcoding. Analyses revealed that by-catch fish species of the milkfish fry industry included Black Tiger shrimp (Peneaus monodon), Tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides), Glass perchlets (Ambasis gymnocephalus and Ambasis buruensis), Ladyfish (Elops hawaiensis), Snapper (Lutjanus fulviflamma), Cardinal fishes (Apogon hyalosoma and Sphaeramia orbicularis), Whipfin siver biddy (Gerres filamentosus), Mullet (Liza sp.), Anchovy (Encrasicholina heteroloba), and Tiger perch (Terapon jarbua), almost all of which are potential marketable food fish and culture species. The results of the study provide preliminary information, as well as awareness, on the species composition of milkfish fry by-catch.

  4. Cucullanin nematodes from coral reef fishes of French Polynesia, with a description of Cucullanus faliexae n. sp. (Nematoda: Chitwoodchabaudiidae).

    PubMed

    Morand, S; Rigby, M C

    1998-12-01

    Cucullanus faliexae n. sp. is described from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus (Muraenidae) collected in Rangiroa (Tuamotu Islands, French Polynesia) in the South Pacific and is reported from the same host collected in Moorea (Society Islands, French Polynesia). This nematode is distinguished from its congeners by its protrubant anus and the presence of a single pair of subdorsal postanal papillae. Cucullanus faliexae resembles C. laurotravassosi from which it is distinguished by the farther anterior position of the first pair of male caudal preanal papillae and by the greater size of its spicules. Cucullanus bourdini Petter and Le Bel, 1992 is reported from the coral reef fishes Balistapus undulatus (Balistidae), Lutjanus gibbus (Lutjanidae), and Myripristis kuntee (Holocentridae) from French Polynesia. Additionally, Cucullanus sp. is reported from the coral reef fish Sufflamen bursa (Balistidae) in Moorea and Rangiroa. Given that C. faliexae and C. bourdini have been found in widely disparate locations between which their definitive hosts cannot migrate, it would seem likely that the life cycles of these worms include an intermediate or transport host that has a greater capability for dispersal.

  5. Environmental drivers of diurnal visits by transient predatory fishes to Caribbean patch reefs.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Selwyn, J D; Lawson, J M; Gallo, M

    2017-01-01

    Video cameras recorded the diurnal visitation rates of transient (large home range) piscivorous fishes to coral patch reefs in The Bahamas and identified 11 species. Visits by bar jack Caranx ruber, mutton snapper Lutjanus analis, yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus, barracuda Sphyraena barracuda and cero Scomberomorus regalis were sufficiently frequent to correlate with a range of biophysical factors. Patch-reef visitation rates and fish abundances varied with distance from shore and all species except S. regalis were seen more frequently inshore. This pattern is likely to be caused by factors including close proximity to additional foraging areas in mangroves and on fore-reefs and higher abundances close to inshore nursery habitats. Visitation rates and abundances of C. ruber, L. analis, O. chrysurus and S. regalis also varied seasonally (spring v. winter), possibly as fishes responded to temperature changes or undertook spawning migrations. The abundance of each transient predator species on the patch reefs generally exhibited limited diurnal variability, but L. analis was seen more frequently towards dusk. This study demonstrates that the distribution of transient predators is correlated spatially and temporally with a range of factors, even within a single lagoon, and these drivers are species specific. Transient predators are considered an important source of mortality shaping reef-fish assemblages and their abundance, in combination with the biomass of resident predators, was negatively correlated with the density of prey fishes. Furthermore, transient predators are often targeted by fishers and understanding how they utilize seascapes is critical for protecting them within reserves.

  6. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    PubMed

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  7. Nutritive value of diets containing fish silage for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Bonne, 1931).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Pedro; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Soberano, Sofía; Taboada, J Gabriel; Pérez, Marquelia; Rosas, Carlos; Cuzon, Gerard; Espinosa, L Gabriela; Sotelo, Angela

    2012-08-30

    Fish wastes has been used for many years as an alternative in feeds for aquaculture. In the present study weight gain of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets including fish waste silage (WS), fish waste silage with soybean meal SBM (WS + S) or fish waste meal (WM) was compared. A conventional acidic silage process was applied to obtain from wastes (skin, heads, bones and viscera) of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grunt (Haemulon plumieri), and grouper (Epinephelus spp.) an ingredient rich in protein. After 3 days ensilage more than 90% protein was hydrolysed. Waste material processed at pH 3.8 lost about 24% tryptophan. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented lipid oxidation, as shown after 45 days with malonaldehyde production. Shrimp fed WS + S diet gained 0.7 g per week higher than those fed WS and WM diets with 0.3 g per week (P < 0.05). WS processed with formic acid under conditions of low pH is beneficial for the white shrimp L. vannamei. It sustained reasonable weight gain combined with soybean meal in practical diets. On the other hand, BHT addition was beneficial in preventing oxidative action during silage preparation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Shaw, Jenny C; Kuris, Armand M

    2008-09-01

    We compared parasite communities at two coral atolls in the Line Islands chain of the central Pacific (Kiritimati Island and Palmyra Atoll). Palmyra Atoll is relatively pristine while Kiritimati Island is heavily fished. At each island, we sampled five fish species for helminth and arthropod endoparasites: Chromis margaritifer, Plectroglyphidodon dickii, Paracirrhites arcatus, Acanthurus nigricans, and Lutjanus bohar. The surveys found monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and copepods. Parasite richness was higher at Palmyra compared to Kiritimati for all five fish species. Fishes from Palmyra also tended to have more parasites species per host, higher parasite prevalence, and higher parasite abundance than did fishes from Kiritimati. The lower parasitism at Kiritimati may result from a simplified food web due to over fishing. Low biodiversity could impair parasite transmission by reducing the availability of hosts required by parasites with complex life cycles. Most notably, the lower abundances of larval shark tapeworms at Kiritimati presumably reflect the fact that fishing has greatly depleted sharks there in comparison to Palmyra.

  9. Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2008-01-01

    We compared parasite communities at two coral atolls in the Line Islands chain of the central Pacific (Kiritimati Island and Palmyra Atoll). Palmyra Atoll is relatively pristine while Kiritimati Island is heavily fished. At each island, we sampled five fish species for helminth and arthropod endoparasites: Chromis margaritifer, Plectroglyphidodon dickii,Paracirrhites arcatus, Acanthurus nigricans, and Lutjanus bohar. The surveys found monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and copepods. Parasite richness was higher at Palmyra compared to Kiritimati for all five fish species. Fishes from Palmyra also tended to have more parasites species per host, higher parasite prevalence, and higher parasite abundance than did fishes from Kiritimati. The lower parasitism at Kiritimati may result from a simplified food web due to over fishing. Low biodiversity could impair parasite transmission by reducing the availability of hosts required by parasites with complex life cycles. Most notably, the lower abundances of larval shark tapeworms at Kiritimati presumably reflect the fact that fishing has greatly depleted sharks there in comparison to Palmyra.

  10. Seasonal and ontogenetic patterns of habitat use in coral reef fish juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellin, C.; Kulbicki, M.; Ponton, D.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the diversity of patterns of habitat use by juveniles of coral reef fishes according to seasons and at two spatial scales (10-100 m and 1-10 km). We conducted underwater visual censuses in New Caledonia's Lagoon between 1986 and 2001. Co-inertia analyses highlighted the importance of mid-shelf habitats at large spatial scale (1-10 km) and of sandy and vegetated habitats at small spatial scale (10-100 m) for most juveniles. Among all juvenile species, 53% used different habitats across seasons (e.g. Lutjanus fulviflamma and Siganus argenteus) and 39% used different habitats as they grow (e.g. Lethrinus atkinsoni and Scarus ghobban). During their ontogeny, at large and small scales, respectively, 21% and 33% of the species studied showed an increase in the number of habitats used (e.g. L. fulviflamma, L. atkinsoni), 10% and 3% showed a decrease in the number of habitats used (e.g. Amphiprion melanopus, Siganus fuscescens), 23% and 3% showed a drastic change of habitat used (e.g. S. ghobban, Scarus sp.) whereas 46% and 61% showed no change of habitat used (e.g. Lethrinus genivittatus, Ctenochaetus striatus). Changes in habitat use at both small and large spatial scales occurred during the ontogeny of several species (e.g. S. ghobban, Scarus sp.). Results pointed out the different spatial and temporal scales of juvenile habitat use to account for in conservation decisions regarding both assemblage and species-specific levels.

  11. A new species of Ergasilus (Copepoda:Cyclopoida:Ergasilidae) from coastal fishes of the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Santana-Piñeros, Ana María

    2008-09-01

    A new species of the cyclopoid copepod genus Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 is described based on adult female specimens removed from the gills of the yellow snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters) and the yellowfin snook Centropomus robalito Jordan et Gilbert from a Pacific coastal system of Mexico. The new species Ergasilus davidi sp. n. has a combination of characters that includes a two-segmented first leg endopod, a three-segmented fourth leg endopod, and the presence of a single seta on the first antennular segment. These characters are shared with 14 other congeners known mainly from Brazil and North America. It differs from these other species in the armature and ornamentation of legs 1 and 4, the shape of the body, and the structure and ornamentation of the antennae. Additional characters include a maxillar basis armed with blunt teeth, distally bent maxillular setae, and naked margins of first exopodal segments of legs 2-4. Previous regional records of Ergasilus sp. from both fish species are probably assignable to E. davidi. The prevalence and intensity of infection was estimated for both teleost species and agrees to previous data. Based on other records of the genus from several other teleost species in the surveyed area and adjacent zones of the Eastern Pacific, it is presumed that the new species could have a wider range of hosts. The new species represents the first Ergasilus described from Mexican waters of the Pacific. Overall, the genus remains poorly known in Central America and Mexico.

  12. A multi-year study of hepatic biomarkers in coastal fishes from the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Smeltz, Marci; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Ghiran, Céline; Patterson, William F; Garner, Steven B; Beers, Alan; Mièvre, Quentin; Kane, Andrew S; James, Margaret O

    2017-08-01

    Following the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, concerns were raised regarding exposure of fish to crude oil components, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This three year study examined hepatic enzymes in post-mitochondrial supernatant fractions from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) collected in the north central Gulf of Mexico between 2011 and 2014. Biomarker activities evaluated included benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (AHH), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Mean EROD activity was higher in gray triggerfish (12.97 ± 7.15 pmol/min/mg protein [mean ± SD], n = 115) than red snapper (2.75 ± 1.92 pmol/min/mg protein, n = 194), p < 0.0001. In both species, EROD declined over time between 2011 and 2014. Declines in GST and GPx activities were also noted over this time period for both species. Gray triggerfish liver was fatty, and heptane extracts of the liver fat contained fluorescent substances with properties similar to known PAHs, however the origin of these PAHs is unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caligidae infestation in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, Bloch 1790 cultured at different salinity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhd-Faizul, H A H; Kua, B C; Leaw, Y Y

    2012-02-28

    The Asian seabass is euryhaline, therefore it is interesting to describe the infestation and survival of caligids at varying salinity on the host. In this study, two different brackish water culture systems with monoculture and polyculture practices were investigated for the occurrence of Caligus spp. on Lates calcarifer. Polyculture practices mainly consisted of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grouper (Epinephelus spp.) and seabass (L. calcarifer), while the monoculture was stocked with only seabass. A total of 777 Caligus spp. specimens were isolated from the sampling in 2009, consisting of three species; Caligus chiastos, Caligus epidemicus and Caligus rotundigenitalis. In 2011, the total specimen was increased to 3110 and two additional species were found; Caligus punctatus and one unknown species (Caligus sp.). A 98.6% of the total examination was represented by C. epidemicus. Constant presence of C. epidemicus was observed throughout the study, regardless the differences in between culturing practices and systems. This species was able to survive within wide salinity range, from 5 to 28 ppt. The other isolated species (C. chiastos, C. punctatus, C. rotundigenitalis and Caligus sp.) were only found infesting in polyculture cages with the salinity ranging from 25 to 28 ppt. Despite accounts for less than 2% of the total specimens, these species may able to produce a challenge for L. calcarifer polyculture farming activity due to their capability for host switching. The present study revealed the potential risk for cross-species transmission in polyculture practices.

  14. Vitrification of Sperm from Marine Fishes: Effect on Motility and Membrane Integrity.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Chesney, Edward J; Daly, Jonathan; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2015-06-01

    Our goal was to develop a standardized approach for sperm vitrification of marine fishes that can be applied generally in aquatic species. The objectives were to: 1) estimate acute toxicity of cryoprotectants over a range of concentrations; 2) evaluate the properties of vitrification solutions (VS); 3) evaluate different thawing solutions, and 4) evaluate sperm quality after thawing by examination of motility and membrane integrity. Sperm were collected from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). A total of 29 combinations of cryoprotectants were evaluated for toxicity and glass formation. Samples were loaded onto 10-µL polystyrene loops and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-thaw motility among VS and among species when using the same VS. The sperm in VS of 15% DMSO + 15% ethylene glycol + 10% glycerol + 1% X-1000™ + 1% Z-1000™ had an average post-thaw motility of 58% and membrane integrity of 19% for spotted seatrout, 38% and 9% for red snapper, and 30% and 19% for red drum. Adaptations by marine fish to high osmotic pressures could explain the survival in the high cryoprotectant concentrations. Vitrification offers an alternative to conventional cryopreservation.

  15. [Reproduction and feeding habits of Mustelus dorsalis (Pisces: Triakidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica: elements for a sustainable management].

    PubMed

    Rojas M, José Rodrigo

    2006-09-01

    A total of 311 sharptooth smooth-hound Mustelus dorsalis were collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica from March 1999 to May 2000 to determine reproduction and feeding habits. The fishes were collected using hook and line. 250 females and 61 males were identified. The females are bigger (550-660 mm) and heavier (400-1,000 g) than males (500-585 mm and 200-300 g, respectively). All samples collected were mature and the minimum length to first maturity observed is 500 and 541 mm for females and males, respectively. From September to March individuals were mature, while samples caught during April and August were immature. A total of 1,259 embryos were analyzed. Number of embryos per liter ranged from two to six, the total length is from 130 to 205 mm and the weight from 6 to 35 g. This shark is a polyphagous opportunistic carnivore that preys on crustaceans (Squilla hancocki, S. parva, Litopenaeus sp.), fishes (Anchoa sp., Caranx sp., Lutjanus sp., Engraulis sp.) and mollusks (Loligo sp. and Octopus sp.). Main prey item was S. hancocki. The presence of mature sharks of both sexes along the year and the consumption of food items associated to shallow coastal rocky waters suggest that this sector of Nicoya Gulf is a nursery ground and an essential habitat. Based on these results the establishment of an integral management plan is proposed.

  16. The influence of mariculture on mercury distribution in sediments and fish around Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China waters.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Shao, Ding-Ding; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Shi, Jian-Bo; Sun, Xiao-lin; Wu, Fu-Yong; Lo, S C L; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Wong, Ming H

    2011-02-01

    To study the influence of mariculture on mercury (Hg) speciation and distribution in sediments and cultured fish around Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China waters, sediment samples were collected from six mariculture sites and the corresponding reference sites, 200-300 m away from the mariculture sites. Mariculture activities increased total mercury, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur concentrations in the surface sediments underneath mariculture sites, possibly due to the accumulation of unconsumed fish feed and fish excretion. However, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations and the ratio of MeHg to THg (% MeHg) in sediments underneath mariculture sites were lower than the corresponding reference sites. The % MeHg in sediments was negatively correlated (r = -0.579, p < 0.05) with organic matter (OM) content among all sites, indicating that OM may have inhibited Hg methylation in surface sediments. Three mariculture fish species were collected from each mariculture site, including red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii). The average MeHg concentration in fish muscle was 75 μg kg⁻¹ (wet weight), and the dietary intake of MeHg through fish consumption for Hong Kong residents was 0.37 μg kg⁻¹ week⁻¹, which was lower than the corresponding WHO limits (500 μg kg⁻¹ and 1.6 μg kg⁻¹ week⁻¹).

  17. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives.

  18. First occurrence of Argathona macronema (Bleeker, 1857) (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) on coral reef fishes along the Tuticorin coastal water, Gulf of Mannar.

    PubMed

    Chelladurai, Gurusamy; Mohanraj, Jayaraj; Jayanthi, Govinda Rajalu

    2017-03-01

    Isopod Parasites are considered as a major threat to the fishing industry, due to rigorous disease outbreaks. The parasites from the two economically important reef fish family Lutjanidae and Serranidae are analyzed i.e. Epinephelus malabaricus and Lutjanus rivulatus. The samples are obtained from the landings of Trawl net from Gulf of Mannar region of South east coast of India. They are severely infested by the isopod parasite Agrathona macronema in the Pectoral fins and ventral region of the body. This species is found to be the new record in the Gulf of Mannar region and deposited in the Marine laboratory of Kamaraj College. Length and weight of the host and parasites are measured. The parasites infested on 13 specimens of E. malabricus out of 8 and 17 out of 12 species of L. rivulatus. The prevalence of parasite on the grouper and snapper fish (61.53 and 70.58 %) and mean intensity (2.62 and 2.58 %) respectively. The prevalence was maximum in L. rivulatus and minimum in E. malbaricus may be to the host specificity. Further studies are needed to know the life cycle of the parasite, host preference, disease outbreak and its role in the coral reef ecosystem.

  19. Diversity of the skin microbiota of fishes: evidence for host species specificity.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Andrea; Tao, Zhen; Bullard, Stephen A; Arias, Covadonga R

    2013-09-01

    Skin microbiota of Gulf of Mexico fishes were investigated by ribosomal internal spacer analysis (RISA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 102 fish specimens representing six species (Mugil cephalus, Lutjanus campechanus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion arenarius, Micropogonias undulatus, and Lagodon rhomboides) were sampled at regular intervals throughout a year. The skin microbiota from each individual fish was analyzed by RISA and produced complex profiles with 23 bands on average. Similarities between RISA profiles ranged from 97.5% to 4.0%. At 70% similarity, 11 clusters were defined, each grouping individuals from the same fish species. Multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity correlated the RISA-defined clusters with geographic locality, date, and fish species. Global R values indicated that fish species was the most indicative variable for group separation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences (from pooled samples of 10 individual fish for each fish species) showed that the Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in skin microbiota, followed by the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria. The distribution and abundance of bacterial sequences were different among all species analyzed. Aeribacillus was found in all fish species representing 19% of all clones sequenced, while some genera were fish species-specific (Neorickettsia in M. cephalus and Microbacterium in L. campechanus). Our data provide evidence for the existence of specific skin microbiota associated with particular fish species. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey

    2015-02-20

    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species.

  1. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  2. Feeding ecology of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops aduncus) incidentally caught in the gillnet fisheries off Zanzibar, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Omar A.; Berggren, Per; Ndaro, Simon G. M.; Jiddawi, Narriman S.

    2005-05-01

    The stomach contents of 26 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus) incidentally caught in gillnet fisheries around Unguja Island (Zanzibar) between February 2000 and August 2002 were examined. The relative importance of each prey species was assessed through indices of relative importance. In total, 1403 prey items comprising 50 species of bony fish and three species of squid were identified from food remains. Five species of fish, Uroconger lepturus, Synaphobranchus kaupii, Apogon apogonides, Lethrinus crocineus, Lutjanus fulvus, and three species of squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Sepia latimanus and Loligo duvauceli, were the most important prey species. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, Uroconger lepturus proved to be the most important prey species of mature dolphins whereas Apogon apogonides was the preferred prey of immature dolphins. These results indicate that Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off the coast of Zanzibar forage on a relatively large number of prey species, but that only a few small- and medium-sized neritic fish and cephalopods contribute substantially to the diet. Further, the ecology and behavior of the preferred fish prey species indicate that the dolphins forage over reef or soft bottom substrata and near the shore.

  3. Fine-scale partitioning of genomic variation among recruits in an exploited fishery: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Puritz, Jonathan B.; Gold, John R.; Portnoy, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and management of exploited species depends on accurate knowledge of how genetic variation is partitioned across a fishery, especially as it relates to recruitment. Using double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing, we surveyed variation in 7,382 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) young-of-the-year (YOY) sampled at six localities and in adults sampled at two localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Significant genetic heterogeneity was detected between the two adult samples, separated by ~600 km, and at spatial scales less than five kilometers among samples of  YOY. Genetic differences between YOY samples and between YOY samples and adult samples were not associated with geographic distance, and a genome scan revealed no evidence of loci under selection. Estimates of the effective number of breeders, allelic richness, and relatedness within YOY samples were not consistent with sweepstakes recruitment. Instead, the data demonstrate, at least within one recruitment season, that multiple pulses of recruits originate from distinct groups of spawning adults, even at small spatial scales. For exploited species with this type of recruitment pattern, protection of spawning adults over wide geographic areas may be critical for ensuring productivity and stability of the fishery by maintaining larval supply and connectivity. PMID:27782185

  4. Predominant bacteria associated with red snapper from the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arias, Covadonga R; Koenders, Kevin; Larsen, Andrea M

    2013-12-01

    Since the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, anecdotal observations of Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus from the northern Gulf of Mexico exhibiting unusual external lesions have been reported. Two opportunistic bacterial fish pathogens, Vibrio vulnificus and Photobacterium damselae, were recovered from the fish and were deemed responsible for the abnormalities. However, the culturable microbiota of healthy Red Snapper has not yet been characterized. We analyzed the heterotrophic bacteria associated with healthy Red Snapper caught off the Louisiana coast. In total, 179 isolates from 60 fish were recovered from skin and mucus, and 43 isolates were obtained from anterior kidney. All isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both external and internal samples, followed by the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria. Within the Proteobacteria, most isolates were members of the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium, and V. natriegens and P. damselae were the predominant species. The results of this study suggest that both Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. are associated with the normal microbiota of healthy Red Snapper. Thus, the opportunistic fish pathogens recovered in previous studies cannot be deemed lesion-forming until Koch's postulates are fulfilled.

  5. Using Fish Population Metrics to Compare the Effects of Artificial Reef Density

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Artificial reefs continue to be added as habitat throughout the world, yet questions remain about how reef design affects fish diversity and abundance. In the present study, the effects of reef density were assessed for fish communities and sizes of economically valuable Lutjanus campechanus 13 km off Port Mansfield, Texas, at a reef composed of more than 4000 concrete culverts. The study spanned from May to June in 2013 and 2014, and sites sampled included natural reefs, bare areas, and varying culvert patch density categories, ranging from 1–190 culverts. Abundances of adults and species evenness of juvenile populations differed between the years. Fish communities did not significantly differ among density categories; however, highest species richness and total abundances were observed at intermediate culvert densities and at natural reefs. Whereas the abundance of L. campechanus did not differ among density categories, mean total lengths of L. campechanus were greatest at the lower density. Our findings suggest that reefs should be deployed with intermediate patch density of 71–120 culverts in a 30-m radius to yield the highest fish abundances. PMID:26422472

  6. Using Fish Population Metrics to Compare the Effects of Artificial Reef Density.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Catheline Y M; Kline, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial reefs continue to be added as habitat throughout the world, yet questions remain about how reef design affects fish diversity and abundance. In the present study, the effects of reef density were assessed for fish communities and sizes of economically valuable Lutjanus campechanus 13 km off Port Mansfield, Texas, at a reef composed of more than 4000 concrete culverts. The study spanned from May to June in 2013 and 2014, and sites sampled included natural reefs, bare areas, and varying culvert patch density categories, ranging from 1-190 culverts. Abundances of adults and species evenness of juvenile populations differed between the years. Fish communities did not significantly differ among density categories; however, highest species richness and total abundances were observed at intermediate culvert densities and at natural reefs. Whereas the abundance of L. campechanus did not differ among density categories, mean total lengths of L. campechanus were greatest at the lower density. Our findings suggest that reefs should be deployed with intermediate patch density of 71-120 culverts in a 30-m radius to yield the highest fish abundances.

  7. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis.

  8. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  9. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  10. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  11. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  12. Continuous hydroponic wheat production using a recirculating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Owens, L. P.; Hinkle, C. R.; Prince, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous crop production, where plants of various ages are growing simultaneously in a single recirculating nutrient solution, is a possible alternative to batch production in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System. A study was conducted at John F. Kennedy Space Center where 8 trays (0.24 sq m per tray) of Triticum aestivum L. Yecora Rojo were grown simultaneously in a growth chamber at 23 C, 65 percent relative humidity, 1000 ppm CO2, continuous light, with a continuous flow, thin film nutrient delivery system. The same modified Hoagland nutrient solution was recirculated through the plant trays from an 80 L reservoir throughout the study. It was maintained by periodic addition of water and nutrients based on chemical analyses of the solution. The study was conducted for 216 days, during which 24 trays of wheat were consecutively planted (one every 9 days), 16 of which were grown to maturity and harvested. The remaining 8 trays were harvested on day 216. Grain yields averaged 520 g m(exp -2), and had an average edible biomass of 32 percent. Consecutive yields were unaffected by nutrient solution age. It was concluded that continual wheat production will work in this system over an extended period of time. Certain micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities posed problems and must be addressed in future continuous production systems.

  13. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Verdejo, S.; Soler, A.; Canals, J.

    1992-01-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M × M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0. PMID:19283047

  14. Survival of Potentially Pathogenic Human-Associated Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Lim, Daniel V.

    1996-01-01

    Plants may serve as reservoirs for human-associated bacteria (H-AB) in long-term space missions containing bioregenerative life support systems. The current study examined the abilities of five human-associated potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli, to colonize and grow in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat, a candidate crop for life support. All of these bacteria have been recovered from past NASA missions and present potential problems for future missions. The abilities of these organisms to adhere to the roots of axenic five-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) were evaluated by enumeration of the attached organisms after a one hour incubation of roots in a suspension (approximately 10(exp 8 cu/ml)) of the H-AB. Results showed that a greater percentage of P. aeruginosa cells adhered to the wheat roots than the other four H-AB. Similarly incubated seedlings were also grown under attempted axenic conditions for seven days to examine the potential of each organism to proliferate in the rhizosphere (root colonization capacity). P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa showed considerable growth. E. coli and S. aureus showed no significant growth, and S. pyogenes died off in the wheat rhizosphere. Studies examining the effects of competition on the survival of these microorganisms indicated that P. aeruginosa was the only organism that survived in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat in the presence of different levels of microbial competition.

  15. The uptake of NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ by intact wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. I. Induction and kinetics of transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, S. S.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The inducibility and kinetics of the NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ transporters in roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv Yercora Rojo) were characterized using precise methods approaching constant analysis of the substrate solutions. A microcomputer-controlled automated high performance liquid chromatography system was used to determine the depletion of each N species (initially at 1 millimolar) from complete nutrient solutions. Uptake rate analyses were performed using computerized curve-fitting techniques. More precise estimates were obtained for the time required for the extent of the induction of each transporter. Up to 10 and 6 hours, respectively, were required to achieve apparent full induction of the NO3- and NO2- transporters. Evidence for substrate inducibility of the NH4+ transporters requiring 5 hours is presented. The transport of NO3- was mediated by a dual system (or dual phasic), whereas only single systems were found for transport of NO2- and NH4+. The Km values for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ were, respectively, 0.027, 0.054, and 0.05 millimolar. The Km for mechanism II of NO3- transport could not be defined in this study as it exhibited only apparent first order kinetics up to 1 millimolar.

  16. Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: observations and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubiello, F. N.; Mahato, T.; Morton, T.; Druitt, J. W.; Volk, T.; Marino, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Yecora Rojo) was grown in the intensive agricultural biome (IAB) of Biosphere 2 during the l995-l996 winter/spring season. Environmental conditions were characterized by a day/night temperature regime of 27/17 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) levels around 45%, mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv, and natural light conditions with mean intensities about half of outside levels. Weekly samples of above-ground plant matter were collected throughout the growing season and phenological events recorded. A computer model, CERES-Wheat, previously tested under both field and controlled conditions, was used to simulate the observed crop growth and to help in data analysis. We found that CERES-Wheat simulated the data collected at Biosphere 2 to within 10% of observed, thus suggesting that wheat growth inside the IAB was comparable to that documented in other environments. The model predicts phenological stages and final dry matter (DM) production within l0% of the observed data. Measured DM production rates, normalized for light absorbed by the crop. suggested photosynthetic efficiencies intermediate between those observed under optimal field conditions and those recorded in NASA-Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS). We suggest that such a difference can be explained primarily in terms of low light levels inside the IAB, with additional effects due to elevated CO2 concentrations and diffuse light fractions.

  17. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    ón a Carreteras y Otras Perturbaciones Humanas en Gabón, Africa Central Resumen Presentamos el primer estudio a nivel de comunidad de la relación entre carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas con la distribución de mamíferos en Gabón (África central). Nuestro sitio de estudio está dentro de una concesión petrolera en un paisaje litoral heterogéneo. Realizamos muestreos a lo largo de 199 transectos lineales e instalamos cámaras trampa en 99 de ellos para documentar la presencia y abundancia de mamíferos. Utilizamos modelos lineales generalizados con efectos mixtos para documentar las asociaciones entre variables relacionadas con el ecosistema (cobertura de suelo, topografía e hidrología), carreteras (tipo de revestimiento, ancho de derecho de vía, condición, tipo de vehículos que utilizan la carretera, nivel de tráfico, afiliación de los usuarios y el tipo general de carretera) y otras perturbaciones humanas (urbanización, agricultura, caza, tala, recolecta y actividades industriales) y la abundancia o presencia de 17 especies o grupos de mamíferos incluyendo elefantes (Loxodonta cyclotis), búfalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), cerdo rojo de río (Potomochoerus porcus), ungulados pequeños, gorila (Gorilla gorilla), chimpancé (Pan troglodytes), chacal con rayas a los lados (Canis adustus), carnívoros, monos y roedores de talla grande. Ciertos tipos de carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas estuvieron asociadas negativamente con la abundancia o presencia de elefantes, búfalos, gorilas, sitatungas, algunos monos y antílopes. Los patrones de asociación de mamíferos con carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas fueron diversos e incluyen asociaciones positivas con la presencia de carreteras (cerdo rojo de río, algunos monos y antílopes), agricultura (sitatunga, carnívoros pequeños y roedores de talla grande) y actividades industriales (sitatunga, cerdo rojo de río, antílope rojo y chacal con rayas a los lados

  18. Complete genome sequence of Halogeometricum borinquense type strain (PR3T)

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, Stephanie; Tindall, Brian J.; Schneider, Susanne; Fahnrich, Regine; Lapidus, Alla; LaButtii, Kurt; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan -Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Anderson, Iain; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; D’haeseleer, Patrik; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans -Peter; Chain, Patrick

    2009-09-29

    Halogeometricum borinquense Montalvo-Rodríguez et al. 1998 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its distinct location between the halobacterial genera Haloquadratum and Halosarcina. H. borinquense requires extremely high salt (NaCl) concentrations for growth. It can not only grow aerobically but also anaerobically using nitrate as electron acceptor. The strain described in this report is a free-living, motile, pleomorphic, euryarchaeon, which was originally isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the halobacterial genus Halogeometricum, and this 3,944,467 bp long six replicon genome with its 3937 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  19. Characterization and quantitation of phenolic compounds in new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, David; Egea, José; Gil, María I; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2005-11-30

    Thirty-seven apricot varieties, including four new releases (Rojo Pasión, Murciana, Selene, and Dorada) obtained from different crosses between apricot varieties and three traditional Spanish cultivars (Currot, Mauricio, and Búlida), were separated according to flesh color into four groups: white, yellow, light orange, and orange (mean hue angles in flesh were 88.1, 85.0, 77.6, and 72.4, respectively). Four phenolic compound groups, procyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonols, and anthocyanins, were identified by HPLC-MS/MS and individually quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, procyanidins B1, B2, and B4, and some procyanidin trimers, quercetin 3-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-rhamnosyl-hexoside and quercetin 3-acetyl-hexoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and 3-glucoside, were detected and quantified in the skin and flesh of the different cultivars. The total phenolics content, quantified as the addition of the individual compounds quantified by HPLC, ranged between 32.6 and 160.0 mg 100 g(-1) of edible tissue. No correlation between the flesh color and the phenolic content of the different cultivars was observed.

  20. Carotenoids from new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties and their relationship with flesh and skin color.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, David; Egea, José; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Gil, María I

    2005-08-10

    Thirty-seven apricot varieties, including four new releases (Rojo Pasión, Murciana, Selene, and Dorada) obtained from different crosses between apricot varieties and three traditional Spanish cultivars (Currot, Mauricio, and Búlida), were separated according to flesh color into four groups. The L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and chroma color measurements on the skin and flesh as well as other quality indices including flesh firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and pH were plotted against the total carotenoid content measured by HPLC. Among the 37 apricot varieties, the total carotenoid content ranged from 1,512 to 16,500 microg 100 g(-1) of edible portion, with beta-carotene as the main pigment followed by beta-cryptoxanthin and gamma-carotene. The wide range of variability in the provitamin A content in the apricot varieties encouraged these studies in order to select the breeding types with enhanced carotenoid levels as the varieties with a higher potential health benefit. The carotenoid content was correlated with the color measurements, and the hue angle in both flesh and peel was the parameter with the best correlation (R = 0.92 and 0.84, respectively). An estimation of the carotenoid content in apricots could be achieved by using a portable colorimeter, as a simple and easy method for field usage applications.

  1. Indentation hardness: A simple test that correlates with the dissipated-energy predictor for fatigue-life in bovine pericardium membranes for bioprosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Rojo, Francisco Javier; García Paez, José María; Bourges, Jean Yves; Herrero, Eduardo Jorge; Millán, Isabel; Alvarez, Lourdes; Cordon, Ángeles; Guinea, Gustavo V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of hardness with fatigue in calf pericardium, a biomaterial commonly used in bioprosthetic heart valves, and its relationship with the energy dissipated during the first fatigue cycle that has been shown to be a predictor of fatigue-life (García Páez et al., 2006, 2007; Rojo et al., 2010). Fatigue tests were performed in vitro on 24 pericardium specimens cut in a root-to-apex direction. The specimens were subjected to a maximum stress of 1MPa in blocks of 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 cycles. By means of a modified Shore A hardness test procedure, the hardness of the specimen was measured before and after fatigue tests. Results showed a significant correlation of such hardness with fatigue performance and with the energy dissipated in the first cycle of fatigue, a predictor of pericardium durability. The study showed indentation hardness as a simple and reliable indicator of mechanical performance, one which could be easily implemented in improving tissue selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of beta-cyclodextrin on pasting properties of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Li, W D; Huang, J C; Corke, H

    2000-06-01

    Changes of viscosity characteristics of genetically diverse hexaploid wheat starches during pasting in water, 1% NaCl solution, or at pH 4 or pH 10 were studied using a Rapid Visco-Analyzer. Peak viscosity (PV), hot paste viscosity (HPV) and cool paste viscosity (CPV) of all the wheat starches was little affected in pH 4 and pH 10 treatments. In 1% NaCl, all starches showed substantial increases in all three parameters relative to pasting in water. The use of 1% beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) (cycloheptaamylose) solution increased PV of high-swelling starches, but generally slightly decreased that of low swelling starches in all treatment conditions. HPV was always reduced by addition of 1% beta-CD, but CPV was increased in most treatments for Anza and Yecora Rojo (low swelling), but decreased for Klasic (high swelling). Bacterial alpha-amylase was added to starch or flour. The effect of beta-CD was shown to be independent of alpha-amylase inhibition in wheat starch, but beta-CD strongly inhibited alpha-amylase in wheat flour.

  3. Effect of CO/sub 2/ enrichment on growth and reproduction of wheat grown under low oxygen. [Triticum aestivum

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, M.E.; Scheld, H.W.; Strain, B.R.

    1987-04-01

    Two cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs Sonoita and Yecoro Rojo) were grown to maturity in a Phytotron B chamber within four sub-chambers which imposed two CO/sub 2/ levels (350 or 1000 ppm) at either ambient (21%) or low oxygen (5%). Techniques of growth analysis were used to characterize changes in plant carbon budgets imposed by the gas regimes. Large increases in leaf area were seen in the low oxygen treatments, due primarily to a stimulation of tillering. No necrosis was observed in roots developing at 5% oxygen but rather root development increased dramatically. Flowering was much delayed in the low oxygen, 350 ppm carbon dioxide regime and the spikes which did develop did not mature. While one cultivar (Sonoita) did not respond to CO/sub 2/ enrichment (1000 ppm) at ambient oxygen in terms of increases in leaf area and head number, carbon dioxide enrichment overcame the low oxygen effect on flowering in both cultivars. The results demonstrate a previously unknown interaction between carbon dioxide enrichment and low oxygen as they affect reproduction and may help elucidate the nature of low-oxygen-induced infertility.

  4. Exposure to Rabies in Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) from Two Regions in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Johnson, Shylo R; Gilbert, Amy T; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-10-01

    The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) was introduced to several Caribbean Islands to control rat (Rattus spp.) damage to sugarcane plantations. Mongooses failed at suppressing rat populations and are now considered pests throughout most of their introduced range. Importantly, mongooses are rabies reservoirs on several Caribbean Islands. In Puerto Rico, mongooses have been implicated in up to 70% of reported animal rabies cases. There is no rabies vaccination program for wildlife in Puerto Rico, and data on rabies in mongooses are limited. We conducted a serosurvey of mongooses in two different ecologic environments in Puerto Rico: El Yunque National Forest and Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge. We collected 119 serum samples from 112 mongooses, 44 (39.3%) of which were positive for rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. We also collected oral swabs from 147 mongooses, including 88 from which we also collected serum. No oral swabs were positive for rabies virus RNA. Our data support previous research suggesting rabies virus is circulating within the mongoose population on Puerto Rico.

  5. The uptake of NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ by intact wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. I. Induction and kinetics of transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, S. S.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The inducibility and kinetics of the NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ transporters in roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv Yercora Rojo) were characterized using precise methods approaching constant analysis of the substrate solutions. A microcomputer-controlled automated high performance liquid chromatography system was used to determine the depletion of each N species (initially at 1 millimolar) from complete nutrient solutions. Uptake rate analyses were performed using computerized curve-fitting techniques. More precise estimates were obtained for the time required for the extent of the induction of each transporter. Up to 10 and 6 hours, respectively, were required to achieve apparent full induction of the NO3- and NO2- transporters. Evidence for substrate inducibility of the NH4+ transporters requiring 5 hours is presented. The transport of NO3- was mediated by a dual system (or dual phasic), whereas only single systems were found for transport of NO2- and NH4+. The Km values for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ were, respectively, 0.027, 0.054, and 0.05 millimolar. The Km for mechanism II of NO3- transport could not be defined in this study as it exhibited only apparent first order kinetics up to 1 millimolar.

  6. Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Enrique; Giuffrida, Daniele; Menchaca, Dania; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Meléndez-Martinez, Antonio J; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-10-15

    Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of β-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including β-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid β-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with β-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with κ rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.

  7. Are red blood cell transfusions associated with nosocomial infections in critically ill children?

    PubMed

    Naveda Romero, Omar E; Naveda Meléndez, Andrea F

    2016-08-01

    Aunque la transfusión de hemoderivados es una práctica común, los efectos sobre el sistema inmune no han sido bien estudiados. Para determinar la asociación entre transfusión de glóbulos rojos (TGR) e infecciones nosocomiales, se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo con niños críticamente enfermos, seguidos hasta su fallecimiento, transferencia o egreso. Las infecciones nosocomiales se consideraron postransfusionales si ocurrieron dentro de los 14 días después de la TGR. Se incluyeron 162 niños, 35 adquirieron infección nosocomial (21,6%) y 49 recibieron TGR (30,2%). Los niños con infección nosocomial recibieron más frecuentemente TGR (48,5% vs. 14,9%; OR 5,4; IC 95%: 2,4-12,6; p 〈 0,0001) y presentaron mayor mortalidad (45,7% vs. 10,2%; OR 7,4; IC 95%: 3,1-18,2; p 〈 0,0001). En la regresión logística binaria, la TGR se mantuvo asociada independientemente a infección nosocomial (OR 4,2; IC 95%: 2,1-20,2; p = 0,049). Conclusión: La TGR se asoció a un incremento del riesgo de adquirir infecciones nosocomiales.

  8. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in closed plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center is a closed plant growth chamber facility that can be used to monitor the level of biogenic emissions from large populations of plants throughout their entire growth cycle. The head space atmosphere of a 26-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) stand was repeatedly sampled and emissions identified and quantified using GC-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, alpha-pinene, furan and 2-methylfuran were not significantly different throughout the day; whereas, isoprene showed significant differences in concentration between samples collected in light and dark periods. Volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) were analysed and quantified from planting to maturity. Volatile plant-derived compounds included 1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, tetramethylurea, tetramethylthiourea, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran. Concentrations of volatiles were determined during seedling establishment, vegetative growth, anthesis, grain fill and senescence and found to vary depending on the developmental stage. Atmospheric concentrations of benzaldehyde and nonanal were highest during anthesis, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran concentrations were greatest during grain fill, and the concentration of the tetramethylurea peaked during senescence.

  9. Dynamics of carbon dioxide exchange of a wheat community grown in a semi-closed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1989-01-01

    A wheat (Triticum aestivum Yecora Rojo) community was grown in the semi-closed conditions of the NASA/KSC Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Experiments were conducted to determine whole community carbon dioxide exchange rates as influenced by growth and development, carbon dioxide concentration, time within the photoperiod, irradiance, and temperature. Plants were grown at a population of about 1500 per sq meter using a 20 hour light/4 hour dark daily regime. Light was supplied by HPS vapor lamps and irradiance was maintained in the range of 590 to 675 mu mol per sq meter. The temperature regime was 20 C light/16 C dark and nutrients were supplied hydroponically as a thin film. Fractional interception of PPF by the community increased rapidly during growth reaching a maximum of 0.96, 24 days after planting. This time corresponded to canopy closure and maximum rates of net photosynthesis (NP). Net daily CO2 utilization rates were calculated to day 48 and a 4th order regression equation integrated to obtain total moles of CO2 fixed by the community. This procedure may be useful for monitoring and prediction of biomass yields in a closed ecology life support system (CELSS).

  10. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  11. Density and distribution of water boatmen and brine shrimp at a major shorebird wintering area in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, K.J.; Collazo, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cabo Rojo salt flats are an important wintering area for migratory shorebirds. Their quality is intimately related to prey availability, as prey are needed to meet energetic requirements. Understanding prey dynamics is, therefore, a key element of shorebird conservation plans. To this end, we monitored the density and distribution of water-boatmen (Trichocorixa spp.) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) in relation to water salinity from September to November of 1994 and 1995. Salinity ranged from 4 to 292 ppt, and gradients were related to hydrological alterations (e.g., salt extraction) and connection to the ocean. Brine shrimp were restricted to areas of highest salinity (??? 106 ppt), whereas water-boatmen to areas of lowest salinity ( 100 ppt. Lowering water salinity did not result in osmolal related mortality. Results underscored the sensitivity of water boatmen to high salinity, particularly when the difference in salinity between the 'source' and 'destination' localities widened. Water boatmen density increased in one lagoon as salinity decreased from 65 to 47 ppt. On the basis of our experiments, local adult survivorship improved and immigration and subsequent survival of adults, if any, was not hindered. The density of nymphs also suggested that hatching occurred concurrently. The foraging value of the salt flats can be enhanced by maintaining salinity at < 65 ppt in selected management units and minimizing differences in salinity concentrations among them.

  12. Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: observations and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tubiello, F N; Mahato, T; Morton, T; Druitt, J W; Volk, T; Marino, B D

    1999-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Yecora Rojo) was grown in the intensive agricultural biome (IAB) of Biosphere 2 during the l995-l996 winter/spring season. Environmental conditions were characterized by a day/night temperature regime of 27/17 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) levels around 45%, mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv, and natural light conditions with mean intensities about half of outside levels. Weekly samples of above-ground plant matter were collected throughout the growing season and phenological events recorded. A computer model, CERES-Wheat, previously tested under both field and controlled conditions, was used to simulate the observed crop growth and to help in data analysis. We found that CERES-Wheat simulated the data collected at Biosphere 2 to within 10% of observed, thus suggesting that wheat growth inside the IAB was comparable to that documented in other environments. The model predicts phenological stages and final dry matter (DM) production within l0% of the observed data. Measured DM production rates, normalized for light absorbed by the crop. suggested photosynthetic efficiencies intermediate between those observed under optimal field conditions and those recorded in NASA-Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS). We suggest that such a difference can be explained primarily in terms of low light levels inside the IAB, with additional effects due to elevated CO2 concentrations and diffuse light fractions.

  13. Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: observations and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubiello, F. N.; Mahato, T.; Morton, T.; Druitt, J. W.; Volk, T.; Marino, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Yecora Rojo) was grown in the intensive agricultural biome (IAB) of Biosphere 2 during the l995-l996 winter/spring season. Environmental conditions were characterized by a day/night temperature regime of 27/17 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) levels around 45%, mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv, and natural light conditions with mean intensities about half of outside levels. Weekly samples of above-ground plant matter were collected throughout the growing season and phenological events recorded. A computer model, CERES-Wheat, previously tested under both field and controlled conditions, was used to simulate the observed crop growth and to help in data analysis. We found that CERES-Wheat simulated the data collected at Biosphere 2 to within 10% of observed, thus suggesting that wheat growth inside the IAB was comparable to that documented in other environments. The model predicts phenological stages and final dry matter (DM) production within l0% of the observed data. Measured DM production rates, normalized for light absorbed by the crop. suggested photosynthetic efficiencies intermediate between those observed under optimal field conditions and those recorded in NASA-Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS). We suggest that such a difference can be explained primarily in terms of low light levels inside the IAB, with additional effects due to elevated CO2 concentrations and diffuse light fractions.

  14. Survival of potentially pathogenic human-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Garland, J L; Lim, D V

    1996-07-01

    Plants may serve as reservoirs for human-associated bacteria (H-AB) in long-term space missions containing bioregenerative life support systems. The current study examined the abilities of five human-associated potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli, to colonize and grow in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat, a candidate crop for life support. All of these bacteria have been recovered from past NASA missions and present potential problems for future missions. The abilities of these organisms to adhere to the roots of axenic five-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) were evaluated by enumeration of the attached organisms after a one hour incubation of roots in a suspension (approximately 10(8) cfu ml-1) of the H-AB. Results showed that a greater percentage of P. aeruginosa cells adhered to the wheat roots than the other four H-AB. Similarly incubated seedlings were also grown under attempted axenic conditions for seven days to examine the potential of each organism to proliferate in the rhizosphere (root colonization capacity). P. cepacia and P. aerogiunosa showed considerable growth, E. coli and S. aureus showed no significant growth, and S. pyogenes died off in the wheat rhizosphere. Studies examining the effects of competition on the survival of these microorganisms indicated that P. aeruginosa was the only organism that survived in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat in the presence of different levels of microbial competition.

  15. A ground-based comparison of nutrient delivery technologies originally developed for growing plants in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Dreschel, T W; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments.

  16. Women and vulnerability to depression: some personality and clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Jesús M; Rojo, Nieves; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of sex differences and personality in vulnerability to depression. Sex differences in personality and some clinical variables are described. We also assess the value of the variables that revealed significant sex differences as predictors of vulnerability to depression. In a group of adult participants (N = 112), 50% males and 50% females (mean age = 41.30; SD = 15.09; range 17-67), we studied sex differences in the three-factor personality model, using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Form A (EPQ-A; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975), and in the Five-Factor Personality Model, with the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985). The following clinical scales were used: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979), the Schizotypy Questionnaire (STQ; Claridge & Broks, 1984; Spanish version, Carrillo & Rojo, 1999), the THARL Scales (Dua, 1989, 1990; Spanish version, Dua & Carrillo, 1994) and the Adjustment Inventory (Bell, 1937; Spanish version, Cerdá, 1980). Subsequently, simple linear regression analysis, with BDI scores as criterion, were performed to estimate the value of the variables as predictors of vulnerability to depression. The results indicate that a series of personality variables cause women to be more vulnerable to depression than men and that these variables could be explained by a negative emotion main factor. Results are discussed within the framework of the psychological behaviorism theory of depression.

  17. Physicochemical characterization of pure persimmon juice: nutritional quality and food acceptability.

    PubMed

    González, Eva; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2015-03-01

    Technological process for production of non-astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. "Rojo Brillante") juice was described. The degree of fruit ripening expressed as color index (CI) varied between 12.37 and 16.33. Persimmon juice was characterized by determining physicochemical quality parameters as yield, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids, and main sugars. A thermal treatment of 90 ºC for 10 s was effective in controlling naturally occurring microorganisms for at least 105 d of storage without significantly affecting production of soluble brown pigments (BPs) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity and acceptability of juice by panelists. Storage time affected all and each of the above parameters, reducing BPs, TPC and antioxidant capacity but increasing 5-HMF content. Refrigerated storage enhanced the acceptability of the juices. This information may be used by the juice industry as a starting point for production of pure persimmon juices. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Partial purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from persimmon.

    PubMed

    Navarro, José L; Tárrega, Amparo; Sentandreu, Miguel A; Sentandreu, Enrique

    2014-08-15

    Activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from "Rojo Brillante" persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits was characterized. Crude extracts were used for characterization of enzyme activity and stability at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80 °C), pHs (from 3.5 to 7.5) and substrate concentrations (catechol from 0 to 0.5M). Maximum enzyme activity was reached at pH 5.5 and 55 °C. Enzyme stability was higher than PPO activities found in other natural sources, since above pH 5.5 the minimum time needed to achieve an enzyme inactivation of 90% was 70 min at 80 °C. However, at pH 4.0 the enzyme stability decreased, reaching inactivation levels above 90% after 10 min even at 60 °C. Thus it was concluded that acidification can circumvent browning problems caused by PPO activity. Moreover, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the enriched extract revealed the presence of at least four bands with strong oxidase activity, suggesting the existence of different PPO isoforms.

  19. Trombosis venosa esplácnica como manifestación inicial de mielofibrosis primaria.

    PubMed

    Campos-Cabrera, Gregorio; Campos-Cabrera, Virginia; Campos-Cabrera, Salvador; Campos-Villagómez, José-Luis; Romero-González, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Las neoplasias mieloproliferativas (NMP) son alteraciones crónicas de las células madre hematopoyéticas clonales caracterizadas por una mayor producción de granulocitos, glóbulos rojos o plaquetas. Una de las principales complicaciones de las NMP es la aparición de problemas trombóticos venosos y arteriales causados por un aumento en la agregación plaquetaria y la generación de trombina. Se evaluaron 11 casos de mielofibrosis primaria (MP), de los cuales dos debutaron con trombosis venosa esplácnica (TVE). Tras observar los resultados de este estudio y de la literatura mundial, se sugiere que al evaluar pacientes con TVE se incluyan métodos diagnósticos para MP, como la mutación JAK2V617F. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are chronic disorders of clonal hematopoietic stem cells, characterized by an overproduction of functional granulocytes, red blood cells and / or platelets, and one of the major complications is the occurrence of venous and arterial thrombotic problems caused by increased platelet aggregation and thrombin generation. In this study 11 cases of primary myelofibrosis (PM) were evaluated and 2 debuted with splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT); so after seeing the results of this study and of world literature, it is suggested that in patients with SVT, diagnostic methods for PM like the JAK2V617F mutation should be included.

  20. Bcs-Bose Crossover Picture for a 2d Electron Gas with a Finite-Range Attractive Interfermion Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, Miguel A.; Sevilla, Francisco J.; Fortes, Mauricio; de Llano, Manuel

    2002-03-01

    Cooper pair formation is studied in a 2D electron gas interacting pairwise through a finite-range, separable interfermion potential in wavevector space V_ kk^' =-(v_0/L^2)g_kg_k^' , where L^2 is the system area, v0 >= 0 the interaction strength, g_k≡ (1+k^2/k_0^2)-1/2 with k0 the inverse interaction range. The interaction strength v0 is eliminated [1] in favor of the (positive) binding energy B2 of an electron pair in vacuum under the same interfermion interaction. For finite range, i.e., 1/k_0>0, we report numerical calculations of the gap, the critical temperature and the chemical potential as functions of B2 and 1/k_0. For k_0= ∞ or zero-range (viz., a delta potential well) we recover at T=0 the well-known Miyake [2] results. Finally, the gap-to-Tc ratio is exhibited as a function of B2 and compared with other calculations as well as with empirical values for cuprate superconductors. [1] S.K. Adhikari, M. Casas, A. Puente, A. Rigo, M. Fortes, M.A. Solís, M. de Llano, A.A. Valladares and O. Rojo, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8671 (2000). [2] K. Miyake, Prog. Theor. Phys. 69, 1794 (1983). We thank UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT # IN102198 and CONACyT # 27828E for partial support.

  1. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Gregor, M.; Schlögl, J.; Šmída, B.; Liščák, P.; Brewer-Carías, Ch.; Vlček, L.

    2011-09-01

    Venezuelan table mountains (tepuis) host the largest arenite caves in the world. The most frequently used explanation of their origin so far was the "arenization" theory, involving dissolution of quartz cement around the sand grains and subsequent removing of the released grains by water. New research in the two largest arenite cave systems - Churi-Tepui System in Chimanta Massif and Ojos de Cristal System in Roraima Tepui showed that quartz dissolution plays only a minor role in their speleogenesis. Arenites forming the tepuis are not only quartzites but they display a wide range of lithification and breakdown, including also loose sands and sandstones. Speleogenetic processes are mostly concentrated on the beds of unlithified sands which escaped from diagenesis by being sealed by the surrounding perfectly lithified quartzites. Only the so-called "finger-flow" pillars testify to confined diagenetic fluids which flowed in narrow channels, leaving the surrounding arenite uncemented. Another factor which influenced the cave-forming processes by about 30% was lateritization. It affects beds formed of arkosic sandstones and greywackes which show strong dissolution of micas, feldspars and clay minerals, turning then to laterite ("Barro Rojo"). The main prerequisite to rank caves among karst phenomena is dissolution. As the dissolution of silicate minerals other than quartz appears to play not only a volumetrically important role but even a trigger role, these arenitic caves may be ranked as karst.

  2. Parameterization of Parton Distributions Functions Based on Self-Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loitiere, Y.; Honkanen, H.; Liuti, S.

    2006-11-01

    Neural network algorithms have been recently applied to construct Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) parametrizations which provide an alternative to standard global fitting procedures [1]. In this contribution we propose a different technique, namely an interactive neural network algorithm using Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) [2]. SOMs generate a nonuniform projection from a high dimensional data space onto a low dimensional one (usually 1 or 2 dimensions) by clustering similar PDF representations together. Our SOMs are trained on progressively narrower selections of data samples. The selection criterion is that of convergence towards a neighborhood of the experimental data. Our procedure utilizes all available data on deep inelastic scattering in the kinematical region of 0.001 <=x <= 0.75, and 1 <=Q^2 <= 100 GeV^2, with a cut on the final state invariant mass, W^2 >= 10 GeV^2. Our main goal is to provide a fitting procedure that, at variance with standard neural network approaches, allows for an increased control of the systematic bias. SOMs, in fact, enable the user to directly control the data selection procedure at various stages of the process. [1] L. Del Debbio, S. Forte, J. I. Latorre, A. Piccione and J. Rojo, [NNPDF Collaboration], JHEP 0503, 080 (2005). [2] T. Kohonen, ``Self Organizing Maps,'' Springer-Verlag, 1997.

  3. Changes in mass and energy transfer between the canopy and the atmosphere: model development and testing with a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Paolo; Grant, Robert F.; Feng, Yongshen; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pinter, Paul J.; La Morte, Robert L.; Hunsaker, Douglas J.; Wall, D.

    2002-02-01

    The rationale for this study is found in the probable higher temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns that are expected in the future as a result of increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. In particular, higher air temperatures may cause an increase in evapotranspiration demand while a reduction in rainfall could increase the severity and duration of drought in arid and semi-arid regions. Representation of the water transfer scheme includes water uptake by roots and the interaction between evapotranspiration and CO2 enrichment. The predicted response of a spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) canopy in terms of energy exchange processes to elevated atmospheric CO2 level was tested against measurements collected at the FACE (Free Air Enrichment Experiment) site in 1994. Simulated and measured canopy conductances were reduced by about 30% under elevated [CO2] under optimum conditions of water supply. Reductions in latent heat fluxes under elevated instead of ambient [CO2] caused reductions in both simulated and measured seasonal water use of 6% under optimum and 2% under suboptimum irrigation. The soil-plant-atmosphere water transfer scheme proposed here offers several advances in the simulation of land surface interactions. First, the stomatal resistance model minimizes assumptions in existing land surface schemes about the effects of interactions among environmental conditions (radiation, temperature, CO2) upon stomatal behavior. These interactions are resolved in the calculation of CO2 in which processes are already well understood.

  4. On the computation of steady hopper flows III: Model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gremaud, Pierre A.; Matthews, John V.; Schaeffer, David G.

    2006-11-01

    Gravity flows of granular materials through hoppers are considered. For hoppers shaped as general nonaxisymmetric cones, i.e., "pyramids", the flow inherits some simplified features from the geometry: similarity solutions can be constructed. Using two different plasticity laws, namely Matsuoka-Nakai and von Mises, those solutions are obtained by solving first-order nonlinear partial differential algebraic systems for stresses, velocities, and a plasticity function. A pseudospectral discretization is applied to both models and the resulting flow fields are examined. Some similarities are found, but important differences appear, especially with regard to velocities near the wall and normal wall stresses. Preliminary comparisons with recent experiments [J.F. Wambaugh, R.P. Behringer, Asymmetry-induced circulation in granular hopper flows, in: R. Garcia-Rojo, H.J. Herrmann, S. McNamara (Eds.), Powders and Grains, 2005, pp. 915-918] based on the present results indicate that for slow granular flows the lesser known Matsuoka-Nakai plasticity law yields better results than more common models based on a von Mises criterion.

  5. Ellipticity and triangularity effects in tokamak Alfven spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio; Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Valdeblanquez, Eder

    2006-10-01

    Plasma configurations with ellipticity and triangularity are usual in tokamak experiments. These plasmas can be studied using a new system of coordinates of recent publications. Here this method has been applied to study Alfven spectrum in axisymmetric tokamaks with different values of ellipticity and triangularity [1-3]. Previous authors have developed numerical methods to obtain the Alfven spectrum using the Shafranov-Solove'v equilibrium flux function where the parameter ellipticity is also included [3]. Here more general configurations are treated and compared with the results of these authors, as well as those derived for the geometric optics or WKBJ approximation. The Alfven wave dispersion relation is obtained by the linearization of the MHD equations around a stationary equilibrium and the results are obtained by numerical calculations. [1] P. Martin, M. G. Haines and E. Castro, Phys. Plasma 12, 082506 (2005) [2] L. L. Lao, S. P. Hishman and R. M. Wieland, Phys. Fluids 24, 1431 (1981); H. Weitzner's Appendix. [3] G. O. Ludwig, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 37, 633 (1995) [4] S. Novo, M. N'uñez and J. Rojo, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2967 (1991)

  6. Columnar Jointing and Quasihexagonal Crack Patterns in Corn Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas; Morris, Stephen W.

    2003-03-01

    The well-known geophysical phenomenon of basaltic columnar jointing, occurring most spectacularly in the Giant's Causeway in N. Ireland, has inspired several theories describing the origin and evolution of quasihexagonal crack patterns (P. Budkewitsch and P-Y. Robin, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 59, 219 (1994); E. A. Jagla and A. G. Rojo, Phys. Rev. E, 65, 026203 (2002) for example). Field studies have not been able to distinguish between these theories. However, the desiccation of water-starch mixtures also produces quasihexagonal crack patterns (G. Müller, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 15239 (1998)). The diffusion and evaporation of water is thought to be analogous to the diffusion and extraction of heat from a basalt flow. To better understand hexagonal columnar jointing, we have desiccated corn starch under controlled conditions. We have studied the dynamics of the crack pattern, and measured several maturation indices. Such indices attempt to quantify how disordered cracks evolve into ordered hexagonal patterns. Our objective is to determine whether laboratory tests can discriminate between the theoretical models of this interesting geological pattern.

  7. A communication-less parallel algorithm for tridiagonal Toeplitz systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Jeffrey M.; Garey, L. E.; Shaw, R. E.

    2008-03-01

    Diagonally dominant tridiagonal Toeplitz systems of linear equations arise in many application areas and have been well studied in the past. Modern interest in numerical linear algebra is often focusing on solving classic problems in parallel. In McNally [Fast parallel algorithms for tri-diagonal symmetric Toeplitz systems, MCS Thesis, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, 1999], an m processor Split & Correct algorithm was presented for approximating the solution to a symmetric tridiagonal Toeplitz linear system of equations. Nemani [Perturbation methods for circulant-banded systems and their parallel implementation, Ph.D. Thesis, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, 2001] and McNally (2003) adapted the works of Rojo [A new method for solving symmetric circulant tri-diagonal system of linear equations, Comput. Math. Appl. 20 (1990) 61-67], Yan and Chung [A fast algorithm for solving special tri-diagonal systems, Computing 52 (1994) 203-211] and McNally et al. [A split-correct parallel algorithm for solving tri-diagonal symmetric Toeplitz systems, Internat. J. Comput. Math. 75 (2000) 303-313] to the non-symmetric case. In this paper we present relevant background from these methods and then introduce an m processor scalable communication-less approximation algorithm for solving a diagonally dominant tridiagonal Toeplitz system of linear equations.

  8. The incomplete ordering of columnar fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas; Morris, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    Columnar fracture has been studied for centuries, and occurs in a wide range of media, from lava, to glass and starch. The best known examples of such fracture patterns include the basalts of the Giant's Causeway in N. Ireland, and the Devil's Postpile in California. Recently, we have performed experiments on columnar fracture in corn starch, which have lead to a fully three dimensional characterization of this pattern. It has been traditionally believed that a colonnade, in cross-section, tends toward a perfectly ordered hexagonal lattice (Budkewitsch & Robin, 1993), or some nearby local minima in energy (Jagla and Rojo, 2002). However, we show that the disorder in this pattern does not vanish, but tends toward a large, limiting value. Statistical quantification of this residual disorder, in two very different systems, desiccated starch and convectively cooled lava, tend toward identical, constant values. We can demonstrate that there is a strong ordering process for patterns that are more disordered than this limiting case. This suggests that residual disorder is inherent to this natural pattern.

  9. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active.

  10. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in closed plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center is a closed plant growth chamber facility that can be used to monitor the level of biogenic emissions from large populations of plants throughout their entire growth cycle. The head space atmosphere of a 26-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) stand was repeatedly sampled and emissions identified and quantified using GC-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, alpha-pinene, furan and 2-methylfuran were not significantly different throughout the day; whereas, isoprene showed significant differences in concentration between samples collected in light and dark periods. Volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) were analysed and quantified from planting to maturity. Volatile plant-derived compounds included 1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, tetramethylurea, tetramethylthiourea, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran. Concentrations of volatiles were determined during seedling establishment, vegetative growth, anthesis, grain fill and senescence and found to vary depending on the developmental stage. Atmospheric concentrations of benzaldehyde and nonanal were highest during anthesis, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran concentrations were greatest during grain fill, and the concentration of the tetramethylurea peaked during senescence.

  11. An Invasive Fish and the Time-Lagged Spread of Its Parasite across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

  12. An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J; Wood, Chelsea L; Bowen, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

  13. Modulation of telomerase activity in fish muscle by biological and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Drew Ryan; Mok, Helen Oi Lam; Au, Doris Wai Ting

    2015-12-01

    Telomerase expression has long been linked to promotion of tumor growth and cell proliferation in mammals. Interestingly, telomerase activity (TA) has been detected in skeletal muscle for a variety of fish species. Despite this being a unique feature in fish, very few studies have investigated the potential role of TA in muscle. The present study was set to prove the concepts that muscle telomerase in fish is related to body growth, and more specifically, to muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo. Moreover, muscle TA can be influenced by biotic factors and modulated by environmental stress. Using three fish species, mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), the present work reports for the first time that fish muscle TA was sensitive to the environmental stresses of starvation, foodborne exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, and hypoxia. In marine medaka, muscle TA was coupled with fish growth during early life stages. Upon sexual maturation, muscle TA was confounded by sex (female>male). Muscle TA was significantly correlated with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein expression (Pearson correlation r=0.892; p≤0.05), which was coupled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cell proliferation, but not associated with apoptosis (omBax/omBcl2 ratio) in muscle tissue. The results reported here have bridged the knowledge gap between the existence and function of telomerase in fish muscle. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of muscle TA in fish warrant further exploration for comparison with telomerase regulation in mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean.

  15. Forecasting lionfish sources and sinks in the Atlantic: are Gulf of Mexico reef fisheries at risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Matthew W.; Bernard, Andrea M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2017-03-01

    Invasive lionfish ( Pterois volitans/miles complex) now permeate the entire tropical western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, but lionfish abundance has been measured only in select locations in the field. Despite its rapid range expansion, a comprehensive meta-population analysis of lionfish `sources' and `sinks' and consequentially the invader's potential abundance and impacts on economically important, sympatric reef fishes have not been assessed. These data are urgently needed to spatially direct control efforts and to plan for and perhaps mitigate lionfish-caused damage. Here, we use a biophysical computer model to: (1) forecast larval lionfish sources and sinks that are also delineated as low to high lionfish `density zones' throughout their invaded range, and (2) assess the potential vulnerability of five grouper and snapper species— Epinephelus morio, Mycteroperca microlepis, Epinephelus flavolimbatus, Lutjanus campechanus, and Rhomboplites aurorubens—to lionfish within these density zones in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that the west Florida shelf and nearshore waters of Texas, USA, and Guyana, South America, function both as lionfish sources and sinks and should be a high priority for targeted lionfish control. Furthermore, of the five groupers and snappers studied, the high fishery value E. morio (red grouper) is the Gulf of Mexico species most at risk from lionfish. Lacking a comprehensive lionfish control policy, these risk exposure data inform managers where removals should be focused and demonstrate the risk to five sympatric native groupers and snappers in the Gulf of Mexico that may be susceptible to dense lionfish aggregations, should control efforts fail.

  16. Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Iafrate, Joseph D.; Watwood, Stephanie L.; Reyier, Eric A.; Scheidt, Douglas M.; Dossot, Georges A.; Crocker, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of pile driving occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. Behavioral impacts of sound generated from these activities on fish typically have a greater area of influence than physical injury, and may therefore adversely affect a greater portion of the local population. This study used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement, residency, and survival of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus) in Port Canaveral, Florida, USA, in response to 35 days of pile driving at a wharf complex. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. Received sound pressure levels from pile strikes on the interior of the wharf, where reef fish primarily occur, were on average 152–157 dB re 1 μPa (peak). No significant decrease in sheepshead daytime residency was observed during pile driving within the central portion of the wharf and area of highest sound exposure, and no major indicators of displacement from the exposure wharf with the onset of pile driving were observed. There was evidence of potential displacement from the exposure wharf that coincided with the start of pile driving observed for 2 out of 4 grey snapper, along with a decrease in daytime residency for a subset of this species with high site fidelity prior to the event. Results indicate that snapper may be more likely to depart an area of pile driving disturbance more readily than sheepshead, but were less at risk for behavioral impact given the lower site fidelity of this species. PMID:27880786

  17. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, William D.; Karnauskas, Mandy; Kobara, Shinichi; Smart, Tracey I.; Ballenger, Joseph C.; Reichert, Marcel J. M.; Wyanski, David M.; Tishler, Michelle S.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Switzer, Theodore S.; Solomon, Justin J.; McCain, Kyle; Marhefka, Mark; Sedberry, George R.

    2017-01-01

    Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS) support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii), Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens), Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata), and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax). For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7–29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24–30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N), during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States. PMID:28264006

  18. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-06-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or "plate-sized" fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen's revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (-3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen's revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations.

  19. Habitat use by fishes in coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangrove habitats in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kentaro; Nakamura, Yohei; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Uy, Wilfredo H; Fortes, Miguel D

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interconnectivity of organisms among different habitats is a key requirement for generating effective management plans in coastal ecosystems, particularly when determining component habitat structures in marine protected areas. To elucidate the patterns of habitat use by fishes among coral, seagrass, and mangrove habitats, and between natural and transplanted mangroves, visual censuses were conducted semiannually at two sites in the Philippines during September and March 2010-2012. In total, 265 species and 15,930 individuals were recorded. Species richness and abundance of fishes were significantly higher in coral reefs (234 species, 12,306 individuals) than in seagrass (38 species, 1,198 individuals) and mangrove (47 species, 2,426 individuals) habitats. Similarity tests revealed a highly significant difference among the three habitats. Fishes exhibited two different strategies for habitat use, inhabiting either a single (85.6% of recorded species) or several habitats (14.4%). Some fish that utilized multiple habitats, such as Lutjanus monostigma and Parupeneus barberinus, showed possible ontogenetic habitat shifts from mangroves and/or seagrass habitats to coral reefs. Moreover, over 20% of commercial fish species used multiple habitats, highlighting the importance of including different habitat types within marine protected areas to achieve efficient and effective resource management. Neither species richness nor abundance of fishes significantly differed between natural and transplanted mangroves. In addition, 14 fish species were recorded in a 20-year-old transplanted mangrove area, and over 90% of these species used multiple habitats, further demonstrating the key role of transplanted mangroves as a reef fish habitat in this region.

  20. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Heyman, William D; Karnauskas, Mandy; Kobara, Shinichi; Smart, Tracey I; Ballenger, Joseph C; Reichert, Marcel J M; Wyanski, David M; Tishler, Michelle S; Lindeman, Kenyon C; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K; Switzer, Theodore S; Solomon, Justin J; McCain, Kyle; Marhefka, Mark; Sedberry, George R

    2017-01-01

    Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS) support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii), Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens), Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata), and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax). For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7-29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24-30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N), during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

  1. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  2. Spatial Distribution of Reef Fish Species along the Southeast US Atlantic Coast Inferred from Underwater Video Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Bacheler, Nathan M.; Schobernd, Zebulon H.; Berrane, David J.; Schobernd, Christina M.; Mitchell, Warren A.; Teer, Bradford Z.; Gregalis, Kevan C.; Glasgow, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine fish abundance and distribution often varies across spatial scales for a variety of reasons, and this variability has significant ecological and management consequences. We quantified the distribution of reef-associated fish species along the southeast United States Atlantic coast using underwater video survey samples (N = 4,855 in 2011–2014) to elucidate variability within species across space, depths, and habitats, as well as describe broad-scale patterns in species richness. Thirty-two species were seen at least 10 times on video, and the most commonly observed species were red porgy (Pagrus pagrus; 41.4% of videos), gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus; 31.0%), black sea bass (Centropristis striata; 29.1%), vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens; 27.7%), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus; 22.6%). Using generalized additive models, we found that most species were non-randomly distributed across space, depths, and habitats. Most rare species were observed along the continental shelf break, except for goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara), which was found on the continental shelf in Florida and Georgia. We also observed higher numbers of species in shelf-break habitats from southern North Carolina to Georgia, and fewer in shallower water and at the northern and southern ends of the southeast United States Atlantic coast. Our study provides the first broad-scale description of the spatial distribution of reef fish in the region to be based on fishery-independent data, reinforces the utility of underwater video to survey reef fish, and can help improve the management of reef fish in the SEUS, for example, by improving indices of abundance. PMID:27655268

  3. Historical Population Estimates For Several Fish Species At Offshore Oil and Gas Structures in the US Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitschlag, G.

    2016-02-01

    Population estimates were calculated for four fish species occurring at offshore oil and gas structures in water depths of 14-32 m off the Louisiana and upper Texas coasts in the US Gulf of Mexico. From 1993-1999 sampling was conducted at eight offshore platforms in conjunction with explosive salvage of the structures. To estimate fish population size prior to detonation of explosives, a fish mark-recapture study was conducted. Fish were captured on rod and reel using assorted hook sizes. Traps were occasionally used to supplement catches. Fish were tagged below the dorsal fin with plastic t-bar tags using tagging guns. Only fish that were alive and in good condition were released. Recapture sampling was conducted after explosives were detonated during salvage operations. Personnel operating from inflatable boats used dip nets to collect all dead fish that floated to the surface. Divers collected representative samples of dead fish that sank to the sea floor. Data provided estimates for red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Atlantic spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber), gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), and blue runner (Caranx crysos) at one or more of the eight platforms studied. At seven platforms, population size for red snapper was calculated at 503-1,943 with a 95% CI of 478. Abundance estimates for Atlantic spadefish at three platforms ranged from 1,432-1,782 with a 95% CI of 473. At three platforms, population size of gray triggerfish was 63-129 with a 95% CI of 82. Blue runner abundance at one platform was 558. Unlike the other three species which occur close to the platforms, blue runner range widely and recapture of this species was dependent on fish schools being in close proximity to the platform at the time explosives were detonated. Tag recapture was as high as 73% for red snapper at one structure studied.

  4. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    PubMed

    Lavides, Margarita N; Molina, Erina Pauline V; de la Rosa, Gregorio E; Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Stephen P; Stead, Selina M; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet wide

  5. Distribution of fish in seagrass, mangroves and coral reefs: life-stage dependent habitat use in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Jaxion-Harm, Jessica; Saunders, James; Speight, Martin R

    2012-06-01

    Many coral reef fish exhibit habitat partitioning throughout their lifetimes. Such patterns are evident in the Caribbean where research has been predominantly conducted in the Eastern region. This work addressed the paucity of data regarding Honduran reef fish distribution in three habitat types (seagrass, mangroves, and coral reefs), by surveying fish on the islands of Utila and Cayos Cochinos off the coast of Honduras (part of the Mesoamerican barrier reef). During July 2nd - Aug 27th 2007 and June 22nd - Aug 17th, 2008, visual surveys (SCUBA and snorkel) were performed in belt transects in different areas: eleven coral reef, six seagrass beds, and six mangroves sites. Juvenile densities and total habitat surface area were used to calculate nursery value of seagrass and mangroves. A total of 113 fish species from 32 families were found during underwater surveys. Multi-dimensional analyses revealed distinct clusters of fish communities in each habitat type by separating fish associated with seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs. Coral reefs showed the highest mean fish species richness and were dominated by adult fish, while juvenile fish characterized seagrass beds and mangrove sites. Habitat use differed widely at the fish species level. Scarus iseri (Striped Parrotfish), the most abundant fish in this study, were found in all three habitat types, while Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster Snapper) juveniles were located primarily in mangroves before migrating to coral reefs. Many species used seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries; however, the nursery value could not be generalized at the family level. Furthermore, for some fish species, nursery value varied between islands and sites. Our results suggest that connectivity of seagrass, mangrove, and coral reef sites at a species and site levels, should be taken into consideration when implementing policy and conservation practices.

  6. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks. PMID:22738073

  7. The effects of mariculture on heavy metal distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Thirty-six sediment samples were collected from six mariculture sites and corresponding reference sites (approximately 200-300 m away from each mariculture site) to study the effects of mariculture on heavy metal: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb in all mariculture sediment samples were 109, 273, 99 and 33 mg/kg, compared with 63, 209, 56 and 23 mg/kg for reference sediment samples, respectively. The Pollution Load Index of sediment for each site was over 1, implying substantial heavy metal pollution. The results of principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis indicate that marine aquaculture activities have enriched the surface sediments underneath mariculture rafts with Cu, Zn and Pb, possibly due to the accumulation of unconsumed fish feeds, fish excreta and antifouling paints (except Cr). Two kinds of fish feeds, feed pellets and trash fish commonly used in Hong Kong were analyzed. The concentrations of Zn and Cu contained in feed pellets were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in trash fish due to addition of these elements as growth promoters during pellet production. However, the Pb content in trash fish (due to contamination) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in feed pellets. Three cultured fish species, namely red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii), were collected from each mariculture site for metal analysis. Lead concentrations in 21 fish samples exceeded the Chinese safety guideline (0.5 mg/kg, GB18406.4-2001), indicating that Pb contamination in cultured fish would be a public health concern.

  8. Seascape-scale trophic links for fish on inshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Olds, Andrew D.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2014-12-01

    It is increasingly accepted that coastal habitats such as inshore coral reefs do not function in isolation but rather as part of a larger habitat network. In the Caribbean, trophic subsidies from habitats adjacent to coral reefs support the diet of reef fishes, but it is not known whether similar trophic links occur on reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we test whether reef fishes in inshore coral, mangrove, and seagrass habitats are supported by trophic links. We used carbon stable isotopes and mathematical mixing models to determine the minimum proportion of resources from mangrove or seagrass habitats in the diet of five fish species from coral reefs at varying distances (0-2,200 m) from these habitats in Moreton Bay, Queensland, eastern Australia. Of the fish species that are more abundant on reefs near to mangroves, Lutjanus russelli and Acanthopagrus australis showed no minimum use of diet sources from mangrove habitat. Siganus fuscescens utilized a minimum of 25-44 % mangrove sources and this contribution increased with the proximity of reefs to mangroves ( R 2 = 0.91). Seagrass or reef flat sources contributed a minimum of 14-78 % to the diet of Diagramma labiosum, a species found in higher abundance on reefs near seagrass beds, but variation in diet among reefs was unrelated to seascape structure. Seagrass or reef flat sources also contributed a minimum of 8-55 % to a fish species found only on reefs ( Pseudolabrus guentheri), indicating that detrital subsidies from these habitats may subsidize fish diet on reefs. These results suggest that carbon sources from multiple habitats contribute to the functioning of inshore coral reef ecosystems and that trophic connectivity between reefs and mangroves may enhance production of a functionally important herbivore.

  9. Modeling Coral Reef Fish Home Range Movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Ault, Jerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28 ± 0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60 ± 0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06 ± 0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93 ± 1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72 ± 2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16 ± 1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods. PMID:24558320

  10. Habitat Use by Fishes in Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangrove Habitats in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Kentaro; Nakamura, Yohei; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Uy, Wilfredo H.; Fortes, Miguel D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interconnectivity of organisms among different habitats is a key requirement for generating effective management plans in coastal ecosystems, particularly when determining component habitat structures in marine protected areas. To elucidate the patterns of habitat use by fishes among coral, seagrass, and mangrove habitats, and between natural and transplanted mangroves, visual censuses were conducted semiannually at two sites in the Philippines during September and March 2010–2012. In total, 265 species and 15,930 individuals were recorded. Species richness and abundance of fishes were significantly higher in coral reefs (234 species, 12,306 individuals) than in seagrass (38 species, 1,198 individuals) and mangrove (47 species, 2,426 individuals) habitats. Similarity tests revealed a highly significant difference among the three habitats. Fishes exhibited two different strategies for habitat use, inhabiting either a single (85.6% of recorded species) or several habitats (14.4%). Some fish that utilized multiple habitats, such as Lutjanus monostigma and Parupeneus barberinus, showed possible ontogenetic habitat shifts from mangroves and/or seagrass habitats to coral reefs. Moreover, over 20% of commercial fish species used multiple habitats, highlighting the importance of including different habitat types within marine protected areas to achieve efficient and effective resource management. Neither species richness nor abundance of fishes significantly differed between natural and transplanted mangroves. In addition, 14 fish species were recorded in a 20-year-old transplanted mangrove area, and over 90% of these species used multiple habitats, further demonstrating the key role of transplanted mangroves as a reef fish habitat in this region. PMID:23976940

  11. The fish species composition and variation of catch from the small-scale gillnet fishery before, during and after the 1997-1998 ENSO event, central Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Vázquez, J A; Quiñonez-Velázquez, C; Echavarria-Heras, H A; Lucano-Ramirez, G; Godínez-Domínguez, E; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; Galván-Piña, V H; Sosa-Nishizaki, O

    2008-03-01

    In the tropical and subtropical coastal zone, were highly diverse fish communities occur, it is important to study the small scale fisheries exploiting these communities. For this study, 219 fishing days were carried out in Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico. Four gillnets with different mesh sizes (76.2, 88.9, 101.6 and 114.3 mm) were used for the fishing operations, from April 1994 to March 1995 and from January 1998 to December 2000. A total of 26126 organisms weighting 11680 kg were caught. One hundred and eighty three species belonging to 57 families and 19 orders were identified. Ten species accumulated more than 60% of the total abundance and biomass, the remaining species (173) individually contributed with less than 2% of the total abundance and biomass. The most important species in the catch were Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Scomberomorus sierra, C. caninus, C. sexfjasciatus, Lutjanus guttatus and L. argentiventris. The catch per unit of effort showed a large variation during the study, both in number and biomass. On average, 110 fishes and 48.5 kg fishing day(-1) were caught. The maximum values were recorded during January and October 1998 (250 fishes and 100 kg fishing day(-1)), and the minimum values were recorded during September and November 1994 (25 org. and 10 kg fishing day(-1)). The total abundance and biomass was lower during the 1994-95 period (F=6.16, 8.32, P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences among the annual catch from each gillnet. All the environmental changes caused by the ENSO event had ecological and economic effects that can be rated from moderate to severe.

  12. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers’ Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Aileen C.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Stead, Selina M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers’ recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers’ reports of typical good days’ catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers’ knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet

  13. Responses of algae, corals and fish to the reduction of macroalgae in fished and unfished patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T.; McField, M.; Huitric, M.; Bergman, K.; Sala, E.; Nyström, M.; Nordemar, I.; Elfwing, T.; Muthiga, N.

    2001-05-01

    Macroalgae were experimentally reduced by approximately 2.5 kg/m2 on eight similar-sized patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize, in September 1998. Four of these reefs were in a protected "no-take" zone and four were in a "general use" fishing zone. Eight adjacent reefs (four in each management zone) were also studied as unmanipulated controls to determine the interactive effect of algal reduction and fisheries management on algae, coral, fish, and rates of herbivory. The 16 reefs were sampled five times for 1 year after the manipulation. We found that the no-fishing zone had greater population densities for 13 of 30 species of fish, including four herbivorous species, but lower herbivory levels by sea urchins. However, there was lower stony coral cover and higher macroalgal cover in the "no-take" zone, both prior to and after the experiment. There were no significant effects of management on the percent cover of fleshy macroalgae. The algal reduction resulted in an increase in six fish species, including four herbivores and two which feed on invertebrates. One species, Lutjanus griseus, declined in experimental reefs. Macroalgal biomass quickly recovered from the reduction in both management areas within a few months, and by species-level community measures within 1 year, while stony coral was reduced in all treatments. Coral bleaching and Hurricane Mitch disturbed the site at the beginning of the study period and may explain the loss of stony coral and rapid increase in erect algae. We suggest that reducing macroalgae, as a technique to restore turf and encrusting coralline algae and stony corals, may work best after reefs have been fully protected from fishing for a period long enough to allow herbivorous fish to recover (i.e. >5 years). Further ecological studies on Glovers Reef are required to understand the shift from coral to algal dominance that has occurred on this reef in the last 25 years.

  14. Evidence for climate-driven synchrony of marine and terrestrial ecosystems in northwest Australia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce J L; Rountrey, Adam N; Zinke, Jens; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Grierson, Pauline F; O'Donnell, Alison J; Newman, Stephen J; Lough, Janice M; Trougan, Mélissa; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-08-01

    The effects of climate change are difficult to predict for many marine species because little is known of their response to climate variations in the past. However, long-term chronologies of growth, a variable that integrates multiple physical and biological factors, are now available for several marine taxa. These allow us to search for climate-driven synchrony in growth across multiple taxa and ecosystems, identifying the key processes driving biological responses at very large spatial scales. We hypothesized that in northwest (NW) Australia, a region that is predicted to be strongly influenced by climate change, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon would be an important factor influencing the growth patterns of organisms in both marine and terrestrial environments. To test this idea, we analyzed existing growth chronologies of the marine fish Lutjanus argentimaculatus, the coral Porites spp. and the tree Callitris columellaris and developed a new chronology for another marine fish, Lethrinus nebulosus. Principal components analysis and linear model selection showed evidence of ENSO-driven synchrony in growth among all four taxa at interannual time scales, the first such result for the Southern Hemisphere. Rainfall, sea surface temperatures, and sea surface salinities, which are linked to the ENSO system, influenced the annual growth of fishes, trees, and corals. All four taxa had negative relationships with the Niño-4 index (a measure of ENSO status), with positive growth patterns occurring during strong La Niña years. This finding implies that future changes in the strength and frequency of ENSO events are likely to have major consequences for both marine and terrestrial taxa. Strong similarities in the growth patterns of fish and trees offer the possibility of using tree-ring chronologies, which span longer time periods than those of fish, to aid understanding of both historical and future responses of fish populations to climate variation.

  15. The mangrove nursery paradigm revisited: otolith stable isotopes support nursery-to-reef movements by Indo-Pacific fishes.

    PubMed

    Kimirei, Ismael A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Mgaya, Yunus D; Huijbers, Chantal M

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania). Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma) were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ(13)C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29%) or seagrass (53%) or reef (18%) habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65-72%) as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28-35%). This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations.

  16. The Mangrove Nursery Paradigm Revisited: Otolith Stable Isotopes Support Nursery-to-Reef Movements by Indo-Pacific Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kimirei, Ismael A.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania). Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma) were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ13C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29%) or seagrass (53%) or reef (18%) habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65–72%) as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28–35%). This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations. PMID:23776658

  17. The Paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES).

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Salyvonchyk, Svetlana; Nora, Vinicius; Lopes, Priscila F; Silvano, Renato A M

    2012-06-27

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen's local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the "defeso system" (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  18. The role of Thalassoma lunare as a predator of juvenile fish on a sub-tropical coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. H.; Wilson, S. K.; Vanderklift, M.; Babcock, R.; Fraser, M.

    2012-12-01

    The process of predation causes significant mortality in coral reef fishes immediately following settlement. However, much of what we know of predator identity is based on a small number of detailed studies. This study aims to identify the key predator of early juvenile coral reef fishes on Ningaloo Reef, North-Western Australia. Video cameras were used to observe patch reefs stocked with newly settled reef fish in the back-reef area between 12:00 and 20:30 h. The cameras were fitted with >610 nm light sources to allow observation in low light conditions. All strikes (attempted and successful) on newly settled fish were recorded, along with the time spent in the vicinity of experimental patch reefs with or without juvenile fish. A total of 69 strikes were observed over the 199 h of recorded video footage, with the majority of strikes occurring mid-afternoon between 13:00 and 15:30 h. Only one strike was observed during the twilight period, an hour either side of sunset (~18:45 h), and no strikes were observed after this period. The moonwrasse, Thalassoma lunare, was responsible for the majority of strikes (75.4 %), with the sandperch ( Parapercis clatharatha—10.1 %), spanish flag ( Lutjanus carponotatus—5.8 %) and ring wrasse ( Hologymnosus annulatus—2.9 %) the next highest contributors. T. lunare also spent significantly more time in the vicinity of reefs stocked with newly settled fish, than those without, during daylight hours. The results of the study are in contrast to the common perception that predation on newly settled fish is focused largely around crepuscular periods and suggests that diurnally active species, in particular T. lunare, are important predators of juvenile fish on the Ningaloo back-reef. The study also implies that generalist species can fulfil key functional roles and that the nature of these roles is not always apparent.

  19. Role of mariculture in the loading and speciation of mercury at the coast of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Gao, Xuefei; You, Qiongzhi; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; Zhang, Chan; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2016-11-01

    The effects of mariculture on mercury (Hg) contamination and speciation in water, sediment and cultured fish in a typical mariculture zone located in Xiangshan bay, Zhejiang province, east China, were studied. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected from mariculture sites (MS) and from corresponding reference sites (RS) 2500 m away from the MS. The THg concentration in overlying water in Xiangshan bay reached as high as 16.6 ± 19.5 ng L(-1), indicating that anthropogenic sources in this bay may contribution on Hg contamination in overlying water. Mariculture activities resulted in an increase in THg concentration in water from surface and bottom layers, which may be attributed to the discharge of domestic sewage and the accumulation of unconsumed fish feed and fish excreta in the benthic environment. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the bottom layer of overlying water and top surface layer of porewater underneath MS were higher than at RS, implying that mariculture activities promote Hg methylation in the interface between sediments and water. In addition, the concentrations of MeHg in sediment and porewater were significantly higher in summer than winter. It was observed that THg and MeHg contents in the muscle of blackhead seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) (fed by the trash fish) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) or perch (Perca fluviatilis) (fed by pellet fish feed). The THg and MeHg concentrations in the fish meat were closely related to the feeding mode, which indicate that fish feed rather than environmental media is the major pathway for Hg accumulation in fish muscle.

  20. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Cathepsin B and L cysteine proteases from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    PubMed

    Whang, Ilson; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kim, Yucheol; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Oh, Myung-Joo; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Jehee

    2011-03-01

    Cathepsins are lysosomal cysteine proteases of the papain family that play an important role in intracellular protein degradation and turn over within the lysosomal system. In the present study, full-length sequences of cathepsin B (RbCathepsin B) and L (RbCathepsin L) were identified after transcriptome sequencing of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus mixed tissue cDNA. Cathepsin B was composed of 330 amino acid residues with 36 kDa predicted molecular mass. RbCathepsin L contained 336 amino acid residues encoding for a 38 kDa predicted molecular mass protein. The sequencing analysis results showed that both cathepsin B and L contain the characteristic papain family cysteine protease signature and active sites for the eukaryotic thiol proteases of cysteine, asparagine and histidine. In addition, RbCathepsin L contained EF hand Ca(2+) binding and cathepsin propeptide inhibitor domains. The rock bream cathepsin B and L showed the highest amino acid identity of 90 and 95% to Lutjanus argentimaculatus cathepsin B and Lates calcarifer cathepsin L, respectively. By phylogenetic analysis, cathepsin B and L exhibited a high degree of evolutionary relationship to respective cathepsin family members of the papain superfamily. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis results confirmed that the expression of cathepsin B and L genes was constitutive in all examined tissues isolated from un-induced rock bream. Moreover, activation of RbCathepsin B and L mRNA was observed in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Edwardsiella tarda challenged liver and blood cells, indicating a role of immune response in rock bream.

  1. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  2. Kudoa hypoepicardialis n. sp. (Myxozoa: Kudoidae) and associated lesions from the heart of seven perciform fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A; Whipps, Christopher M

    2004-06-01

    Kudoa hypoepicardialis n. sp. infects the space between the epicardium and the compact myocardium and, in intense infections, the pericardial chamber of man-of-war fish (Nomeus gronovii) (Nomeidae) (the type host), blue runner (Caranx crysos) (Carangidae), Warsaw grouper (Epinephelus nigritus) (Serranidae), Atlantic tripletail (Lobotes surinamensis) (Lobotidae), northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) (Lutjanidae), black drum (Pogonias cromis) (Sciaenidae), and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) (Pomatomidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This is the first report of a Kudoa sp. from the heart of a fish in the Gulf of Mexico, and of these hosts, only the bluefish was previously identified as a host for a species of Kudoa. Spores of the new species varied slightly in size among these hosts but were regarded as conspecific based on their nearly identical (99.9%) small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. The new species differs both from the 4 nominal species of Kudoa reported from fishes in the Gulf of Mexico and from K. pericardialis, an allopatric species that infects the pericardial cavity, by the combination of having a large spore, a small polar capsule, and a polar filament with a single coil. The new species is morphologically and genetically most similar to K. shiomitsui, an allopatric species that infects the heart and pericardial cavity, but is distinguished from it based on a 4.2% difference in the SSU rDNA sequence. Heart lesions primarily were restricted to the vicinity of plasmodia and included a layer of fibrinous inflammation characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulomas as well as epithelioid encapsulations around plasmodia. Heavily infected hosts had melanin-like deposits and adipose cells beneath the epicardium. and the epicardium was discontinuous and apparently breached by plasmodia in some regions. Cardiac muscle, gill, liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney were normal.

  3. Modeling coral reef fish home range movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Ault, Jerald S

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28±0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60±0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06±0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93±1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72±2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16±1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods.

  4. Cell wall-related genes studies on peach cultivars with differential susceptibility to woolliness: looking for candidates as indicators of chilling tolerance.

    PubMed

    Genero, Melisa; Gismondi, Mauro; Monti, Laura L; Gabilondo, Julieta; Budde, Claudio O; Andreo, Carlos S; Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F; Bustamante, Claudia A

    2016-06-01

    The results obtained indicate that a β-xylosidase gene may act as good indicator of chilling tolerance and provide new insights into the complex issue of peach fruit woolliness. The storage of peaches at low temperatures for prolonged periods can induce a form of chilling injury (CI) called woolliness, characterized by a lack of juiciness and a mealy texture. As this disorder has been associated with abnormal cell wall dismantling, the levels of 12 transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism were analysed in cultivars with contrasting susceptibility to this disorder selected from five melting flesh peach cultivars. The resistant ('Springlady') and susceptible ('Flordaking') cultivars displayed differences in the level of expression of some of the selected genes during fruit softening and in woolly versus non-woolly fruits. From these genes, the level of expression of PpXyl, which encodes for a putative β-xylosidase, was the one that presented the highest correlation (negative) with the susceptibility to woolliness. PpXyl expression was also analysed in a cultivar ('Rojo 2') with intermediate susceptibility to woolliness, reinforcing the conclusion about the correlation of PpXyl expression to the presence of woolliness symptom. Moreover, the level of expression of PpXyl correlated to protein level detected by Western blot. Analyses of the promoter region of the PpXyl gene (1637 bp) isolated from the three cultivars showed no differences suggesting that cis-elements from other regions of the genome and/or trans elements could be responsible of the differential PpXyl expression patterns. Overall, the results obtained indicate that PpXyl may act as a good indicator of woolliness tolerance and that the regulation of expression of this gene in different cultivars does not depend on sequences upstream the coding sequence.

  5. Effects of a collagen membrane positioned between augmentation material and the sinus mucosa in the elevation of the maxillary sinus floor. An experimental study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scala, Alessandro; Lang, Niklaus P; Velez, Joaquin Urbizo; Favero, Riccardo; Bengazi, Franco; Botticelli, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    To assess the influence of a collagen membrane placed subjacent to a pristine sinus mucosa on the healing outcome of a sinus floor elevation procedure. Eight Pelibuey sheep (Cubano rojo) underwent sinus floor elevation on both sides of the maxilla. At a randomly selected side (test), a collagen membrane was placed subjacent to the sinus mucosa, while the contralateral side (control) was left without the placement of a membrane. Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) was used to fill the space created. A collagen membrane was placed bilaterally to cover the access osteotomy. After 4 months, biopsies were harvested and ground sections prepared. Morphometric analysis was performed in four different regions, three within the elevated area and one at the site of the osteotomy. The total percentages of mineralized new bone within the elevated area were 29.4 ± 16.2% and 30.9 ± 9.2% and of marrow spaces 44.0 ± 23.0% and 45.6 ± 14.1%, at the Non-membrane and at the Membrane sites, respectively. A low content of connective tissue within the elevated area was noticed. A higher content of connective tissue was found in the osteotomy region, however. Remnants of DBBM granules were found at a percentage of 17-19%. No statistically significant differences were observed between test and control sites. The application of a collagen membrane subjacent to the Schneiderian mucosa in a sinus floor elevation procedure did not influence the healing outcomes at all. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Experience in kidney transplantation without blood transfusion: kidney transplantation transfusion-free in Jehovah's Witnesses. First communication in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Navarrete, Liliana Stefany; Hernández-Jiménez, Jesús Diego; Jiménez-López, Luis Alfredo; Budar-Fernández, Luis Filadelfo; Méndez-López, Marco Tulio; Martínez-Mier, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: los Testigos de Jehová rechazan la transfusión sanguínea, pero aceptan el trasplante de órganos, albúmina, inmunoglobulina, vacunas y factores de coagulación. Casos clínicos: comunicamos tres casos de pacientes (dos masculinos y uno femenino) a quienes se realizó trasplante renal en Testigos de Jehová sin transfusión sanguínea, con edad promedio de 31.33 años e índice de masa corporal promedio de 20.99 kg/m(2). Los tres pacientes recibieron diálisis peritoneal pre trasplante por un promedio de 52.3 meses. Se realizaron dos trasplantes de donante vivo y uno de fallecido, con isquemia fría de 23 horas. Los donantes fueron dos femeninos y uno masculino, con edad promedio de 34.33 años. Los tres pacientes recibieron eritropoyetina y hierro dextrán pretrasplante y en el transoperatorio se utilizó una máquina de recuperación celular. Las concentraciones de hemoglobina, hematócrito, glóbulos rojos, creatinina sérica y filtración glomerular a 24 meses postrasplante permanecieron estables. La inducción se realizó con basiliximab y la inmunosupresión inicial con inhibidores de calcineurina. Uno de los pacientes tuvo como complicación un hematoma perirrenal que ameritó reintervención a los 20 días postrasplante. A 5, 26 y 36 meses postrasplante los tres pacientes están vivos y con injerto funcional. Conclusión: es posible realizar trasplantes renales sin transfusión sanguínea en Testigos de Jehová, con supervivencia global aceptable y sin episodios de rechazo agudo.

  7. Characterization of the actuator of EMIR configurable slit unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mato Martínez, A.; Núñez Cagigal, M.; Barreto Cabrera, M.; Garzón López, F.; Patrón, J.; Teuwen, M.

    2016-07-01

    EMIR1,2 (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infra-Rojo) is a wide field multi-object spectrograph already installed in the Nasmyth focus of GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias). It operates in the near-infrared (NIR), in the wavelength range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and it will include several mechanism working in cryogenic conditions. A key component of EMIR is the CSU (Configurable Slit Unit), which is a robotic cryo-mechanism used to generate a multi-slit configuration and a long slit on EMIR focal plane when working in spectroscopic mode. The system has 110 sliding bars which can be configured at cryogenic working temperature to create up to 55 slits with a high position accuracy and repeatability. The movement of the bars is performed by an actuator which allows reaching a relatively high speed for the coarse movement and controllable steps up to 2 microns for the fine positioning. This subsystem has been designed and manufactured by the Dutch company Janssen Precision Engineering (JPE) and the Spanish company NTE-SENER. Afterwards, it was thoroughly verified at the IAC (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias) facilities. In this paper, the CSU will be briefly described. One of the more important parts of the CSU is the actuators, which move the bars by means of a stick-slip effect. A set of tests designed for characterizing and improving the robustness and performance of the actuators will be presented. Finally, an overview of the current CSU performance will be presented.

  8. In situ detection of apoptotic cells by TUNEL in the gill epithelium of the developing brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    PubMed Central

    ROJO, M. C.; GONZALEZ, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis is a form of naturally occurring cell death during development and it is characterised by extensive DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis is easily detected in the gill epithelium of brown trout embryos in ultrathin sections (Rojo et al. 1997). Here we provide the first biochemical evidence for apoptosis in the gill epithelium of brown trout embryos, using in situ end-labelling of DNA breaks (Gavrieli et al. 1992). Embryos at d 57 of development as well as those at hatching, were processed to analyse the distribution of apoptotic cells in the gills. The extent of apoptosis revealed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling method technique is considerably greater than apoptosis detected by nuclear morphology. This method revealed that apoptosis was frequent at hatching, although it was also present during embryonic development. The presence and distribution of stained nuclei were different depending on the developmental stage. In embryos of 57 d, apoptotic flattened nuclei were dispersed in the gill epithelium, whereas at hatching, they were mainly grouped in the tips of the filaments and in the gill arches. TUNEL also revealed a distinct pattern of nuclear staining: at hatching, the intense staining covered the entire cell, but in embryos it was restricted to the nucleus. These results show the functional relevance of apoptosis at hatching, when apoptosis seems to be the unique process by which cell numbers in the gill epithelium are adjusted, in order to prepare for the new extrinsic conditions affecting the free-living life of alevins. PMID:9877294

  9. Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, S.M.; Collazo, J.A.; Alldredge, M.W.; Harrington, B.A.; Lewis, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ± 0.001 (x̄ ± SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ± 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53–0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect

  10. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, “Rojo Pasión” and “Z506-7”, resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance. PMID:26658051

  11. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  12. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Berry, W L; Mackowiak, C; Corey, K A; Sager, J C; Heeb, M M; Knott, W M

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  13. ALHAMBRA-survey: a new tool for photo-z calibrations in absence of spec-z information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino Benito, A.; Benitez Lozano, N.; The Alhambra-Team

    2013-05-01

    La estimación de los desplazamientos al rojo (redshift) de las galaxias, derivados mediante fotometría multi-banda, se conoce con el nombre de photometric redshifts (photo-z). Es bien sabido que la precisión alcanzable por estas técnicas puede verse incrementada si se dispone de una muestra espectroscópica de galaxias (cuyos redshifts (spec-z) sean conocidos) con la que re-calibrar los puntos cero fotométricos. (Coe et al. 2006, Ilbert et al. 2008, Molino et al. 2012 in prep). ALHAMBRA-survey, que es un cartografiado extragaláctico (de ˜4 grados cuadrados) dedicado a la realización de un estudio de la evolución de las propiedades y contenido del Universo (Moles et al. 2005, 2008), presenta solapamientos parciales con otros cartografiados espectroscópicos ya existentes con el objetivo de validar y mejorar la precisión de sus photo-z. Sin embargo, dada la variabilidad fotométrica entre sus campos, resulta ineficiente extrapolar las correcciones de punto cero, introduciendo sesgos de inhomogeneidad en la precisión de los resultados. En este trabajo se presenta una nueva metodología que permite mejorar la calibración de los puntos cero fotométricos mediante la utilización de la información estadística proporcionada por los propios photo-z. Mediante esta técnica resulta posible no sólo mejorar la precisión de las estimaciones sino, además, soslayar la necesidad de obtener grandes muestras espectroscópicas.

  14. Interaction of colloidal nanoparticles with cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2017-02-01

    What happens to inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), such as plasmonic gold or silver, superparamagnetic iron oxide, or fluorescent quantum dot NPs, after they have been administrated to an animal or a human being? The review discusses the integrity, biodistribution, and fate of NPs after in vivo administration. First the hybrid nature of the NPs is described, by conceptually dividing them into the inorganic NP core, an engineered surface coating around the core which comprises the ligand shell and optionally also bioconjugation, and into the corona of adsorbed biological molecules. It is shown that in vivo all of these three compounds may degrade individually and that each of them can drastically modify the life-cycle and biodistribution of the whole hetero-structure. The NPs thus may be disintegrated into different parts, of which biodistribution and fate would need to be analyzed individually. Multiple labelling and quantification strategies for such purpose will be discussed. All reviewed data indicate that in vivo NPs no longer should be considered as homogeneous entity, but should be seen as inorganic/organic/biological nano-hybrids with complex and intricately linked degradation pathways. References: M. Chanana, P. Rivera Gil, M. A. Correa-Duarte, L. M. Liz-Marzán. W. J. Parak, "Physicochemical Properties of Protein-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Biological Fluids and Cells before and after Proteolytic Digestion", Angewandte Chemie International Edition 52, 4179-4183 (2013). W. G. Kreyling, A. M. Abdelmonem, Z. Ali, F. Alves, M. Geiser, N. Haberl, R. Hartmann, S. Hirn, K. Kantner, D. Jimenez de Aberasturi, G. Khadem-Saba, J.-M. Montenegro, J. Rejman, T. Rojo, I. Ruiz de Larramendi, R. Ufartes, A. Wenk, W. J. Parak, "In vivo integrity of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles", Nature Nanotechnology 10, 619-623 (2015).J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68-73.

  15. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Berry, W. L.; Mackowiak, C.; Corey, K. A.; Sager, J. C.; Heeb, M. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  16. A Data Base of Crop Nutrient Use, Water Use, and Carbon Dioxide Exchange in a 20 Square Meter Growth Chamber. Part 1; Wheat as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Berry, Wade L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl; Corey, Kenneth A.; Sager, John C.; Heeb, Margaret M.; Knott, William M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 sq m stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 sq m of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might he required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  17. Fungal communities of young and mature hypersaline microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Sharon A; Tkavc, Rok; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Zalar, Polona; Acevedo, Manuel; Báez-Félix, Claribel

    2013-01-01

    Microbial mats are a laminated organic-sedimentary ecosystem, found in a wide range of habitats. Fluctuating diel and seasonal physicochemical gradients characterize these ecosystems, resulting in both strata and microenvironments that harbor specific microbial communities. This study was undertaken to compare two types of microbial mats across seasons to further understand the structure of fungal communities in hypersaline microbial mats and their seasonal dynamics. The structure and diversity of fungal communities was documented in young transient and mature hypersaline microbial mats from a tropical region (Puerto Rico) using one culture-dependent and three culture-independent molecular techniques based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone libraries. Two microbial mats (one young and transient, one mature) were sampled in Nov 2007 (wet season), Jan 2008 (intermediate season) and Mar 2008 (dry season) in the Cabo Rojo Solar Salterns on the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico. Traditional and molecular techniques revealed strong spatial and temporal heterogeneities in both microbial mats. Higher abundance of isolates and phylotypes were observed during the wet season, and diversity decreased from the top (oxic) to the bottom (anoxic) layers in both seasons. Some of the species isolated belong to the genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Hortaea, Pichia and Wallemia, which often are isolated from hypersaline environments. The most abundant clones belong to Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium halotolerans, which were not isolated in pure culture. The differences observed using culture-based and molecular techniques demonstrates the need of combining methods to study the diversity of fungi in a given substrate.

  18. Evaluation of Particle Size Influence on Proximate Composition, Physicochemical, Techno-Functional and Physio-Functional Properties of Flours Obtained from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Trumb.) Coproducts.

    PubMed

    Lucas-González, Raquel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Fernández-López, Juana

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the work was to study the influence of particle size in the composition, physicochemical, techno-functional and physio-functional properties of two flours obtained from persimmon (Diospyros kaki Trumb. cvs. 'Rojo Brillante' (RBF) and 'Triump' (THF) coproducts. The cultivar (RBF and THF) and particle size significantly affected all parameters under study, although depending on the evaluated property, only one of these effects predominated. Carbohydrates (38.07-46.98 g/100 g) and total dietary fiber (32.07-43.57 g/100 g) were the main components in both flours (RBF and THF). Furthermore, insoluble dietary fiber represented more than 68% of total dietary fiber content. All color properties studied were influenced by cultivar and particle size. For both cultivars, the lower particle size, the higher lightness and hue values. RBF flours showed high values for emulsifying activity (69.33-74.00 mL/mL), while THF presented high values for water holding capacity (WHC: 9.47-12.19 g water/g sample). The bile holding capacity (BHC) and fat/oil binding values were, in general, higher in RBF (19.61-12.19 g bile/g sample and 11.98-9.07, respectively) than THF (16.12-12.40 g bile/g sample and 9.78-7.96, respectively). The effect of particle size was really evident in both WHC and BHC. Due to their dietary fiber content, techno-functional and physio-functional properties, persimmon flours seem to have a good profile to be used as potential functional ingredient.

  19. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Berry, W. L.; Mackowiak, C.; Corey, K. A.; Sager, J. C.; Heeb, M. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  1. A Data Base of Crop Nutrient Use, Water Use, and Carbon Dioxide Exchange in a 20 Square Meter Growth Chamber. Part 1; Wheat as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Berry, Wade L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl; Corey, Kenneth A.; Sager, John C.; Heeb, Margaret M.; Knott, William M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 sq m stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 sq m of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might he required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  2. Acclimation response of spring wheat in a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) atmosphere with variable soil nitrogen regimes. 3. Canopy architecture and gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Brooks, T J; Wall, G W; Pinter, P J; Kimball, B A; Lamorte, R L; Leavitt, S W; Matthias, A D; Adamsen, F J; Hunsaker, D J; Webber, A N

    2000-01-01

    The response of whole-canopy net CO(2) exchange rate (CER) and canopy architecture to CO(2) enrichment and N stress during 1996 and 1997 for open-field-grown wheat ecosystem (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) are described. Every Control (C) and FACE (F) CO(2) treatment (defined as ambient and ambient +200 mumol mol(-1), respectively) contained a Low- and High-N treatment. Low-N treatments constituted initial soil content amended with supplemental nitrogen applied at a rate of 70 kg N ha(-1) (1996) and 15 kg N ha(-1) (1997), whereas High-N treatments were supplemented with 350 kg N ha(-1) (1996 and 1997). Elevated CO(2) enhanced season-long carbon accumulation by 8% and 16% under Low-N and High-N, respectively. N-stress reduced season-long carbon accumulation 14% under ambient CO(2), but by as much as 22% under CO(2) enrichment. Averaging both years, green plant area index (GPAI) peaked approximately 76 days after planting at 7.13 for FH, 6.00 for CH, 3.89 for FL, and 3.89 for CL treatments. Leaf tip angle distribution (LTA) indicated that Low-N canopies were more erectophile than those of High-N canopies: 48 degrees for FH, 52 degrees for CH, and 58 degrees for both FL and CL treatments. Temporal trends in canopy greenness indicated a decrease in leaf chlorophyll content from the flag to flag-2 leaves of 25% for FH, 28% for CH, 17% for CL, and 33% for FL during 1997. These results indicate that significant modifications of canopy architecture occurs in response to both CO(2) and N-stress. Optimization of canopy architecture may serve as a mechanism to diminish CO(2) and N-stress effects on CER.

  3. EMIR at the GTC: results on the commissioning at the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, F.; Castro, N.; Insausti, M.; Manjavacas, E.; Miluzio, M.; Hammersley, Peter; Cardiel, N.; Pascual, S.; González-Fernández, C.; Molgó, J.; Barreto, M.; Fernández, P.; Joven, E.; López, P.; Mato, A.; Moreno, H.; Núñez, M.; Patrón, J.; Rosich, J.; Vega, N.

    2016-08-01

    We report the results on the EMIR1 (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infra-Rojo) performances after the commissioning period of the instrument at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). EMIR is one of the first common user instruments for the GTC, the 10 meter telescope operating at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). EMIR is primarily designed to be operated as a MOS in the K band, but offers a wide range of observing modes, including imaging and spectroscopy, both long slit and multiobject, in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 μm. The development and fabrication of EMIR is funded by GRANTECAN and the Plan Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofísica (National Plan for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Spain). After an extensive and intensive period of system verification at the IAC, EMIR was shipped to the GTC on May 2016 for its integration at the Nasmyth platform. Once in the observatory, several tests were conducted to ensure the functionality of EMIR at the telescope, in particular that of the ECS (EMIR Control System) which has to be fully embedded into the GCS (GTC Control System) so as to become an integral part of it. During the commissioning, the main capabilities of EMIR and its combined operation with the GTC are tested and the ECS are modified to its final form. This contribution reports on the details of the EMIR operation at the GTC obtained so far, on the first commissioning period.

  4. Maps Showing Composition of Surficial Sediments on the Insular Shelf of Southwestern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.

    1980-01-01

    The limited availability of onshore sand deposits for use in construction appears to be a future major problem in Puerto Rico (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972; Committee on Puerto Rico and the Sea, 1974). Consequently, the mining of offshore sand deposits as supplemental sources of construction aggregate may becom e necessary. For this reason, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Natural Resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have conducted investigations of potential offshore sand deposits on the Puerto Rico insular shelf. This report provides information on the composition of surficial sediments on the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf (fig. 1), an area that may be one of the more favorable potential sites for offshore sand resources. Water depths over most of the study area are less than 22 meters (m). The sea floor is composed of live and dead patch and fringing reefs, areas of rock exposures, and sedim ent-covered areas. The adjacent coastline includes prominent embaym ents and a conspicuous rock promontory (Cabo Rojo) connected by a tombolo to the mainland of Puerto Rico. The study area is in the belt of northeast trade winds. Waves approach the coast predominantly from the southeast, resulting in a predominantly westward littoral drift along the south coast (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). Local sand movement on the southern shelf is shown by an active sand wave field south of Bah1a Sucia in which the sand wave crests have migrated toward the southwest (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). The presence of the sand wave field suggests that large volumes of sand having potential for mining are locally present in the study area.

  5. Mirror Coronograph for Argentina (MICA). Primera Luz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Epple, A.; Schwenn, R.; Francile, C.; Rovira, M.

    En Julio de 1997 se terminó con la primera parte de la instalación del ``Coronógrafo de Espejo para la Argentina'' en la estación de altura Carlos U. Cesco (El Leoncito), gracias al esfuerzo de la gente del Max Planck Institut für Aeronomie (Alemania), del OAFA y del IAFE. Dicho coronógrafo forma parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. El propósito del mismo, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares y terrestres, es contribuir a un mejor entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Para ello, ya está observando la corona de emisión en el verde (Fe XIV), rojo (Fe X) y Hα entre 1.05 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente. El diseño del instrumento, el cual fuera ya presentado en esta misma reunión en La Plata en 1996, es esencialmente similar al del telescopio LASCO-C1 a bordo del Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). La adquisición de datos se realiza con un CCD de 1280x1024 pixels, codificando en 12 bits, pudiendo ser el mismo operado en forma remota. En esta reunión presentaremos algunas de las observaciones realizadas durante la puesta a punto del instrumento en el período julio-setiembre de 1997. Asimismo expondremos cómo y por qué sus resultados complementarán a los de su par en el espacio.

  6. Observation and Analysis of a Single-Chord Stellar Occultation by Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Allen B.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S.; Naranjo, O. A.; Navas, G. R.; Gulbis, A.; Winters, J. G.; Bianco, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Williams-MIT collaboration (www.stellaroccultations.info) predicted and observed a stellar occultation of 2UCAC 26260847 (mag 14.35) by KBO 50000 Quaoar (mag 18.9) on 8/9 July 2013. Observations were attempted from a total of five sites in Chile, Venezuela, and Massachusetts. Only one site, Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory in Venezuela, had a positive detection of the occultation, giving us a single chord on Quaoar. All other sites were cloudy. The light curve from the 8/9 July 2013 event has been analyzed with the assumption that Quaoar is ellipsoidal or spherical, placing bounds on some of Quaoar’s properties: diameter (> 1138 ± 25 km), density (< 1.82 ± 0.28 g cm-3), and albedo (< 0.14 ± 0.10). An independent prediction of the occultation’s shadow path by Fraser, Gwyn, et al. (2013) suggests that the chord is near-equatorial, which means that our bounds on Quaoar’s properties are closer to estimates. We will compare our result with that of the 11 February 2011 single-chord occultation detected by Sallum et al. (2011) and Person et al. (2011). A subsequent attempt to observe a second Quaoar occultation, that of 12/13 July 2013 in South Africa, failed because of cloudy weather. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams, and other collaborators in planning and carrying out the various observations: including Libardo Zerpa, Joresly Villarreal, Richard Rojas, and Jorge Moreno at Llano del Hato, and Patricio Rojo and Matias Jones at Cerro Calan/U. Chile.

  7. GPS Constraints on Lesser Antilles Forearc Motion and Rigid Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A. M.; Stein, S.; Sella, G.; Dixon, T. H.; Calais, E.; Jansma, P. E.

    2005-05-01

    We are using a decade of Global Positioning System data to address two tectonic problems of the Caribbean (CA) plate; 1) Whether a forearc sliver exists along the Lesser Antilles forearc and if so what is its dynamics and location, and 2) Whether the Caribbean plate is deforming internally. We approach this problem by developing GPS-derived velocity vectors at sites within the CA plate and its boundaries and comparing them to four decades of earthquake data. In a number of subduction zones, misfits between slip vectors and predicted convergence azimuths from Euler vectors suggest the presence of a forearc sliver, where trench-parallel motion is accommodated along a strike-slip fault system. Such a situation may be occurring at the eastern boundary of the CA plate along the Lesser Antilles (LA) forearc, where the North America (NA) plate subducts obliquely. Comparing slip vectors of shallow (0-60 km) thrust events to the predicted motions of GPS-based Euler vectors show a systematic northerly misfit, suggesting a trench-parallel component of motion taken up by the forearc sliver. This possibility can be tested with GPS data from the forearc. In addition, we use new GPS data to constrain the internal rigidity of the plate. Previous GPS work yielded a possible upper bound on internal deformation of 4-6 mm/yr. With an expansion in the data set on critically located stations in the CA plate (SANA, ROJO, CRO1 and AVES), we have computed new sets of Euler vector pairs for the CA-NA and CA-South America plate pairs.

  8. Recovering the Linkage History of Large Faults from the Sediments of the Gulf of California Extensional Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, J.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Herguera, J.; Dorsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the stratigraphy of sedimentary basins bounded by normal faults yield a wealth of information about how these brittle structures evolve through time forming array systems. However, mostly due to large uncertainties in the dating of sediments, little can be said about slip rates and how slip is accommodated during the interaction and linkage of normal faults. Cyclicity in sediments induced by Milankovitch climatic changes can be used as a very precise high-resolution stratigraphic chronometer, eliminating the problem of uncertainties in the dating. Therefore, the slip history of faults can be inferred with high accuracy. Here we present a cyclicity analysis of gamma-ray log from a borehole drilled in the Laguna Salada basin, a transtensional basin located in the Gulf of California extensional province. This has allowed us to establish its chronostratigraphy with a resolution of 50 kyr, from which the subsidence history of the Laguna Salada fault and its interaction with neighboring faults is recovered. We find that the long-term subsidence rate of the Laguna Salada basin has remained constant during the last 1.65 Ma (~1.4 mm/yr) in agreement with observations documented by other authors. However, our analysis reveals that at shorter timescales the subsidence history is composed of pulses lasting on average ~500 kyr. Subsidence rates during these pulses can vary by a factor of two with respect to the long-term subsidence rate. These pulses correlate with the breaking of the Laguna Salada Fault and the breaking of the Canon Rojo fault, a releasing stepover that links the Laguna Salada fault with the Canada David detachment to the south.

  9. EMIR: first results of the commissioning at the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, F.; Castro, N.; Insausti, M.; Manjavacas, E.; Miluzzio, M.; Hammersley, P.; Cardiel, N.; Pascual, S.; González-Fernández, C.; Molgó, J.; Barreto, M.; Fernández, P.; Joven, E.; López, P.; Mato, A.; Moreno, H.; Núnez, M.; Patrón, J.; Rosich, J.; Vega, N.

    2017-03-01

    We report the results on the EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infra-Rojo) performances after the first two commissioning periods of the instrument at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). EMIR is one of the first common user instruments for the GTC, the 10 meter telescope operating at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). EMIR is primarily designed to be operated as a MOS in the K band, but offers a wide range of observing modes, including imaging and spectroscopy, both long slit and multi-object, in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 μm. The development and fabrication of EMIR is funded by GRANTECAN and the Plan Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofísica (National Plan for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Spain). EMIR was shipped to the GTC on May 2016 for its integration at the Nasmyth platform. Once in the observatory, several tests were conducted to ensure the functionality of EMIR at the telescope, in particular that of the ECS (EMIR Control System) which has to be fully embedded into the GCS (GTC Control System) so as to become an integral part of it. During the commissioning, the main capabilities of EMIR and its combined operation with the GTC are tested and the ECS are modified to its final form. This contribution summarises the EMIR operation at the GTC as it has been tested so far, on the first two commissioning periods.

  10. Biogeography of tropical Indo-West Pacific parasites: a cryptic species of Transversotrema and evidence for rarity of Transversotrematidae (Trematoda) in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Thomas H; Adlard, Robert D; Bray, Rodney A; Sasal, Pierre; Cutmore, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    We sought transversotrematid trematodes from French Polynesian fishes by examining 304 individual scaled fishes of 53 species from seven families known to harbour the family elsewhere. A single species was found at two locations in the Tuamotus Archipelago on two species of Chaetodontidae (Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon ephippium) and one species of Lutjanidae (Lutjanus gibbus). The species closely resembles Transversotrema borboleta Hunter & Cribb, 2012 from chaetodontids and lutjanids of the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) but differs from it consistently in 8 base positions of ITS2 rDNA. This level of variation exceeds that between some clearly morphologically distinct pairs of species of Transversotrema and the form from French Polynesia is thus interpreted as a distinct, though cryptic, species and named Transversotrema polynesiae n. sp. The new species forms part of a complex of species, here characterised as the T. borboleta complex, associated with chaetodontids and lutjanids in the tropical Indo-West Pacific. Most of the putative species within this complex are yet to be described. Comparison of identical numbers of matched samples of fishes from French Polynesia, Heron Island (southern GBR) and Lizard Island (northern GBR) revealed 1, 4 and 10 species of Transversotrema respectively suggesting that the French Polynesian fauna is depauperate for this family. In addition to those species apparently missing from suitable hosts in French Polynesia, several species from further west infect fishes (especially Nemipteridae) that are themselves absent from French Polynesia. This dramatic east-west decline in richness contrasts strongly with what is known for monogeneans, which appear to maintain their richness over the same scale, and is more precipitate than is known for other groups of trematodes. The decline might be explained in part by the absence of the as yet unknown first intermediate hosts in French Polynesia. However, we predict that it is explained

  11. Use of PIT tag and underwater video recording in assessing estuarine fish movement in a high intertidal mangrove and salt marsh creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Werry, Jonathan; Lee, Shing Yip

    2008-08-01

    We assessed movement patterns in relation to habitat availability (reflected by the extent of tidal flooding) for several commercially and recreationally important species in and out of a small mangrove creek within the subtropical Burrum River estuary (25°10'S 152°37'E) in Queensland, Australia. Movement patterns of Acanthopagrus australis, Pomadasys kaakan, Lutjanus russelli and Mugil cephalus were examined between December 2006 and April 2007 using a stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT) system adapted for saline environments (30-38 ppt) and underwater digital video cameras (DVCs). This is the second known application of a stationary PIT tag system to studying fish movement in estuarine environments. The transponder system was set in place for 104 days and recorded >5000 detections. Overall 'recapture' rate of tagged fish by the transponder system was >40%. We used PIT tags implanted in a total of 75 fish from a tidal creek connected to the main channel of the estuary. We also developed a high-resolution digital elevation (2.5 m cell size) model of the estuary derived from airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and aerial imagery to estimate inundation dynamics within the tidal creek, and related the timing of inundation in various habitats to the timing of fish immigration to and emigration from the creek. Over 50% of all tagged fish were moving in and out of the creek at a threshold level when 50% of the mangrove forest became flooded. Individuals of all four species moved into and out of the tidal creek repeatedly at different times depending on species and size, indicating strong residential behaviour within the estuary. The main activity of fishes was at night time. Manual interpretation of video from >700 fish sightings at three different mangrove sites confirmed the findings of the stationary PIT system, that the function of shelter vs food in mangrove habitat may be size dependent. Our established techniques assess the spatial ecology

  12. [Osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of Lujanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) larvae under rearing conditions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ibarra, Luz Estela; Abdo-de la Parra, María Isabel; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Valasco-Blanco, Gabriela; Ibarra-Castro, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) is an important commercial species in Mexico with good culture potential. The osteological study at early stages in this species is an important tool to confirm normal bone structure and for the detection of malformations that may occur during early development. This study was carried out in order to evaluate and describe the normal osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of this species grown under controlled conditions. For this, a total of 540 larvae of L. guttatus, between 2.1 and 17.5 mm of total length (TL), were cultured during 36 days; culture conditions were 28 degrees C, 5.74 mg/L oxygen and 32.2 ups salinity with standard feeding rates. To detect growth changes, a sample of 15 organisms was daily taken from day one until day 36 of post-hatch (DPH). Samples were processed following standard techniques of clearing, and cartilage (alcian blue) and bone staining (alizarin red). Results showed that the vertebral column is composed of ten vertebrae in the abdominal region, and 14 vertebrae including the urostyle in the caudal region. The development of the axial skeleton starts with the neural arches and haemal arches at 3.8 mm TL. Caudal elements such as the hypurals and parahypural began to develop at 4.1 mm TL. Pre-flexion and flexion of the notochord and the formation of all hypurals were observed between 5.3 and 5.8 mm TL. Ossification of the vertebrae in the abdominal region and in some neural arches initiated at 9.5mm TL. In the caudal region, all the neural and haemal arches ossified at 10.2 mm TL. All the abdominal vertebrae and their respective neural arches and parapophyses ossified at 11.2 mm TL, while the elements of the caudal complex that ossified were the hypurals, parahypurals and modified haemal spines. All caudal fm rays, 12 neural spines and 3 haemal arches were ossified by 15.5 mm. The complete ossification process of this specie under laboratory culture conditions

  13. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  14. Ontogenetic habitat use by mangrove/seagrass-associated coral reef fishes shows flexibility in time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimirei, Ismael A.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Griffioen, Ben; Wagner, Coen; Mgaya, Yunus D.

    2011-03-01

    Tropical shallow-water habitats such as mangroves and seagrass beds are widely acknowledged as important juvenile habitats for various coral reef fish species, most of which are commercially important to fisheries. Spatio-temporal variability in ontogenetic habitat use by fish among these tropical coastal ecosystems has rarely been investigated, yet there are sufficient reasons to believe that this plays an important role. In the present study, we test the spatio-temporal variability in patterns of ontogenetic habitat use by some mangrove/seagrass-associated coral reef fishes ( Lethrinus harak, Lethrinus lentjan, Lutjanus fulviflamma and Siganus sutor). Abundances of these four species were investigated during two years in Tanzanian coastal waters, using underwater visual census in mangrove, seagrass, shallow and deep mudflat, and shallow and deep coral reef habitats. The study covered four distinct seasons of the year and was done at two spatially separated (>40 km) locations. Averaged across locations, seasons and years, juveniles (≤10 cm length) of the four study species had significantly higher relative densities in shallow-water (mangroves and seagrass beds) than in deep-water habitats (deep mudflats or coral reefs), whereas the opposite pattern was found for the adults (>15 cm). These findings suggest a strong and general pattern of ontogenetic habitat shifts from shallow- to deep-water habitats. However, specific habitat-use patterns of juveniles as well as adults differed significantly in time and space. Various species showed subtle to considerable flexibility in juvenile as well as adult habitat use across seasons, years, or at different locations. Furthermore, for some species the data suggest presence of ontogenetic habitat shifts at one location but lack thereof at the other location. In summary, ontogenetic habitat use needs to be considered at various spatial and temporal scales for the interpretation of habitat utilization by fish during different

  15. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    PubMed

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  16. Where are they now? The fates of two genetic lineages in an introduced Hawaiian reef fish.

    PubMed

    Neigel, Joseph E

    2010-03-01

    Humans, both wittingly and unwittingly, have been transporting marine organisms beyond their native ranges for centuries (Ruiz et al. 1997). A central challenge of invasion biology is to identify the factors that determine whether introduced species fail to become established, become benign members of a community, or spread so far and reach such densities as to be considered invasive. Organismal features such as physiological tolerance, niche breadth and fecundity are critical, but by themselves are inaccurate predictors of the fates of introduced species (Sakai et al. 2001). The size, age distribution, and genetic makeup of founder populations are also important, but because they are usually unknown they are most often viewed as sources of uncertainty. For marine species with planktonic larvae, the challenge is even greater because the consequences of a planktonic phase for dispersal and population viability are not well understood. In this issue, Gaither et al. (2010a) present a remarkable account of the introduction of a reef fish for which the number and genetic makeup of the founders are known. Between 1956 and 1961, the Division of Fish and Game for the Territory of Hawaii introduced 12 non-indigenous fish species into Hawaiian waters to establish commercial and sport fisheries. The introduction of Lutjanus kasmira, the bluestriped snapper, was the most successful (Fig. 1). There were two releases of fish from French Polynesia. In 1958, 2431 fish from the Marquesas Islands were released on Oahu, followed in 1961 with an additional 728 fish from the Society Islands. The blue striped snapper rapidly spread to the other Hawaiian Islands, reaching the northwestern end of the archipelago by 1992. The choice of the Marquesas as one of two sources for the introduction was fortuitous. Gaither et al. (2010b) found that the Marquesas population is genetically distinct from all other Indo-Pacific populations of L. kasmira. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of fish

  17. Comparative phylogeography of the western Indian Ocean reef fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hubert, Nicolas; Muths, Delphine; Mou-Tham, Gérard; Kulbicki, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Assessing patterns of connectivity at the community and population levels is relevant to marine resource management and conservation. The present study reviews this issue with a focus on the western Indian Ocean (WIO) biogeographic province. This part of the Indian Ocean holds more species than expected from current models of global reef fish species richness. In this study, checklists of reef fish species were examined to determine levels of endemism in each of 10 biogeographic provinces of the Indian Ocean. Results showed that the number of endemic species was higher in the WIO than in any other region of the Indian Ocean. Endemic species from the WIO on the average had a larger body size than elsewhere in the tropical Indian Ocean. This suggests an effect of peripheral speciation, as previously documented in the Hawaiian reef fish fauna, relative to other sites in the tropical western Pacific. To explore evolutionary dynamics of species across biogeographic provinces and infer mechanisms of speciation, we present and compare the results of phylogeographic surveys based on compilations of published and unpublished mitochondrial DNA sequences for 19 Indo-Pacific reef-associated fishes (rainbow grouper Cephalopholis argus, scrawled butterflyfish Chaetodon meyeri, bluespot mullet Crenimugil sp. A, humbug damselfish Dascyllus abudafur/Dascyllus aruanus, areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus, blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus, honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra, bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii, cleaner wrasse Labroides sp. 1, longface emperor Lethrinus sp. A, bluestripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira, unicornfishes Naso brevirosris, Naso unicornis and Naso vlamingii, blue-spotted maskray Neotrygon kuhlii, largescale mullet Planiliza macrolepis, common parrotfish Scarus psicattus, crescent grunter Terapon jarbua, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) and three coastal Indo-West Pacific invertebrates (blue seastar Linckia laevigata, spiny lobster

  18. Characterization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells-c3 (NFATc3) and gene expression of upstream-downstream signaling molecules in response to immunostimulants in Pacific red snapper cells.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Carlos; Alamillo, Erika; Ascencio, Felipe; Reyes-Becerril, Martha

    2017-10-03

    The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) proteins have crucial roles in the development and function of the immune system since they not only regulate activation of T cells but are also involved in the control of thymocyte development and T-cell differentiation. In this study, NFATc3 was characterized from the Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru. LpNFAtc3, which contains an open reading of 3300 bp frame coding for a protein of 1100 aa with a predicted molecular weight of 118.52 kDa. The predicted protein showed a conserved NFAT family structure with signature motifs and domains, sharing high identity (up to 76%) compared to other fish sequences. NFATc3 gene expression was analyzed by real time-PCR in head-kidney cells (leukocytes and lymphocytes) following yeast, zymosan and Vibrio parahaemolyticus stimulation along with the expression of upstream (ILF2, ILF3 and CaN) and downstream (CD3, TCRβ, IL-6 and IL-12) molecules. This study revealed a broad expression of NFATc3 with a relative strong expression in intestine and lymphocytes. The expression of NFATc3 was differentially up-regulated after stimulation with yeast in head-kidney leukocytes and after bacterial infection in lymphocytes at 24 h. Interestingly, the yeast and zymosan were able to activate ILF2, ILF3 and CaN mRNA gene expression in both kinds of cells. On the other hand, NFAT downstream genes such as CD3, TCRβ, IL-6 and IL-12 were significantly up-regulated in leukocytes stimulated with yeast or zymosan at 12 h; however in lymphocytes, this up-regulation was detected when cells reacted to V. parahaemolyticus stimuli at 24 h. Stimulating Pacific red snapper leukocytes with immunostimulants as yeast significantly up-regulated the expression of NFATc3, and up- and down-stream molecular genes and NFATc3 lymphocytes expression were potentially involved in responses to invasion of bacterial pathogens in an early immune response. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ (13)C and δ (15)N).

    PubMed

    Stallings, Christopher D; Nelson, James A; Rozar, Katherine L; Adams, Charles S; Wall, Kara R; Switzer, Theodore S; Winner, Brent L; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ (13)C and δ (15)N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ (15)N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ (13)C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and

  20. Accumulation of mercury and other heavy metals in edible fishes of Cochin backwaters, Southwest India.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mahesh; Deepa, M; Ramasamy, E V; Thomas, A P

    2012-07-01

    Mercury, a global pollutant, has become a real threat to the developing countries like India and China, where high usage of mercury is reported. Mercury and other heavy metals deposited in to the aquatic system can cause health risk to the biota. The common edible fishes such as Mugil cephalus, Arius arius, Lutjanus ehrenbergii, Etroplus suratensis were collected from Cochin backwaters, Southwest India and analysed for mercury and other heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, lead and copper) in various body parts. Kidney and liver showed highest concentration of metals in most fishes. The omnivore and bottom feeder (E. suratensis) showed high concentration of mercury (14.71 mg/kg dry weight) and other metals (1.74 mg/g-total metal concentration). The average mercury concentration obtained in muscle was 1.6 mg/kg dry weight (0.352 mg/kg wet weight), which is higher than the prescribed limits (0.3 mg/kg wet weight). The concentration of other heavy metals in the muscles of fishes were found in a decreasing order Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb and are well below WHO permissible limits that were safe for human consumption. Metal selectivity index (MSI) obtained for all the metals except mercury showed that both carnivores and omnivores have almost same kind of affinity towards the metals especially Zn and Cd, irrespective of their feeding habit. The MSI values also indicate that the fishes have the potential to accumulate metals. High tissue selectivity index (TSI) values were reported for kidney, muscle and brain for all metals suggests that the metal concentration in these tissues can serve as an indication of metal polluted environment. Even if the daily intakes of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu from these fishes are within the provisional maximum daily intake recommended by WHO/FAO, the quality is questionable due to the high hazard index obtained for mercury (>1). Fishes like E. suratensis being a favourite food of people in this region, the high consumption of it can lead to chronic disorders as this

  1. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, James A.; Rozar, Katherine L.; Adams, Charles S.; Wall, Kara R.; Switzer, Theodore S.; Winner, Brent L.; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ13C and δ15N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ15N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ13C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and corresponding

  2. Diet shifts of Caribbean grunts (Haemulidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) and the relation with nursery-to-coral reef migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocheret de la Morinière, E.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2003-08-01

    The spatial size distribution of grunts and snappers have previously indicated the separation of juveniles in nursery habitats from the adults on the coral reef. This implies life cycle migrations from nursery habitats (such as seagrass beds and mangroves) to the coral reef. If diet shifts are related to such migrations, then the diets of these fish must change before or around the fish size at which such migrations take place. A wide size range of juveniles of two grunt species ( Haemulon sciurus and Haemulon flavolineatum) and of two snapper species ( Lutjanus apodus and Ocyurus chrysurus) were caught in seagrass beds and mangroves, and their gut contents identified and quantified. Regression analysis between fish size and dietary importance of small crustaceans showed a negative relationship in all four species. Positive relations were found for H. sciurus, L. apodus and O. chrysurus between fish length and the dietary importance of decapods, and for L. apodusand O. chrysurus between fish length and prey fish importance. Critical changes in the fish diets with fish size were examined by application of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The CCA yielded three clusters of size-classes of fishes with similar diets, and application of a Mantel test showed that each of these clusters had significantly different diets, and that each cluster diet was significantly specialised. The size at which a fish species 'switched' from one cluster to another was compared with size-at-maturity data and with the typical size at which these species migrate from the nursery habitats to the coral reef. H. sciurus and H. flavolineatum may be prompted to migrate from the nursery habitats to coral reef habitats because of dietary changes, or because of the development of the gonads. For L. apodus and O. chrysurus, a dietary changeover forms a more likely explanation for nursery-to-reef migrations than does sexual maturation because these species reach maturity at sizes much larger

  3. Beyond the transect: an alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A; Booth, David J; Hare, Dominic J

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified 'ear stones' used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (<10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 Jcm(-2)). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of >97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D scanning has no

  4. [Seasonal and spatial structure of reef fish community in San Jose Island, Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barjau, Emelio; Rodríguez-Romero, Jesús; Galván, Felipe; Gutiérrez, Francisco; López, Juana

    2012-06-01

    The Gulf of California is one of the most fish diverse areas of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. In spite of its economic value, few works have considered fish community studies for optimum management. With the aim to determine the seasonal and spatial variation of fish communities in eight locations around the San José Island, some ecological research was conducted from March 2001 to February 2002. For this, visual censuses were used in 48 transects of 100x5m (500m2); specific analysis such as diversity values, the relative abundance and the biological value indexes were undertaken, and a principal component analysis applied. Our results clearly showed two climatic seasons of cold and warm waters. A total number of 26 608 organisms of 112 species and 76 genera of fishes were identified. We used the relative abundance index to determine the most important species, which were: Abudefduf troschelii, Thalassoma lucasanum, Stegastes rectifraenum, Mulloidichthys dentatus, Chromis atrilobata, Lutjanus argentiventris and Scarus ghobban. February was the month with the lowest diversity with a value of 3.12bits/ind. and October was the most diverse (4.13bits/ind.). According to the biological value index (BVI) and considering the climatic seasons, the fish species with the highest score during cold months were: A. troschelii, M. dentatus, S. ghobban, S. rectifraenum and T lucasanum. Besides, for warmer months, the same fish species were observed but in different order and abundance: A. troschelii, S. ghobban, S. rectifraenum, T lucasanum and M. dentatus. Using the biological value index, 13 species were those which had a higher overall score. The locations by the Eastern side of the island had a greater number of species and abundance of fish. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied using the seasonal data, species richness, diversity, equity, number of species and total abundance during the warmer months also a PCA within spatial data, showed that location in

  5. Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia: size does not always matter.

    PubMed

    Gaboriau, Matthias; Ponton, Dominique; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille

    2014-06-01

    Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for a limited number of species only and the conclusions are often contradictory. The toxicity of 856 fishes from 59 different species sampled in six islands in French Polynesia between 2003 and 2011 was assessed by Receptor Binding Assay. Among them, 45 species × island and 32 families × island for which the number of individuals was ≥6 allowed testing the relationship between toxicity and size. Except for six specimens of Lutjanus bohar caught in Fakarava (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.854), the 44 remaining species × island showed no significant increase of CTXs concentration with fish total length (TL). Moreover, the proportion of toxic individuals decreased significantly for Epinephelus polyphekadion from Fakarava (n = 24; P < 0.05) and Kyphosus cinerascens from Raivavae (n = 29; P < 0.05), while no significant variation was detected for the other 43 species × island. At the family level, only three positive and three negative relationships between size and CTXs concentration were observed among the 32 family × island analyzed. No relationship between the proportion of toxic fish within a family and the relative total length of individuals were observed. The lack of relationship between toxicity and size observed for most of the species and families from the six islands suggests that fish size cannot be used as an efficient predictor of fish toxicity in French Polynesia. These results highlight the need for improving our knowledge about metabolic processes

  6. Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. Objectives: We explored the dose–response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. Methods: We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose–response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Results: Maternal lead levels (mean ± SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7 ± 4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8 ± 0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6–39.8) with 97% of the ratios being > 1. The dose–response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function = 6.5, p = 0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4 ± 2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.3). Conclusions: The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants. Citation: Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith DR, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernández-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87–92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  7. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6-13 years of age. We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children's ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-sectional study of Mexican children. Environ Health Perspect 124

  8. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  9. Synthetic Lethality with Conditional dbp6 Alleles Identifies Rsa1p, a Nucleoplasmic Protein Involved in the Assembly of 60S Ribosomal Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Kressler, Dieter; Doère, Monique; Rojo, Manuel; Linder, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Dbp6p is an essential putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is required for 60S-ribosomal-subunit assembly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (D. Kressler, J. de la Cruz, M. Rojo, and P. Linder, Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:1855–1865, 1998). To identify factors that are functionally interacting with Dbp6p, we have performed a synthetic lethal screen with conditional dbp6 mutants. Here, we describe the cloning and the phenotypic analysis of the previously uncharacterized open reading frame YPL193W, which we renamed RSA1 (ribosome assembly 1). Rsa1p is not essential for cell viability; however, rsa1 null mutant strains display a slow-growth phenotype, which is exacerbated at elevated temperatures. The rsa1 null allele synthetically enhances the mild growth defect of weak dbp6 alleles and confers synthetic lethality when combined with stronger dbp6 alleles. Polysome profile analysis shows that the absence of Rsa1p results in the accumulation of half-mer polysomes. However, the pool of free 60S ribosomal subunits is only moderately decreased; this is reminiscent of polysome profiles from mutants defective in 60S-to-40S subunit joining. Pulse-chase labeling of pre-rRNA in the rsa1 null mutant strain indicates that formation of the mature 25S rRNA is decreased at the nonpermissive temperature. Interestingly, free 60S ribosomal subunits of a rsa1 null mutant strain that was grown for two generations at 37°C are practically devoid of the 60S-ribosomal-subunit protein Qsr1p/Rpl10p, which is required for joining of 60S and 40S subunits (D. P. Eisinger, F. A. Dick, and B. L. Trumpower, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:5136–5145, 1997). Moreover, the combination of the Δrsa1 and qsr1-1 mutations leads to a strong synthetic growth inhibition. Finally, a hemagglutinin epitope-tagged Rsa1p localizes predominantly to the nucleoplasm. Together, these results point towards a function for Rsa1p in a late nucleoplasmic step of 60S-ribosomal-subunit assembly. PMID:10567587

  10. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  11. [Decreased transfusions in preterm infants with anemia treated with erythropoietin].

    PubMed

    López-Catzín, José Francisco; Bolado-García, Patricia Berenice; Gamboa-López, Gonzalo Jesús; Medina-Escobedo, Carolina Elizabeth; Cambranes-Catzima, Leydi Rubí

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el tratamiento de la anemia del prematuro consiste en la transfusión de glóbulos rojos y el uso de agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la correlación entre el número de transfusiones sanguíneas y el uso de eritropoyetina recombinante humana en prematuros con anemia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de correlación en 80 expedientes de pacientes con anemia tratados con transfusiones y eritropoyetina, se aleatorizaron en dos grupos: uno fue tratado con transfusiones (T) y otro con transfusiones y eritropoyetina (E). Se midieron variables demográficas, hemoglobina y hematócrito al inicio y al final del tratamiento y número de transfusiones recibidas. La correlación se obtuvo por medio de la Rho de Spearman, considerándose una p < 0.05 como significativamente estadística. Resultados: el total de unidades transfundidas en cada grupo fue menor en el grupo E, que recibió dos unidades menos que el grupo T (p < 0.05). El promedio de CE transfundidos en el grupo E fue 4 ± 1.2 y de 7 ± 1.2 para el grupo T. Para el grupo E la correlación entre edad gestacional y número de transfusiones fue negativa moderada (-0.348); el peso al nacimiento y el número de concentrados de eritrocitos transfundidos fue negativa leve (-0.239). Para el grupo T la correlación entre las mismas variables negativa moderada (-0.300) y negativa leve (-0.109). Conclusiones: la eritropoyetina reduce el número de transfusiones sanguíneas en recién nacidos prematuros con anemia. Su uso no excluye la transfusión, el paciente continúa expuesto al riesgo de enfermedades transmisibles por esta vía.

  12. Wheat Phenological Development and Growth Studies As Affected by Drought and Late Season High Temperature Stress under Arid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy S.; Ismail, Saleh M.; Fahad, Shah; daur, Ihsanullah

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for adaptability and tolerance of wheat genotypes (G) to an arid environment. We examined the influence of drought stress (DS) (100, 75, and 50% field capacity), planting times (PT) (16-November, 01-December, 16-December and 01-January), and G (Yocoro Rojo, FKAU-10, Faisalabad-08, and Galaxy L-7096) on phenological development, growth indices, grain yield, and water use efficiency of drip-irrigated wheat. Development measured at five phenological growth stages (GS) (tillering, jointing, booting, heading, and maturity) and growth indices 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing (DAS) were also correlated with final grain yield. Tillering occurred earlier in DS plots, to a maximum of 31 days. Days to complete 50% heading and physiological crop maturity were the most susceptible GS that denoted 31–72% reduction in number of days to complete these GS at severe DS. Wheat G grown with severe DS had the shortest grain filling duration. Genotype Fsd-08 presented greater adaptability to studied arid climate and recorded 31, 35, and 38% longer grain filling period as compared with rest of the G at 100–50% field capacity respectively. December sowing mitigated the drought and delayed planting effects by producing superior growth and yield (2162 kg ha−1) at severe DS. Genotypes Fsd-08 and L-7096 attained the minimum plant height (36 cm) and the shortest growth cycle (76 days) for January planting with 50% field capacity. At severe DS leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were decreased by 67, 57, 34, and 38% as compared to non-stressed plots. Genotypes Fsd-08 and F-10 were the superior ones and secured 14–17% higher grain yield than genotype YR for severely stressed plots. The correlation between crop growth indices and grain yield depicted the highest value (0.58–0.71) at 60–75 DAS. So the major contribution of these growth indices toward grain yield was at the start of reproductive

  13. Complete Boson-Fermion Model of Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Llano, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    ). Collaborators: J. Batle, M. Casas, M. Fortes, F.J. Sevilla, M.A. Solis, O. Rojo, V.V. Tolmachev.

  14. Preliminary Public Design Report for the Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report - Phase 1, June 2010-July 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    2012-02-01

    completed contracts for the sale of all of the urea and most of the CO2. Significant progress was made on the contracts for the purchase of coal feedstock from Cloud Peak Energy’s Cordero Rojo mine and the sale of electricity to CPS Energy, as well as a memorandum of understanding with the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) for delivery of the coal to the TCEP site.

  15. The Surface Rupture of the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake and its Interaction with the 1892 Laguna Salada Rupture - Complex Fault Interaction in an Oblique Rift System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, T. K.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O.; Mueller, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2) demonstrates intimate mechanical interactions between two major fault systems that intersect within and along the western margin of the Sierra Cucapah in Baja California, Mexico. Rupture associated with 2010 earthquake produced ~4 m of dextral oblique slip and propagated through an imbricate stack of east-dipping faults. Toward the north, rupture consistently steps left to structurally deeper faults located farther west and in this manner passes through the core of the Sierra Cucapah to its western margin. The western margin of the Sierra Cucapah is defined by the Laguna Salada fault (LSF), which forms part of an active west-directed oblique detachment system recognized as the source of the large (M7+) February 22, 1892 earthquake. In the central Sierra Cucapah, the fault systems are separated by a narrow horst block, and here the 2010 event produced triggered slip on the LSF. These surface breaks follow the exact trace of the 1892 rupture, but their sense of slip (10-30 cm of pure normal displacement) differs radically from the 5 m of oblique dextral-normal slip produced by the 1892 event. Farther north, the narrow horst block is buried beneath strata of the northern Laguna Salada rift basin, and at this location, west-directed scarps of the LSF accommodate a significant component of dextral slip associated with the primary 2010 surface rupture. Thus, the two fault systems combine to accommodate oblique extension in the northern part of the range and likely have linking structures at fairly shallow depth. Newly identified paleo-scarps extend the known 1892 rupture length from 20 km to as much as 42 km, from the Canon Rojo fault to the Yuha Basin; consistent with a Mw 7.2 event and historical reports of MMI VII damage in San Diego. Both fault systems generate large earthquakes (>M7.2), with the west-directed LSF fault accommodating rapid subsidence in the adjacent basin during M7+ events at ~ 2Ka recurrence. Initial

  16. Subsidence History of the Laguna Salada Basin in Northeastern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, J.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Herguera, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Salton Trough region in southern California and the Mexicali valley in northwestern Mexico are areas of (i) rapid subsidence due to trans-tension along the San Andreas-Imperial fault system, and (ii) high flux of sediments transported by the Colorado River, all of which confer this region with a high potential to preserve a complete record of climatic and tectonic activity information. Here we present the subsidence history of the Laguna Salada basin, and the history of activity of the master bounding faults on its eastern side. The Laguna Salada is a lacustrine basin located west of the Mexicali valley and to the south of the Salton Trough. Sedimentological as well as time series analyses performed on two 42 m-long cores drilled in the center of the basin, estimated to span the past 50 and 70KaBP, indicate a modulation of the late Quaternary stratigraphy by cyclic variations in lake level driven by Milankovitch forcing. Based on these results we derive the long-term history of the basin from a gamma-ray log recovered from a 2.8 km-deep geothermal borehole drilled by the Mexican Power Company adjacent to the Laguna Salada fault. The stratigraphy of the deep borehole reveals a history of activity pulses related to the initial breakage of the Laguna Salada fault and its interaction with neighboring faults. A first pulse started at 1.5 Ma and records the initiation of the Laguna Salada fault and rapid uplift of the crystalline block of the Sierra Cucapa. A second pulse started around 1 Ma, and is very likely related to the hard linking of the Laguna Salada fault with the Cañada David detachment by the Cañon Rojo fault. The onset of the Laguna Salada fault at 1.5 Ma appears to be synchronous with an early Pleistocene regional fault reorganization among the San Jacinto, San Andreas and Elsinore fault systems in southern California, suggesting that this reorganization may have affected a large area from San Gorgonio pass to the northern Gulf of California.

  17. Physiologic and metabolic responses of wheat seedlings to elevated and super-elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Kasahara, Hirokazu; Kopka, Joachim; Erban, Alexander; Fehrl, Ines; Kaplan, Fatma; Zhao, Wei; Littell, Ramon C.; Guy, Charles; Wheeler, Raymond; Sager, John; Mills, Aaron; Levine, Howard G.

    2008-12-01

    The metabolic consequence of suboptimal (400 μmol mol -1 or ppm), near-optimal (1500 ppm) and supra-optimal (10,000 ppm) atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO 2] was investigated in an attempt to reveal plausible underlying mechanisms for the differential physiological and developmental responses to increasing [CO 2]. Both non-targeted and targeted metabolite profiling by GC-MS and LC-MS were employed to examine primary and secondary metabolites in wheat ( Triticum aestivum, cv Yocoro rojo) continuously exposed to these [CO 2] levels for 14, 21 and 28 days. Metabolite profile was altered by both [CO 2] and physiological age. In general, plants grown under high [CO 2] exhibited a metabolite profile characteristic of older plants under ambient CO 2. Elevated [CO 2] resulted in higher levels of phosphorylated sugar intermediates, though no clear trend in the content of reducing sugars was observed. Transient starch content was enhanced by increasing [CO 2] to a much greater extent at 10,000 ppm CO 2 than at 1500 ppm CO 2. The percentage increase of starch content resulting from CO 2 enrichment declined as plants develope. In contrast, elevated [CO 2] promoted the accumulation of secondary metabolites (flavonoids) progressively to a greater extent as plants became mature. Elevated [CO 2] to 1500 ppm induced a higher initial growth rate, while super-elevated [CO 2] appeared to negate such initial growth promotion. However, after 4 weeks, there was no difference in vegetative growth between 1500 and 10,000 ppm CO 2-grown plants, both elevated CO 2 levels resulted in an overall 25% increase in biomass over the control plants. More interestingly, elevated atmospheric [CO 2] reduced evapotranspiration rate (ET), but further increase to the supra-optimal level resulted in increased ET (a reversed trend), i.e. ET at 1500 ppm < ET at 10,000 ppm < ET at 400 ppm. The differential effect of elevated and super-elevated CO 2 on plants was further reflected in the nitrogen

  18. Impact of Duality Violations on Spectral Sum Rule analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catà, Oscar

    2007-02-01

    Recent sum rule analyses on the two-point correlator have led to significant discrepancies in the values found for the OPE condensates, most dramatically in the dimension eight condensate and to a lesser extent in the dimension six one [R. Barate et al., ALEPH Collaboration, Eur. Phys. J. C 4 (1998) 409; K. Ackerstaff et al., OPAL Collaboration, Eur. Phys. J. C 7 (1999) 571, arXiv:hep-ex/9808019; S. Peris, B. Phily and E. de Rafael, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 14, arXiv:hep-ph/0007338; S. Friot, D. Greynat and E. de Rafael, JHEP 0410 (2004) 043, arXiv:hep-ph/0408281; M. Davier, L. Girlanda, A. Hocker and J. Stern, Phys. Rev. D 58 (1998) 096014, arXiv:hep-ph/9802447; B.L. Ioffe and K.N. Zyablyuk, Nucl. Phys. A 687 (2001) 437, arXiv:hep-ph/0010089. K.N. Zyablyuk, Eur. Phys. J. C 38 (2004) 215, arXiv:hep-ph/0404230; J. Bijnens, E. Gamiz and J. Prades, JHEP 0110 (2001) 009, arXiv:hep-ph/0108240; C.A. Dominguez and K. Schilcher, Phys. Lett. B 581 (2004) 193, arXiv:hep-ph/0309285; J. Rojo and J. I. Latorre, JHEP 0401 (2004) 055, arXiv:hep-ph/0401047; V. Cirigliano, E. Golowich and K. Maltman, Phys. Rev. D 68 (2003) 054013, arXiv:hep-ph/0305118; S. Ciulli, C. Sebu, K. Schilcher and H. Spiesberger, Phys. Lett. B 595 (2004) 359, arXiv:hep-ph/0312212. S. Narison, arXiv:hep-ph/0412152]. Precise knowledge of these condensates is of relevance in kaon decays [M. Knecht, S. Peris and E. de Rafael, Phys. Lett. B 457 (1999) 227, arXiv:hep-ph/9812471; J.F. Donoghue and E. Golowich, Phys. Lett. B 478 (2000) 172, arXiv:hep-ph/9911309; M. Knecht, S. Peris and E. de Rafael, Phys. Lett. B 508 (2001) 117, arXiv:hep-ph/0102017] and therefore it seems mandatory to assess the actual impact of what is commonly neglected in spectral sum rules, most prominently the issue of duality violations. We will explicitly compute them in a toy model and show that they are a priori non-negligible.

  19. Infusion pumps and red blood cell damage in transfusion therapy: an integrative revision of the academic literature.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2016-08-15

    2014. Foram identificados 17 artigos de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Todas as publicações incluídas eram estudos experimentais in vitro e abordavam o uso de bombas de infusão na terapêutica transfusional. A síntese dos dados foi apresentada em quadro sinóptico e a análise gerou duas categorias relevantes: lesão celular e mecanismo de infusão. bombas de infusão podem ser deletérias às hemácias de acordo o mecanismo de infusão, sendo que as peristálticas lineares foram mais predisponentes à hemólise. A lesão celular foi relacionada à liberação plasmática de marcadores, predominando a hemoglobina livre e potássio. Reitera-se a necessidade de pesquisas adicionais e investimentos tecnológicos para nortear o desenvolvimento de protocolos que promovam prática segura e que subsidiem futuros estudos clínicos. identificar en la literatura la producción científica acerca de los efectos de la bomba de transfusión en la administración de glóbulos rojos y evaluar las implicaciones del uso de esos equipos en la práctica transfusional de enfermería. revisión integradora de literatura en las bases de datos Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, SciELO, Web of Science y Cochrane, utilizando los descriptores "bombas de infusión", "transfusión de sangre", "transfusión de eritrocitos" y "hemolisis". La fecha inicial no fue delimitada y la final fue en diciembre de 2014. Fueron identificados 17 artículos de acuerdo con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. todas las publicaciones incluidas eran estudios experimentales in vitro y abordaban el uso de bombas de infusión en la terapéutica transfusional. La síntesis de los datos se presenta en un cuadro sinóptico y el análisis generó dos categorías relevantes: lesión celular y mecanismo de transfusión. las bombas de infusión pueden ser perjudiciales para los glóbulos rojos de acuerdo el mecanismo de transfusión, siendo que las peristálticas lineares

  20. The distribution of potassium and sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of some breeds of cattle.

    PubMed

    Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; Primitivo, F

    1994-01-12

    ña-Negra Ibérica (n = 141 y n = 141). No se detectó polimorfismo en el contenido eritrocitario de cationes en ninguno de los grupos estudiados. Los valores medios de las concentraciones de potasio oscilaron entre 21.42 y 93.44 mmol/l de glóbulos rojos, mientras que los correspondientes al sodio oscilaron entre 77.50 y 93.44 mmol/l. Por tanto, los animates estudiados pueden considerarse como pertenecientes al tipo 'bajo potasio'. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el contenido en potasio y en sodio de una de las poblaciones de Avileña-Negra Ibérica y el resto de los grupos analizados. Además, los niveles medios de sodio eritrocitario de la raza Pardo-Alpina presentaron diferencias significativas con los demás grupos. 1994 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Puerto Rico, humedales [Puerto Rico, wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, D. Briane; Hefner, John M.; Dopazo, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    La isla de Puerto Rico, localizada al noreste del Mar Caribe y sus islas principales, Vieques, Culebra e Isla de Mona, poseen humedales en abundancia . El clima subtropical, la lluvia abundante y las complejas formas topográficas y geológicas de estas islas dan origen a los humedales, que varían desde los raros e inusuales bosques cubiertos por nubes en las tierras altas, hasta los extensos manglares, yerbas marinas y arrecifes de coral a lo largo de las costas Norte y Sur. Sin embargo, los humedales en Puerto Rico han disminuido en los últimos siglos como resultado del aumento en el desarrollo agrícola, poblacional y turístico. Algunos tipos de humedales como los bosques de palo de pollo (Pterocarpus officinalis) se han reducido a sólo unos pocos remanentes (figura 1).Biológicamente hablando, los humedales de las islas están entre las áreas más productivas. Los humedales asociados con el bosque pluvial en las tierras altas del interior de Puerto Rico contienen varias plantas raras y especies de animales que no se encuentran en otras partes de la Isla. El agua de escorrentía proveniente de los humedales en las partes altas de la Isla proveen una fuente de agua que utilizan varias ciudades para abasto público. Los humedales costeros como los mangles, los colchones de yerbas marinas y los arrecifes de coral proveen áreas para la reproducción y crianza de varios peces, crustáceos y otras especies en la cadena alimenticia (López y otros, 1988). De esta manera, los humedales costeros contribuyen a la productividad biológica de las aguas llanas del mar alrededor de las islas . Los humedales también estabilizan las costas atrapando y reteniendo sedimentos no consolidados y amortiguan la acción de las olas y de las tormentas que tienen el potencial de causar daños en la zona.El valor de los humedales de Puerto Rico para la vida silvestre está muy bien documentado . Por ejemplo, las salinas de Cabo Rojo, en la costa suroeste, proveen áreas para el

  2. Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report, Phase 1 - February 2010-December 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    2012-11-01

    required to complete the financing of the project. In general, STCE completed project definition, a front-end, engineering and design study (FEED), applied for and received its Record of Decision (ROD) associated with the NEPA requirements summarized in a detailed Environmental Impact Statement. A topical report covering the results of the FEED is the subject of a separate report submitted to the DOE on January 26, 2012. References to the FEED report are contained herein. In December 2011, STCE executed fixed-price turnkey EPC contracts and a long-term O&M agreement with industry-leading contractors.. Other work completed during Phase 1 includes execution of all major commercial input and offtake agreements. STCE negotiated long-term agreements for power, CO2 and urea offtake. A contract for the purchase of coal feedstock from Cloud Peak Energy’s Cordero Rojo mine was executed, as well as a memorandum of understanding with the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) for delivery of the coal to the TCEP site. An MOU for natural gas supply was completed with ONEOK, and a long-term water supply agreement was completed with a private landowner. In addition, STCE secured options for easements and rights-of-way, completed a transmission study, executed an interconnection agreement and devoted substantial effort to debt and conventional and tax equity structuring to position the Project for project financing, currently scheduled for closing on December 31, 2012.

  3. Texas Clean Energy Project: Decision Point Application, Section 2: Topical Report - Phase 1, February 2010-October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    2013-09-01

    additional work required to complete the financing of the Project. In general, STCE completed project definition, a front-end, engineering and design study (FEED), applied for and received its Record of Decision (ROD) associated with the NEPA requirements summarized in a detailed Environmental Impact Statement. A topical report covering the results of the FEED is the subject of a separate report submitted to the DOE on January 26, 2012. References to the FEED report are contained herein. In August 2013, STCE executed fixed-price turnkey EPC contracts and previously, in December 2011 a long-term O&M agreement, with industry-leading contractors. Other work completed during Phase 1 includes execution of all commercial input and offtake agreements required for project financing. STCE negotiated long-term agreements for power, CO2 and urea offtake. A contract for the purchase of coal feedstock from Cloud Peak Energy’s Cordero Rojo mine was executed, as well as necessary agreements (supplementing the tariff) with the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) for delivery of the coal to the TCEP site. STCE executed firm agreements for natural gas transportation with ONEOK for long-term water supply with a private landowner. In addition, STCE secured options for critical easements and rights-of-way, completed and updated a transmission study, executed an interconnection agreement and has agreed a target October 31, 2013 financial closing date with debt and conventional and tax equity.

  4. Dynamical passage to approximate equilibrium shapes for spinning, gravitating rubble asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishan; Jenkins, James T.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2009-03-01

    Many asteroids are thought to be particle aggregates held together principally by self-gravity. Here we study — for static and dynamical situations — the equilibrium shapes of spinning asteroids that are permitted for rubble piles. As in the case of spinning fluid masses, not all shapes are compatible with a granular rheology. We take the asteroid to always be an ellipsoid with an interior modeled as a rigid-plastic, cohesion-less material with a Drucker-Prager yield criterion. Using an approximate volume-averaged procedure, based on the classical method of moments, we investigate the dynamical process by which such objects may achieve equilibrium. We first collapse our dynamical approach to its statical limit to derive regions in spin-shape parameter space that allow equilibrium solutions to exist. At present, only a graphical illustration of these solutions for a prolate ellipsoid following the Drucker-Prager failure law is available [Sharma, I., Jenkins, J.T., Burns, J.A., 2005a. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 643; Sharma, I., Jenkins, J.T., Burns, J.A., 2005b. Equilibrium shapes of ellipsoidal soil asteroids. In: García-Rojo, R., Hermann, H.J., McNamara, S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Micromechanics of Granular Media, vol. 1. A.A. Balkema, UK; Holsapple, K.A., 2007. Icarus 187, 500-509]. Here, we obtain the equilibrium landscapes for general triaxial ellipsoids, as well as provide the requisite governing formulae. In addition, we demonstrate that it may be possible to better interpret the results of Richardson et al. [Richardson, D.C., Elankumaran, P., Sanderson, R.E., 2005. Icarus 173, 349-361] within the context of a Drucker-Prager material. The graphical result for prolate ellipsoids in the static limit is the same as those of Holsapple [Holsapple, K.A., 2007. Icarus 187, 500-509] because, when worked out, his final equations will match ours. This is because, though the formalisms to reach these expressions differ, in statics

  5. Earthquake Rupture Complexity Evidence from Field Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Fletcher, J. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Teran, O.; Akciz, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    Field observations provide strong evidence for four intriguing aspects of rupture process complexity for the 4 April 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah - Indiviso earthquake. First, the southern “fork” of the rupture exhibits two splays just to the northwest of the event epicenter, both with nearly pure right-lateral faulting. Teleseismic source modeling by others indicates normal slip on deep fault surface preceded the shallow strike-slip faulting, and our field observations from the fork area indicate that the earliest phase of strike-slip faulting did not involve a significant normal faulting component. Second, as rupture propagated to the northwest along the Pescadores fault, slip ended abruptly on this fault and transferred across a complex zone to the Borrego fault (although the Pescadores fault continues farther and would have seemed an easier route to follow). This stepover is called the Puerta Accommodation Zone (PAZ) which extends 11 km along-strike within an elevated portion of the Cucapah massif and accommodates a left step (transpressional) that measures less than 2 km across-strike. Though partly obscured by rockfalls in the steep terrain here, only discontinuous faulting of up to one meter reached the ground surface, yet imagery differencing by others indicates several meters of continuous subsurface slip throughout this section. This 11 km region of reduced and discontinuous slip is one of the longest surface rupture jumps ever observed, with lengthy and continuous surface faulting on either side. The SE end of the stepover coincides spatially with the Canon Rojo embayment where the M7.2 1892 surface rupture propagated onto a second fault forming an abrupt corner in its surface trace. Hence, the surface rupture and slip distribution pattern in 2010 appears to have been influenced by stress changes induced by the 1892 event. Thirdly, from the NW end of the transition section, the Borrego fault continues to the NNW with strong east-down slip obliquity. Along

  6. PREFACE: XVII Congress of Bioengineering and VI Clinical Engineering Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Darío

    2011-09-01

    at least 12 different countries. In the three days of planned activities, more than 800 participants were registered and over 2000 people visited the associated expo. Several symposia and thematic meetings were held simultaneously. Around 207 works were presented, each evaluated by two referees, and 181 presentations were finally accepted. The organizers of the Congress proposed that the 14 best works be published in the Journal of Physics Conference Series. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: James Lin, PhD, USA, Wireless noninvasive sensing and physiological signatures and vital signs; Luis Kun, PhD, USA, Biomedical Engineering and Global Health Transformation: A vision of opportunities and challenges; Mario Munich, PhD, USA, Avances en Robótica y Aplicaciones en Salud (Advances in robotics and health applications); Jose Folgueras, PhD, Cuba, Generación de productos de alto valor agregado a través del conocimiento (Generating products adding value through knowledge); Daniel Goroso, PhD, Brazil, Avanço e tecnología en Medicina Física y Rehabilitación (Advances in technology in physical medicine and rehab); Adolfo Spangenberg, PhD, Brazil, Telemedicine and Health - New perspectivas in development countries; Francisco Rojo Pérez, PhD, Spain, Propiedades del Comportamiento Mecánico y la rotura de la aorta humana (Properties of mechanical behaviour and rupture of the human aorta); and Eduardo de Forteza, PhD, Argentina, La fusión del humanismo médico y la tecnología (Fusion between medical humanism and technology), among others. We would like to thank the institutions, universities, government bodies, and private enterprises that supported and facilitated this Congress, and the members of the Organizing Commitee: Eng David Astegiano (Science and Technology State Minister), Eng Carlos Cerruti (Past President of the Rosario Tecnology Center), Eng Viviana Rotger (Past President of SABI) and MSc Guillermo Civetta (Manager of RTP). The members of the

  7. 3D characterization of crack propagation in building stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    Opening of fractures can strongly modify mechanical characteristics of natural stones and thus significantly decrease stability of historical and modern buildings. It is commonly thought that fractures origin from pre-existing structures of the rocks, such as pores, veins, stylolythes (Meng and Pan, 2007; Yang et al., 2008). The aim of this study is to define relationships between crack formation and textural characteristics in massive carbonate lithologies and to follow the evolution of fractures with loading. Four well known Spanish building limestones and dolostones have been analysed: Amarillo Triana (AT): a yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides or hydroxides; Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble with pore clusters orientated parallel to metamorphic foliation; Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone (mudstone), characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%); Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone (packstone) with white veins, made up exclusively by calcite in crystals up to 300 micron. All lithotypes are characterized by homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and low porosity (<10%). Three cores 20 mm in diameter have been obtained for each lithotype. Uniaxial compressive tests have been carried out in order to induce sample fracturing by a series of successive steps with application of a progressive normal stress. Crack propagation has been checked after each stress level application by microCT-RX following Hg impregnation of the sample (in a Hg porosimeter). Combination of both tests (microCT-RX and Hg porosimeter) guarantees a better characterization of small defects and their progressive propagation inside low-porous rocks than by employing solely microCT-RX (Fusi et al., 2009). Due to the reduced dimensions of sample holder (dilatometers) in porosimeter, cores have been cut with a non standard h/d = 1.5. Several cycles of: a) Hg

  8. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm