Science.gov

Sample records for parietal foramina craniofacial

  1. Genetics Home Reference: enlarged parietal foramina

    MedlinePlus

    ... parietal foramina is an inherited condition of impaired skull development. It is characterized by enlarged openings (foramina) ... that form the top and sides of the skull. This condition is due to incomplete bone formation ( ...

  2. Enlarged parietal foramina: a rare forensic autopsy finding.

    PubMed

    Durão, Carlos; Carpinteiro, Dina; Pedrosa, Frederico; Machado, Marcos P; Cunha, Eugénia

    2016-05-01

    Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) are a quite rare developmental defect of the parietal bone which has to be distinguished from the normal small parietal foramina. We report a forensic case of an individual found in an advanced state of putrefaction in his own house with an undetermined cause of death. No evidence of trauma was observed, and the toxicological exam was negative. The victim was a 40-year-old man with a history of epilepsy. The large biparietal foramina, a rare anatomical variation and unusual autopsy finding, were observed at autopsy. The recognition of anatomical variations is important to avoid false interpretations and conclusions and has a significant potential as an identity factor, thus contributing to positive identification.

  3. [Mother and son with enlarged parietal foramina, persistent fetal vein, and ALX4 mutation].

    PubMed

    Morita, Motoaki; Nanba, Eiji; Adachi, Kaori; Ohno, Kousaku

    2016-05-01

    Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) are rare congenital skull defects. These round or oval defects are situated on each parietal bone approximately 1 cm from the midline. Most patients with EPF have a positive family history. The condition is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with relatively high, but not full, penetrance. Mutation in either MSX2 or ALX4 genes is associated with enlarged parietal foramina. Case 1 is a boy who was noticed to have a large anterior fontanelle, large posterior fontanelle, and widely opened sagittal suture at 2 months. During development, the anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture closed at 3 years and the posterior fontanelle subsequently divided into two foramina with ossification of the midline bridge by 4 years. The foramina were about 2.5 x 2.5 cm in diameter at 8 years. Case 2 is the 34-year-old mother of Case 1. She showed similar bone defects in her cranium, again about 2.5 x 2.5 cm in diameter. Neither patient showed any neurological symptoms. Genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the ALX4 gene in both patients, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a persistent falcine sinus and a hypoplastic straight sinus. Further evaluation revealed that the mother of Case 2 also had a mutation in the ALX4 gene, but no enlarged parietal foramina. Although high penetrance of this condition has been reported, this family suggests incomplete penetrance of this disorder. PMID:27349084

  4. Enlarged parietal foramina: a rare finding in a female Greek skull with unusual multiple Wormian bones and a rich parietal vascular network.

    PubMed

    Piagkou, Maria; Skotsimara, Georgia; Repousi, Elpida; Paraskevas, George; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2013-06-01

    Enlarged parietal foramina (>5 mm) is an extremely rare developmental defect of the parietal bone, which is distinguished from the normal small parietal foramina, as genes associated with this entity have been identified, suggesting that it is hereditary in nature. We describe a dry skull of a 35-year-old female, with enlarged parietal foramina symmetrically situated bilaterally, oval in shape, measuring 4.5 × 9.3 mm (right) and 4.9 × 9.2 mm (left) in size. The foramina coexisted with multiple Wormian bones in several sites of the skull. On the inner parietal bone surface, the anterior, posterior and lateral foramina's rims carried grooves, which were continuous with the middle meningeal vessels' branches, indicating that a rich vascular network existed around the foramina. These vascular grooves also notched the external table at the margin of the foramina, which suggests a potential communication between the meningeal and the scalp vessels. In addition, this vascular variation should be taken into consideration when performing surgical interventions in the area, because the large vascular supply to the foramina is a possible source of extensive bleeding. Moreover, the interaction of intracranial and extracranial veins and the fact that the blood flows in them in both directions, as they are valveless, could represent a possible pathway for infections to spread in the cranial cavity.

  5. Anatomical observations of the foramina transversaria.

    PubMed Central

    Taitz, C; Nathan, H; Arensburg, B

    1978-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty foramina transversaria in dry cervical vertebrae of 36 spines and in a number of dissections were studied and classified according to size, shape, and direction of their main diameter. A coefficient of roundness was then elaborated. The variations of foramina appear to follow a pattern at various vertebral levels. The possible factors (in addition to the embryological ones) involved in causing these variations-for example, mechanical stress, size, course, and number of vertebral vessels-were analysed. The importance of the correct interpretation of the variations in the foramina transversaria in radiographic or computerised axial tomography is discussed. The contribution of the present study to the understanding and diagnosis of pathological conditions related to the vertebral artery and its sympathetic plexus is stressed. Images PMID:632823

  6. Evolution of cranial blood drainage in hominids: enlarged occipital/marginal sinuses and emissary foramina.

    PubMed

    Falk, D

    1986-07-01

    Physiological studies of cranial blood flow in humans in reclining vs. upright postures suggest that selection for bipedalism was correlated with the establishment of epigenetic adaptations for delivering blood preferentially to the vertebral plexus of veins, depending upon momentary respiratory and postural constraints. The frequencies of vascular/osteological channels used to deliver blood to the vertebral plexus of veins were determined for samples of African pongids, various taxa of fossil hominids, and extant Homo sapiens. These channels include an enlarged occipital/marginal (O/M) sinus system, multiple hypoglossal canals, and foramina that conduct emissary veins: posterior condyloid, mastoid, occipital, and parietal. The African pongid, and therefore presumably the ancestral prebipedal hominoid, condition is characterized by low frequencies of all of these routes except multiple hypoglossal canals. The earliest known bipeds (Australopithecus afarensis) and robust australopithecines are characterized by fixation of enlarged O/M sinus systems. Robust australopithecines are also characterized by apparently low frequencies of mastoid and parietal foramina, and high frequencies of multiple hypoglossal canals and posterior condyloid foramina. In gracile australopithecines and subsequently living hominids, trends towards increased frequencies of mastoid and (later) parietal emissary foramina coincide with a trend towards decreased frequencies of an enlarged O/M sinus system and multiple hypoglossal canals. These findings suggest that selection for bipedalism initially resulted in epigenetic adaptations for routes to deliver blood to the vertebral plexus including an enlarged O/M sinus system and hypoglossal canals, but that the pressures underlying these adaptations relaxed as bipedalism became established, and other routes for delivering blood to the vertebral plexus of veins were either directly or indirectly selected for, perhaps in conjunction with a changing

  7. A microdeletion encompassing PHF21A in an individual with global developmental delay and craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Labonne, Jonathan D J; Vogt, Julie; Reali, Lisa; Kong, Il-Keun; Layman, Lawrence C; Kim, Hyung-Goo

    2015-12-01

    In Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS), the full phenotypic spectrum is manifested when deletions are at least 2.1 Mb in size at 11p11.2. The PSS-associated genes EXT2 and ALX4, together with PHF21A, all map to this region flanked by markers D11S1393 and D11S1319. Being proximal to EXT2 and ALX4, a 1.1 Mb region containing 12 annotated genes had been identified by deletion mapping to explain PSS phenotypes except multiple exostoses and parietal foramina. Here, we report a male patient with partial PSS phenotypes including global developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, minor limb anomalies, and micropenis. Using microarray, qPCR, RT-qPCR, and Western blot analyses, we refined the candidate gene region, which harbors five genes, by excluding two genes, SLC35C1 and CRY2, which resulted in a corroborating role of PHF21A in developmental delay and craniofacial anomalies. This microdeletion contains the least number of genes at 11p11.2 reported to date. Additionally, we also discuss the phenotypes observed in our patient with respect to those of published cases of microdeletions across the Potocki-Shaffer interval.

  8. Craniofacial Microsomia

    PubMed Central

    Birgfeld, Craig B.; Heike, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is one of the most common congenital conditions treated in craniofacial centers worldwide. This condition is variably associated with anomalies of the jaws, ears, facial soft tissue, orbits, and facial nerve function and can be associated with extracranial anomalies. The cause of this condition is unknown, though CFM has been associated withprenatalexposures and genetic abnormalities. Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome assessment in CFM is challenging due to the wide phenotypic spectrum observed in this condition. Surgical treatment requires a coordinated team approach involving multiple specialties, which can include plastic surgery, craniofacial surgery, orthognathic surgery, and microsurgery. A wide variety of surgical options exist, and individual treatment plans should be based on the patient's needs. Although CFM can be challenging to treat, successful outcomes are rewarding. We provide a review of the common craniofacial surgical treatments for individuals with CFM. PMID:23633936

  9. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  10. Anterior Mandibular Lingual Foramina: An In Vivo Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Rastelli, Claudio; Leuter, Cinzia; Gatto, Roberto; Continenza, Maria Adelaide

    2014-01-01

    In descriptions of surgical procedures in mandible, often there is no mention of an anatomical variance, the genial spinal foramina, where nerves and vessels go through. Aim of this study is to investigate frequency, shape, and dimensions of these foramina. 56 computed tomography dentascans were analyzed with an implant planning software. The considered parameters were frequency, number, position, diameters, and length of canals; the collected data were inserted in a spreadsheet and statistically analyzed; therefore, they were compared with those found in the literature. The measurements agree with the ones found in earlier studies, except for the length of the inferior spinal canals, which resulted lesser than that found in the literature. The frequency of the inferior spinal foramina, the data related to the inferior spinal foramina diameter (cross scan), and the measurements related to the superior spinal foramina diameter (axial scan) resulted to be major compared to those reported in literature. These obtained results are clinically interesting because an implant planning software has been employed, daily used by operators, and that permits in vivo investigations. Furthermore, due to the possibility of hemorrhagic accidents in this mandibular region, these data are particularly interesting for all of the operators who make interventions in this area. PMID:25215238

  11. The clinical anatomy of accessory mental nerves and foramina.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Joe; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Tabira, Yoko; Nakamura, Moriyoshi; Kitashima, Sadaharu; Watanabe, Koichi; Kusukawa, Jingo; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2015-10-01

    Since three-dimensional computed tomography was developed, many researchers have described accessory mental foramina. The anatomical and radiological findings have been discussed, but details of accessory mental nerves (AMNs) have only been researched in a small number of anatomical and clinical cases. For this article, we reviewed the literature relating to accessory mental foramina (AMFs) and nerves to clarify aspects important for clinical situations. The review showed that the distribution pattern of the AMN can differ according to the position of the accessory mental foramen, and the reported incidence of AMFs differs among observation methods. A review of clinical cases also revealed that injury to large AMF can result in paresthesia. This investigation did not reveal all aspects of AMNs and AMFs, but will be useful for diagnosis and treatment by many dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons.

  12. Occipital foramina development involves localised regulation of mesenchyme proliferation and is independent of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Akbareian, Sophia E; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Macharia, Raymond G; McGonnell, Imelda M

    2015-06-01

    Cranial foramina are holes within the skull, formed during development, allowing entry and exit of blood vessels and nerves. Once formed they must remain open, due to the vital structures they contain, i.e. optic nerves, jugular vein, carotid artery, and other cranial nerves and blood vessels. Understanding cranial foramina development is essential as cranial malformations lead to the stenosis or complete closure of these structures, resulting in blindness, deafness, facial paralysis, raised intracranial pressure and lethality. Here we focus on describing early events in the formation of the jugular, carotid and hypoglossal cranial foramina that form in the mesoderm-derived, endochondral occipital bones at the base of the embryonic chick skull. Whole-mount skeletal staining of skulls indicates the appearance of these foramina from HH32/D7.5 onwards. Haematoxylin & eosin staining of sections shows that the intimately associated mesenchyme, neighbouring the contents of these cranial foramina, is initially very dense and gradually becomes sparser as development proceeds. Histological examination also revealed that these foramina initially contain relatively large-diameter nerves, which later become refined, and are closely associated with the blood vessel, which they also innervate within the confines of the foramina. Interestingly cranial foramina in the base of the skull contain blood vessels lacking smooth muscle actin, which suggests these blood vessels belong to glomus body structures within the foramina. The blood vessel shape also appears to dictate the overall shape of the resulting foramina. We initially hypothesised that cranial foramina development could involve targeted proliferation and local apoptosis to cause 'mesenchymal clearing' and the creation of cavities in a mechanism similar to joint cavitation. We find that this is not the case, and propose that a mechanism reliant upon local nerve/blood vessel-derived restriction of ossification may contribute

  13. An Anatomical Study of the Nutrient Foramina of the Human Humeral Diaphysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zichao; Ding, Haoliang; Hu, Chuanzhen; Xu, Haitao; An, Zhiquan

    2016-05-16

    BACKGROUND Understanding the nutrient foramina is critical to clinical practice. An insult to the nutrient foramina can be caused by trauma and/or surgical dissection and lead to devascularization and bad outcomes. Few studies have looked at the humerus, and no studies have described relative information of humeral nutrient foramen related to anatomical structures that might be located by palpable landmarks. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical features of the nutrient foramina of the diaphyseal humerus and provide a discussion of clinical relevance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We dissected 19 cadavers and analyzed the relative positions of the foramina and surrounding muscles, and the number, direction, diameter, and location of the nutrient foramina. Foramina index and a new landmark index were used to calculate the location. We compared the data from both sides and the relationships between transverse and longitudinal locations, diameter and total length, and foramina index and landmark index were also analyzed. RESULTS The humeri had one or two main nutrient foramina located in a small area between the coracobrachialis and brachial muscles and oriented toward the elbow. The mean diameter was 1.11±0.32 mm. The mean index and landmark index were 43.76±4.94% and 42.26±5.35%, respectively. There were no differences between sides in terms of diameter, length, or nutrient foramina index. There were no significant correlations between transverse and longitudinal locations or diameter and total length. The foramina index and landmark index showed strong positive correlation (r=0.994, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Our study provides details about the nutrient foramina that will benefit clinicians who treat injuries and diseases of the humerus. Surgeons should be mindful of soft tissue in the foraminal area during surgical procedures.

  14. An Anatomical Study of the Nutrient Foramina of the Human Humeral Diaphysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zichao; Ding, Haoliang; Hu, Chuanzhen; Xu, Haitao; An, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the nutrient foramina is critical to clinical practice. An insult to the nutrient foramina can be caused by trauma and/or surgical dissection and lead to devascularization and bad outcomes. Few studies have looked at the humerus, and no studies have described relative information of humeral nutrient foramen related to anatomical structures that might be located by palpable landmarks. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical features of the nutrient foramina of the diaphyseal humerus and provide a discussion of clinical relevance. Material/Methods We dissected 19 cadavers and analyzed the relative positions of the foramina and surrounding muscles, and the number, direction, diameter, and location of the nutrient foramina. Foramina index and a new landmark index were used to calculate the location. We compared the data from both sides and the relationships between transverse and longitudinal locations, diameter and total length, and foramina index and landmark index were also analyzed. Results The humeri had one or two main nutrient foramina located in a small area between the coracobrachialis and brachial muscles and oriented toward the elbow. The mean diameter was 1.11±0.32 mm. The mean index and landmark index were 43.76±4.94% and 42.26±5.35%, respectively. There were no differences between sides in terms of diameter, length, or nutrient foramina index. There were no significant correlations between transverse and longitudinal locations or diameter and total length. The foramina index and landmark index showed strong positive correlation (r=0.994, p<0.0001). Conclusions Our study provides details about the nutrient foramina that will benefit clinicians who treat injuries and diseases of the humerus. Surgeons should be mindful of soft tissue in the foraminal area during surgical procedures. PMID:27180828

  15. Stereolithography for craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Douglas P; Cillo, Joseph E; Miles, Brett A

    2006-09-01

    Advances in computer technology have aided in the diagnostic and clinical management of complex congenital craniofacial deformities. The use of stereolithographic models has begun to replace traditional milled models in the treatment of craniofacial deformities. Research has shown that stereolithography models are highly accurate and provide added information in treatment planning for the correction of craniofacial deformities. These include the added visualization of the complex craniofacial anatomy and preoperative surgical planning with a highly accurate three-dimensional model. While the stereolithographic process has had a beneficial impact on the field of craniofacial surgery, the added cost of the procedure continues to be a hindrance to its widespread acceptance in clinical practice. With improved technology and accessibility the utilization of stereolithography in craniofacial surgery is expected to increase. This review will highlight the development and current usage of stereolithography in craniofacial surgery and provide illustration of it use.

  16. Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Websites.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jason; Agarwal, Divyansh; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-06-01

    Applicants for craniofacial surgery fellowships utilize Internet-based resources like the San Francisco (SF) Match to manage applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accessibility and content of craniofacial surgery fellowship websites (CSFWs). A list of available craniofacial surgery fellowships was compiled from directories of the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery (ACSFS) and SF Match. Accessibility of CSFWs was assessed via links from these directories and a Google search. Craniofacial surgery fellowship websites were evaluated on education and recruitment content and compared via program characteristics. Twenty-four of the 28 US-based craniofacial surgery fellowship programs had a CSFW (86%). The ACSFS and SF Match databases had limited CSFW accessibility, but a Google search revealed most CSFWs had the top search result (76%). In total, CSFWs provided an average of 39% of education and recruitment variables. While most programs provided fellowship program descriptions (96%), application links (96%), and faculty listings (83%), relatively few provided rotation schedules (13%), fellow selection process information (13%), or interview dates (8%). CSFW content did not vary by program location, faculty size, accreditation status, or institutional affiliations (P > 0.05). Craniofacial surgery fellowships often lack readily accessible websites from national program lists and have limited information for interested applicants. The consistent lack of online information across programs suggests future opportunities exist to improve these educational resources. PMID:27285892

  17. Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Winters, Ryan; Tatum, Sherard A

    2014-11-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) may be the most versatile tool to become available to the craniofacial surgeon in recent years. It can be used in an ever-expanding register of clinical scenarios and offers major advantages over conventional craniofacial techniques in some circumstances. Craniofacial surgery has significant complications, some of which can be mitigated but not eliminated by choosing DO over conventional approaches. Although some DO applications are in their infancy with limited data, this article provides an overview of current uses of this versatile technology.

  18. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Surgery and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Suresh; Venkatswamy, Srihari; Ramu, Veena; Banu, Khurshida; Ehtaih, Sham; Kashyap, Vinay M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the clinical and radiologic features and management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia with review of literature. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment in a tertiary healthcare centre was done using the parameters of patients' details, clinical features, radiological findings, management and postoperative review. Results: Of the six patients, 3 females and 2 males were in the 2nd decade of life and 1 male in the 1st decade of life. The disease was restricted to maxilla in 3 patients, involved the temporal and frontal bones in addition to maxilla in one, involved the frontal bone in one patient and involved frontal and parietal bones in one patient. The primary reason for seeking treatment in all the 6 cases was facial deformity. There was absence of pain in all 6 cases. For surgical treatment in all three cases involving the maxilla, the approach was intraoral while bicoronal approach was used for the other three cases. Treatment consisted of surgical contouring and reshaping the area. All cases were followed up over a period of 2 years with no signs of recurrence. Conclusion: Treatment of craniofacial fibro-osseous lesions is highly individualized. Most cases of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia manifest as swellings that cause facial deformity and surgical recontouring after cessation of growth seems to provide the best results. PMID:23662263

  19. Accessory mental foramina, incisive nerve plexus and lingual canals with unusual emergence paths: Report of two rare cases.

    PubMed

    Haghanifar, Sina; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Being knowledgeable of neurovascularization of anterior mandible is crucial for successful local anesthesia and for safe minor and major oral surgeries of this part. The first case was 62 years old and was found to have two accessory mental foramina with buccal emergence on the left side and two accessory mental foramina with buccal and lingual emergence paths on the right side (overall five mental foramina). Incisive nerve plexus with multiple cephalic branching was obvious on both sides. The second case was 60 years of age and had two lingual foramina on the lingual side with two accessory foramina on the buccal side of the symphysis. Considering our findings, a pre-operation limited cone beam computed tomography is suggested to avoid inadvertent damage, especially when planning a surgery in the mandibular inter-mental region. PMID:25767360

  20. Bilateral Osseous Interclinoid Bridges Associated with Foramina of Vesalius: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George; Nitsa, Zoi; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos

    2015-07-01

    The current study displays a very rare combination of ossified interclinoid ligaments at the sella turcica region associated with bilateral foramina of Vesalius. In a macerated skull four osseous bars interconnecting the clinoid processes bilaterally were detected. Specifically, two bilateral osseous bars were observed bridging the gap between the anterior and middle clinoid processes forming the so called caroticoclinoid foramen on each side and two additional osseous bridges linked the anterior and posterior clinoid processes, bilaterally. Furthermore, two distinct bilateral foramina of Vesalius were documented just anterior and medial to the foramen ovale. The awareness of the osseous sellar bridges is crucial for the physician and especially the neurosurgeon since their presence may complicate the removal of clinoid processes and induce damage of the internal carotid artery and oculomotor nerves. Furthermore, the likely existence of the foramen of Vesalius may lead to transfer of an infected thrombus into the cranial cavity and complicate a percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy.

  1. Advances in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Sherard A; Losquadro, William D

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have witnessed many advances in craniofacial surgery. Advances in surgical techniques, such as distraction osteogenesis and endoscopic procedures, combined with refinements in surgical equipment, such as resorbable plating and distractors, have improved surgical outcomes, while minimizing morbidity. Technological advances in 3-dimensional imaging, computer simulation, and intraoperative navigation facilitate diagnosis, preoperative planning, and surgical execution. Rising cases of deformational plagiocephaly owing to increased supine infant sleep positioning necessitated the development of appropriate diagnosis and treatment and the avoidance of unnecessary surgery. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of craniofacial disorders has allowed better preoperative assessment and counseling. Finally, efforts to develop better bone graft substitutes with gene therapy and nanotechnology are ongoing. PMID:19018057

  2. Neurosurgery: Skull Base Craniofacial Trauma.

    PubMed

    Donald, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Much of craniofacial trauma involves the frontal sinuses. Because of its response to injury, the frontal sinus mucosa has an innate ability to develop mucoceles, and if infected, mucopyocoeles. This article presents a therapeutic algorithm for all forms of craniofacial trauma with concentration on the most severe injury-the through and through fracture and its surgical remediation. PMID:27648398

  3. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Pat; Magliocca, Kelly R; Lee, Janice S

    2012-08-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the natural history and molecular abnormalities, many questions remain surrounding the progression and management of fibrous dysplasia (FD). In the absence of comorbidities, the expected behavior of craniofacial FD (CFD) is to be slow growing and without functional consequence. Understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to the various phenotypes of this condition, as well as the predictors of the different behaviors of FD lesions, must be improved. Long-term follow-up of patients with CFD is vital because spontaneous recovery is unlikely, and the course of disease can be unpredictable. PMID:22771278

  4. Parietal cheiro-oral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Y; Watanabe, T; Ogura, A

    2000-12-01

    Cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal lesion has been reported in conjuction with a brain tumor, infarction and migraine. Only six reports of cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal infarction have been reported to date. We treated a 45-year-old woman with cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal infarction. Her sensory disturbance was characterized by paresthesia in the lower face and hand on the left side, and severe involvement of stereognosis and graphesthesia in the left hand. The pathogenesis of parietal cheiro-oral syndrome is discussed.

  5. Apraxia and the Parietal Lobes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The widely held belief in a central role of left parietal lesions for apraxia can be traced back to Liepmann's model of a posterior to anterior stream converting mental images of intended action into motor execution. Although this model has undergone significant changes, its modern descendants still attribute the parietal contribution to the…

  6. Regenerative Strategies for Craniofacial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Catharine B.; Pomerantz, Jason H.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial disorders present markedly complicated problems in reconstruction because of the complex interactions of the multiple, simultaneously affected tissues. Regenerative medicine holds promise for new strategies to improve treatment of these disorders. This review addresses current areas of unmet need in craniofacial reconstruction and emphasizes how craniofacial tissues differ from their analogs elsewhere in the body. We present a problem-based approach to illustrate current treatment strategies for various craniofacial disorders, to highlight areas of need, and to suggest regenerative strategies for craniofacial bone, fat, muscle, nerve, and skin. For some tissues, current approaches offer excellent reconstructive solutions using autologous tissue or prosthetic materials. Thus, new “regenerative” approaches would need to offer major advantages in order to be adopted. In other tissues, the unmet need is great, and we suggest the greatest regenerative need is for muscle, skin, and nerve. The advent of composite facial tissue transplantation and the development of regenerative medicine are each likely to add important new paradigms to our treatment of craniofacial disorders. PMID:23248598

  7. Anatomic study of cranial nerve emergence and associated skull foramina in cats using CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eymeric; Degueurce, Christophe; Ruel, Yannick; Dennis, Ruth; Begon, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain of four normal cats were reviewed retrospectively to assess the emergence and course of the cranial nerves (CNs). Two-millimeter-thick images were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T unit. CN skull foramina, as anatomic landmarks for MR imaging, were identified by computed tomography performed on an isolated cat skull using thin wire within each skull foramen. Thin slice (1 mm slice thickness) images were obtained with a high-resolution bone filter scan protocol. The origins of CNs II, V, VII, and VIII and the group of IX, X, XI, and XII could be identified. The pathway and proximal divisions of CNs V were described. CNs III, IV, and VI were not distinguished from each other but could be seen together in the orbital fissure. CN V was characterized by slight contrast enhancement.

  8. Sensory syndromes in parietal stroke.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, C; Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F

    1993-10-01

    We studied 20 patients with an acute parietal stroke with hemisensory disturbances but no visual field deficit and no or only slight motor weakness, without thalamic involvement on CT or MRI and found three main sensory syndromes. (1) The pseudothalamic sensory syndrome consists of a faciobrachiocrural impairment of elementary sensation (touch, pain, temperature, vibration). All patients have an inferior-anterior parietal stroke involving the parietal operculum, posterior insula, and, in all but one patient, underlying white matter. (2) The cortical sensory syndrome consists of an isolated loss of discriminative sensation (stereognosis, graphesthesia, position sense) involving one or two parts of the body. These patients show a superior-posterior parietal stroke. (3) The atypical sensory syndrome consists of a sensory loss involving all modalities of sensation in a partial distribution. Parietal lesions of different topography are responsible for this clinical picture, which probably represents a minor variant of the two previous sensory syndromes. Neuropsychological dysfunction was present in 17 patients. The only constant association was between conduction aphasia and right-sided pseudothalamic sensory deficit. We conclude that parietal stroke can cause different sensory syndromes depending on the topography of the underlying lesion. Sensory deficits can be monosymptomatic but never present as a "pure sensory stroke" involving face, arm, leg, and trunk together.

  9. Understanding Cleft and Craniofacial Team Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Cleft Lip/Palate & Craniofacial Specialists in Your Area skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Cleft Lip/Palate & Craniofacial Specialists in Your Area Team Disclaimer ...

  10. New insights into craniofacial malformations

    PubMed Central

    Twigg, Stephen R.F.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of the human skull and face is a highly orchestrated and complex three-dimensional morphogenetic process, involving hundreds of genes controlling the coordinated patterning, proliferation and differentiation of tissues having multiple embryological origins. Craniofacial malformations that occur because of abnormal development (including cleft lip and/or palate, craniosynostosis and facial dysostoses), comprise over one-third of all congenital birth defects. High-throughput sequencing has recently led to the identification of many new causative disease genes and functional studies have clarified their mechanisms of action. We present recent findings in craniofacial genetics and discuss how this information together with developmental studies in animal models is helping to increase understanding of normal craniofacial development. PMID:26085576

  11. Congenital craniofacial asymmetry: early treatment.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L A; Schut, L; Rosen, H M

    1981-01-01

    Congenital craniofacial asymmetry has two dominant causes: isolated synostosis and craniofacial clefts. Treatment considerations in these problems differ from those with isolated cranial or isolated facial defects. Isolated cranial defects are most frequently treated by the neurosurgeon with craniectomy alone. Isolated facial asymmetry when congenital in origin usually manifests as hemifacial microsomia and based on our experience with 40 such patients, is best treated in later childhood. Treatment timing of craniofacial asymmetry varies with the cause, but is best done in the first two years of life. Nasofrontal encephaloceles are usually best treated in the first few weeks of life; synostosis syndromes are treated at six months of age after the facial sutures have had time to stabilize sufficiently for adequate dissection and mobilization; and other craniofacial clefts at approximately two years of age following descent of the teeth and better homeostatic capability of the patient. Based on our series of 58 patients, 40 treated with isolated synostosis at less than one year of age, eight at more than one year of age, and ten patients with craniofacial clefts, the guidelines for timing and methods of treatment have evolved. Liberal use of craniectomy bone with expected regrowth is possible in the first year of life, and more limited use in the second year of life. This bone is used to hold the repositioned orbit, augment hypoplastic zygomas, and reconstruct noses, or for other uses. In isolated synostosis, repositioning provides a form of immediate catch-up growth then proceeds normally. In craniofacial clefts, repositioning puts structures into normal relations and growth likewise proceeds normally. The isolated synostosis syndromes treated at a later age are done with more difficulty, though may be effectively cared for. Complications other than incomplete structural correction have been nonexistent in the group two years of age and less.

  12. Biomaterials for Craniofacial Bone Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tevlin, R.; McArdle, A.; Atashroo, D.; Walmsley, G.G.; Senarath-Yapa, K.; Zielins, E.R.; Paik, K.J.; Longaker, M.T.; Wan, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conditions such as congenital anomalies, cancers, and trauma can all result in devastating deficits of bone in the craniofacial skeleton. This can lead to significant alteration in function and appearance that may have significant implications for patients. In addition, large bone defects in this area can pose serious clinical dilemmas, which prove difficult to remedy, even with current gold standard surgical treatments. The craniofacial skeleton is complex and serves important functional demands. The necessity to develop new approaches for craniofacial reconstruction arises from the fact that traditional therapeutic modalities, such as autologous bone grafting, present myriad limitations and carry with them the potential for significant complications. While the optimal bone construct for tissue regeneration remains to be elucidated, much progress has been made in the past decade. Advances in tissue engineering have led to innovative scaffold design, complemented by progress in the understanding of stem cell–based therapy and growth factor enhancement of the healing cascade. This review focuses on the role of biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering, highlighting key advances in scaffold design and development. PMID:25139365

  13. Carotico-clinoid foramina and a double optic canal: A case report with neurosurgical implications

    PubMed Central

    Zdilla, Matthew J.; Cyrus, Leah M.; Lambert, H. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lesser wing of the sphenoid is a clinically important structure, particularly with regard to its anatomical relationship with neurovascular structures including the optic nerve, ophthalmic artery, and internal carotid artery. Anterior clinoidectomy, a neurosurgical procedure utilized to access paraclinoid aneurysms and neoplasms, is often complicated by the presence of anatomical variants including the carotico-clinoid foramen and the accessory optic canal. Case Description: A rare case report is presented documenting the simultaneous occurrence of bilateral carotico-clinoid foramina and a unilateral accessory optic canal. Conclusion: The presence of an accessory optic canal may be misconstrued as a carotico-clinoid foramen or pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process, lesser sphenoidal wing, or optic strut. The case report documents two clinically important variant structures occurring ipsilaterally, each with the potential to masquerade as the other radiographically and present complications to both neurosurgeons and radiologists. Knowledge of the unique combination of anatomical variants presented in this report may prevent adverse surgical events during anterior clinoidectomy procedures including hemorrhage of the ophthalmic artery or internal carotid artery and subsequent vision loss or death. PMID:25657866

  14. Craniofacial reconstruction following oncologic resection.

    PubMed

    Hanasono, Matthew M; Hofstede, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    The ability to reliably reconstruct complex and sizable wounds has decreased the morbidity of skull base surgery substantially, preventing major complications and allowing treatment of tumors previously considered inoperable. Addressing facial nerve function with static and dynamic procedures as well as fabrication of craniofacial prostheses to replace delicate facial landmarks has further increased surgeons' ability to restore the appearance and function of the face. PMID:23174362

  15. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRANIAL NERVE EMERGENCE AND SKULL FORAMINA IN THE HORSE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rita; Malalana, Fernando; McConnell, James Fraser; Maddox, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Thin-slice MR sequences were also acquired using transverse 3D-CISS sequences that allowed mutliplanar reformatting. Transverse thin-slice CT images were acquired and multiplanar reformatting was used to create comparative images. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently allowed visualization of cranial nerves II, V, VII, VIII, and XII in all horses. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were identifiable as a group despite difficulties in identification of individual nerves. The group of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were identified in 4/5 horses although the region where they exited the skull was identified in all cases. The course of nerves II and V could be followed on several slices and the main divisions of cranial nerve V could be distinguished in all cases. In conclusion, CT allowed clear visualization of the skull foramina and occasionally the nerves themselves, facilitating identification of the nerves for comparison with MRI images.

  16. Craniofacial Tissue Engineering by Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, J.J.; Giannobile, W.V.; Helms, J.A.; Hollister, S.J.; Krebsbach, P.H.; Longaker, M.T.; Shi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Virtually all craniofacial structures are derivatives of mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are the offspring of mesenchymal cells following asymmetrical division, and reside in various craniofacial structures in the adult. Cells with characteristics of adult stem cells have been isolated from the dental pulp, the deciduous tooth, and the periodontium. Several craniofacial structures—such as the mandibular condyle, calvarial bone, cranial suture, and subcutaneous adipose tissue—have been engineered from mesenchymal stem cells, growth factor, and/or gene therapy approaches. As a departure from the reliance of current clinical practice on durable materials such as amalgam, composites, and metallic alloys, biological therapies utilize mesenchymal stem cells, delivered or internally recruited, to generate craniofacial structures in temporary scaffolding biomaterials. Craniofacial tissue engineering is likely to be realized in the foreseeable future, and represents an opportunity that dentistry cannot afford to miss. PMID:17062735

  17. Biomimetic approaches to complex craniofacial defects

    PubMed Central

    Teven, Chad M.; Fisher, Sean; Ameer, Guillermo A.; He, Tong-Chuan; Reid, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary goals of craniofacial reconstruction include the restoration of the form, function, and facial esthetics, and in the case of pediatric patients, respect for craniofacial growth. The surgeon, however, faces several challenges when attempting a reconstructive cranioplasty. For that reason, craniofacial defect repair often requires sophisticated treatment strategies and multidisciplinary input. In the ideal situation, autologous tissue similar in structure and function to that which is missing can be utilized for repair. In the context of the craniofacial skeleton, autologous cranial bone, or secondarily rib, iliac crest, or scapular bone, is most favorable. Often, this option is limited by the finite supply of available bone. Therefore, alternative strategies to repair craniofacial defects are necessary. In the field of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering has emerged as a promising concept, and several methods of bone engineering are currently under investigation. A growth factor-based approach utilizing bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) has demonstrated stimulatory effects on cranial bone and defect repair. When combined with cell-based and matrix-based models, regenerative goals can be optimized. This manuscript intends to review recent investigations of tissue engineering models used for the repair of craniofacial defects with a focus on the role of BMPs, scaffold materials, and novel cell lines. When sufficient autologous bone is not available, safe and effective strategies to engineer bone would allow the surgeon to meet the reconstructive goals of the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:26389027

  18. Advances in Bioprinting Technologies for Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Dafydd O; Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Helder, Marco N; Gibbs, Susan; Forouzanfar, Tymour; van Zuijlen, Paul P; Wolff, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor site morbidity. These limitations have subsequently led to the development of less invasive techniques such as 3D bioprinting that could offer possibilities to manufacture patient-tailored bioactive tissue constructs for craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we discuss the current technological and (pre)clinical advances of 3D bioprinting for use in craniofacial reconstruction and highlight the challenges that need to be addressed in the coming years.

  19. Surgical options for complex craniofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayur; Shaw, Andrew; Deogaonkar, Milind

    2014-10-01

    Complex craniofacial pain can be a challenging condition to manage both medically and surgically, but there is a resurgence of interest in the role of neurostimulation therapy. Surgical options for complex craniofacial pain syndromes include peripheral nerve/field stimulation, ganglion stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, dorsal nerve root entry zone lesioning, motor cortex stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Peripheral nerve/field stimulation is rapidly being explored and is preferred by both patients and surgeons. Technological advances and improved understanding of the interactions of pain pathways with its affective component will widen the scope of neurostimulation therapy for craniofacial pain syndromes. PMID:25240663

  20. Advances in Bioprinting Technologies for Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Dafydd O; Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Helder, Marco N; Gibbs, Susan; Forouzanfar, Tymour; van Zuijlen, Paul P; Wolff, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor site morbidity. These limitations have subsequently led to the development of less invasive techniques such as 3D bioprinting that could offer possibilities to manufacture patient-tailored bioactive tissue constructs for craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we discuss the current technological and (pre)clinical advances of 3D bioprinting for use in craniofacial reconstruction and highlight the challenges that need to be addressed in the coming years. PMID:27113634

  1. Stem Cells in Teeth and Craniofacial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H.; Chai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are remarkable, and stem cell–based tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical science aiming to restore damaged tissue or organs. In dentistry and reconstructive facial surgery, it is of great interest to restore lost teeth or craniofacial bone defects using stem cell–mediated therapy. In the craniofacial region, various stem cell populations have been identified with regeneration potential. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge concerning the various types of tooth- and craniofacial bone–related stem cells and discuss their in vivo identities and regulating mechanisms. PMID:26350960

  2. [Relationship between endocrinology and craniofacial growth. I: Puberty and craniofacial growth. II: Growth of the craniofacial skeleton].

    PubMed

    Verdonck, A; De Ridder, L; De Zegher, F; Carine, C; Carels, C

    1994-12-01

    In this literature, a review is given of the endocrinology and morphology of the craniofacial complex. This article reviews in a first part the endocrinology of puberty and general growth aspects. Afterwards the adolescence growth spurt of the face and the hormonal regulation will be focused. In a second part the morphogenetic aspects together with growth area's and growth theories of the craniofacial complex will be discussed. At last a detailed description of the maxillary and mandibular growth is given.

  3. Core issues in craniofacial myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Robert G.

    2010-11-01

    Branchiomeric craniofacial muscles control feeding, breathing and facial expression. These muscles differ on multiple counts from all other skeletal muscles and originate in a progenitor cell population in pharyngeal mesoderm characterized by a common genetic program with an adjacent population of cardiac progenitor cells, the second heart field, that gives rise to much of the heart. The transcription factors and signaling molecules that trigger the myogenic program at sites of branchiomeric muscle formation are correspondingly distinct from those in somite-derived muscle progenitor cells. Here new insights into the regulatory hierarchies controlling branchiomeric myogenesis are discussed. Differences in embryological origin are reflected in the lineage, transcriptional program and proliferative and differentiation properties of branchiomeric muscle satellite cells. These recent findings have important implications for our understanding of the diverse myogenic strategies operative both in the embryo and adult and are of direct biomedical relevance to deciphering the mechanisms underlying the cause and progression of muscle restricted myopathies.

  4. Orthognathic Surgery in Craniofacial Microsomia: Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Salvador; Torrealba, Ramón; Nuñez, Marcelo; Uribe, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Craniofacial microsomia is a broad term that covers a variety of craniofacial malformation conditions that are caused by alterations in the derivatives of the first and second pharyngeal arches. In general terms, diverse therapeutic alternatives are proposed according to the growth stage and the severity of the alteration. When craniofacial growth has concluded, conventional orthognathic surgery (Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, and genioplasty) provides good alternatives for MI and MIIA type cases. Reconstruction of the mandibular ramus and temporomandibular joint before orthognathic surgery is the indicated treatment for cases MIIB and MIII. The goal of this article is to establish a surgical treatment algorithm for orthognathic surgery on patients with craniofacial microsomia, analyzing the points that allow the ideal treatment for each patient to be chosen. PMID:25674375

  5. Newborn craniofacial malformations: orofacial clefting and craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, J Austin; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2015-06-01

    Craniofacial malformations are among the most common birth defects. Although most cases of orofacial clefting and craniosynostosis are isolated and sporadic, these abnormalities are associated with a wide range of genetic syndromes, and making the appropriate diagnosis can guide management and counseling. Patients with craniofacial malformation are best cared for in a multidisciplinary clinic that can coordinate the care delivered by a diverse team of providers.

  6. A comprehensive analysis of craniofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Hussain, K; Wijetunge, D B; Grubnic, S; Jackson, I T

    1994-01-01

    A review of the literature identified a need for a prospective study of the complete range of craniofacial trauma. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence, etiology, and mechanisms of craniofacial and associated injuries, enabling a greater understanding of their range and magnitude. Nine hundred fifty consecutive patients seen at an urban university hospital with any degree of craniofacial trauma were prospectively investigated. Craniofacial trauma was found to be very common at all ages. The causes were directly related to age, sex, and alcohol consumption, and determine the type and severity of injury. The commonest cause of soft-tissue injury was falls, whereas that of fractures was interpersonal violence. Falls accounted for most of the injuries in children and the elderly, whereas interpersonal violence was mainly responsible for those occurring in patients aged 15 to 50 years. Interpersonal violence mostly involved young male adults: fights occurring mainly between strangers who had consumed excessive amounts of alcohol. Women were usually assaulted by assailants known to them, their partners. Pedestrians showed a propensity to sustain cranial fractures, whereas motor vehicle occupants tended to sustain midfacial fractures and bicyclists mandibular fractures. Pedestrians incurred the severest injuries of all road users, and a significant proportion of road user collisions involved bicyclists. Sports were responsible for a significant proportion of craniofacial injuries in youths and young adults. Craniofacial soft-tissue injuries overall occurred most frequently on the forehead, nose, lips, and chin, and a method for their classification is proposed. The commonest craniofacial fracture was that of the nasal bones (45%), followed by cranial bones (24%), mandible (13%), zygoma (13%), orbital blow-out (3%), and maxilla (2%). The incidence of craniofacial trauma can be greatly reduced by improvements in interior home design, school education in

  7. Craniofacial and Dental Development in Costello Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Alice F.; Oberoi, Snehlata; Landan, Maya; Charles, Cyril; Massie, Jessica C.; Fairley, Cecilia; Rauen, Katherine A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a RASopathy characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological, and developmental abnormalities. The RASopathies are defined as a group of syndromes caused by activated Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Specifically, CS is caused by activating mutations in HRAS. Although receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, which is upstream of Ras/MAPK, is known to play a critical role in craniofacial and dental development, the craniofacial and dental features of CS have not been systematically defined in a large group of individuals. In order to address this gap in our understanding and fully characterize the CS phenotype, we evaluated the craniofacial and dental phenotype in a large cohort (n=41) of CS individuals. We confirmed that the craniofacial features common in CS include macrocephaly, bitemporal narrowing, convex facial profile, full cheeks, and large mouth. Additionally, CS patients have a characteristic dental phenotype that includes malocclusion with anterior open bite and posterior crossbite, enamel hypo-mineralization, delayed tooth development and eruption, gingival hyperplasia, thickening of the alveolar ridge, and high palate. Comparison of the craniofacial and dental phenotype in CS with other RASopathies, such as cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), provides insight into the complexities of Ras/MAPK signaling in human craniofacial and dental development. PMID:24668879

  8. The 50 Most Cited Papers in Craniofacial Anomalies and Craniofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Cormac W; Thomas, Sangeetha; Concannon, Elizabeth; Murray, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Background Citation analysis is a recognized scientometric method of classifying cited articles according to the frequency of which they have been referenced. The total number of citations an article receives is considered to reflect it's significance among it's peers. Methods Until now, a bibliometric analysis has never been performed in the specialty of craniofacial anomalies and craniofacial surgery. This citation analysis generates an extensive list of the 50 most influential papers in this developing field. Journals specializing in craniofacial surgery, maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, neurosurgery, genetics and pediatrics were searched to demonstrate which articles have cultivated the specialty within the past 55 years. Results The results show an intriguing compilation of papers which outline the fundamental knowledge of craniofacial anomalies and the developments of surgical techniques to manage these patients. Conclusions This citation analysis provides a summation of the current most popular trends in craniofacial literature. These esteemed papers aid to direct our decision making today within this specialty. PMID:26430626

  9. Progressive bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, C.G.; Andren, L.; Olivecrona, H.

    1982-03-01

    Observation of a case of progressive bilateral parietal thinning within a period of 14 years induced us to study skull films of 3 636 consecutive patients. Parietal thinning was found in 86 patients (2.37%). It was more common in women, with a sex ratio of 1:1.9. The mean age of the females was 72 years, and that of the males 63 years. Previous skull films of 25 of these patients were available and showed progression in 10. It is concluded that parietal thinning is a slowly progressive disease of middle-aged and old patients and is not an anatomical variant or congenital dysplasia of the dipole.

  10. Unfavourable results in craniofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Craniofacial surgery is one of the newer subspecialties of plastic surgery and owes its birth to the pioneering work of Paul Tessier in the late sixties. Since then this challenging specialty work has been taken up by many centres around the word including India. Initial reports in late eighties and early nineties showed morbidity and mortality ranging from 1.6% to 4.3%. However over past few decades, with improved instrumentations, safer anaesthesia and cumulative experience of surgeons the morbidity and mortality has been brought down to as low as 0.1% in many centres in USA. In our centre at Post-graduate Institute, Chandigarh, the mortality rate is about 0.8% (4 out of 480 cases). The learning curve in this surgery is rather steep but with experience and a well-coordinated team work, results in this complex subspecialty can be improved. The infection is a major cause for worry but can be easily prevented by sound surgical principles and placing a vascularised tissue barrier between the extradural space and the nasopharynx/sinus mucosa. PMID:24501456

  11. Photographic protocol for image acquisition in craniofacial microsomia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a congenital condition associated with orbital, mandibular, ear, nerve, and soft tissue anomalies. We present a standardized, two-dimensional, digital photographic protocol designed to capture the common craniofacial features associated with CFM. PMID:22208766

  12. Attentional functions of parietal and frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Peers, Polly V; Ludwig, Casimir J H; Rorden, Chris; Cusack, Rhodri; Bonfiglioli, Claudia; Bundesen, Claus; Driver, Jon; Antoun, Nagui; Duncan, John

    2005-10-01

    A model of normal attentional function, based on the concept of competitive parallel processing, is used to compare attentional deficits following parietal and frontal lobe lesions. Measurements are obtained for visual processing speed, capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), spatial bias (bias to left or right hemifield) and top-down control (selective attention based on task relevance). The results show important differences, but also surprising similarities, in parietal and frontal lobe patients. For processing speed and VSTM, deficits are selectively associated with parietal lesions, in particular lesions of the temporoparietal junction. We discuss explanations based on either grey matter or white matter lesions. In striking contrast, measures of attentional weighting (spatial bias and top-down control) are predicted by simple lesion volume. We suggest that attentional weights reflect competition between broadly distributed object representations. Parietal and frontal mechanisms work together, both in weighting by location and weighting by task context.

  13. Parietal eye nerve in the fence lizard.

    PubMed

    EAKIN, R M; STEBBINS, R C

    1959-12-01

    A nerve from the parietal eye of the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is described as leaving inconspicuously from the third-eye and extending caudally under the dura mater and then ventrally along the left anterolateral surface of the epiphysis to the habenular commissure of the brain. The existence of a parietal nerve must be considered in interpreting the effects of parietalectomy. PMID:13819089

  14. Dramatic Cataplexy Improvement Following Right Parietal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fam, David J.; Shammi, Prathiba; Mainprize, Todd G.; Murray, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the case of a 34-year-old woman with severe narcolepsy with cataplexy who experienced a dramatic reduction in cataplexy symptoms after resection of a right parietal astrocytoma. The patient underwent detailed neurological exam, neuropsychological testing, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing following surgery. Citation: Fam DJ, Shammi P, Mainprize TG, Murray BJ. Dramatic cataplexy improvement following right parietal surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):829–830. PMID:25902819

  15. The craniofacial complex in 47, XXX females.

    PubMed

    Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Krusinskie, Viktorija; Alvesalo, Lassi; Sidlauskas, Antanas

    2005-08-01

    A study of the craniofacial complex in four 47, XXX Finnish females, or females with an extra X chromosome, was carried out using cephalometric analysis comprising linear and angular measurements. The lengths of the anterior and posterior cranial bases, the calvarium, mandibular ramus and posterior and upper anterior face heights were found to be significantly shorter than in female controls, while the angles between the foraminal and clival planes, the mandibular plane and cranial base, the maxillary and occlusal planes, the maxillary and mandibular planes and the foraminal and mandibular planes, and also the gonial angle, were significantly enlarged. The present findings of reduced linear measurements, together with the results of studies on the craniofacial complex of 47, XXY and 47, XYY males, suggest dimensional variation between these groups from the promoting effect of an extra Y chromosome and the retarding effect of an extra X chromosome on craniofacial growth.

  16. Craniofacial ontogeny in Centrosaurus apertus.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Joseph A; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison R

    2014-01-01

    Centrosaurus apertus, a large bodied ceratopsid from the Late Cretaceous of North America, is one of the most common fossils recovered from the Belly River Group. This fossil record shows a wide diversity in morphology and size, with specimens ranging from putative juveniles to fully-grown individuals. The goal of this study was to reconstruct the ontogenetic changes that occur in the craniofacial skeleton of C. apertus through a quantitative cladistic analysis. Forty-seven cranial specimens were independently coded in separate data matrices for 80 hypothetical multistate growth characters and 130 hypothetical binary growth characters. Both analyses yielded the max-limit of 100,000 most parsimonious saved trees and the strict consensus collapsed into large polytomies. In order to reduce conflict resulting from missing data, fragmentary individuals were removed and the analyses were rerun. Among both the complete and the reduced data sets the multistate analyses recovered a shorter tree with a higher consistency index (CI) than the additive binary data sets. The arrangement within the trees shows a progression of specimens with a recurved nasal horn in the least mature individuals, followed by specimens with straight nasal horns in relatively more mature individuals, and finally specimens with procurved nasal horns in the most mature individuals. The most mature individuals are further characterized by the reduction of the cranial horn ornamentations in late growth stages, a trait that similarly occurs in the growth of other dinosaurs. Bone textural changes were found to be sufficient proxies for relative maturity in individuals that have not reached adult size. Additionally, frill length is congruent with relative maturity status and makes an acceptable proxy for ontogenetic status, especially in smaller individuals. In adult-sized individuals, the fusion of the epiparietals and episquamosals and the orientation of the nasal horn are the best indicators of relative

  17. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling, muscle enhancement and tooth development. In this paper the influence of growth hormone on oral tissues is reviewed. PMID:25674165

  18. A Case of Craniofacial Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Justin; Carson, William

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with craniofacial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is relatively rare and usually presents in late childhood/early adulthood. It is occasionally associated with endocrine disorders such as McCune-Albright syndrome. The benign pathology of this bone tumor belies its implications in the region of the skull base. Craniofacial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia can have devastating complications depending on which ostia are involved, including vision loss. Our patient was already beginning to experience visual field deficits from ischemic neuropathy. He was treated surgically with optic nerve decompression; however, the efficacy of this approach is currently being debated. PMID:22470752

  19. Gastrin receptors on isolated canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soll, A.H.; Amirian, D.A.; Thomas, L.P.; Reedy, T.J.; Elashoff, J.D.

    1984-05-01

    The receptors in the fundic mucosa that mediate gastrin stimulation of acid secretion have been studied. Synthetic human gastrin-17-I (G17) with a leucine substitution in the 15th position ((Leu15)-G17) was iodinated by chloramine T; high saturable binding was found to enzyme-dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells. /sup 127/I-(Leu15)-G17, but not /sup 127/I-G17, retained binding potency and biological activity comparable with uniodinated G17. Fundic mucosal cells were separated by size by using an elutriator rotor, and specific /sup 125/I-(Leu-15)-G17 binding in the larger cell fractions was highly correlated with the distribution of parietal cells. There was, however, specific gastrin binding in the small cell fractions, not accounted for by parietal cells. Using sequential elutriation and stepwise density gradients, highly enriched parietal and chief cell fractions were prepared; /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding correlated positively with the parietal cell (r . 0.98) and negatively with chief cell content (r . -0.96). In fractions enriched to 45-65% parietal cells, specific /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding was rapid, reaching a steady state at 37 degrees C within 30 min. Dissociation was also rapid, with the rate similar after 100-fold dilution or dilution plus excess pentagastrin. At a tracer concentration from 10 to 30 pM, saturable binding was 7.8 +/- 0.8% per 10(6) cells (mean +/- SE) and binding in the presence of excess pentagastrin accounted for 11% of total binding. G17 and carboxyl terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (26-33) were equipotent in displacing tracer binding and in stimulating parietal cell function ((/sup 14/C)aminopyrine accumulation), whereas the tetrapeptide of gastrin (14-17) had a much lower potency. Proglumide inhibited gastrin binding and selectively inhibited gastrin stimulation of parietal cell function.

  20. The Quadratojugal of Eryops studied by computed tomography and the morphological variability of foramina and canals in the quadratojugal of basal tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Čerňanský, Andrej; Witzmann, Florian; Klembara, Jozef; van Heteren, Anneke H

    2016-08-01

    With respect to its large size and abundance, Eryops is an important representative of Permo-Carboniferous basal tetrapods and one of the best-known large temnospondyl amphibians of this period. This taxon forms a significant component of the Early Permian tetrapod fauna of Texas and New Mexico and here we describe a new record of skull remains, the first one from Brushy Creek (30 km northeast of Seymour) in Texas (Petrolia Formation, Wichita Group; Lower Permian - lower Artinskian). Our material, found in 2015, consists of a left nasal, a jaw fragment (premaxilla or maxilla), left quadratojugal fragments, and a partial left mandible. We used computed tomography methods (micro-CT) for imaging both internal and external structures, for the first time, for Eryops. The quadratojugal presented here is exceptional compared to all known basal tetrapods in having four different internal foramina. CT data show that these foramina are interconnected by canals within the bone. This indicates that the morphology of the foramina and the course of the canals in the quadratojugal of basal tetrapods are more variable than hitherto thought. Anat Rec, 299:1073-1079, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Quadratojugal of Eryops studied by computed tomography and the morphological variability of foramina and canals in the quadratojugal of basal tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Čerňanský, Andrej; Witzmann, Florian; Klembara, Jozef; van Heteren, Anneke H

    2016-08-01

    With respect to its large size and abundance, Eryops is an important representative of Permo-Carboniferous basal tetrapods and one of the best-known large temnospondyl amphibians of this period. This taxon forms a significant component of the Early Permian tetrapod fauna of Texas and New Mexico and here we describe a new record of skull remains, the first one from Brushy Creek (30 km northeast of Seymour) in Texas (Petrolia Formation, Wichita Group; Lower Permian - lower Artinskian). Our material, found in 2015, consists of a left nasal, a jaw fragment (premaxilla or maxilla), left quadratojugal fragments, and a partial left mandible. We used computed tomography methods (micro-CT) for imaging both internal and external structures, for the first time, for Eryops. The quadratojugal presented here is exceptional compared to all known basal tetrapods in having four different internal foramina. CT data show that these foramina are interconnected by canals within the bone. This indicates that the morphology of the foramina and the course of the canals in the quadratojugal of basal tetrapods are more variable than hitherto thought. Anat Rec, 299:1073-1079, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27224928

  2. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks. PMID:24240765

  3. The differentiation and morphogenesis of craniofacial muscles.

    PubMed

    Noden, Drew M; Francis-West, Philippa

    2006-05-01

    Unraveling the complex tissue interactions necessary to generate the structural and functional diversity present among craniofacial muscles is challenging. These muscles initiate their development within a mesenchymal population bounded by the brain, pharyngeal endoderm, surface ectoderm, and neural crest cells. This set of spatial relations, and in particular the segmental properties of these adjacent tissues, are unique to the head. Additionally, the lack of early epithelialization in head mesoderm necessitates strategies for generating discrete myogenic foci that may differ from those operating in the trunk. Molecular data indeed indicate dissimilar methods of regulation, yet transplantation studies suggest that some head and trunk myogenic populations are interchangeable. The first goal of this review is to present key features of these diversities, identifying and comparing tissue and molecular interactions regulating myogenesis in the head and trunk. Our second focus is on the diverse morphogenetic movements exhibited by craniofacial muscles. Precursors of tongue muscles partly mimic migrations of appendicular myoblasts, whereas myoblasts destined to form extraocular muscles condense within paraxial mesoderm, then as large cohorts they cross the mesoderm:neural crest interface en route to periocular regions. Branchial muscle precursors exhibit yet another strategy, establishing contacts with neural crest populations before branchial arch formation and maintaining these relations through subsequent stages of morphogenesis. With many of the prerequisite stepping-stones in our knowledge of craniofacial myogenesis now in place, discovering the cellular and molecular interactions necessary to initiate and sustain the differentiation and morphogenesis of these neglected craniofacial muscles is now an attainable goal.

  4. Family Members as Participants on Craniofacial Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James; Seaver, Earl; Stevens, George; Whiteley, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Family members (N=83) who participated in professional team staffing concerning treatment plans for their child with a craniofacial difference (typically, cleft lip and/or palate) were surveyed. Ninety-seven percent of respondents said they would choose to meet with the team on their next visit to the clinic. The role of early interventionists on…

  5. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  6. Mouse Models of Rare Craniofacial Disorders.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Annita; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    A rare disease is defined as a condition that affects less than 1 in 2000 individuals. Currently more than 7000 rare diseases have been documented, and most are thought to be of genetic origin. Rare diseases primarily affect children, and congenital craniofacial syndromes and disorders constitute a significant proportion of rare diseases, with over 700 having been described to date. Modeling craniofacial disorders in animal models has been instrumental in uncovering the etiology and pathogenesis of numerous conditions and in some cases has even led to potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. In this chapter, we focus primarily on two general classes of rare disorders, ribosomopathies and ciliopathies, and the surprising finding that the disruption of fundamental, global processes can result in tissue-specific craniofacial defects. In addition, we discuss recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of an extremely rare and specific craniofacial condition known as syngnathia, based on the first mouse models for this condition. Approximately 1% of all babies are born with a minor or major developmental anomaly, and individuals suffering from rare diseases deserve the same quality of treatment and care and attention to their disease as other patients. PMID:26589934

  7. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  8. Psychosocial adjustment and craniofacial malformations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pertschuk, M J; Whitaker, L A

    1985-02-01

    Forty-three children between the ages of 6 and 13 years with congenital facial anomalies underwent psychosocial evaluation prior to surgery. Also evaluated were healthy children matched to the craniofacial subjects by sex, age, intelligence, and economic background. Relative to this comparison group, the craniofacial children were found to have poorer self-concept, greater anxiety at the time of evaluation, and more introversion. Parents of the craniofacial children noted more frequent negative social encounters for their children and more hyperactive behavior at home. Teachers reported more problematic classroom behavior. Examination of these results revealed craniofacial malformations to be associated with psychosocial limitations rather than marked deficits. These children tended to function less well than the comparison children, but with few exceptions, they were not functioning in a psychosocially deviant range. Explanations for the observed circumscribed impact of facial deformity include the use of denial as a coping mechanism, possible diminished significance of appearance for younger children, and the restricted environment experienced by most of the subjects. It can be predicted that time would render these protective influences ineffective, so that adolescent and young adult patients could be at far greater psychosocial risk. PMID:3969404

  9. Translational genetics: advancing fronts for craniofacial health.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, R N; Dunnwald, M; Dunnvald, M; Frazier-Bowers, S; Polverini, P J; Wright, J T; de Rouen, T; Vieira, A R

    2013-12-01

    Scientific opportunities have never been better than today! The completion of the Human Genome project has sparked hope and optimism that cures for debilitating conditions can be achieved and tailored to individuals and communities. The availability of reference genome sequences and genetic variations as well as more precise correlations between genotype and phenotype have facilitated the progress made in finding solutions to clinical problems. While certain craniofacial and oral diseases previously deemed too difficult to tackle have benefited from basic science and technological advances over the past decade, there remains a critical need to translate the fruits of several decades' worth of basic and clinical research into tangible therapies that can benefit patients. The fifth Annual Fall Focused Symposium, "Translational Genetics - Advancing Fronts for Craniofacial Health", was created by the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) to foster its mission to advance interdisciplinary research that is directed toward improving oral health. The symposium showcased progress made in identifying molecular targets that are potential therapeutics for common and rare dental diseases and craniofacial disorders. Speakers focused on translational and clinical applications of their research and, where applicable, on strategies for new technologies and therapeutics. The critical needs to transfer new knowledge to the classroom and for further investment in the field were also emphasized. The symposium underscored the importance of basic research, chairside clinical observations, and population-based studies in driving the new translational connections needed for the development of cures for the most common and devastating diseases involving the craniofacial complex. PMID:24097854

  10. Injectable Biomaterials for Regenerating Complex Craniofacial Tissues**

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; Young, Simon; Klouda, Leda; Wong, Mark; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2009-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues requires a precisely formulated combination of cells, spatiotemporally released bioactive factors, and a specialized scaffold support system. Injectable materials, particularly those delivered in aqueous solution, are considered ideal delivery vehicles for cells and bioactive factors and can also be delivered through minimally invasive methods and fill complex 3D shapes. In this review, we examine injectable materials that form scaffolds or networks capable of both replacing tissue function early after delivery and supporting tissue regeneration over a time period of weeks to months. The use of these materials for tissue engineering within the craniofacial complex is challenging but ideal as many highly specialized and functional tissues reside within a small volume in the craniofacial structures and the need for minimally invasive interventions is desirable due to aesthetic considerations. Current biomaterials and strategies used to treat craniofacial defects are examined, followed by a review of craniofacial tissue engineering, and finally an examination of current technologies used for injectable scaffold development and drug and cell delivery using these materials. PMID:19750143

  11. Spatial updating in human parietal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Elisha P.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Colby, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    Single neurons in monkey parietal cortex update visual information in conjunction with eye movements. This remapping of stimulus representations is thought to contribute to spatial constancy. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in human parietal cortex and that we could visualize it with functional MRI. We scanned subjects during a task that involved remapping of visual signals across hemifields. We observed an initial response in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual stimulus, followed by a remapped response in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulus. We ruled out the possibility that this remapped response resulted from either eye movements or visual stimuli alone. Our results demonstrate that updating of visual information occurs in human parietal cortex.

  12. Parietal Lobes in Schizophrenia: Do They Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Murat; Borgwardt, Stefan J.; Berger, Gregor E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Despite observations that abnormal parietal lobe (PL) function is associated with psychotic-like experiences, our knowledge about the nature of PL involvement in schizophrenia is modest. The objective of this paper is to investigate the role of the PL in schizophrenia. Method. Medline databases were searched for English language publications using the following key words: parietal lobe, combined with schizophrenia, lesions, epilepsy, cognition, rare genetic disorders, MRI, fMRI, PET, and SPECT, respectively, followed by cross-checking of references. Results. Imaging studies in childhood onset schizophrenia suggest that grey matter abnormalities start in parietal and occipital lobes and proceed to frontal regions. Although, the findings are inconsistent, several studies with patients at risk to develop schizophrenia indicate early changes in the PL. Conclusions. We want to propose that in a proportion of individuals with emerging schizophrenia structural and functional alterations may start in the PL and progress to frontal regions. PMID:22937268

  13. Posterior parietal cortex and developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Rusiak, Patrycja

    2005-01-01

    Dyslexia is defined as a specific reading disorder despite normal intelligence and conventional teaching. One of the most influential theories attempting to explain problems suffered by dyslexics assumes that dyslexia is caused by deficits of the magnocellular system. This system, generally responsible for processing fast sensory information, projects mostly to the parietal cortex. Consistent with this theory, dyslexics should have problems with tasks which specifically involve parietal cortex. In the article, we review data and show that, indeed, dyslexics have problems with fast attention shifts, show some symptoms of mild unilateral neglect syndrome and have abnormal saccadic and pursuit eye movements. Little is known about visuo-motor coordination and mental rotation, the tasks in which the parietal cortex is thought to play important roles.

  14. Future and training of craniofacial surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vaibhav; Upadhyaya, Divya Narain

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial surgery, in the strictest sense, is the surgery of structures above and behind the maxilla. Craniofacial surgery is not new to India and has been around for more than 4 decades now since the 1970s. Keeping in mind the promotion of the specialty in India, an Indian Craniofacial Foundation was launched in the year 2012 at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India. To develop a craniofacial center in India, the primary requirement is a source of funding. Several craniofacial centers, which are already running successfully in India, have amply demonstrated that this can be done in several ways. We would like to discuss here the 2 models of craniofacial service delivery and training that the authors have seen and experienced firsthand.

  15. From visual affordances in monkey parietal cortex to hippocampo-parietal interactions underlying rat navigation.

    PubMed Central

    Arbib, M A

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the hypothesis that various subregions (but by no means all) of the posterior parietal cortex are specialized to process visual information to extract a variety of affordances for behaviour. Two biologically based models of regions of the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey are introduced. The model of the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) emphasizes its roles in dynamic remapping of the representation of targets during a double saccade task, and in combining stored, updated input with current visual input. The model of the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) addresses parietal-premotor interactions involved in grasping, and analyses the interaction between the AIP and premotor area F5. The model represents the role of other intraparietal areas working in concert with the inferotemporal cortex as well as with corollary discharge from F5 to provide and augment the affordance information in the AIP, and suggests how various constraints may resolve the action opportunities provided by multiple affordances. Finally, a systems-level model of hippocampo parietal interactions underlying rat navigation is developed, motivated by the monkey data used in developing the above two models as well as by data on neurones in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey that are sensitive to visual motion. The formal similarity between dynamic remapping (primate saccades) and path integration (rat navigation) is noted, and certain available data on rat posterior parietal cortex in terms of affordances for locomotion are explained. The utility of further modelling, linking the World Graph model of cognitive maps for motivated behaviour with hippocampal-parietal interactions involved in navigation, is also suggested. These models demonstrate that posterior parietal cortex is not only itself a network of interacting subsystems, but functions through cooperative computation with many other brain regions. PMID:9368931

  16. 77 FR 74676 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 80953 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 20693 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  14. 77 FR 71605 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Rm. 676, Bethesda, MD...

  15. Craniofacial malformation among endemic cretins in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Israel, H; Johnson, G F; Fierro-Benitez, R

    1983-01-01

    Nearly 6% of the inhabitants of two villages in Ecuador are deaf-mute and mentally retarded cretins. These communities are situated in the Andean highlands where environmental and dietary stores of iodine are extremely scarce. Endemic goiter and cretinism are widespread, and 10% of the cretins are additionally burdened with dwarfism and facial dysmorphia. Those with obvious involvement of the skeletal system were selected in order to study the extent of craniofacial malformation. Their appearance is characterized by midface hypoplasia, a broad nose with a depressed bridge, and a conspicuous circumoral prominence. Radiographic evaluation demonstrates a vertical displacement of the cranial base with an associated upward tilt of the midface. The flattened frontal bone, reduced frontal sinus pneumatization, and diminutive nasal bones collectively create a backward sloping face. The defect in the craniofacial skeleton of these Ecuadorian cretins is characteristic, and it readily sets them apart from the dysmorphism of those cretins with myxedema. PMID:6874895

  16. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Merks, Johannes H. M.; Saeed, Peerooz; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Bras, Johannes; Pieters, Bradley R.; Adam, Judit A.; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3–5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. PMID:20725831

  17. Developmental craniofacial anthropometry: Assessment of Race effects

    PubMed Central

    Durtschi, Reid B.; Chung, Dongjun; Gentry, Lindell R.; Chung, Moo K.; Vorperian, Houri K.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in craniofacial anatomy among racial groups have been documented in a variety of structures but the oral and maxillofacial regions have been shown to be a particularly defining region of variability between different racial/ethnic groups. Such comparisons are informative, but they neither address developmental changes of the craniofacial anatomy, nor do they assess or take into account the natural variability within individual races that may account for similar reported, across-group variations. The purpose of this report was to compare – using medical imaging studies – the growth trend of select race sensitive craniofacial variables in the oral and pharyngeal regions when all races: White, Asian, Black, and Hispanic (AR) are included versus only a single race category: White (WR). Race effect was tested by comparing sex specific growth fits (4th degree polynomial model) for AR versus WR data. Findings indicate that the inclusion of all races versus a single race did not significantly alter the growth model fits. Thus, the inclusion of all races permits the advancement of general growth models; however, methodologically it is best to treat the race variable as a covariate in all future analysis to test for both potential all race effects or individual race effects, on general growth models. PMID:19753647

  18. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    PubMed Central

    Ewings, Ember L.; Carstens, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier's observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier's empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way. PMID:19884675

  19. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  20. [Preoperative diagnosis of complex craniofacial syndromes].

    PubMed

    Haers, P E; Warnke, T; Carls, F R; Zollikofer, C P; Stucki, P; Locher, M C; Sailer, H F

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stereolithography as a tool in craniofacial surgery. The indications were classified according to the usefulness of stereolithography for different craniofacial pathologies. Stereolithography models of 21 patients were built; in three cases two models were made. The age of the 7 male and 14 female patients was 17 years on average (range: 15 months-44 years). First a helical volume CT scan of the anatomical region was performed. After transformation of the data set, the models were built by an SLA 250 stereolithography apparatus (3D-Systems, Valencia, Calif., USA), steered by FORM-IT/DCS-Software (University of Zurich, Switzerland). The stereolithography models were constructed by superposition of epoxy resin slices of 0.05 mm thickness, which were polymerized by a helium-cadmium laser. These models were classified according to the indication for stereolithography, the operation performed, the relevance for surgical planning and the usefulness for the fabrication of implants and protheses. In craniofacial syndromes, severe asymmetries of the viscerocranium, large skull defects and before surgical correction of hypertelorism these models provided important additional information for the surgeon. Before complex interventions in these fields the construction of a stereolithography model should be considered. In multiple fractures consolidated in dislocation, the models proved to be less useful.

  1. Craniofacial and Dental Findings in Cystinosis

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, CW; Gautam, P; Domingo, DL; Balog, JZ; Guadagnini, JP; Gahl, WA; Hart, TC

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder with developmental and mineralization anomalies as part of its clinical presentation. The objective of this study was to provide the first systematic assessment of the craniofacial and dental characteristics associated with cystinosis. Study Design Oral and radiographic evaluations were performed on 73 patients with cystinosis. Analyses of cephalometry (n=20), taurodontism (n=47), caries (n=47), enamel defects (n=48), soft tissue anomalies (n=48), and dental age (n=41) were performed on the cystinosis group, and compared with age- and sex- comparable controls or standards. Results Cystinosis patients manifested relative mandibular deficiency, an increased facial height, and a reduced airway space. Taurodontism and enamel defects were significantly more prevalent in cystinosis patients compared with controls (p<0.0001 and p=0.027, respectively). Children (aged < 15 years) with cystinosis also demonstrated a significant delay, of almost 9 months, of their dental development (p<0.001). Conclusion Novel craniofacial and dental features are associated with cystinosis. Craniofacial deficiencies may influence the swallowing and respiratory complications seen in cystinosis. Renal pathology and associated mineral imbalance may explain the dental root and enamel anomalies found in cystinosis patients; the developmental delays in cystinosis include delayed dental formation. PMID:20233313

  2. [Mechanisms of growth, development and disease of the craniofacial skeleton].

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial skeleton is derived from several pieces of bone, which hold the brain and house the sensory organ of vision, hearing, taste and smell. It also serves as an entrance of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Hence, craniofacial complex develops under sophisticated balance between the shape and the function. Disruption of such balance leads to various types of malformation and/or deformation of the face. This review focuses on the molecular aspects of growth and developments of the craniofacial structures and also on the genetic basis of congenital craniofacial malformations.

  3. Predictors of mental health in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions attending the Australian craniofacial unit.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2013-07-01

    Objective : Adults with craniofacial conditions experience more psychosocial problems than adults in the general population, but little is known about the factors that render a person more or less susceptible to these problems. Guided by research on adults with other conditions that affect appearance, this study examined predictors of psychosocial outcome in adults with craniofacial conditions. Design : Single-sample cross-sectional design. Setting : The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Participants : Adults (N  =  93; 36.9% of the potential sample) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip and/or cleft palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. Main Outcome Measures : All participants completed measures assessing anxiety, depression, and quality of life (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form Health Survey) and variables predicted to affect these outcomes (SF-36 Health Survey - Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cleft Satisfaction Profile, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Derriford Appearance Scale). Results : Multiple regression analyses revealed that anxiety was predicted by social support, self-esteem, and fear of negative evaluation, while depression was predicted by self-esteem and social support. Physical quality of life was not predicted by any of the measures. Satisfaction with appearance, gender, age, and education were not related to outcome. Conclusions : Interventions designed to increase perceived social support and self-esteem and reduce fear of negative evaluation appear to be indicated and may assist in establishing a causal relationship between these variables. PMID:22324967

  4. Atrophy of the Parietal Lobe in Preclinical Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Heidi I. L.; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M.; Verhey, Frans R.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults…

  5. The left parietal cortex and motor attention.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, M F; Nixon, P D; Renowden, S; Wade, D T; Passingham, R E

    1997-09-01

    The posterior parietal cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, is crucially important for covert orienting; lesions impair the ability to disengage the focus of covert orienting attention from one potential saccade target to another (Posner, M. I. et al., Journal of Neuroscience, 1984, 4, 1863-1874). We have developed a task where precues allow subjects to covertly prepare subsequent cued hand movements, as opposed to an orienting or eye movement. We refer to this process as motor attention to distinguish it from orienting attention. Nine subjects with lesions that included the left parietal cortex and nine subjects with lesions including the right parietal cortex were compared with control subjects on the task. The left hemisphere subjects showed the same ability as controls to engage attention to a movement when they were forewarned by a valid precue. The left hemisphere subjects, however, were impaired in their ability to disengage the focus of motor attention from one movement to another when the precue was incorrect. The results support the existence of two distinct attentional systems allied to the orienting and limb motor systems. Damage to either system causes analogous problems in disengaging from one orienting/movement target to another. The left parietal cortex, particularly the supramarginal gyrus, is associated with motor attention. All the left hemisphere subjects had ideomotor apraxia and had particular problems performing sequences of movements. We suggest that the well documented left hemisphere and apraxic impairment in movement sequencing is the consequence of a difficulty in shifting the focus of motor attention from one movement in a sequence to the next. PMID:9364496

  6. Facing up to the Challenges of Advancing Craniofacial Research

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Paul A.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are among the most common human birth defects and have considerable functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. The early developmental origin as well as the anatomical complexity of the head and face render these tissues prone to genetic and environmental insult. The establishment of craniofacial clinics offering comprehensive care for craniofacial patients at a single site together with international research networks focused on the origins and treatment of craniofacial disorders has led to tremendous advances in our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital craniofacial anomalies. However, the genetic, environmental, and developmental sources of many craniofacial disorders remain unknown. To overcome this problem and further advance craniofacial research, we must recognize current challenges in the field and establish priority areas for study. We still need (i) a deeper understanding of variation during normal development and within the context of any disorder, (ii) improved genotyping and phenotyping and understanding of the impact of epigenetics, (iii) continued development of animal models and functional analyses of genes and variants, and (iv) integration of patient derived cells and tissues together with 3D printing and quantitative assessment of surgical outcomes for improved practice. Only with fundamental advances in each of these areas will we be able to meet the challenge of translating potential therapeutic and preventative approaches into clinical solutions and reduce the financial and emotional burden of craniofacial anomalies. PMID:25820983

  7. Facing up to the challenges of advancing Craniofacial Research.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Paul A; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are among the most common human birth defects and have considerable functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. The early developmental origin as well as the anatomical complexity of the head and face render these tissues prone to genetic and environmental insult. The establishment of craniofacial clinics offering comprehensive care for craniofacial patients at a single site together with international research networks focused on the origins and treatment of craniofacial disorders has led to tremendous advances in our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital craniofacial anomalies. However, the genetic, environmental, and developmental sources of many craniofacial disorders remain unknown. To overcome this problem and further advance craniofacial research, we must recognize current challenges in the field and establish priority areas for study. We still need (i) a deeper understanding of variation during normal development and within the context of any disorder, (ii) improved genotyping and phenotyping and understanding of the impact of epigenetics, (iii) continued development of animal models and functional analyses of genes and variants, and (iv) integration of patient derived cells and tissues together with 3D printing and quantitative assessment of surgical outcomes for improved practice. Only with fundamental advances in each of these areas will we be able to meet the challenge of translating potential therapeutic and preventative approaches into clinical solutions and reduce the financial and emotional burden of craniofacial anomalies.

  8. Craniofacial dysmorphology: Studies in honor of Samuel Pruzansky

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.M.; Rollnick, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 31 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Regional Specification of Cell-Specific Gene Expression During Craniofacial Development; Timing Cleft Palate Closure - Age Should Not Be the Sole Determinant; Excess of Parental Non-Righthandedness in Children with Right-Sided Cleft Lip: A Preliminary Report; and The Application of Roentgencephalometry to the Study of Craniofacial Anomalies.

  9. OCT imaging of craniofacial anatomy in xenopus embryos (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Engin; Jonas, Stephan M.; Griffin, John; Hooper, Michael C.; Choma, Michael A.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of craniofacial defects is incompletely understood. The ability to obtain large amounts of gene sequence data from families affected by craniofacial defects is opening up new ways to understand molecular genetic etiological factors. One important link between gene sequence data and clinical relevance is biological research into candidate genes and molecular pathways. We present our recent research using OCT as a nondestructive phenotyping modality of craniofacial morphology in Xenopus embryos, an important animal model for biological research in gene and pathway discovery. We define 2D and 3D scanning protocols for a standardized approach to craniofacial imaging in Xenopus embryos. We define standard views and planar reconstructions for visualizing normal anatomy and landmarks. We compare these views and reconstructions to traditional histopathology using alcian blue staining. In addition to being 3D, nondestructive, and having much faster throughout, OCT can identify craniofacial features that are lost during traditional histopathological preparation. We also identify quantitative morphometric parameters to define normative craniofacial anatomy. We also note that craniofacial and cardiac defects are not infrequently present in the same patient (e.g velocardiofacial syndrome). Given that OCT excels at certain aspects of cardiac imaging in Xenopus embryos, our work highlights the potential of using OCT and Xenopus to study molecular genetic factors that impact both cardiac and craniofacial development.

  10. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial...: Marilyn Moore-Hoon, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of...

  11. Development of Volunteer International Craniofacial Surgery Missions: The Komedyplast Protocol.

    PubMed

    Taub, Peter James; Lin, Alexander Y; Cladis, Franklyn P; Baker, Stephen B; Gooden, Cheryl K; Kumar, Anand; Losee, Joseph E; Menard, Robert; Starks, Red; Duncan, John A; De Pawlikowski, Wieslawa; Cecchi, Andres Wiegering; Weinzweig, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Volunteer surgical missions to provide cleft care to patients in developing countries has been done successfully for a number of years. Similar missions that provide craniofacial surgery introduce a dramatic step up in complexity. While articles have addressed protocols for the safe delivery of cleft care around the world, little has been written on volunteer craniofacial surgical missions. Komedyplast was established in March 2001 as a 501c(3) nonprofit organization to provide craniofacial surgical care to underserved populations and educate local surgeons in craniofacial principles. During 9 annual missions, the organization has provided surgical care to more than 150 patients with various complex, congenital, craniofacial conditions. The article addresses important safeguards that have been implemented to maximize safety and minimize risk.

  12. Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized. PMID:22110789

  13. Autologus parietal grafts in preprosthethic surgery

    PubMed Central

    GHERLONE, E.F.; VINCI, R.; D’AVERSA, L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Edentulous patients usually request implant supported/fixed rehabilitation. Ridge resorption after teeth loss usually affect three-dimensional implant position. Vertical and/or horizontal bone augmentation procedures are often the only choice the clinician has to deliver prosthetic guided restoration. Gold standard for augmentation procedures such as sinus lift, onlay or inlay grafts, is still autologous bone. The patient in this report underwent a pre-prosthetic reconstruction of the jaws with parietal bone, followed by fixtures insertion and fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. This clinical report aims to underline the importance of multidisciplinary treatment to optimize the results of the rehabilitation. PMID:23285358

  14. Navigating from hippocampus to parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Sutherland, Robert J.; Witter, Menno P.; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I.

    2008-01-01

    The navigational system of the mammalian cortex comprises a number of interacting brain regions. Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex and place cells in the hippocampus are thought to participate in the formation of a dynamic representation of the animal's current location, and these cells are presumably critical for storing the representation in memory. To traverse the environment, animals must be able to translate coordinate information from spatial maps in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus into body-centered representations that can be used to direct locomotion. How this is done remains an enigma. We propose that the posterior parietal cortex is critical for this transformation. PMID:18812502

  15. A novel anthropometric chart for craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Efthimios Andreas; Steinmann, Mark Eugene

    2010-03-01

    Various indices and measurements of the growing cranial vault exist, but there is no single head-shape chart specific to craniofacial surgery. The authors have produced a reliable head-shape chart that will enable accurate charting of patients with craniosynostosis both in the preoperative and postoperative period.One thousand eighty-two participants were used to obtain normal anthropometric measurements, specifically the ear-to-ear measurement and the glabella-to-external occipital protuberance measurement. Both male and female participants aged 6 months to 25 years were used to obtain these measurements. These measurements were correlated with the cephalic index as described by Farkas according to the different age groups.A head-shape chart has been created for males and females using the normal ear-to-ear measurements and the cephalic index that define both qualitative and quantitative elements of the growing skull. Craniofacial surgeons may find this chart useful for managing patients with craniosynostosis. This chart is also useful in the assessment of how the skull grows after surgery.

  16. Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Litsas, G

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has significant effects on linear bone growth, bone mass and bone metabolism. The primary role of GH supplementation in children with GH deficiency, those born small for gestational age or with other types of disorders in somatic development is to increase linear growth. However, GH therapy seems to elicit varying responses in the craniofacial region. Whereas the effects of GH administration on somatic development are well documented, comparatively little is known of its effects on the craniofacial region. The purpose of this review was to search the literature and compile results from both animal and human studies related to the impact of GH on craniofacial growth.

  17. Atrophy of the parietal lobe in preclinical dementia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Heidi I L; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Uylings, Harry B M; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Verhey, Frans R; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-03-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults (38 cognitively stable and 37 individuals with cognitive decline after 3 years). Dementia screening 6 years after scanning resulted in nine AD cases from the cognitively stable (n=3) and cognitive decline group (n=6), who were assigned to a third group, the preclinical AD group. When regional differences in cortical volume in the parietal lobe areas were compared between groups, significant differences were found between either the cognitive decline or stable group on the one hand and preclinical AD individuals on the other hand in the inferior parietal lobule. Group membership was best predicted by the grey matter volume of the inferior parietal lobule, compared to the other parietal lobe areas. The parietal lobe was characterised by a differential atrophy pattern based on cognitive status, which is in agreement with the 'last-developed-first-atrophied' principle. Future studies should investigate the surplus value of the inferior parietal lobe as a potential marker for the diagnosis of AD compared to other brain regions, such as the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal lobe. PMID:21130554

  18. Endodontic treatment of a C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four root canals and three apical foramina: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Thikamphaa

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a unique C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four canals and three apical foramina and its endodontic management with the aid of cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT). C-shaped root canal morphology with four canals was identified under a dental operating microscope. A CBCT scan was taken to evaluate the aberrant root canal anatomy and devise a better instrumentation strategy based on the anatomy. All canals were instrumented to have a 0.05 taper using 1.0 mm step-back filing with appropriate apical sizes determined from the CBCT scan images and filled using a warm vertical compaction technique. A C-shaped mandibular second premolar with multiple canals is an anatomically rare case for clinicians, yet its endodontic treatment may require a careful instrumentation strategy due to the difficulty in disinfecting the canals in the thin root area without compromising the root structure. PMID:26877993

  19. Malignant pilomatricoma in the parietal area.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    A 27-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2.5-cm nodular subcutaneous lesion in the parietal area. The nodule was well demarcated and situated in the dermis and subcutis. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as malignant pilomatricoma. The tumor was excised, the postoperative course was uneventful, no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis was observed, and the patient continues to be under close follow-up. Malignant pilomatricoma, a locally aggressive counterpart of benign pilomatricoma, is also referred to as pilomatrix carcinoma. Most cases are excised as benign tumors; however, when the excision is incomplete local recurrence is likely, and distant metastases have also been reported. Histologically, the diagnosis can be challenging because no clear histologic criteria are available. Because of the rarity of malignant pilomatricoma, no welldefined standards in the surgical management of this neoplasm have been established. Moreover, since distant metastases have been described, close followup of the lesion is requisite.

  20. The pathology of parietal pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. Hefin

    1971-01-01

    The incidence, morbid anatomy, histology, and relationship of hyaline pleural plaques to exposure to asbestos has been studied. Plaques were found in 12·3% of 334 hospital necropsies (in an urban population in Glasgow, 41 cases). In 85·3% (35 cases) asbestos bodies were found in the lungs. There is evidence of a dose-response relationship between the number of asbestos bodies found in the lungs and the presence of pleural plaques. The selective distribution of plaques within the pleural cavities suggests that mechanical factors play a part in their localization. Histological examination contributed little to understanding the mechanism of plaque formation; that asbestos bodies have been detected in only a few cases suggest that their presence in the parietal pleura is not essential to plaque formation. The suggested mechanisms of plaque formation are discussed. Images PMID:5556121

  1. Therapy of percutaneous infection around craniofacial implants.

    PubMed

    Klein, Martin; Weisz, Ilana; Camerer, Christian; Menneking, Horst; Kim, Doris Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to develop treatment strategies for managing percutaneous infection around craniofacial implants. The present general pathogen situation together with a bacterial resistance were determined in 57 infected peri-implant sites. Forty-four implants were randomly assigned for wound cleaning and split into three groups-two with local antibiotics of proven efficacy and one with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The pathogen spectrum differed depending on the severity of the infection, with Staphylococcus aureus clearly correlated with the degree of inflammation (positive correlation: R = 0.72). It was observed that the use of additional local antibiotics was not superior to conventional wound cleaning with 3% H2O2. It is suggested that sulcus fluid flow rate measurements could serve as a simple and reliable objective parameter for recall examinations.

  2. Management of secondary turricephaly in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Sonstein, W J; Hall, C D; Argamaso, R V; Goodrich, J T

    1996-11-01

    In children with syndromic craniofacial disorders, such as Crouzon and Apert syndromes, who are managed surgically, a difficult problem that can occur is secondary turricephaly. One of the more widely accepted theories as to why this deformity occurs is that a lack of skull base growth results from fusion of the basal and facial sutures. Despite initial adequate forehead and orbital bandeau advancement, many of these patients require subsequent procedures, which do not always correct the characteristics deformity. We have identified a subset of 11 syndromic children who developed this characteristic deformity of turricephaly after primary reconstruction, 6 of whom required either secondary or tertiary procedures. Only 5 patients had a good outcome with a mean follow up of 4.5 years (range 1-8 years). Our surgical methods, and our rationale for the timing of surgery are discussed, and the literature on the management of this problem is reviewed.

  3. Heminasal proboscis, a rare craniofacial cleft.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Mohammad Esmaiil; Karimi, Hamid; Hassani, Hosein; Hassani, Ali; Jalili-Manesh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial clefts are extremely rare congenital anomalies, the importance of which lies in their great range of variety of anatomic forms and their complex management. Proboscis is one of the rare cases of this kind in which half of the nose is separated from the face and it is only pedicled on the right or left medial canthal regions by a nose-like, rudimentary tubular structure. This article reports the case of a 3-month-old infant with left-sided proboscis. Left lower eyelid coloboma was also present. The proboscis was treated with local flaps at the age of 3 months, and at the age of 10 months the coloboma was managed. PMID:24275777

  4. Stimulating effect of tongue on craniofacial growth.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, G H; Becker, R; Hübner, A; Pommerenke, F

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the tongue on craniofacial growth was studied in 96 Mini-Lewe miniature pigs. The animals were partially glossectomized at different ages and slaughtered at various intervals after operation. The skulls were macerated for biometric analysis. Mandibular growth was significantly reduced lengthwise in animals glossectomized at age 12 weeks. The role played by the tongue in orofacial growth was also indicated by the reduced width of the lower jaw. In pigs partially glossectomized at age 12 weeks, lateral growth of the entire lower jaw was reduced after eight weeks. In animals glossectomized at age six weeks, lateral growth of the lower jaw was reduced in the region of the 1st deciduous molars and the canines after glossectomy. Partial glossectomy had no significant effects on vertical growth of the lower jaw, growth of the upper jaw or overall skull growth. Shortening of the tongue in miniature pigs six weeks old resulted in no measurable jaw changes 23 weeks after surgery.

  5. Reforming craniofacial orthodontics via stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Pritam; Prasad, N.K.K.; Sahoo, Nivedita; Kumar, Gunjan; Mohanty, Debapreeti; Sah, Sushila

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are the most interesting cells in cell biology. They have the potential to evolve as one of the most powerful technologies in the future. The future refers to an age where it will be used extensively in various fields of medical and dental sciences. Researchers have discovered a number of sources from which stem cells can be derived. Craniofacial problems are very common and occur at all ages. Stem cells can be used therapeutically in almost every field of health science. In fact, many procedures will be reformed after stem cells come into play. This article is an insight into the review of the current researches being carried out on stem cells and its use in the field of orthodontics, which is a specialized branch of dentistry. Although the future is uncertain, there is a great possibility that stem cells will be used extensively in almost all major procedures of orthodontics. PMID:25767761

  6. Application of Digital Anthropometry for Craniofacial Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry is an objective technique based on a series of measurements and proportions, which facilitate the characterization of phenotypic variation and quantification of dysmorphology. With the introduction of stereophotography, it is possible to acquire a lifelike three-dimensional (3D) image of the face with natural color and texture. Most of the traditional anthropometric landmarks can be identified on these 3D photographs using specialized software. Therefore, it has become possible to compute new digital measurements, which were not feasible with traditional instruments. The term “digital anthropometry” has been used by researchers based on such systems to separate their methods from conventional manual measurements. Anthropometry has been traditionally used as a research tool. With the advent of digital anthropometry, this technique can be employed in several disciplines as a noninvasive tool for quantifying facial morphology. The aim of this review is to provide a broad overview of digital anthropometry and discuss its clinical applications. PMID:25050146

  7. Impact of Stem Cells in Craniofacial Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.; Zhao, Hu; Bajpai, Ruchi; Abdelhamid, Alaa I.; Warburton, David

    2012-01-01

    Interest regarding stem cell based therapies for the treatment of congenital or acquired craniofacial deformities is rapidly growing. Craniofacial problems such as periodontal disease, cleft lip and palate, ear microtia, craniofacial microsomia, and head and neck cancers are not only common but also some of the most burdensome surgical problems worldwide. Treatments often require a multi-staged multidisciplinary team approach. Current surgical therapies attempt to reduce the morbidity and social/emotional impact, yet outcomes can still be unpredictable and unsatisfactory. The concept of harvesting stem cells followed by expansion, differentiation, seeding onto a scaffold and re-transplanting them is likely to become a clinical reality. In this review, we will summarize the translational applications of stem cell therapy in tissue regeneration for craniofacial defects. PMID:22737127

  8. Vertical Craniofacial Morphology and its Relation to Temporomandibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bavia, Paula Furlan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study investigated the association between craniofacial morphology and temporomandibular disorders in adults. The influence of different craniofacial morphologies on painful temporomandibular disorders was also evaluated. Material and Methods A total of 200 subjects were selected, including 100 with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and 100 without TMD (control), diagnosed by research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. All subjects were submitted to lateral cephalometric radiographs, and classified as brachyfacial, mesofacial, or dolichofacial by Ricketts’ analysis. Data were analysed by Tukey-Kramer and Chi-square tests. Results No association between craniofacial morphology and TMD was found (P = 0.6622). However, brachyfacial morphology influences the presence of painful TMD (P = 0.0077). Conclusions Craniofacial morphology is not related to temporomandibular disorders in general. PMID:27489610

  9. Computed tomography assessment of peripubertal craniofacial morphology in a sheep model of binge alcohol drinking in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker

  10. Computed tomography assessment of peripubertal craniofacial morphology in a sheep model of binge alcohol drinking in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker

  11. Mandatory Housing Requirements: The Constitutionality of Parietal Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Law Review, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes the validity of parietal rules under both the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. Models of substantive due process and equal protection are developed and applied to the various types of parietal rules that have been implemented at universities throughout the nation. (Author/JT)

  12. Cell autonomous roles of Nedd4 in craniofacial bone formation.

    PubMed

    Wiszniak, Sophie; Harvey, Natasha; Schwarz, Quenten

    2016-02-01

    Nedd4 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has an essential role in craniofacial development. However, how and when Nedd4 controls skull formation is ill defined. Here we have used a collection of complementary genetic mouse models to dissect the cell-autonomous roles of Nedd4 in the formation of neural crest cell derived cranial bone. Removal of Nedd4 specifically from neural crest cells leads to profound craniofacial defects with marked reduction of cranial bone that was preceded by hypoplasia of bone forming osteoblasts. Removal of Nedd4 after differentiation of neural crest cells into progenitors of chondrocytes and osteoblasts also led to profound deficiency of craniofacial bone in the absence of cartilage defects. Notably, these skull malformations were conserved when Nedd4 was specifically removed from the osteoblast lineage after specification of osteoblast precursors from mesenchymal skeletal progenitors. We further show that absence of Nedd4 in pre-osteoblasts results in decreased cell proliferation and altered osteogenic differentiation. Taken together our data demonstrate a novel cell-autonomous role for Nedd4 in promoting expansion of the osteoblast progenitor pool to control craniofacial development. Nedd4 mutant mice therefore represent a unique mouse model of craniofacial anomalies that provide an ideal resource to explore the cell-intrinsic mechanisms of neural crest cells in craniofacial morphogenesis. PMID:26681395

  13. Antimicrobial surfaces for craniofacial implants: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Actis, Lisa; Gaviria, Laura; Guda, Teja

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to regain function and aesthetics in the craniofacial region, different biomaterials, including titanium, hydroxyapatite, biodegradable polymers and composites, have been widely used as a result of the loss of craniofacial bone. Although these materials presented favorable success rates, osseointegration and antibacterial properties are often hard to achieve. Although bone-implant interactions are highly dependent on the implant's surface characteristics, infections following traumatic craniofacial injuries are common. As such, poor osseointegration and infections are two of the many causes of implant failure. Further, as increasingly complex dental repairs are attempted, the likelihood of infection in these implants has also been on the rise. For these reasons, the treatment of craniofacial bone defects and dental repairs for long-term success remains a challenge. Various approaches to reduce the rate of infection and improve osseointegration have been investigated. Furthermore, recent and planned tissue engineering developments are aimed at improving the implants' physical and biological properties by improving their surfaces in order to develop craniofacial bone substitutes that will restore, maintain and improve tissue function. In this review, the commonly used biomaterials for craniofacial bone restoration and dental repair, as well as surface modification techniques, antibacterial surfaces and coatings are discussed. PMID:24471018

  14. The Aponeurotic Tension Model of Craniofacial Growth in Man

    PubMed Central

    Standerwick, Richard G; Roberts, W. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Craniofacial growth is a scientific crossroad for the fundamental mechanisms of musculoskeletal physiology. Better understanding of growth and development will provide new insights into repair, regeneration and adaptation to applied loads. Traditional craniofacial growth concepts are insufficient to explain the dynamics of airway/vocal tract development, cranial rotation, basicranial flexion and the role of the cranial base in expression of facial proportions. A testable hypothesis is needed to explore the physiological pressure propelling midface growth and the role of neural factors in expression of musculoskeletal adaptation after the cessation of anterior cranial base growth. A novel model for craniofacial growth is proposed for: 1. brain growth and craniofacial adaptation up to the age of 20; 2. explaining growth force vectors; 3. defining the role of muscle plasticity as a conduit for craniofacial growth forces; and 4. describing the effect of cranial rotation in the expression of facial form. Growth of the viscerocranium is believed to be influenced by the superficial musculoaponeurotic systems (SMAS) of the head through residual tension in the occipitofrontalis muscle as a result of cephalad brain growth and cranial rotation. The coordinated effects of the regional SMAS develop a craniofacial musculoaponeurotic system (CFMAS), which is believed to affect maxillary and mandibular development. PMID:19572022

  15. The old and new face of craniofacial research: How animal models inform human craniofacial genetic and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Williams, Trevor; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2016-07-15

    The craniofacial skeletal structures that comprise the human head develop from multiple tissues that converge to form the bones and cartilage of the face. Because of their complex development and morphogenesis, many human birth defects arise due to disruptions in these cellular populations. Thus, determining how these structures normally develop is vital if we are to gain a deeper understanding of craniofacial birth defects and devise treatment and prevention options. In this review, we will focus on how animal model systems have been used historically and in an ongoing context to enhance our understanding of human craniofacial development. We do this by first highlighting "animal to man" approaches; that is, how animal models are being utilized to understand fundamental mechanisms of craniofacial development. We discuss emerging technologies, including high throughput sequencing and genome editing, and new animal repository resources, and how their application can revolutionize the future of animal models in craniofacial research. Secondly, we highlight "man to animal" approaches, including the current use of animal models to test the function of candidate human disease variants. Specifically, we outline a common workflow deployed after discovery of a potentially disease causing variant based on a select set of recent examples in which human mutations are investigated in vivo using animal models. Collectively, these topics will provide a pipeline for the use of animal models in understanding human craniofacial development and disease for clinical geneticist and basic researchers alike.

  16. Navigating actions through the rodent parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing, and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial vs. motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 s in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys. PMID:24860475

  17. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul

    2010-09-10

    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program.

  18. Biomechanics of craniofacial sutures: orthopedic implications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jeremy J; Wang, Xin; Kopher, Ross A

    2003-04-01

    Sutures are soft connective tissue articulations between craniofacial bones. Suture mechanics deals with patterns of mechanical stress experienced in sutures resulting from natural activities such as mastication and exogenous forces such as orthopedic loading. Patterns of sutural mechanical stress can be delineated readily as sutural strain using strain gages attached over the suture. In mastication, complex sutural strain patterns have been elucidated in a few species. Mechanical stresses are not transmitted in the skull as a continuing gradient, for different sutures are capable of redefining a propagating mechanical force as predominately tensile or compressive strain. Exogenous mechanical forces with engineering waveforms such as static and sine wave at different frequencies induce corresponding waveforms and rates of sutural strain, providing the basis for applying novel mechanical stimuli to engineer sutural growth. The available data on suture mechanics converge to a hypothetical theme that mechanical forces regulate sutural growth by inducing sutural mechanical strain. Various orthopedic therapies, including headgear, facemask, and functional appliances may induce sutural strain, leading to modification of otherwise natural suture growth.

  19. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul

    2010-09-10

    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program. PMID:20359837

  20. [Management of craniofacial type 1 neurofibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Bachelet, J T; Combemale, P; Devic, C; Foray, N; Jouanneau, E; Breton, P

    2015-09-01

    Type I neurofibromatosis (NF) is the most common autosomal dominant disease. It concerns one in 3000 births, the penetrance is close to 100% and 50% of new cases are de novo mutations (17q11.2 chromosome 17 location). Cranio-maxillofacial region is concerned in 10% of the cases, in different forms: molluscum neurofibroma, plexiform neurofibroma, cranio-orbital neurofibroma, parotido-jugal neurofibroma, cervical neurofibroma. These lesions have different prognosis depending on the craniofacial localization: ocular functional risk, upper airway compressive risk, nerve compression risk, aesthetic and social impact. The maxillofacial surgeon in charge of patients with type I NF should follow the patient from the diagnosis and organize the different surgical times in order to take care about the different issues: vital, functional and aesthetic. We describe the treatment of facial localizations of type 1 NF as it is done at the University Hospital of Lyon and at the Rhône-Alpes-Auvergne neurofibromatosis reference center. PMID:26194627

  1. 77 FR 64815 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  2. 78 FR 3009 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  3. 78 FR 24761 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Design and Development of Novel Dental Composite Restorative Systems Review Panel....

  4. 78 FR 59708 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  5. 75 FR 7486 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental...

  6. 76 FR 57061 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Kelly, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Inst of Dental &...

  7. 77 FR 57098 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  8. 77 FR 10540 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  9. 75 FR 8976 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  10. 77 FR 76297 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research...-594-0652, rwagenaa@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial...., MS, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific ] Review Branch, National Institute of...

  11. 76 FR 5183 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research..., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Inst. of Dental & Craniofacial...

  12. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    PubMed

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru. PMID:26010214

  13. Zebrafish Craniofacial Development: A Window into Early Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Mork, Lindsey; Crump, Gage

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the face and skull involves a complex series of developmental events mediated by cells derived from the neural crest, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Although vertebrates boast an enormous diversity of adult facial morphologies, the fundamental signaling pathways and cellular events that sculpt the nascent craniofacial skeleton in the embryo have proven to be highly conserved from fish to man. The zebrafish Danio rerio, a small freshwater cyprinid fish from eastern India, has served as a popular model of craniofacial development since the 1990s. Unique strengths of the zebrafish model include a simplified skeleton during larval stages, access to rapidly developing embryos for live imaging, and amenability to transgenesis and complex genetics. In this chapter, we describe the anatomy of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton; its applications as models for the mammalian jaw, middle ear, palate, and cranial sutures; the superior imaging technology available in fish that has provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of facial morphogenesis; the use of the zebrafish to decipher the genetic underpinnings of craniofacial biology; and finally a glimpse into the most promising future applications of zebrafish craniofacial research. PMID:26589928

  14. Zebrafish Craniofacial Development: A Window into Early Patterning.

    PubMed

    Mork, Lindsey; Crump, Gage

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the face and skull involves a complex series of developmental events mediated by cells derived from the neural crest, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Although vertebrates boast an enormous diversity of adult facial morphologies, the fundamental signaling pathways and cellular events that sculpt the nascent craniofacial skeleton in the embryo have proven to be highly conserved from fish to man. The zebrafish Danio rerio, a small freshwater cyprinid fish from eastern India, has served as a popular model of craniofacial development since the 1990s. Unique strengths of the zebrafish model include a simplified skeleton during larval stages, access to rapidly developing embryos for live imaging, and amenability to transgenesis and complex genetics. In this chapter, we describe the anatomy of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton; its applications as models for the mammalian jaw, middle ear, palate, and cranial sutures; the superior imaging technology available in fish that has provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of facial morphogenesis; the use of the zebrafish to decipher the genetic underpinnings of craniofacial biology; and finally a glimpse into the most promising future applications of zebrafish craniofacial research.

  15. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    PubMed

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru.

  16. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning. PMID:26536523

  17. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning.

  18. 77 FR 23488 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Dental and Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Dental and Craniofacial Research Council. Date:...

  19. 76 FR 38193 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel, Review of PAR-11-144 NIDCR U01... of Dental & Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Rm...

  20. Clinical applications of orthodontic microimplant anchorage in craniofacial patients.

    PubMed

    Vachiramon, Amornpong; Urata, Mark; Kyung, Hee Moon; Yamashita, Dennis-Duke; Yen, Stephen L-K

    2009-03-01

    Microimplant anchors, also known as temporary anchorage devices, mini- and micro-screws, have been used to enhance orthodontic anchorage for difficult tooth movements. Here, the authors describe how microimplants can be used to help treat craniofacial patients by supporting distraction osteogenesis procedures, maxillary protraction procedures, cleft segment expansion and stabilization, and tooth movement into narrow alveolar cleft sites. While most craniofacial patients are treated without microimplants, it would be worthwhile to identify which cases could benefit from microimplant anchorage. As an adjunct to orthodontic treatment, the microimplant offers a potential method for solving troublesome orthodontic and surgical problems such as guiding distraction procedures with orthodontics when primary teeth are exfoliating, addressing residual maxillary cants after vertical distraction osteogenesis of a ramus, stabilizing an edentulous premaxilla, and moving teeth into atrophic alveolar ridges. These cases are presented to open a dialogue on their possible uses in craniofacial patients.

  1. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Hans C.; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael; Keenan, Julian P.; Nowak, Markus; Kjaer, Troels W.; Sackeim, Harold A.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2004-01-01

    For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit “autonoetic consciousness” is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events (“episodic memory”). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show differential activity in medial prefrontal and medial parietal cortices. With positron-emission tomography, we here show that these medial regions are functionally connected and interact with lateral regions that are activated according to the degree of self-reference. During retrieval of previous judgments of Oneself, Best Friend, and the Danish Queen, activation increased in the left lateral temporal cortex and decreased in the right inferior parietal region with decreasing self-reference. Functionally, the former region was preferentially connected to medial prefrontal cortex, the latter to medial parietal. The medial parietal region may, then, be conceived of as a nodal structure in self-representation, functionally connected to both the right parietal and the medial prefrontal cortices. To determine whether medial parietal cortex in this network is essential for episodic memory retrieval with self-representation, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation over the region to transiently disturb neuronal circuitry. There was a decrease in the efficiency of retrieval of previous judgment of mental Self compared with retrieval of judgment of Other with transcranial magnetic stimulation at a latency of 160 ms, confirming the hypothesis. This network is strikingly similar to the network of the resting conscious state, suggesting that self-monitoring is a core function in resting consciousness. PMID:15096584

  2. Craniofacial Asymmetry in Adults With Neglected Congenital Muscular Torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kil-Yong; Min, Kyung-Jay; Woo, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the craniofacial asymmetry in adults with neglected congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) by quantitative assessment based on craniofacial three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Methods Preoperative craniofacial asymmetry was measured by 3D-CT for 31 CMT subjects ≥18 years of age who visited a tertiary medical center and underwent 3D-CT between January 2009 and December 2013. The relationship between the age and the severity of craniofacial asymmetry was analyzed in reference to anteroposterior length asymmetry of the frontal bone and zygomatic arch, vertical and lateral displacements of the facial landmarks, and mandibular axis rotation. Results The age at CT was 27.71±7.02 years (range, 18-44 years). All intra-class correlation coefficients were higher than 0.7, suggesting good inter-rater reliability (p<0.05) of all the measurements. The frontal and the zygomatic length ratio (i.e., the anteroposterior length asymmetry on the axial plane) was 1.06±0.03 and 1.07±0.03, respectively, which was increased significantly with age in the linear regression analysis (r2=0.176, p=0.019 and r2=0.188, p=0.015, respectively). The vertical or lateral displacement of the facial landmarks and rotation of the mandibular axis did not significantly correlate with age (p>0.05). Conclusion Craniofacial asymmetry of neglected CMT became more severe with age in terms of anteroposterior length asymmetry of the ipsilateral frontal bone and zygomatic arch on the axial plane even after growth cessation. This finding may enhance the understanding of therapeutic strategies for craniofacial asymmetry in adults with neglected CMT. PMID:26161351

  3. An annotated history of craniofacial surgery and intentional cranial deformation.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, J T; Tutino, M

    2001-01-01

    The history of craniofacial surgery and the use of intentional cranial deformation is a long and varied one. Researching some of the earliest medical writings and reviews of early terracotta and stone figures from throughout the world clearly revealed that these two forms of treatment were widely extant. Intentional cranial deformation was used for a number of reasons including beautification, tribal identification, and social stature. The development of craniofacial surgery is a more modern practice and its historical evolution is reviewed in the context of techniques and the personalities involved.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnoea in children with craniofacial syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Cielo, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is common in children. Craniofacial anomalies such as cleft palate are among the most common congenital conditions. Children with a variety of craniofacial conditions, including cleft palate, micrognathia, craniosynostosis, and midface hypoplasia are at increased risk for OSAS. Available evidence, which is largely limited to surgical case series and retrospective studies, suggests that OSAS can be successfully managed in these children through both surgical and non-surgical techniques. Prospective studies using larger cohorts of patients and including polysomnograms are needed to better understand the risk factors for this patient population and the efficacy of treatment options for OSAS and their underlying conditions. PMID:25555676

  5. The genesis of craniofacial biology as a health science discipline.

    PubMed

    Sperber, G H; Sperber, S M

    2014-06-01

    The craniofacial complex encapsulates the brain and contains the organs for key functions of the body, including sight, hearing and balance, smell, taste, respiration and mastication. All these systems are intimately integrated within the head. The combination of these diverse systems into a new field was dictated by the dental profession's desire for a research branch of basic science devoted and attuned to its specific needs. The traditional subjects of genetics, embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, dental materials, odontology, molecular biology and palaeoanthropology pertaining to dentistry have been drawn together by many newly emerging technologies. These new technologies include gene sequencing, CAT scanning, MRI imaging, laser scanning, image analysis, ultrasonography, spectroscopy and visualosonics. A vibrant unitary discipline of investigation, craniofacial biology, has emerged that builds on the original concept of 'oral biology' that began in the 1960s. This paper reviews some of the developments that have led to the genesis of craniofacial biology as a fully-fledged health science discipline of significance in the advancement of clinical dental practice. Some of the key figures and milestones in craniofacial biology are identified.

  6. Mechanisms of spatial attention control in frontal and parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Szczepanski, Sara M; Konen, Christina S; Kastner, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Theories of spatial attentional control have been largely based upon studies of patients suffering from visuospatial neglect, resulting from circumscribed lesions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex. In the intact brain, the control of spatial attention has been related to a distributed frontoparietal attention network. Little is known about the nature of the control mechanisms exerted by this network. Here, we used a novel region-of-interest approach to relate activations of the attention network to recently described topographic areas in frontal cortex [frontal eye field (FEF), PreCC/IFS (precentral cortex/inferior frontal sulcus)] and parietal cortex [intraparietal sulcus areas (IPS1-IPS5) and an area in the superior parietal lobule (SPL1)] to examine their spatial attention signals. We found that attention signals in most topographic areas were spatially specific, with stronger responses when attention was directed to the contralateral than to the ipsilateral visual field. Importantly, two hemispheric asymmetries were found. First, a region in only right, but not left SPL1 carried spatial attention signals. Second, left FEF and left posterior parietal cortex (IPS1/2) generated stronger contralateral biasing signals than their counterparts in the right hemisphere. These findings are the first to characterize spatial attention signals in topographic frontal and parietal cortex and provide a neural basis in support of an interhemispheric competition account of spatial attentional control. PMID:20053897

  7. [Microbiocenosis of parietal mucin in the gastrointestinal tract of rats].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A A; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Bogdanova, E A; Korneev, L M

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the microbial community in parietal mucin at different areas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of rats was revealed. The pronounced variability in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of microbiocenosis in parietal mucin of rats at different sections was revealed. The differences were most pronounced in the passage from upper to lower GIT sections, the large intestine found to be the richest biocenosis. The microbial composition of rat feces was faintly associated with the GIT parietal microbiocenosis. The individual areas of GIT mucosa were unique of their microbial characteristics and organization. This makes it possible to regard them as relatively independent biotopes and indicates that it is impossible to evaluate the microbial community by one of the colonic mucosal sifes. PMID:16438365

  8. FRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTEX CONTRIBUTIONS TO ACTION MODIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Pratik K.; Stapp, Lee H.; Sainburg, Robert L.; Haaland, Kathleen Y.

    2014-01-01

    Successful achievement of task goals depends critically on the ability to adjust ongoing actions in response to environmental changes. The neural substrates underlying action modification have been a topic of great controversy: both, posterior parietal cortex and frontal regions, particularly prefrontal cortex have been previously identified as crucial in this regard, with most studies arguing in favor of one or the other. We aimed to address this controversy and understand whether frontal and parietal regions might play distinct roles during action modification. We tested ipsilesional arm performance of 27 stroke patients with focal lesions to frontal or parietal regions of the left or right cerebral hemisphere, and left or right arm performance of 18 healthy subjects on the classic double-step task in which a target is unpredictably displaced to a new location, requiring modification of the ongoing action. Only right hemisphere frontal lesions adversely impacted the timing of initiation of the modified response, while only left hemisphere parietal lesions impaired the accuracy of the modified action. Patients with right frontal lesions tended to complete the ongoing action to the initially displayed baseline target and initiated the new movement after a significant delay. In contrast, patients with left parietal damage did not accurately reach the new target location, but compared to the other groups, initiated the new action during an earlier phase of motion, before their baseline action was complete. Our findings thus suggest distinct, hemisphere specific contributions of frontal and parietal regions to action modification, and bring together, for the first time, disparate sets of prior findings about its underlying neural substrates. PMID:24763127

  9. Impairments in Tactile Search Following Superior Parietal Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna P.; Vasquez, Brandon P.; Hano, Kate; Danckert, James

    2011-01-01

    The superior parietal cortex is critical for the control of visually guided actions. Research suggests that visual stimuli relevant to actions are preferentially processed when they are in peripersonal space. One recent study demonstrated that visually guided movements towards the body were more impaired in a patient with damage to superior…

  10. Parietal cortex mediates perceptual Gestalt grouping independent of stimulus size.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Pablo R; Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The integration of local moving elements into a unified gestalt percept has previously been linked to the posterior parietal cortex. There are two possible interpretations for the lack of involvement of other occipital regions. The first is that parietal cortex is indeed uniquely functionally specialized to perform grouping. Another possibility is that other visual regions can perform grouping as well, but that the large spatial separation of the local elements used previously exceeded their neurons' receptive field (RF) sizes, preventing their involvement. In this study we distinguished between these two alternatives. We measured whole-brain activity using fMRI in response to a bistable motion illusion that induced mutually exclusive percepts of either an illusory global Gestalt or of local elements. The stimulus was presented in two sizes, a large version known to activate IPS only, and a version sufficiently small to fit into the RFs of mid-level dorsal regions such as V5/MT. We found that none of the separately localized motion regions apart from parietal cortex showed a preference for global Gestalt perception, even for the smaller version of the stimulus. This outcome suggests that grouping-by-motion is mediated by a specialized size-invariant mechanism with parietal cortex as its anatomical substrate.

  11. Human posterior parietal cortex mediates hand-specific planning

    PubMed Central

    Valyear, Kenneth F.; Frey, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying action planning are fundamental to adaptive behavior and can be influenced by recent motor experience. Here, we used a novel fMRI Repetition Suppression (RS) design to test the hypotheses that action planning unfolds more efficiently for successive actions made with the same hand. More efficient processing was predicted to correspond with both faster response times (RTs) to initiate actions and reduced fMRI activity levels – RS. Consistent with these predictions, we detected faster RTs for actions made with the same hand and accompanying fMRI-RS within bilateral posterior parietal cortex and right-lateralized parietal operculum. Within posterior parietal cortex, these RS effects were localized to intraparietal and superior parietal cortices. These same areas were more strongly activated for actions involving the contralateral hand. The findings provide compelling new evidence for the specification of action plans in hand-specific terms, and indicate that these processes are sensitive to recent motor history. Consistent with computational efficiency accounts of motor history effects, the findings are interpreted as evidence for comparatively more efficient processing underlying action planning when successive actions involve the same versus opposite hand. PMID:25842294

  12. Parietal network underlying movement control: disturbances during subcortical electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Almairac, Fabien; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of brain movement control has changed over the last two decades. Recent findings in the monkey and in humans have led to a parallel and interconnected network. Nevertheless, little is known about these networks. Here, we present two cases of patients with a parietal low-grade glioma. They underwent surgery under local anesthesia with cortical and subcortical mapping. For patient 1, subcortical electrostimulation immediately posterior to thalamocortical fibers induced movement disorders, with an inhibition of leg and arm movements medially and, more laterally, an acceleration of arm movement. For patient 2, electrostimulation of white matter immediately posterior to thalamocortical fibers induced an inhibition of both arm movement. It means that the detected fibers in the parietal lobe may be involved in the motor control modulation. They are distributed veil-like immediately posterior to thalamocortical pathways and could correspond to a fronto-parietal movement control subnetwork. These two cases highlight the major role of the subcortical connectivity in movement regulation, involving parietal lobe, thus the necessity to be identified and preserved during brain surgery.

  13. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language.

    PubMed

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower- versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. PMID:27241201

  14. The suture provides a niche for mesenchymal stem cells of craniofacial bones

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Ho, Thach-Vu; Grimes, Weston; Urata, Mark; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue undergoes constant turnover supported by stem cells. Recent studies showed that perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the turnover of long bones. Craniofacial bones are flat bones derived from a different embryonic origin than the long bones. The identity and regulating niche for craniofacial bone MSCs remain unknown. Here, we identify Gli1+ cells within the suture mesenchyme as the major MSC population for craniofacial bones. They are not associated with vasculature, give rise to all craniofacial bones in the adult and are activated during injury repair. Gli1+ cells are typical MSCs in vitro. Ablation of Gli1+ cells leads to craniosynostosis and arrest of skull growth, indicating these cells are an indispensible stem cell population. Twist1+/− mice with craniosynostosis show reduced Gli1+ MSCs in sutures, suggesting that craniosynostosis may result from diminished suture stem cells. Our study indicates that craniofacial sutures provide a unique niche for MSCs for craniofacial bone homeostasis and repair. PMID:25799059

  15. Functional connectivity of parietal cortex during temporal selective attention.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Sarah C; Dasgupta, Samhita; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D

    2015-04-01

    Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997). In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity of intact parietal cortex while typical subjects judged the relative onsets and offsets of rapidly flickering tokens (a phase discrimination task in which right parietal patients are impaired). We found two regions in parietal cortex correlated with task performance: a bilateral posterior TPJ (pTPJ) and an anterior right-lateralized TPJ (R aTPJ). Both regions were deactivated when subjects engaged in the task but showed different patterns of functional connectivity. The bilateral pTPJ was strongly connected to nodes within the default mode network (DMN) and the R aTPJ was connected to the attention network. Accurate phase discriminations were associated with increased functional correlations between sensory cortex (hMT+) and the bilateral pTPJ, whereas accuracy on a control task was associated with yoked activity in the hMT+ and the R aTPJ. We conclude that temporal selective attention is particularly sensitive for revealing information pathways between sensory and core cognitive control networks that, when damaged, can lead to nonspatial attention impairments in right parietal stroke patients. PMID:25747530

  16. Generation algorithm of craniofacial structure contour in cephalometric images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Tanmoy; Jain, Ashish; Sardana, H. K.

    2010-02-01

    Anatomical structure tracing on cephalograms is a significant way to obtain cephalometric analysis. Computerized cephalometric analysis involves both manual and automatic approaches. The manual approach is limited in accuracy and repeatability. In this paper we have attempted to develop and test a novel method for automatic localization of craniofacial structure based on the detected edges on the region of interest. According to the grey scale feature at the different region of the cephalometric images, an algorithm for obtaining tissue contour is put forward. Using edge detection with specific threshold an improved bidirectional contour tracing approach is proposed by an interactive selection of the starting edge pixels, the tracking process searches repetitively for an edge pixel at the neighborhood of previously searched edge pixel to segment images, and then craniofacial structures are obtained. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated by the preliminary experimental results obtained with the proposed method.

  17. Craniofacial abnormalities in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, N J; Silvera, V M; Campbell, S E; Gordon, L B

    2012-09-01

    HGPS is a rare syndrome of segmental premature aging. Our goal was to expand the scope of structural bone and soft-tissue craniofacial abnormalities in HGPS through CT or MR imaging. Using The Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database, 98 imaging studies on 25 patients, birth to 14.1 years of age, were comprehensively reviewed. Eight newly identified abnormalities involving the calvaria, skull base, and soft tissues of the face and orbits were present with prevalences between 43% and 100%. These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. This expanded craniofacial characterization helps link disease features and improves our ability to evaluate how underlying genetic and cellular abnormalities culminate in a disease phenotype.

  18. Illinois Association of Craniofacial Teams: a new state organization.

    PubMed

    Will, L A; Aduss, M K

    1987-10-01

    The Illinois Association of Craniofacial Teams (IACT) is a not-for-profit organization whose members are the 14 teams that treat patients with craniofacial anomalies in the state of Illinois and adjoining areas. The teams represent more than 200 multidisciplinary health professionals. The group was formed in 1983 to foster cooperation and communication between the teams and to encourage public awareness. In addition to providing educational programs, the organization has focused its attention on standards of care, cost analysis of services, third party reimbursement, and incidence reporting of cleft lip and palate. This report reviews the formation, structure, and accomplishments of IACT so that it may serve as a model or guide for other groups who share its goals.

  19. Reliability of Craniofacial Superimposition Using Three-Dimension Skull Model.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, Daniel; Olivieri, Lara; De Angelis, Danilo; Poppa, Pasquale; Galassi, Andrea; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial superimposition is a technique potentially useful for the identification of unidentified human remains if a photo of the missing person is available. We have tested the reliability of the 2D-3D computer-aided nonautomatic superimposition techniques. Three-dimension laser scans of five skulls and ten photographs were overlaid with an imaging software. The resulting superimpositions were evaluated using three methods: craniofacial landmarks, morphological features, and a combination of the two. A 3D model of each skull without its mandible was tested for superimposition; we also evaluated whether separating skulls by sex would increase correct identifications. Results show that the landmark method employing the entire skull is the more reliable one (5/5 correct identifications, 40% false positives [FP]), regardless of sex. However, the persistence of a high percentage of FP in all the methods evaluated indicates that these methods are unreliable for positive identification although the landmark-only method could be useful for exclusion.

  20. A model for interprofessional health care: lessons learned from craniofacial teams.

    PubMed

    Slavkin, Harold C; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Chai, Yang; Urata, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Seventy-six years ago, Herbert K. Cooper, DDS, DSc, LHD, FACD, created the first interprofessional health care team in response to the frequency of craniofacial anomalies and related speech and hearing deficits in Lancaster, Pa. His experiences and those from subsequent "medical-dental-nursing-pharmacy allied health professions" craniofacial teams inform and provide "best practices" for the future of interprofessional education. This paper revisits the genesis of craniofacial teams and highlights successes, challenges and cost benefits applicable today.

  1. A model for interprofessional health care: lessons learned from craniofacial teams.

    PubMed

    Slavkin, Harold C; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Chai, Yang; Urata, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Seventy-six years ago, Herbert K. Cooper, DDS, DSc, LHD, FACD, created the first interprofessional health care team in response to the frequency of craniofacial anomalies and related speech and hearing deficits in Lancaster, Pa. His experiences and those from subsequent "medical-dental-nursing-pharmacy allied health professions" craniofacial teams inform and provide "best practices" for the future of interprofessional education. This paper revisits the genesis of craniofacial teams and highlights successes, challenges and cost benefits applicable today. PMID:25265730

  2. RSK2 Is a Modulator of Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Laugel-Haushalter, Virginie; Paschaki, Marie; Marangoni, Pauline; Pilgram, Coralie; Langer, Arnaud; Kuntz, Thibaut; Demassue, Julie; Morkmued, Supawich; Choquet, Philippe; Constantinesco, André; Bornert, Fabien; Schmittbuhl, Matthieu; Pannetier, Solange; Viriot, Laurent; Hanauer, André; Dollé, Pascal; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Background The RSK2 gene is responsible for Coffin-Lowry syndrome, an X-linked dominant genetic disorder causing mental retardation, skeletal growth delays, with craniofacial and digital abnormalities typically associated with this syndrome. Craniofacial and dental anomalies encountered in this rare disease have been poorly characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined, using X-Ray microtomographic analysis, the variable craniofacial dysmorphism and dental anomalies present in Rsk2 knockout mice, a model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome, as well as in triple Rsk1,2,3 knockout mutants. We report Rsk mutation produces surpernumerary teeth midline/mesial to the first molar. This highly penetrant phenotype recapitulates more ancestral tooth structures lost with evolution. Most likely this leads to a reduction of the maxillary diastema. Abnormalities of molar shape were generally restricted to the mesial part of both upper and lower first molars (M1). Expression analysis of the four Rsk genes (Rsk1, 2, 3 and 4) was performed at various stages of odontogenesis in wild-type (WT) mice. Rsk2 is expressed in the mesenchymal, neural crest-derived compartment, correlating with proliferative areas of the developing teeth. This is consistent with RSK2 functioning in cell cycle control and growth regulation, functions potentially responsible for severe dental phenotypes. To uncover molecular pathways involved in the etiology of these defects, we performed a comparative transcriptomic (DNA microarray) analysis of mandibular wild-type versus Rsk2-/Y molars. We further demonstrated a misregulation of several critical genes, using a Rsk2 shRNA knock-down strategy in molar tooth germs cultured in vitro. Conclusions This study reveals RSK2 regulates craniofacial development including tooth development and patterning via novel transcriptional targets. PMID:24416220

  3. Sagittal back contour and craniofacial morphology in preadolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Carsten; Végh, András; Drerup, Burkhard; Moiseenko, Tatjana; Danesh, Gholamreza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation ratios between the sagittal back contour (flèche cervicale and lombaire, trunk inclination) and selected parameters of craniofacial morphology in children. The patient sample consisted of 66 healthy children with a mean age of 11.2 years (SD 1.6 years), of which 34 were male (mean age 11.5 years, SD 1.3 years) and 32 were females (mean age 10.9 years, SD 1.9 years). The children were recruited during the preparation of the initial orthodontic treatment records. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed by six angular measurements: facial axis, mandibular plane angle, inner gonial angle, lower facial height, facial depth and maxilla position. Rasterstereography was used for reconstruction of the spinal back sagittal profile. From the profile flèche cervicale, flèche lombaire and trunk inclination were determined and the correlations with the craniofacial morphology were calculated (Pearson and Mann–Whitney U test). Significant correlations were found with respect to the inner gonial angle and the flèche cervicale, the mandibular plane angle and the flèche lombaire, the inner gonial angle and the flèche lombaire, and the angular lower facial height and the flèche lombaire, as well as the inner gonial angle and the trunk inclination. The craniofacial vertical growth pattern, presented by mandibular plane angle, inner gonial angle and the angular lower facial height, and the correlation to flèche cervicale and lombaire as well as trunk inclination reveal correlations between growth pattern and sagittal back contour. PMID:19946733

  4. Craniofacial imaging in orthodontics--past present and future.

    PubMed

    Jyothikiran, H; Shanthara, J Ravi; Subbiah, Pradeep; Thomas, Mable

    2014-01-01

    Images of the craniofacial region are an important component of the orthodontic patient record. The gold standard that orthodontic records attempt to achieve is the accurate replication or portrayal of the "anatomic truth". The anatomic truth is the accurate three-dimensional anatomy, static and in function, as it exists in vivo. Despite the diverse image acquisition technologies currently available, the types and standards for imaging presently used in practice have been adopted in an effort to balance the anticipated benefits with associated costs and risks to the patient. Because of these considerations, orthodontists routinely use an array of two-dimensional static imaging techniques to record the three-dimensional anatomy of the craniofacial region. The development of an interactive 3D digital model of a patient's anatomy would greatly improve our ability to determine different treatment options, to monitor changes over time (the fourth dimension), to predict and display final treatment results, and to measure treatment outcomes more accurately. This review explores the different techniques of 3D imaging of the teeth, as well as the recent efforts to create the 'virtual orthodontic patient' by using 3D soft and hard tissue data. A brief overview of some of the commercially available 3D-based technologies, such as OrthoCAD and Invisalign is given at the end. The objective of this review is to provide the clinician with an overview of the currently used imaging methods along with those of the past and also a look at the innovations in craniofacial imaging that are likely to greatly enhance the depiction of craniofacial structures.

  5. Three-dimensional simulation and prediction of craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Meehan, M; Teschner, M; Girod, S

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of patients with complex facial deformities is one of the most challenging multidisciplinary tasks in plastic surgery. Due to advancements in medical technology and surgical techniques in the last 20 years correction of severe malformations has become possible and is performed by highly specialized teams frequently in a single operation. Recent developments in three-dimensional (3-D) imaging techniques have already greatly facilitated diagnosis of complex craniofacial deformities. Computer-based simulation methods for surgical procedures that are based on imaging data have the potential to improve surgical treatment by providing the ability to perform 'virtual surgery' preoperatively and thus reduce patient risk and morbidity intraoperatively. A method is presented for interactive computer-assisted craniofacial plastic surgery planning and visualization, especially simulation of soft tissue changes using an experimental Craniofacial Surgery Planner. The system computes non-linear soft-tissue deformation because of bone realignment. It is capable of simulating bone cutting and bone realignment with integrated interactive collision detection. Furthermore, soft-tissue deformation and cutting due to surgical instruments can be visualized. Simulation processes are based on an individual patient's preoperative 3-D computed tomography and on a 3-D, photo-realistic model of the patient's preoperative appearance obtained by a laser range scanner. Very fast and robust prediction of non-linear soft-tissue deformation is computed by optimizing a non-linear cost function. PMID:14606542

  6. Web-based cephalometric procedure for craniofacial and dentition analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, N. S.; Kamath, Srijit R.; Ram, S.; Muthukumaran, B.; Venkatachalapathy, A.; Nandakumar, A.; Jayakumar, P.

    2000-05-01

    Craniofacial analysis is a very important and widely used procedure in orthodontic caphalometry, which plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. This involves establishing reference standards and specification of landmarks and variables. The manual approach takes up a tremendous amount of the orthodontist's time. In this paper, we developed a web-based approach for the craniofacial and dentition analyses. A digital computed radiography (CR) system is utilized for obtaining the craniofacial image, which is stored as a bitmap file. The system comprises of two components - a server and a client. The server component is a program that runs on a remote machine. To use the system, the user has to connect to the website. The client component is now activated, which uploads the image from the PC and displays it on the canvas area. The landmarks are identified using a mouse interface. The reference lines are generated. The resulting image is then sent to the server which performs all measurement and calculates the mean, standard deviation, etc. of the variables. The results generated are sent immediately to the client where it is displayed on a separate frame along with the standard values for comparison. This system eliminates the need for every user to load other expensive programs on his machine.

  7. Craniofacial sexual dimorphism patterns and allometry among extant hominids.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Gunz, Philipp; Bernhard, Markus; Bookstein, Fred L

    2004-12-01

    Craniofacial sexual dimorphism in primates varies in both magnitude and pattern among species. In the past two decades, there has been an increasing emphasis in exploring the correlations of these patterns with taxonomy and the variation in patterns within and among the craniofacial regions. Scrutinising these relationships for hominids, we decompose the craniofacial morphology in five taxa: Homo sapiens, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla and Pongo pygmaeus. 3D coordinates of 35 traditional landmarks and 61 semilandmarks, covering five ridge curves, are measured for each of 268 adult and sub-adult specimens and analysed using geometric morphometric methods. A multivariate analysis in size-shape space shows that ontogenetic scaling contributes to the development of sexual dimorphism in all five taxa, but to a varying extent. In absolute as well as in relative terms P. pygmaeus shows the greatest allometric component, followed by G. gorilla. Homo is intermediate, while in Pan the non-allometric constituent part contributes a large fraction to the actual sexual dimorphism, most markedly in the pygmy chimpanzee. An eigendecomposition of the five vectors of sexual dimorphism reveals two dimensions independent of allometry. One separates orang-utan sexual dimorphism from the African apes and Homo, and the other differentiates between the great apes and Homo with Pan mediating. We discuss these patterns and speculate on their use as characters for taxonomic analysis in the fossil record.

  8. Versatility of Distraction Osteogenesis for the Craniofacial Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Klement, Kristen A; Black, Jonathan S; Denny, Arlen D

    2016-05-01

    Malformations of the craniofacial skeleton are common. Restoration of anatomic shape, size, and position has been traditionally accomplished using autologous bone grafting to fill gaps created by surgery and segmental movement. The authors present their practice using distraction in many different ages and settings over 20 years. A retrospective review was performed of all craniofacial patients treated using distraction osteogenesis for mandible, midface, and calvarium. The authors identified 205 patient. Mandible: 112 patients were treated at an average age of 3.4 years. 18.8% of patients required repeat distraction. There was no difference in the neonatal versus older group (P = 0.71). There were significantly higher reoperation rates in syndromic children (P < 0.01). Midface: 58 patients underwent Lefort III distraction at an average age of 13.6 years. One (1.7%) required repeat distraction (Miller syndrome). Five (8.6%) patients underwent subsequent Lefort I advancement for occlusal changes. Calvarium: 33 patients were treated at an average age of 4.7 years. No repeat distractions were performed. One patient required an additional advancement procedure. Distraction demonstrates successful long-term correction of defects in the craniofacial skeleton with the versatility and control needed to treat the wide spectrum of deformity.

  9. Study on the performance of different craniofacial superimposition approaches (I).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Vicente, R; Navega, D S; Wilkinson, C; Jayaprakash, P T; Huete, M I; Briers, T; Hardiman, R; Navarro, F; Ruiz, E; Cavalli, F; Imaizumi, K; Jankauskas, R; Veselovskaya, E; Abramov, A; Lestón, P; Molinero, F; Cardoso, J; Çağdır, A S; Humpire, D; Nakanishi, Y; Zeuner, A; Ross, A H; Gaudio, D; Damas, S

    2015-12-01

    As part of the scientific tasks coordinated throughout The 'New Methodologies and Protocols of Forensic Identification by Craniofacial Superimposition (MEPROCS)' project, the current study aims to analyse the performance of a diverse set of CFS methodologies and the corresponding technical approaches when dealing with a common dataset of real-world cases. Thus, a multiple-lab study on craniofacial superimposition has been carried out for the first time. In particular, 26 participants from 17 different institutions in 13 countries were asked to deal with 14 identification scenarios, some of them involving the comparison of multiple candidates and unknown skulls. In total, 60 craniofacial superimposition problems divided in two set of females and males. Each participant follow her/his own methodology and employed her/his particular technological means. For each single case they were asked to report the final identification decision (either positive or negative) along with the rationale supporting the decision and at least one image illustrating the overlay/superimposition outcome. This study is expected to provide important insights to better understand the most convenient characteristics of every method included in this study. PMID:26060056

  10. Feeding difficulties in craniofacial microsomia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Caron, C J J M; Pluijmers, B I; Joosten, K F M; Mathijssen, I M J; van der Schroeff, M P; Dunaway, D J; Wolvius, E B; Koudstaal, M J

    2015-06-01

    Patients with craniofacial microsomia are at higher risk of developing obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), as described in the previous article entitled "Obstructive sleep apnoea in craniofacial microsomia: a systematic review". These patients are also more likely to develop feeding difficulties. The present systematic review provides an overview of the literature on the prevalence, treatment, and follow-up of feeding difficulties in children with craniofacial microsomia (CFM). A search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for articles on CFM and feeding difficulties. The following data were extracted from the articles: number of patients, patient characteristics, presence of feeding difficulties, and the treatment and outcomes of feeding difficulties. Eight articles on CFM and feeding difficulties were included, two of which reported the prevalence of feeding difficulties (range 42-83%). Treatment mostly consisted of tube feeding. No information regarding follow-up was found in these articles. According to the literature, feeding difficulties are related to CFM. However, as there have been no prospective studies and few studies have presented objective measurements, no definitive conclusions can be drawn. Prospective studies are needed to determine the prevalence of feeding difficulties in patients with CFM.

  11. Unmasking the ciliopathies: craniofacial defects and the primary cilium.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Claudio R; Metzis, Vicki; Wicking, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the primary cilium has emerged as a pivotal sensory organelle that acts as a major signaling hub for a number of developmental signaling pathways. In that time, a vast number of proteins involved in trafficking and signaling have been linked to ciliary assembly and/or function, demonstrating the importance of this organelle during embryonic development. Given the central role of the primary cilium in regulating developmental signaling, it is not surprising that its dysfunction results in widespread defects in the embryo, leading to an expanding class of human congenital disorders known as ciliopathies. These disorders are individually rare and phenotypically variable, but together they affect virtually every vertebrate organ system. Features of ciliopathies that are often overlooked, but which are being reported with increasing frequency, are craniofacial abnormalities, ranging from subtle midline defects to full-blown orofacial clefting. The challenge moving forward is to understand the primary mechanism of disease given the link between the primary cilium and a number of developmental signaling pathways (such as hedgehog, platelet-derived growth factor, and WNT signaling) that are essential for craniofacial development. Here, we provide an overview of the diversity of craniofacial abnormalities present in the ciliopathy spectrum, and reveal those defects in common across multiple disorders. Further, we discuss the molecular defects and potential signaling perturbations underlying these anomalies. This provides insight into the mechanisms leading to ciliopathy phenotypes more generally and highlights the prevalence of widespread dysmorphologies resulting from cilia dysfunction. PMID:26173831

  12. Photoanthropometric study of craniofacial traits in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hovis, C L; Butler, M G

    1997-06-01

    A photoanthropometric method, which enables an objective description of facial structures, was used to better delineate the craniofacial characteristics of 29 individuals with Williams syndrome (WS; 18 males and 11 females) between the ages of 0 to 10 years, with an average age of 4.0 years. Facial parameters were measured from strict frontal and profile photographic 35-mm slides and compared with other facial measurements from the same face (e.g., palpebral fissure width to bizygomatic diameter). Sixteen photoanthropometric craniofacial indices were developed from 20 measurements (3 from the frontal face, 2 from the eye region, 3 from the nose region, 2 from the mouth region, 4 from the profile face, and 6 from the ear region). Based on our measurements of 29 Williams syndrome individuals, two parameters (e.g. nose length to midface height and palpebral fissure width to bizygomatic diameter) were outside the normal range when compared with photoanthropometric index standards for age established by Stengel-Rutkowski et al. from white control children. Overall, our data supported a high midface height, broad palpebral fissure width, broad interalar distance, short length of back of nose, prominent ears with long narrow conchae, increased chin height, increased inclination of the ears and a narrow bizygomatic diameter in WS patients. These craniofacial parameters (many not previously evaluated in WS patients) may become useful for early detection, and aid in the diagnosis and study of the development of the characteristic face in Williams syndrome subjects. PMID:9237500

  13. A review of craniofacial disorders caused by spliceosomal defects.

    PubMed

    Lehalle, D; Wieczorek, D; Zechi-Ceide, R M; Passos-Bueno, M R; Lyonnet, S; Amiel, J; Gordon, C T

    2015-11-01

    The spliceosome is a large ribonucleoprotein complex that removes introns from pre-mRNA transcripts. Mutations in EFTUD2, encoding a component of the major spliceosome, have recently been identified as the cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis, Guion-Almeida type (MFDGA), characterized by mandibulofacial dysostosis, microcephaly, external ear malformations and intellectual disability. Mutations in several other genes involved in spliceosomal function or linked aspects of mRNA processing have also recently been identified in human disorders with specific craniofacial malformations: SF3B4 in Nager syndrome, an acrofacial dysostosis (AFD); SNRPB in cerebrocostomandibular syndrome, characterized by Robin sequence and rib defects; EIF4A3 in the AFD Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome, characterized by Robin sequence, median mandibular cleft and limb defects; and TXNL4A in Burn-McKeown syndrome, involving specific craniofacial dysmorphisms. Here, we review phenotypic and molecular aspects of these syndromes. Given the apparent sensitivity of craniofacial development to defects in mRNA processing, it is possible that mutations in other proteins involved in spliceosomal function will emerge in the future as causative for related human disorders.

  14. Study on the performance of different craniofacial superimposition approaches (I).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Vicente, R; Navega, D S; Wilkinson, C; Jayaprakash, P T; Huete, M I; Briers, T; Hardiman, R; Navarro, F; Ruiz, E; Cavalli, F; Imaizumi, K; Jankauskas, R; Veselovskaya, E; Abramov, A; Lestón, P; Molinero, F; Cardoso, J; Çağdır, A S; Humpire, D; Nakanishi, Y; Zeuner, A; Ross, A H; Gaudio, D; Damas, S

    2015-12-01

    As part of the scientific tasks coordinated throughout The 'New Methodologies and Protocols of Forensic Identification by Craniofacial Superimposition (MEPROCS)' project, the current study aims to analyse the performance of a diverse set of CFS methodologies and the corresponding technical approaches when dealing with a common dataset of real-world cases. Thus, a multiple-lab study on craniofacial superimposition has been carried out for the first time. In particular, 26 participants from 17 different institutions in 13 countries were asked to deal with 14 identification scenarios, some of them involving the comparison of multiple candidates and unknown skulls. In total, 60 craniofacial superimposition problems divided in two set of females and males. Each participant follow her/his own methodology and employed her/his particular technological means. For each single case they were asked to report the final identification decision (either positive or negative) along with the rationale supporting the decision and at least one image illustrating the overlay/superimposition outcome. This study is expected to provide important insights to better understand the most convenient characteristics of every method included in this study.

  15. Growth changes in internal and craniofacial flexion measurements.

    PubMed

    May, R; Sheffer, D B

    1999-09-01

    Growth changes in both internal and craniofacial flexion angles are presented for Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and modern humans. The internal flexion angle (IFA) was measured from lateral radiographs, and the craniofacial flexion angle (CFA) was calculated from coordinate data. Stage of dental development is used as a baseline for examination of growth changes and nonparametric correlations between flexion angles and dental development stage are tested for significance. In Gorilla, the IFA increases during growth. The IFA is relatively stable in Pan and modern humans. Pan and Gorilla display an increase in the CFA. However, this angle decreases during growth in modern humans. Flexion angles were derived from coordinate data collected for several early hominid crania. Measurements for two robust australopithecine crania indicate strong internal flexion. It has been suggested that cerebellar expansion in this group may relate to derived features of the posterior cranial base. In general, australopithecine crania exhibit craniofacial flexion intermediate between great apes and modern humans. The "archaic" Homo sapiens specimen from Kabwe is most similar to modern humans. PMID:10490467

  16. Female adolescent craniofacial growth spurts: real or fiction?

    PubMed

    Buschang, Peter H; Jacob, Helder B; Demirjian, Arto

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether the various aspects of the craniofacial complex exhibit female adolescent growth spurts. Multilevel polynomial models were used to estimate the growth curves of a mixed-longitudinal sample of 111 untreated females 10-15 years of age. To evaluate the horizontal and vertical movements of the individual landmarks relative to stable structures, the tracings were superimposed on the natural reference structures in the anterior cranial base. The horizontal and vertical growth changes of four landmarks and the changes of three traditional linear measurements were evaluated. Posterior nasal spine (PNS) moved posteriorly at a constant rate of approximately 0.12mm/year. Five measures showed changes in growth velocity (i.e. quadratic growth curves) but not adolescent growth spurts, including the anterior movements of anterior nasal spine (ANS) and pogonion (Pg), the inferior movements of gonion (Go), and the increases in ANS-PNS and condylion to pogonion (Co-Pg). Five measurements, including the inferior movements of ANS, PNS and Pg, the posterior movements of Go, and the increases of Go-Pg exhibited adolescent growth spurts. Peak growth velocities were attained between 11.4 and 12.8 years of age, approximately 0.7-1.4 years earlier in the maxilla than mandible. While the vertical aspects of craniofacial growth exhibit distinct female adolescent growth spurts, with peak rates occurring earlier in the maxilla than mandible, most horizontal aspects of craniofacial growth do not exhibit an adolescent spurt.

  17. 78 FR 39740 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, One Democracy Plaza, 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD..., Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, 6701 Democracy Blvd.,...

  18. Wdr68 requires nuclear access for craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingyan; Doan, Diana; Roman Petersen, Yanett; Alvarado, Estibaliz; Alvarado, Gregory; Bhandari, Ajay; Mohanty, Aditya; Mohanty, Sudipta; Nissen, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Wdr68 is a highly conserved scaffolding protein required for craniofacial development and left-right asymmetry. A Ras-Map3k-Wdr68-Dyrk1 signaling relay may mediate these and other diverse signaling events important in development and disease. While the sub-cellular localization of Wdr68 has been shown to be dependent on that of its interaction partners, it is not clear where Wdr68 activity is required during development. Here we show that while a GFP-Wdr68 fusion functionally substituted for craniofacial development in the zebrafish, that a Nuclear Export Signal (NES) fusion protein (GFPNESWdr68) failed to support craniofacial development. As control for NES activity, we show that while GFP-Wdr68 exhibited a pan-cellular distribution in C2C12 cells, the GFPNESWdr68 fusion predominantly localized to the cell cytoplasm, as expected. Interestingly, while GFP-Wdr68 and RFP-Dyrk1a co-localized to the cell nucleus as expected based on the known sub-cellular localization for Dyrk1a, we found that the GFPNESWdr68 fusion redistributed RFP-Dyrk1a to the cell cytoplasm potentially disconnecting the Ras/Dyrk1 signal relay from further downstream targets. Consistent with a nuclear role in gene regulation, we also found that while a transcriptional activation domain fusion, CebpFlagWdr68, functionally substituted for endogenous Wdr68 for craniofacial development, that a transcriptional repression domain fusion, MadFlagWdr68, failed to support craniofacial development. Dyrk1b is required for myogenin (myog) expression in differentiating mouse C2C12 cells and here we report that wdr68 is also important for myog expression in differentiating C2C12 cells. Using a C2C12 cell myog promoter-reporter system, we found that Wdr68 overexpression increased reporter activity while moderate expression levels of MadFlagWdr68 interfered with reporter activity. Taken together, these findings support a nuclear role for Wdr68-containing complexes. PMID:23349862

  19. Registration-based segmentation of three-dimensional ultrasound images for quantitative measurement of fetal craniofacial structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Yin; Huang, Hsiao-Han; Shih, Hui-Hsuan; Wang, Yi-Ying; Chang, Chiung-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Nien

    2012-05-01

    Segmentation of a fetal head from three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound images is a critical step in the quantitative measurement of fetal craniofacial structure. However, two main issues complicate segmentation, including fuzzy boundaries and large variations in pose and shape among different ultrasound images. In this article, we propose a new registration-based method for automatically segmenting the fetal head from 3-D ultrasound images. The proposed method first detects the eyes based on Gabor features to identify the pose of the fetus image. Then, a reference model, which is constructed from a fetal phantom and contains prior knowledge of head shape, is aligned to the image via feature-based registration. Finally, 3-D snake deformation is utilized to improve the boundary fitness between the model and image. Four clinically useful parameters including inter-orbital diameter (IOD), bilateral orbital diameter (BOD), occipital frontal diameter (OFD) and bilateral parietal diameter (BPD) are measured based on the results of the eye detection and head segmentation. Ultrasound volumes from 11 subjects were used for validation of the method accuracy. Experimental results showed that the proposed method was able to overcome the aforementioned difficulties and achieve good agreement between automatic and manual measurements.

  20. Prefrontal-parietal function: from foraging to foresight.

    PubMed

    Genovesio, Aldo; Wise, Steven P; Passingham, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Comparative neuroanatomy shows that new prefrontal areas emerged during the evolution of anthropoid primates to augment prefrontal, parietal, and temporal areas that had evolved in earlier primates. We recently proposed that the new anthropoid areas reduce foraging errors by generating goals from current contexts and learning to do so rapidly, sometimes based on single events. Among the contexts used to generate these goals, the posterior parietal cortex provides the new prefrontal areas with information about relational metrics such as order, number, duration, length, distance and proportion, which play a crucial role in foraging choices. Here we propose that this specialized network later became adapted to support the human capacity for reasoning and general problem-solving.

  1. Overlapping Parietal Activity in Memory and Perception: Evidence for the Attention to Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza, Roberto; Mazuz, Yonatan S.; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Olson, Ingrid R.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the retrieval…

  2. Dissociation of Subtraction and Multiplication in the Right Parietal Cortex: Evidence from Intraoperative Cortical Electrostimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xiaodan; Chen, Chuansheng; Pu, Song; Wu, Chenxing; Li, Yongnian; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinlin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently shown that the left parietal cortex is critical for numerical processing, but the role of the right parietal lobe has been much less clear. This study used the intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation approach to investigate neural dissociation in the right parietal cortex for subtraction and…

  3. Impairments in tactile search following superior parietal damage.

    PubMed

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna P; Vasquez, Brandon P; Hano, Kate; Danckert, James

    2011-08-01

    The superior parietal cortex is critical for the control of visually guided actions. Research suggests that visual stimuli relevant to actions are preferentially processed when they are in peripersonal space. One recent study demonstrated that visually guided movements towards the body were more impaired in a patient with damage to superior parietal cortex. Whereas past studies have explored disordered movement in optic ataxic patients, there has been less exploration of space perception in terms of search capacity in this population. In addition, there is some debate concerning the relationship between deficits of visuomotor control and impaired attention/perception in optic ataxia. Given that the dorsal stream has been implicated in the spatial processing of stimuli in peripersonal space, and damage to this region is known to cause optic ataxia, we felt that further investigation was warranted. We examined tactile search behavior in the fronto-parallel and radial planes in a patient with right superior parietal damage and optic ataxia. We used a pegboard with removable cylindrical pegs that allowed for the reorganization of targets between trials. To better characterize three-dimensional search behavior, we included both horizontal and vertical search conditions. Results showed that the patient spent more time searching, was more accurate and revisited more targets in right versus left space. Interestingly, the patient spent the majority of her time specifically searching the lower right quadrant of the stimulus array. Further analysis revealed lower target detection rates along the outer borders of the pegboard on all sides. The search pattern observed here is unusual considering that all targets were within arm's reach. The present experiment demonstrates that damage to superior parietal cortex impairs tactile search and biases exploration towards lower right peripersonal space.

  4. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.

  5. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites. PMID:25165437

  6. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13–30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites. PMID:25165437

  7. [A cytoprotective chloride channel in gastric parietal cells].

    PubMed

    Sakai, H

    1999-08-01

    This review summarizes the regulatory mechanisms and physiological functions of the novel sub-pS Cl- channel (0.3 pS) that is present abundantly in the basolateral membrane of rabbit gastric parietal cells. The sub-pS Cl- channel is voltage-independent and inhibited by NPPB, a Cl- channel blocker. We found that this gastric Cl- channel is linked to three important physiological roles. First, the sub-pS Cl- channel has a housekeeping role through dominating the cell membrane potential. Although several types of cation channels are present, they do not significantly contribute to the membrane potential in the parietal cells. Second, the Cl- channel is activated by prostaglandin E2 via the EP3 receptor/Ca2-/nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway. A vasodilator ecabapide also activates the channel by increasing the intracellular cGMP content. The NO/cGMP pathway-mediated opening of the sub-pS Cl- channel is essential for cytoprotection against ethanol-induced damage in the gastric parietal cells. The NO/cGMP-elicited cytoprotection is abolished by NPPB. To our knowledge, this Cl- channel is the first identified target for the cytoprotective NO/cGMP pathway. Third, the sub-pS Cl- channel is inhibited by the GTP-binding protein-mediated intracellular production of superoxide anion. Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals have no effect on the channel activity. The intracellular superoxide anion acts as a messenger in the negative regulatory mechanism of the sub-pS Cl- channel. The similar sub-pS Cl- channel is also found in rat gastric parietal cells.

  8. [The endocranial parietal vascular traces in the hominid line].

    PubMed

    Saban, R

    1977-03-01

    The study of the grooves traced by the middle meningeal veins on the parietal bone or the endocast of Hominid fossils shows different patterns which correspond to each evolutive stage. Height types are characterised among the Hominids (Australopithecines, Archanthropines, Paleanthropines and Neanthropines): I, robust Australopithecine type; II, gracile Australopithecine type; III, earliest Pithecanthropine type; IV, evolved Pithecanthropine type; V, Preneandertal type; VI, neandertal type; VII, Neanthropine type; VIII, modern type. PMID:405108

  9. Gestalt perception is associated with reduced parietal beta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2015-05-15

    The ability to perceive composite objects as a whole is fundamental for visual perception in a complex and cluttered natural environment. This ability may be mediated by increased communication between neural representations of distinct object elements, and has been linked to increased synchronization of oscillatory brain activity in the gamma band. Previous studies of perceptual grouping either guided attention between local and global aspects of a given stimulus or manipulated its physical properties to achieve grouped and ungrouped perceptual conditions. In contrast to those studies, we fully matched the physical properties underlying global and local percepts using a bistable stimulus that causes the viewer to perceive either local motion of multiple elements or global motion of two illusory shapes without any external change. To test the synchronization hypothesis we recorded brain activity with EEG, while human participants viewed the stimulus and reported changes in their perception. In contrast to previous findings we show that power of the beta-band was lower during perception of global Gestalt than during that of local elements. Source localization places these differences in the posterior parietal cortex, overlapping with a site previously associated with both attention and Gestalt perception. These findings reveal a role of parietal beta-band activity in internally, rather than externally or attention-driven processes of Gestalt perception. They also add to the growing evidence for shared neural substrates of attention and Gestalt perception, both being linked to parietal cortex.

  10. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration.

  11. Early recurrence and ongoing parietal driving during elementary visual processing

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, Gijs; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Astolfi, Laura; Michel, Christoph M.

    2015-01-01

    Visual stimuli quickly activate a broad network of brain areas that often show reciprocal structural connections between them. Activity at short latencies (<100 ms) is thought to represent a feed-forward activation of widespread cortical areas, but fast activation combined with reciprocal connectivity between areas in principle allows for two-way, recurrent interactions to occur at short latencies after stimulus onset. Here we combined EEG source-imaging and Granger-causal modeling with high temporal resolution to investigate whether recurrent and top-down interactions between visual and attentional brain areas can be identified and distinguished at short latencies in humans. We investigated the directed interactions between widespread occipital, parietal and frontal areas that we localized within participants using fMRI. The connectivity results showed two-way interactions between area MT and V1 already at short latencies. In addition, the results suggested a large role for lateral parietal cortex in coordinating visual activity that may be understood as an ongoing top-down allocation of attentional resources. Our results support the notion that indirect pathways allow early, evoked driving from MT to V1 to highlight spatial locations of motion transients, while influence from parietal areas is continuously exerted around stimulus onset, presumably reflecting task-related attentional processes. PMID:26692466

  12. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  13. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Silson, Edward H; Steel, Adam D; Baker, Chris I

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  14. 75 FR 55592 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... Dental and Craniofacial Research Council, September 27, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to September 27, 2010, 3...

  15. 76 FR 23612 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

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  1. 78 FR 24761 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

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  2. 75 FR 4833 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  3. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. The accuracy of stereolithography in planning craniofacial bone replacement.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peter Shih-Hsin; Parker, Thornwell H; Patrick, Charles W; Miller, Michael J

    2003-03-01

    Stereolithography can be used to produce physical models of the craniofacial skeleton from three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) data. The purpose of this study was to assess its accuracy for modeling osseous defects of the midface. Maxillary resections simulating unilateral maxillectomy (N = 3), bilateral maxillectomy (N = 3), and unilateral orbitomaxillectomy (N = 3) were performed as for sinus tumor resection on nine fresh cadaver skulls. Stereolithographic models (SLMs) were made from the specimen's CT data. The accuracy of SLMs was determined by comparing distances between key landmarks on the skulls and SLMs. Each SLM was grossly accurate with some loss of thin delicate structures. The mean differences in overall dimensions between the SLMs and skull specimens were 1.5 mm (range: 0-5.5 mm) for craniofacial measures, 1.2 mm (range: 0-4.8 mm) for skull base measures, 1.6 (range: 0-5.8 mm) for midface measures, 1.9 mm (range: 0-7.9 mm) for maxilla measures, and 1.5 mm (range: 0-5.7 mm) for orbital measures. The mean differences in defect dimensions were 1.9 mm (range: 0.1-5.7 mm) for unilateral maxillectomy, 0.8 mm (range: 0.2-1.5 mm) for bilateral maxillectomy, and 2.5 mm (range: 0.2-7.0 mm) for orbitomaxillectomy defects. Midface SLMs may be more prone to error than those of other craniofacial regions because of the presence of thin walls and small projections. Thus, one should consider designing midface bone replacements that are larger in critical dimensions than those predicted by preoperative modeling. These findings have important implications for the planning of current surgical methods as well as future applications of tissue-engineered bone replacement.

  8. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  9. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Kasberg, Abigail D.; Brunskill, Eric W.; Potter, S. Steven

    2014-01-01

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  10. First molar health status in different craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the health status of permanent first molars and different craniofacial relationships among adolescents. Study design This is a retrospective study on patients’ records aged 11–15 years. Sex, skeletal relationship, vertical growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, and overbite were assessed. The health status of permanent first molars was recorded from the orthopantomograms and intraoral photographs as “sound” and “not sound”. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze and correlate the assessed variables. Significance level was set at P<0.05. Results A total of 210 records were evaluated; 81 were male, 68 had Class I and 91 had Class II skeletal relationships. More than half of the subjects had normal (n=67) to moderate deep bite (n=72); normal (n=91), moderately increased (n=54), to severely increased (n=50) overjet; and Class I (n=106) and Class II division 1 (n=75) malocclusion. Significant differences were found in the health status of the permanent first molars with respect to sex (P=0.034), vertical growth pattern (P=0.01), and overbite (P=0.047). Strong correlations were only found between the health status of the permanent first molars and the following variables: sex (P=0.036) and vertical growth pattern (P=0.004). Significant correlation was further found between the upper left first molar health status and sex (P=0.019) and the lower right first molar health status and the vertical growth pattern (P=0.001). No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships (P>0.05). Conclusion Sex difference and vertical growth patterns were found to be potential predictors of the health status of the permanent first molars. No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships. PMID:27462176

  11. Antibacterial coating on biocomposites for cranio-facial reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    LAZAR, MADALINA ANCA; VODNAR, DAN; PRODAN, DOINA; ROTARU, HORATIU; ROMAN, CALIN RARES; SORCOI, LIDIA ADRIANA; BACIUT, GRIGORE; CAMPIAN, RADU SEPTIMIU

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Despite the fact that implants are sterilized, antiseptic techniques are applied and systemic antibiotics are routinely administered prior to and after craniofacial surgery, infection rates between 3% and 40% are still reported for alloplastic implants, urging for implant removal. The present study focuses on the development of a fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) implant for craniofacial reconstruction with antimicrobial properties. Methods A new fiber-reinforced composite coated with gentamicin was developed and tested for bacterial adherence and antibacterial efficiency, using two of the most involved bacterial strains in the postoperative infections: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results Bacteria were efficiently inactivated in direct contact with gentamicin coatings (p<0.05). The inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 17.21 mm to 20.13 mm and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ranged from 12.93 mm to 15.33 mm. Although no significant statistical results were found for bacterial adhesion and gentamicin concentration, (Staphylococcus aureus: β= −0.974; p=0.144>0.05 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: β = −0.921; p=0.255>0.05), a negative relation was observed, indicating the reversed relation between the antibiotic dosage and the bacterial adherence. Conclusion The results of the two applied microbiological protocols used in the study suggested that gentamicin eluting coating inhibited not only the bacterial growth, but also led to a lower initial bacterial adhesion to the surface of the implant. Thus, antibiotic coating of craniofacial implants may reduce the infection rate related to reconstructive surgery. PMID:27547065

  12. Magnesium Alloys as a Biomaterial for Degradable Craniofacial Screws

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sarah E.; Verdelis, Konstantinos; Maiti, Spandan; Pal, Siladitya; Chung, William L.; Chou, Da-Tren; Kumta, Prashant N.; Almarza, Alejandro J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, magnesium (Mg) alloys have received significant attention as a potential biomaterial for degradable implants, and this study was directed at evaluating the suitability of Mg for craniofacial bone screws. The objective was to implant screws fabricated from commercially available Mg-alloys (pure Mg and AZ31) in-vivo in a rabbit mandible. First, Mg-alloy screws were compared to stainless steel screws in an in-vitro pull-out test and determined to have a similar holding strength (~40N). A finite element model of the screw was created using the pull-out test data, and the model can be used for future Mg-alloy screw design. Then, Mg-alloy screws were implanted for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, with two controls of an osteotomy site (hole) with no implant and a stainless steel screw implanted for 12 weeks. MicroCT (computed tomography) was used to assess bone remodeling and Mg-alloy degradation, both visually and qualitatively through volume fraction measurements for all time points. Histologic analysis was also completed for the Mg-alloys at 12 weeks. The results showed that craniofacial bone remodeling occurred around both Mg-alloy screw types. Pure Mg had a different degradation profile than AZ31, however bone growth occurred around both screw types. The degradation rate of both Mg-alloy screw types in the bone marrow space and the muscle were faster than in the cortical bone space at 12 weeks. Furthermore, it was shown that by alloying Mg, the degradation profile could be changed. These results indicate the promise of using Mg-alloys for craniofacial applications. PMID:24384125

  13. Craniofacial morphology and otitis media with effusion in children.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Renata; Paulucci, Bruno; Nery, Claudio; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2008-08-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) affects 28-38% of pre-school children, and it occurs due to the dysfunction of the auditory tube. Anatomical development of the auditory tube depends on the craniofacial growth and development. Deviations of normal craniofacial morphology and growth using cephalometric studies, may predict the evolution of otitis. Our goal in this paper is to determine if there are differences in craniofacial morphology between children with adenoid enlargement, with and without otitis media with effusion. This is a prospective study in which the sample consisted of 67 children (male and female) from 5 to 10 years old. All patients presented chronic upper airway obstruction due to tonsil and adenoid enlargement (>80% degree of obstruction). Thirty-three patients presented otitis media with effusion, for more than 3 months and 34 did not. The latter composed the control group. Standardized lateral head radiographs were obtained for all subjects. Radiographs were taken with patient positioned by a cephalostat and stayed with mandibles in centric occlusion and lips at rest. Radiographs were digitalized and specific landmarks were identified using a computer program Radiocef 2003, 5th edition. Measurements, angles and lines were taken of the basicranium, maxilla and mandible according to the modified Ricketts analysis. In addition, facial height and facial axis were determined. Children with otitis media with effusion present differences in the morphology of the face, regarding these measures: N-S (anterior cranial base length), N-ANS (upper facial height), ANS-PNS (size of the hard palate), Po-Or.N-Pog (facial depth), Ba-N.Ptm-Gn (facial axis), Go-Me (mandibular length) and Vaia--Vaip (inferior pharyngeal airway).

  14. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction using CT-derived implicit surface representations.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Dirk; Claes, Peter; Loeckx, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Suetens, Paul

    2006-05-15

    In forensic craniofacial reconstruction, facial features of an unknown individual are estimated from an unidentified skull, based on a mixture of experimentally obtained guidelines on the relationship between soft tissues and the underlying skeleton. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using full 3D cross-sectional CT images for establishing a reference database of densely sampled distances between the external surfaces of the skull and head for automated craniofacial reconstruction. For each CT image in the reference database, the hard tissue (skull) and soft tissue (head) volumes are automatically segmented and transformed into signed distance transform (sDT) images, representing for each voxel in this image the Euclidean distance to the closest point on the skull and head surface, respectively, distances being positive (negative) for voxels inside (outside) the skull/head. Multiple craniofacial reconstructions are obtained by first warping each reference skull sDT maps to the target skull sDT using a B-spline based free form deformation algorithm and subsequently applying these warps to the reference head sDT maps. A single reconstruction of the target head surface is defined as the zero level set of the arithmetic average of all warped reference head sDT maps, but other reconstructions are possible, biasing the result to subject specific attributes (age, BMI, gender). Both qualitative and quantitative tests (measuring the similarity between the 3D reconstructed and corresponding original head surface) on a small (N = 20) database are presented to proof the validity of the concept.

  15. Endoscopic marsupialization of frontoethmoid mucocele with underlying craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Wie, Chan-Eun; Hong, Sung-Lyong; Mun, Sue-Jean; Cho, Kyu-Sup

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign progressive fibro-osseous lesion that is rarely associated with mucocele formation. This complication most probably results from the involvement and subsequent occlusion of the recesses of the sinuses by the dysplastic process. The frontoethmoid mucocele associated with FD represents a rare pathology, but it is important to consider this in the differential diagnosis of patients with proptosis, visual disturbance, and bony fronto-orbital swellings. Here, we describe the first case of frontoethmoid mucocele with underlying craniofacial FD, which was successfully treated by wide marsupialization via the transnasal endoscopic approach.

  16. Behavioral and Psychosocial Factors in Chronic Craniofacial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fricton, James R.

    1985-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain have a multifactoral problem that exhibits both physical and psychosocial symptoms. Evaluation includes determination of the physical diagnosis and psychosocial contributing factors on an equal and integrated basis. Contributing factors include any factor that plays a role in initiation and perpetuation or results from and thus, complicates the problem. Management follows with both reduction of contributing factors and treatment of the diagnosis. Contributing factors are classified as biological, behavioral, social, cognitive, emotional, and environmental. Individual factors in each group for chronic craniofacial pain are reviewed. PMID:3857877

  17. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Multibody modelling is underutilised in craniofacial analyses, particularly when compared to other computational methods such as finite element analysis. However, there are many potential applications within this area, where bony movements, muscle forces, joint kinematics and bite forces can all be studied. This paper provides an overview of recent, three-dimensional, multibody modelling studies related to the analysis of skulls. The goal of this paper is not to offer a critical review of past studies, but instead intends to inform the reader of what has been achieved with multibody modelling. PMID:21062283

  18. Topographic Organization for Delayed Saccades in Human Posterior Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Schluppeck, Denis; Glimcher, Paul; Heeger, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is thought to play a critical role in decision making, sensory attention, motor intention, and/or working memory. Research on the PPC in non-human primates has focused on the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Neurons in LIP respond after the onset of visual targets, just before saccades to those targets, and during the delay period in between. To study the function of posterior parietal cortex in humans, it will be crucial to have a routine and reliable method for localizing specific parietal areas in individual subjects. Here, we show that human PPC contains at least two topographically organized regions, which are candidates for the human homologue of LIP. We mapped the topographic organization of human PPC for delayed (memory guided) saccades using fMRI. Subjects were instructed to fixate centrally while a peripheral target was briefly presented. After a further 3-s delay, subjects made a saccade to the remembered target location followed by a saccade back to fixation and a 1-s inter-trial interval. Targets appeared at successive locations “around the clock” (same eccentricity, ≈30° angular steps), to produce a traveling wave of activity in areas that are topographically organized. PPC exhibited topographic organization for delayed saccades. We defined two areas in each hemisphere that contained topographic maps of the contralateral visual field. These two areas were immediately rostral to V7 as defined by standard retinotopic mapping. The two areas were separated from each other and from V7 by reversals in visual field orientation. However, we leave open the possibility that these two areas will be further subdivided in future studies. Our results demonstrate that topographic maps tile the cortex continuously from V1 well into PPC. PMID:15817644

  19. Syndecan-1 in the Mouse Parietal Peritoneum Microcirculation in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewska, Paulina M.; Patrick, Amanda L.; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138) was shown to regulate inflammatory responses by binding chemokines and cytokines and interacting with adhesion molecules, thereby modulating leukocyte trafficking to tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of syndecan-1 and its role in leukocyte recruitment and chemokine presentation in the microcirculation underlying the parietal peritoneum. Methods Wild-type BALB/c and syndecan-1 null mice were stimulated with an intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus LTA, Escherichia coli LPS or TNFα and the microcirculation of the parietal peritoneum was examined by intravital microscopy after 4 hours. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine syndecan-1 expression in the peritoneal microcirculation using fluorescent antibodies. Blocking antibodies to adhesion molecules were used to examine the role of these molecules in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in response to LTA. To determine whether syndecan-1 co-localizes with chemokines in vivo, fluorescent antibodies to syndecan-1 were co-injected intravenously with anti-MIP-2 (CXCL2), anti-KC (CXCL1) or anti-MCP-1 (CCL2). Results and Conclusion Syndecan-1 was localized to the subendothelial region of peritoneal venules and the mesothelial layer. Leukocyte rolling was significantly decreased with LPS treatment while LTA and TNFα significantly increased leukocyte adhesion compared with saline control. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were not different in syndecan-1 null mice. Antibody blockade of β2 integrin (CD18), ICAM-1 (CD54) and VCAM-1 (CD106) did not decrease leukocyte adhesion in response to LTA challenge while blockade of P-selectin (CD62P) abrogated leukocyte rolling. Lastly, MIP-2 expression in the peritoneal venules was not dependent on syndecan-1 in vivo. Our data suggest that syndecan-1 is expressed in the parietal peritoneum microvasculature but does not regulate leukocyte recruitment

  20. Neural activity in the parietal eye of a lizard.

    PubMed

    MILLER, W H; WOLBARSHT, M L

    1962-01-26

    Electrical signs of activity in response to illumination of the parietal eye of the American chameleon, Anolis carolinensis, have been investigated. The responses were of two types. Under conditions of direct-coupled amplification, with glass pipette electrodes recording extracellularly from the retinal surface, the response consisted of an increase in negativity maintained throughout prolonged illumination. With capacitance-coupled amplification and metal electrodes, brisk mass discharges of nerve impulses were detected at the onset and cessation of illumination. During illumination a less vigorous maintained discharge was observed.

  1. Environmental reduplication associated with right frontal and parietal lobe injury.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, R L; Volpe, B T

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with environmental reduplication, a specific form of spatial disorientation and confabulation are described. The patients maintained that their hospital rooms were located in their homes. Each patients had evidence of right frontal or right parietal injury based upon computed tomography, neurosurgery, and neuropsychological testing. The factors associated with environmental reduplication were: impaired spatial perception and visual memory, inability of the patients to recognise the inconsistency between their believed location and their actual location, confusion soon after admission to hospital, and a strong desire to be at home. PMID:7264684

  2. Developmental mechanisms underlying variation in craniofacial disease and evolution.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jennifer L

    2016-07-15

    Craniofacial disease phenotypes exhibit significant variation in penetrance and severity. Although many genetic contributions to phenotypic variation have been identified, genotype-phenotype correlations remain imprecise. Recent work in evolutionary developmental biology has exposed intriguing developmental mechanisms that potentially explain incongruities in genotype-phenotype relationships. This review focuses on two observations from work in comparative and experimental animal model systems that highlight how development structures variation. First, multiple genetic inputs converge on relatively few developmental processes. Investigation of when and how variation in developmental processes occurs may therefore help predict potential genetic interactions and phenotypic outcomes. Second, genetic mutation is typically associated with an increase in phenotypic variance. Several models outlining developmental mechanisms underlying mutational increases in phenotypic variance are discussed using Satb2-mediated variation in jaw size as an example. These data highlight development as a critical mediator of genotype-phenotype correlations. Future research in evolutionary developmental biology focusing on tissue-level processes may help elucidate the "black box" between genotype and phenotype, potentially leading to novel treatment, earlier diagnoses, and better clinical consultations for individuals affected by craniofacial anomalies. PMID:26724698

  3. Craniofacial defect regeneration using engineered bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Putnins, Edward E

    2011-10-01

    Large craniofacial bony defects remain a significant clinical challenge. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) constitute a multipotent population. Previously, we developed a novel approach for BM-MSC expansion on 3D CultiSpher-S gelatin microcarrier beads in spin culture with preservation of their multipotentiality, reduction of apoptosis, and enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Here, we hypothesized that such cultured BM-MSCs without exogenous growth factors would respond to the orthopedic microenvironment, thus promoting craniofacial defect regeneration. BM-MSCs isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats were ex vivo expanded and transplanted into critical-sized (5-mm diameter) rat calvaria defects. Gelatin beads or defect alone served as controls. By 28 and 42 days, rats were sacrificed for microcomputed tomography (microCT), histologic, and immunohistochemistry examination. MicroCT results demonstrated that BM-MSCs were a statistically significant factor contributing to new bone volume regeneration. Histologic assessment showed that the BM-MSCs group produced more and higher quality new bone compared with beads or defect-alone groups in both osteoinductive and osteoconductive manners. Specifically, immunohistochemical staining identified GFP(+) cells residing in new bone lacunae in conjunction with non-GFP(+) cells. Therefore, ex vivo expanded BM-MSCs at least in part regenerated critical-sized calvaria defects by osteogenic differentiation in vivo.

  4. A gene expression atlas of early craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, Andrew S; Distasio, Andrew; Dexheimer, Phillip; Plassard, Andrew; Aronow, Bruce J; Potter, S Steven

    2014-07-15

    We present a gene expression atlas of early mouse craniofacial development. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate cells from the principal critical microregions, whose development, differentiation and signaling interactions are responsible for the construction of the mammalian face. At E8.5, as migrating neural crest cells begin to exit the neural fold/epidermal ectoderm boundary, we examined the cranial mesenchyme, composed of mixed neural crest and paraxial mesoderm cells, as well as cells from adjacent neuroepithelium. At E9.5 cells from the cranial mesenchyme, overlying olfactory placode/epidermal ectoderm, and underlying neuroepithelium, as well as the emerging mandibular and maxillary arches were sampled. At E10.5, as the facial prominences form, cells from the medial and lateral prominences, the olfactory pit, multiple discrete regions of underlying neuroepithelium, the mandibular and maxillary arches, including both their mesenchymal and ectodermal components, as well as Rathke's pouch, were similarly sampled and profiled using both microarray and RNA-seq technologies. Further, we performed single cell studies to better define the gene expression states of the early E8.5 pioneer neural crest cells and paraxial mesoderm. Taken together, and analyzable by a variety of biological network approaches, these data provide a complementing and cross validating resource capable of fueling discovery of novel compartment specific markers and signatures whose combinatorial interactions of transcription factors and growth factors/receptors are responsible for providing the master genetic blueprint for craniofacial development. PMID:24780627

  5. A Gene Expression Atlas of Early Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, Eric W.; Potter, Andrew S.; Distasio, Andrew; Dexheimer, Phillip; Plassard, Andrew; Aronow, Bruce J.; Potter, S. Steven

    2014-01-01

    We present a gene expression atlas of early mouse craniofacial development. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate cells from the principal critical micro-regions, whose development, differentiation and signaling interactions are responsible for the construction of the mammalian face. At E8.5, as migrating neural crest cells begin to exit the neural fold/epidermal ectoderm boundary, we examined the cranial mesenchyme, composed of mixed neural crest and paraxial mesoderm cells, as well as cells from adjacent neuroepithelium. At E9.5 cells from the cranial mesenchyme, overlying olfactory placode/epidermal ectoderm, and underlying neuroepithelium, as well as the emerging mandibular and maxillary arches were sampled. At E10.5, as the facial prominences form, cells from the medial and lateral prominences, the olfactory pit, multiple discrete regions of underlying neuroepithelium, the mandibular and maxillary arches, including both their mesenchymal and ectodermal components, as well as Rathke’s pouch, were similarly sampled and profiled using both microarray and RNA-seq technologies. Further, we performed single cell studies to better define the gene expression states of the early E8.5 pioneer neural crest cells and paraxial mesoderm. Taken together, and analyzable by a variety of biological network approaches, these data provide a complementing and cross-validating resource capable of fueling discovery of novel compartment specific markers and signatures whose combinatorial interactions of transcription factors and growth factors/receptors are responsible for providing the master genetic blueprint for craniofacial development. PMID:24780627

  6. Stem cells, growth factors and scaffolds in craniofacial regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tollemar, Viktor; Collier, Zach J.; Mohammed, Maryam K.; Lee, Michael J.; Ameer, Guillermo A.; Reid, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Current reconstructive approaches to large craniofacial skeletal defects are often complicated and challenging. Critical-sized defects are unable to heal via natural regenerative processes and require surgical intervention, traditionally involving autologous bone (mainly in the form of nonvascularized grafts) or alloplasts. Autologous bone grafts remain the gold standard of care in spite of the associated risk of donor site morbidity. Tissue engineering approaches represent a promising alternative that would serve to facilitate bone regeneration even in large craniofacial skeletal defects. This strategy has been tested in a myriad of iterations by utilizing a variety of osteoconductive scaffold materials, osteoblastic stem cells, as well as osteoinductive growth factors and small molecules. One of the major challenges facing tissue engineers is creating a scaffold fulfilling the properties necessary for controlled bone regeneration. These properties include osteoconduction, osetoinduction, biocompatibility, biodegradability, vascularization, and progenitor cell retention. This review will provide an overview of how optimization of the aforementioned scaffold parameters facilitates bone regenerative capabilities as well as a discussion of common osteoconductive scaffold materials. PMID:27239485

  7. Evaluation of anatomical consistency in craniofacial superimposition images.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Imaizumi, K; Miyasaka, S; Seta, S

    1995-06-30

    Using 52 skulls in forensic cases, the anatomical consistency of cranio-facial superimposition images was investigated for evaluating the validity in personal identification by the superimposition method. In 35 out of 52 cases the unknown skull was positively identified as the missing person by matching of the outline and anatomical relation in skull and face images taken from frontal, oblique and lateral directions. The unknown skull in two cases was exclusive of the presumed person since the outline of the skull was not anatomically consistent with that of the face. In the remaining 15 cases, the skull in question was examined using only a frontal face photograph of the missing person and matched with it because of the lack of other photographs taken from different angles, giving a probable identification. From our practical examination, it is stated that the outline from the trichion to the gnathion in the lateral or oblique view is the preferable portion for personal identification, and the cranio-facial super-imposition method is reliable for individualization when two or more facial photographs taken from different angles are used in the examination.

  8. Reliability of Craniofacial Superimposition Using Three-Dimension Skull Model.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, Daniel; Olivieri, Lara; De Angelis, Danilo; Poppa, Pasquale; Galassi, Andrea; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial superimposition is a technique potentially useful for the identification of unidentified human remains if a photo of the missing person is available. We have tested the reliability of the 2D-3D computer-aided nonautomatic superimposition techniques. Three-dimension laser scans of five skulls and ten photographs were overlaid with an imaging software. The resulting superimpositions were evaluated using three methods: craniofacial landmarks, morphological features, and a combination of the two. A 3D model of each skull without its mandible was tested for superimposition; we also evaluated whether separating skulls by sex would increase correct identifications. Results show that the landmark method employing the entire skull is the more reliable one (5/5 correct identifications, 40% false positives [FP]), regardless of sex. However, the persistence of a high percentage of FP in all the methods evaluated indicates that these methods are unreliable for positive identification although the landmark-only method could be useful for exclusion. PMID:26335587

  9. IFT46 plays crucial roles in craniofacial and cilia development.

    PubMed

    Park, Inji; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Chowon; Ismail, Tayaba; Kim, Yoo-Kyung; Park, Jeen-Woo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kang, Beom Sik; Lee, Dong-Seok; Park, Tae-Joo; Park, Mae-Ja; Choi, Sun-Cheol; Lee, Hyun-Shik

    2016-08-26

    The intraflagellar transport (IFT) system is essential for bidirectional movement of ciliary components from the basal body to the tip beneath the ciliary sheath and is conserved for cilia and flagella formation in most vertebrates. IFT complex A is involved in anterograde trafficking, whereas complex B is involved in retrograde trafficking. IFT46 is well known as a crucial component of IFT complex B, however, its developmental functions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the novel functions of IFT46 during vertebrate development, especially, ciliogenesis and neurogenesis, because IFT46 is strongly expressed in both multiciliated cells of epithelial and neural tissues. Knockdown of IFT46 using morpholino microinjections caused shortening of the body axis as well as the formation of fewer and shorter cilia. Furthermore, loss of IFT46 down-regulated the expression of the neural plate and neural tube markers, thus may influence Wnt/planar cell polarity and the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway during neurogenesis. In addition, loss of IFT46 caused craniofacial defects by interfering with cartilage formation. In conclusion, our results depict that IFT46 plays important roles in cilia as well as in neural and craniofacial development. PMID:27320864

  10. ALX4 dysfunction disrupts craniofacial and epidermal development.

    PubMed

    Kayserili, Hulya; Uz, Elif; Niessen, Carien; Vargel, Ibrahim; Alanay, Yasemin; Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Yigit, Gokhan; Uyguner, Oya; Candan, Sukru; Okur, Hamza; Kaygin, Serkan; Balci, Sevim; Mavili, Emin; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet; Haase, Ingo; Wollnik, Bernd; Akarsu, Nurten Ayse

    2009-11-15

    Genetic control of craniofacial morphogenesis requires a complex interaction of numerous genes encoding factors essential for patterning and differentiation. We present two Turkish families with a new autosomal recessive frontofacial dysostosis syndrome characterized by total alopecia, a large skull defect, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, severely depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, callosal body agenesis and mental retardation. Using homozygosity mapping, we mapped the entity to chromosome 11p11.2-q12.3 and subsequently identified a homozygous c.793C-->T nonsense mutation in the human ortholog of the mouse aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a premature stop codon (p.R265X) of ALX4 truncating 146 amino acids of the protein including a part of the highly conserved homeodomain and the C-terminal paired tail domain. Although the RNA is stable and not degraded by nonsense-mediated RNA decay, the mutant protein is likely to be non-functional. In a skin biopsy of an affected individual, we observed a hypomorphic interfollicular epidermis with reduced suprabasal layers associated with impaired interfollicular epidermal differentiation. Hair follicle-like structures were present but showed altered differentiation. Our data indicate that ALX4 plays a critical role both in craniofacial development as in skin and hair follicle development in human.

  11. Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-09-01

    Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments.

  12. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  13. Craniofacial development of hagfishes and the evolution of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Oisi, Yasuhiro; Ota, Kinya G; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Fujimoto, Satoko; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2013-01-10

    Cyclostomes, the living jawless vertebrates including hagfishes and lampreys, represent the most basal lineage of vertebrates. Although the monophyly of cyclostomes has been supported by recent molecular analyses, the phenotypic traits of hagfishes, especially the lack of some vertebrate-defining features and the reported endodermal origin of the adenohypophysis, have been interpreted as hagfishes exhibiting a more ancestral state than those of all other vertebrates. Furthermore, the adult anatomy of hagfishes cannot be compared easily with that of lampreys. Here we describe the craniofacial development of a series of staged hagfish embryos, which shows that their adenohypophysis arises ectodermally, consistent with the molecular phylogenetic data. This finding also allowed us to identify a pan-cyclostome pattern, one not shared by jawed vertebrates. Comparative analyses indicated that many of the hagfish-specific traits can be explained by changes secondarily introduced into the hagfish lineage. We also propose a possibility that the pan-cyclostome pattern may reflect the ancestral programme for the craniofacial development of all living vertebrates.

  14. The affect of tissue depth variation on craniofacial reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, John M; Ward, Richard E

    2007-10-25

    We examined the affect of tissue depth variation on the reconstruction of facial form, through the application of the American method, utilizing published tissue depth measurements for emaciated, normal, and obese faces. In this preliminary study, three reconstructions were created on reproductions of the same skull for each set of tissue depth measurements. The resulting morphological variation was measured quantitatively using the anthropometric craniofacial variability index (CVI). This method employs 16 standard craniofacial anthropometric measurements and the results reflect "pattern variation" or facial harmony. We report no appreciable variation in the quantitative measure of the pattern facial form obtained from the three different sets of tissue depths. Facial similarity was assessed qualitatively utilizing surveys of photographs of the three reconstructions. Surveys indicated that subjects frequently perceived the reconstructions as representing different individuals. This disagreement indicates that size of the face may blind observers to similarities in facial form. This research is significant because it illustrates the confounding effect that normal human variation contributes in the successful recognition of individuals from a representational three-dimensional facial reconstruction. Research results suggest that successful identification could be increased if multiple reconstructions were created which reflect a wide range of possible outcomes for facial form. The creation of multiple facial images, from a single skull, will be facilitated as computerized versions of facial reconstruction are further developed and refined. PMID:17353107

  15. Rare Bone Diseases and Their Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Foster, B.L.; Ramnitz, M.S.; Gafni, R.I.; Burke, A.B.; Boyce, A.M.; Lee, J.S.; Wright, J.T.; Akintoye, S.O.; Somerman, M.J.; Collins, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary diseases affecting the skeleton are heterogeneous in etiology and severity. Though many of these conditions are individually rare, the total number of people affected is great. These disorders often include dental-oral-craniofacial (DOC) manifestations, but the combination of the rarity and lack of in-depth reporting often limit our understanding and ability to diagnose and treat affected individuals. In this review, we focus on dental, oral, and craniofacial manifestations of rare bone diseases. Discussed are defects in 4 key physiologic processes in bone/tooth formation that serve as models for the understanding of other diseases in the skeleton and DOC complex: progenitor cell differentiation (fibrous dysplasia), extracellular matrix production (osteogenesis imperfecta), mineralization (familial tumoral calcinosis/hyperostosis hyperphosphatemia syndrome, hypophosphatemic rickets, and hypophosphatasia), and bone resorption (Gorham-Stout disease). For each condition, we highlight causative mutations (when known), etiopathology in the skeleton and DOC complex, and treatments. By understanding how these 4 foci are subverted to cause disease, we aim to improve the identification of genetic, molecular, and/or biologic causes, diagnoses, and treatment of these and other rare bone conditions that may share underlying mechanisms of disease. PMID:24700690

  16. Thermal shell fragment craniofacial injury: biophysics, pathophysiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to bring attention to unique risks and burns by thermal shell fragment craniofacial soft tissue injury. Hot shrapnel may inflict burns to major vessel walls and lead to life-threatening hemorrhaging or death, which adds a new challenge for craniofacial surgeons. Morbidity of thermal deep tissue may lead to deep tissue necrosis and infection.Thermal energy (TE) physics, biophysics, and pathophysiological effects relate directly to the amount of heat generated from shell casing detonation, which transfers to skin, deep tissue, as well as brain and leads to life-threatening burning of organs; this is different from shrapnel kinetic energy injury.The unprecedented increase in using a large range of explosives and high-heat thermobaric weapons contributes to the superfluous and unnecessary suffering caused by thermal injury wounds.Surgeons and medics should recognize that a surprising amount of TE can be found in an explosion or detonation of a steel-encased explosive, resulting in TEs ranging from 400 F up to 1000 F. PMID:25534053

  17. Possible sex-discriminant variables in craniofacial growth in clefting.

    PubMed

    Long, R E; Jain, R B; Krogman, W M

    1982-11-01

    In this investigation, 174 patients with orofacial clefts were examined for identification of possible sex differences in craniodentofacial measurements. The patients were selected from the longitudinal growth files of the H. K. Cooper Clinic. Records available for analysis were serial lateral cephalometric radiographs from the age of 1 month to 10 years. Patients were grouped by cleft type and sex within each cleft group (78 cleft palate only, 64 unilateral cleft of lip and palate, 32 bilateral cleft of lip and palate). Stepwise discriminant analysis of fourteen linear and angular craniofacial dimensions was used to identify those variables which contributed to sex differences within each cleft group over the growth/time intervals examined. Results suggested the possibility of sex-related differences in growth timing, that is, earlier maturation and growth in females in several craniofacial areas which did not appear to be related to the presence, absence, or type of cleft but which could possibly modify cleft-specific responses to treatment (cranial base dimensions, face heights). Other sex-related differences appeared to be more specifically related to known sex differences in original cleft type and severity (mandibular size and position, midfacial dimensions). The manner in which these various sex factors interface with environmental and therapeutic influences in producing the ultimate craniodentofacial morphology in a given sex and cleft type is discussed.

  18. Rare bone diseases and their dental, oral, and craniofacial manifestations.

    PubMed

    Foster, B L; Ramnitz, M S; Gafni, R I; Burke, A B; Boyce, A M; Lee, J S; Wright, J T; Akintoye, S O; Somerman, M J; Collins, M T

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary diseases affecting the skeleton are heterogeneous in etiology and severity. Though many of these conditions are individually rare, the total number of people affected is great. These disorders often include dental-oral-craniofacial (DOC) manifestations, but the combination of the rarity and lack of in-depth reporting often limit our understanding and ability to diagnose and treat affected individuals. In this review, we focus on dental, oral, and craniofacial manifestations of rare bone diseases. Discussed are defects in 4 key physiologic processes in bone/tooth formation that serve as models for the understanding of other diseases in the skeleton and DOC complex: progenitor cell differentiation (fibrous dysplasia), extracellular matrix production (osteogenesis imperfecta), mineralization (familial tumoral calcinosis/hyperostosis hyperphosphatemia syndrome, hypophosphatemic rickets, and hypophosphatasia), and bone resorption (Gorham-Stout disease). For each condition, we highlight causative mutations (when known), etiopathology in the skeleton and DOC complex, and treatments. By understanding how these 4 foci are subverted to cause disease, we aim to improve the identification of genetic, molecular, and/or biologic causes, diagnoses, and treatment of these and other rare bone conditions that may share underlying mechanisms of disease.

  19. Sylvian fissure and parietal anatomy in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tracey A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Foundas, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF) and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7-14 years), matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions. PMID:22713374

  20. Study on the performance of different craniofacial superimposition approaches (II): Best practices proposal.

    PubMed

    Damas, S; Wilkinson, C; Kahana, T; Veselovskaya, E; Abramov, A; Jankauskas, R; Jayaprakash, P T; Ruiz, E; Navarro, F; Huete, M I; Cunha, E; Cavalli, F; Clement, J; Lestón, P; Molinero, F; Briers, T; Viegas, F; Imaizumi, K; Humpire, D; Ibáñez, O

    2015-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition, although existing for one century, is still a controversial technique within the scientific community. Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to establish a more solid picture on the reliability. However, there is lack of protocols and standards in the application of the technique leading to contradictory information concerning reliability. Instead of following a uniform methodology, every expert tends to apply his own approach to the problem, based on the available technology and deep knowledge on human craniofacial anatomy, soft tissues, and their relationships. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of different craniofacial superimposition methodologies and the corresponding technical approaches to this type of identification. With all the data generated, some of the most representative experts in craniofacial identification joined in a discussion intended to identify and agree on the most important issues that have to be considered to properly employ the craniofacial superimposition technique. As a consequence, the consortium has produced the current manuscript, which can be considered the first standard in the field; including good and bad practices, sources of error and uncertainties, technological requirements and desirable features, and finally a common scale for the craniofacial matching evaluation. Such a document is intended to be part of a more complete framework for craniofacial superimposition, to be developed during the FP7-founded project MEPROCS, which will favour and standardize its proper application.

  1. Study on the performance of different craniofacial superimposition approaches (II): Best practices proposal.

    PubMed

    Damas, S; Wilkinson, C; Kahana, T; Veselovskaya, E; Abramov, A; Jankauskas, R; Jayaprakash, P T; Ruiz, E; Navarro, F; Huete, M I; Cunha, E; Cavalli, F; Clement, J; Lestón, P; Molinero, F; Briers, T; Viegas, F; Imaizumi, K; Humpire, D; Ibáñez, O

    2015-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition, although existing for one century, is still a controversial technique within the scientific community. Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to establish a more solid picture on the reliability. However, there is lack of protocols and standards in the application of the technique leading to contradictory information concerning reliability. Instead of following a uniform methodology, every expert tends to apply his own approach to the problem, based on the available technology and deep knowledge on human craniofacial anatomy, soft tissues, and their relationships. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of different craniofacial superimposition methodologies and the corresponding technical approaches to this type of identification. With all the data generated, some of the most representative experts in craniofacial identification joined in a discussion intended to identify and agree on the most important issues that have to be considered to properly employ the craniofacial superimposition technique. As a consequence, the consortium has produced the current manuscript, which can be considered the first standard in the field; including good and bad practices, sources of error and uncertainties, technological requirements and desirable features, and finally a common scale for the craniofacial matching evaluation. Such a document is intended to be part of a more complete framework for craniofacial superimposition, to be developed during the FP7-founded project MEPROCS, which will favour and standardize its proper application. PMID:26482539

  2. Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nora K; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea R; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task. PMID:25959620

  3. Fronto-parietal network supports context-dependent speech comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Dmitry; Glerean, Enrico; Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the context of a discourse is an essential prerequisite for comprehension. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to disclose brain networks supporting context-dependent speech comprehension. During fMRI, 20 participants listened to 1-min spoken narratives preceded by pictures that were either contextually matching or mismatching with the narrative. Matching pictures increased narrative comprehension, decreased hemodynamic activity in Broca׳s area, and enhanced its functional connectivity with left anterior superior frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior parietal cortex, as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Further, the anterior (BA 45) and posterior (BA 44) portions of Broca׳s area differed in their functional connectivity patterns. Both BA 44 and BA 45 have shown increased connectivity with right angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Whereas BA 44 showed increased connectivity with left angular gyrus, left inferior/middle temporal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus, BA 45 showed increased connectivity with right posterior cingulate cortex, right anterior inferior frontal gyrus, lateral occipital cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that a fronto-parietal functional network supports context-dependent narrative comprehension, and that Broca׳s area is involved in resolving ambiguity from speech when appropriate contextual cues are lacking. PMID:25218167

  4. Parietal cortex mediates conscious perception of illusory gestalt.

    PubMed

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Anstis, Stuart; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Grouping local elements into a holistic percept, also known as spatial binding, is crucial for meaningful perception. Previous studies have shown that neurons in early visual areas V1 and V2 can signal complex grouping-related information, such as illusory contours or object-border ownerships. However, relatively little is known about higher-level processes contributing to these signals and mediating global Gestalt perception. We used a novel bistable motion illusion that induced alternating and mutually exclusive vivid conscious experiences of either dynamic illusory contours forming a global Gestalt or moving ungrouped local elements while the visual stimulation remained the same. fMRI in healthy human volunteers revealed that activity fluctuations in two sites of the parietal cortex, the superior parietal lobe and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), correlated specifically with the perception of the grouped illusory Gestalt as opposed to perception of ungrouped local elements. We then disturbed activity at these two sites in the same participants using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS over aIPS led to a selective shortening of the duration of the global Gestalt percept, with no effect on that of local elements. The results suggest that aIPS activity is directly involved in the process of spatial binding during effortless viewing in the healthy brain. Conscious perception of global Gestalt is therefore associated with aIPS function, similar to attention and perceptual selection. PMID:23303932

  5. Increased parietal activity after training of interference control.

    PubMed

    Oelhafen, Stephan; Nikolaidis, Aki; Padovani, Tullia; Blaser, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that computerized cognitive training leads to improved performance in related but untrained tasks (i.e. transfer effects). However, most study designs prevent disentangling which of the task components are necessary for transfer. In the current study, we examined whether training on two variants of the adaptive dual n-back task would affect untrained task performance and the corresponding electrophysiological event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty three healthy young adults were trained for three weeks with a high or low interference training variant of the dual n-back task, or they were assigned to a passive control group. While n-back training with high interference led to partial improvements in the Attention Network Test (ANT), we did not find transfer to measures of working memory and fluid intelligence. ERP analysis in the n-back task and the ANT indicated overlapping processes in the P3 time range. Moreover, in the ANT, we detected increased parietal activity for the interference training group alone. In contrast, we did not find electrophysiological differences between the low interference training and the control group. These findings suggest that training on an interference control task leads to higher electrophysiological activity in the parietal cortex, which may be related to improvements in processing speed, attentional control, or both.

  6. Parietal cortex mediates conscious perception of illusory gestalt.

    PubMed

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Anstis, Stuart; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Grouping local elements into a holistic percept, also known as spatial binding, is crucial for meaningful perception. Previous studies have shown that neurons in early visual areas V1 and V2 can signal complex grouping-related information, such as illusory contours or object-border ownerships. However, relatively little is known about higher-level processes contributing to these signals and mediating global Gestalt perception. We used a novel bistable motion illusion that induced alternating and mutually exclusive vivid conscious experiences of either dynamic illusory contours forming a global Gestalt or moving ungrouped local elements while the visual stimulation remained the same. fMRI in healthy human volunteers revealed that activity fluctuations in two sites of the parietal cortex, the superior parietal lobe and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), correlated specifically with the perception of the grouped illusory Gestalt as opposed to perception of ungrouped local elements. We then disturbed activity at these two sites in the same participants using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS over aIPS led to a selective shortening of the duration of the global Gestalt percept, with no effect on that of local elements. The results suggest that aIPS activity is directly involved in the process of spatial binding during effortless viewing in the healthy brain. Conscious perception of global Gestalt is therefore associated with aIPS function, similar to attention and perceptual selection.

  7. Sleep Related Hypermotor Seizures with a Right Parietal Onset

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Steve A.; Figorilli, Michela; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Proserpio, Paola; Nobili, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a syndrome characterized by the occurrence of sleep related seizures of variable complexity and duration. Hypermotor seizures (HMS) represent a classic manifestation of this syndrome, associated with a perturbation of the ventromesial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus regions. Nevertheless, in recent years, reports have showed that the seizure onset zone (SOZ) need not be of frontal origin to generate HMS. Here we report an unusual case of a patient presenting with a seven-year history of drug-resistant sleep related HMS arising from the mesial parietal region. The presence of an infrequent feeling of levitation before the HMS was key to suspecting a subtle focal cortical dysplasia in the right precuneus region. A stereo-EEG investigation confirmed the extra-frontal seizure onset of the HMS and highlighted the interrelationship between unstable sleep and seizure precipitation. Citation: Gibbs SA, Figorilli M, Casaceli G, Proserpio P, Nobili L. Sleep related hypermotor seizures with a right parietal onset. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):953–955. PMID:25902821

  8. Frontal and parietal lobe activation during transitive inference in humans.

    PubMed

    Acuna, Bettina D; Eliassen, James C; Donoghue, John P; Sanes, Jerome N

    2002-12-01

    Cortical areas engaged in knowledge manipulation during reasoning were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while participants performed transitive inference (TI) on an ordered list of 11 items (e.g. if A < B and B < C, then A < C). Initially, participants learned a list of arbitrarily ordered visual shapes. Learning occurred by exposure to pairs of list items that were adjacent in the sequence. Subsequently, functional MR images were acquired as participants performed TI on non-adjacent sequence items. Control tasks consisted of height comparisons (HT) and passive viewing (VIS). Comparison of the TI task with the HT task identified activation resulting from TI, termed 'reasoning', while controlling for rule application, decision processes, perception, and movement, collectively termed 'support processes'. The HT-VIS comparison revealed activation related to support processes. The TI reasoning network included bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA), premotor area (PMA), insula, precuneus, and lateral posterior parietal cortex. By contrast, cortical regions activated by support processes included the bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), primary motor cortex (M1), somatic sensory cortices, and right PMA. These results emphasize the role of a prefrontal-parietal network in manipulating information to form new knowledge based on familiar facts. The findings also demonstrate PFC activation beyond short-term memory to include mental operations associated with reasoning. PMID:12427681

  9. Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nora K; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea R; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task.

  10. Zebrafish Zic2a and Zic2b regulate neural crest and craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Teslaa, Jessica J; Keller, Abigail N; Nyholm, Molly K; Grinblat, Yevgenya

    2013-08-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the human forebrain, is associated with defects of the craniofacial skeleton. ZIC2, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is strongly linked to HPE and to a characteristic set of dysmorphic facial features in humans. We have previously identified important functions for zebrafish Zic2 in the developing forebrain. Here, we demonstrate that ZIC2 orthologs zic2a and zic2b also regulate the forming zebrafish craniofacial skeleton, including the jaw and neurocranial cartilages, and use the zebrafish to study Zic2-regulated processes that may contribute to the complex etiology of HPE. Using temporally controlled Zic2a overexpression, we show that the developing craniofacial cartilages are sensitive to Zic2 elevation prior to 24hpf. This window of sensitivity overlaps the critical expansion and migration of the neural crest (NC) cells, which migrate from the developing neural tube to populate vertebrate craniofacial structures. We demonstrate that zic2b influences the induction of NC at the neural plate border, while both zic2a and zic2b regulate NC migratory onset and strongly contribute to chromatophore development. Both Zic2 depletion and early ectopic Zic2 expression cause moderate, incompletely penetrant mispatterning of the NC-derived jaw precursors at 24hpf, yet by 2dpf these changes in Zic2 expression result in profoundly mispatterned chondrogenic condensations. We attribute this discrepancy to an additional role for Zic2a and Zic2b in patterning the forebrain primordium, an important signaling source during craniofacial development. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that transplanted Zic2-deficient cells can contribute to craniofacial cartilages in a wild-type background. Collectively, these data suggest that zebrafish Zic2 plays a dual role during craniofacial development, contributing to two disparate aspects of craniofacial morphogenesis: (1) neural crest induction and migration, and (2) early

  11. Craniofacial ciliopathies: An expanding oral disease spectrum - a review of literature and a case report

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Jigna V.; Asha, M. L.; Kumar, G. Arun; Sattigeri, Anupama V.; Malhotra, Diksha

    2016-01-01

    For all intents and purposes, craniofacial development is initiated as soon as the anteroposterior axis of an embryo is established. Although the neural crest receives a significant amount of attention, craniofacial tissue has more patterning information than other tissues of the body. New studies have further clarifi ed the contribution of ciliary epithelia as a source of patterning information for the face. In this paper, we review the craniofacial anomalies in patients with ciliopathies, in which orofacial region is a pivotal recognition of the disorder. Also, a case report of a patient with suspected ciliopathy has been presented along with a logical approach for diagnosis of such disorders.

  12. Genome-wide approaches (GWA) in oral and craniofacial diseases research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Gordon, S; Dionne, R

    2012-01-01

    Underlying molecular genetic mechanisms of diseases can be deciphered with unbiased strategies using recently developed technologies enabling genome-wide scale investigations. These technologies have been applied in scanning for genetic variations, gene expression profiles, and epigenetic changes for oral and craniofacial diseases. However, these approaches as applied to oral and craniofacial conditions are in the initial stages, and challenges remain to be overcome, including analysis of high throughput data and their interpretation. Here, we review methodology and studies using genome-wide approaches in oral and craniofacial diseases and suggest future directions. PMID:22913301

  13. Bioengineering strategies for regeneration of craniofacial bone: a review of emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Ward, B B; Brown, S E; Krebsbach, P H

    2010-11-01

    Although advances in surgical techniques and bone grafting have significantly improved the functional and cosmetic restoration of craniofacial structures lost because of trauma or disease, there are still significant limitations in our ability to regenerate these tissues. The regeneration of oral and craniofacial tissues presents a formidable challenge that requires synthesis of basic science, clinical science, and engineering technology. Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field of study that addresses this challenge by applying the principles of engineering to biology and medicine toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, and improve normal function. This review will explore the impact of biomaterials design, stem cell biology and gene therapy on craniofacial tissue engineering.

  14. Modeling Murine Gastric Metaplasia Through Tamoxifen-Induced Acute Parietal Cell Loss.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Jose B; Burclaff, Joseph; Mills, Jason C

    2016-01-01

    Parietal cell loss represents the initial step in the sequential progression toward gastric adenocarcinoma. In the setting of chronic inflammation, the expansion of the mucosal response to parietal cell loss characterizes a crucial transition en route to gastric dysplasia. Here, we detail methods for using the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen as a novel tool to rapidly and reversibly induce parietal cell loss in mice in order to study the mechanisms that underlie these pre-neoplastic events. PMID:27246044

  15. The role of right and left parietal lobes in the conceptual processing of numbers.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Lee, Hwee Ling; Freeman, Elliot D; Price, Cathy J

    2010-02-01

    Neuropsychological and functional imaging studies have associated the conceptual processing of numbers with bilateral parietal regions (including intraparietal sulcus). However, the processes driving these effects remain unclear because both left and right posterior parietal regions are activated by many other conceptual, perceptual, attention, and response-selection processes. To dissociate parietal activation that is number-selective from parietal activation related to other stimulus or response-selection processes, we used fMRI to compare numbers and object names during exactly the same conceptual and perceptual tasks while factoring out activations correlating with response times. We found that right parietal activation was higher for conceptual decisions on numbers relative to the same tasks on object names, even when response time effects were fully factored out. In contrast, left parietal activation for numbers was equally involved in conceptual processing of object names. We suggest that left parietal activation for numbers reflects a range of processes, including the retrieval of learnt facts that are also involved in conceptual decisions on object names. In contrast, number selectivity in right parietal cortex reflects processes that are more involved in conceptual decisions on numbers than object names. Our results generate a new set of hypotheses that have implications for the design of future behavioral and functional imaging studies of patients with left and right parietal damage. PMID:19400672

  16. Therapeutic ultrasound applications in craniofacial growth, healing and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    El-Bialy, Tarek

    2007-09-01

    Previous reports have shown that therapeutic ultrasound enhances healing of fractured bone as well as cut tendons. Moreover, it has been shown that therapeutic ultrasound enhances bone formation during distraction osteogenesis that is also known as Ilizarove technique. It has been recently reported that therapeutic ultrasound enhances tooth formation and eruption during mandible distraction osteogenesis in rabbits. This enhanced tooth formation and eruption was caused by new dental tissue formation, known as dentin and cementum. This led to a clinical trial in human that showed that therapeutic ultrasound can enhance repairing tooth root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. This discovery can lead to many applications of ultrasound in the dental as well as in the craniofacial reconstructions. This paper provides an overview of the molecular basis of the achieved clinical results. Moreover, potential future application will be elaborated.

  17. Craniofacial Microsomia: Goldenhar Syndrome in Association with Bilateral Congenital Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, U. D.; Adhikari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) includes a spectrum of malformations primarily involving structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. Patients with hemifacial microsomia and epibulbar dermoids are said to have Goldenhar syndrome (GHS). Four-month-old boy with whitish pupillary reflex presented with the features of GHS in pediatric ophthalmology clinic. The child had ocular and auricular manifestations. There were no vertebral anomalies, but he had bilateral congenital cataract. The peculiarity of this case is the presence of the bilateral total congenital cataract, in association with CFM. There is absence of epibulbar dermoid or lipodermoid in the eyes, although the child had features of GHS. In addition to it, anesthetic intubation was smooth in this case. Any case diagnosed with CFM and/or GHS needs treatment through multidisciplinary approach, consultation in ophthalmology department is one of them. PMID:26635984

  18. Clinical guidelines for the management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; FitzGibbon, E J; Chen, Y R; Kim, H J; Lustig, L R; Akintoye, S O; Collins, M T; Kaban, L B

    2012-05-24

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant condition caused by post-zygotic, activating mutations of the GNAS gene that results in inhibition of the differentiation and proliferation of bone-forming stromal cells and leads to the replacement of normal bone and marrow by fibrous tissue and woven bone. The phenotype is variable and may be isolated to a single skeletal site or multiple sites and sometimes is associated with extraskeletal manifestations in the skin and/or endocrine organs (McCune-Albright syndrome). The clinical behavior and progression of FD may also vary, thereby making the management of this condition difficult with few established clinical guidelines. This paper provides a clinically-focused comprehensive description of craniofacial FD, its natural progression, the components of the diagnostic evaluation and the multi-disciplinary management, and considerations for future research. PMID:22640797

  19. Altered FGF signalling in congenital craniofacial and skeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Shahida; Wollnik, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling pathway has been the focus of intense genetic and functional research for several decades. The emerging data implicate FGF signalling in diverse regulatory processes, both in the developing embryo as well as in the adult organism. Alterations in this tightly regulated pathway can lead to a number of pathological conditions, ranging from well-recognized congenital disorders to cancer. In order to mediate their cellular processes, FGFs signal through a subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors, called FGF receptors (FGFRs). In humans, four FGFRs are described, and, to date, mutations in FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 have been shown to underlie human developmental disorders. FGFs/FGFRs are known to be key players in both endochondral and intramembranous bone development. In this review, we focus on the major developmental craniofacial and skeletal disorders which result from altered FGF signalling. PMID:26686047

  20. The emerging roles of ribosome biogenesis in craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Ross, Adam P; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S

    2014-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a transient, migratory cell population, which originates during neurulation at the neural folds and contributes to the majority of tissues, including the mesenchymal structures of the craniofacial skeleton. The deregulation of the complex developmental processes that guide migration, proliferation, and differentiation of NCCs may result in a wide range of pathological conditions grouped together as neurocristopathies. Recently, due to their multipotent properties neural crest stem cells have received considerable attention as a possible source for stem cell based regenerative therapies. This exciting prospect underlines the need to further explore the developmental programs that guide NCC differentiation. This review explores the particular importance of ribosome biogenesis defects in this context since a specific interface between ribosomopathies and neurocristopathies exists as evidenced by disorders such as Treacher-Collins-Franceschetti syndrome (TCS) and Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). PMID:24550838

  1. Stature estimation from craniofacial anthropometry in Bangladeshi Garo adult females.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Z; Banu, L A; Alam, M M; Rahman, M F

    2012-07-01

    Estimation of stature is an important tool in forensic examination especially in unknown, highly decomposed, fragmentary and mutilated human remains. When the evidences are skeletal remains; forensic anthropology has put forward means to estimate the stature from the skeletal and even from fragmentary bones. Sometimes, craniofacial remains are brought in for forensic and postmortem examination. In such a situation, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other parameters like age, sex, race, etc. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. It is well established that a single standard of craniofacial aesthetics is not appropriate for application to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Bangladesh is a country not only for the Bengalis; the country harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Like other ethnic groups, the Garos (study subjects) have their own set of language, social structure, cultures and economic activities and religious values. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Bangladeshi Garo adult females. The study also attempted to find out the correlation of the craniofacial dimensions with stature and to determine multiplication factors. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components. The study was carried out with a total number of one hundred Garo adult females, aged between 25-45 years. Craniofacial dimension such as head circumference, head length, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth and stature were measured using a measuring tape, spreading caliper, steel plate and steel tape and sliding caliper. The data were then statistically

  2. "False" migration of rigid fixation appliances in pediatric craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Papay, F A; Hardy, S; Morales, L; Walker, M; Enlow, D

    1995-07-01

    Osseous fixation techniques have been widely used to provide rigid stabilization in the craniofacial skeleton. Reported sequelae of its usage has been limited to palpation of the screw-plate system and radiological imaging artifacts. Over the past 3 years we have identified miniplates, microplates, and wire sutures on the inner cranial table of the growing child. The observation of "false" migration of these appliances has provided the impetus to review these patients in more detail. Twenty patients underwent secondary cranial remodeling within a two-year period; 7 of these patients were seen to have "false" migration. There were no untoward sequelae in removal of these appliances, and no adverse neurological symptoms were seen.

  3. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    PubMed Central

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology. PMID:22073096

  4. Craniofacial and dental characteristics of cartilage-hair hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Rönning, O; Myllarniemi, S; Perheentupa, J

    1978-01-01

    The cranio-facial and dental features were studied by means of roentgencephalometry and anthropometry in 24 patients with cartilage-hair-hypoplasia. Data pertaining to the cranial base were considered indicative of subnormal growth in some of the cranial synchondroses. The width of the neurocranium was slightly below the values of the controls, whereas neurocranial length and circumference appeared unaffected. Facial height was larger than in the controls and facial index values were high. The chin was receding, but the other values of facial depth were relatively large. No abnormalities were observed in tooth morphology, dental age, or dental occlusion. The neurocranial morphology in CHH and achondroplasia show some similarities; the skull base, however, is clearly less bent in the CHH-syndrome. This, together with the virtually normal face and dentition in CHH-patients, is, perhaps, of differential diagnostic value.

  5. Biomedical discovery acceleration, with applications to craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Leach, Sonia M; Tipney, Hannah; Feng, Weiguo; Baumgartner, William A; Kasliwal, Priyanka; Schuyler, Ronald P; Williams, Trevor; Spritz, Richard A; Hunter, Lawrence

    2009-03-01

    The profusion of high-throughput instruments and the explosion of new results in the scientific literature, particularly in molecular biomedicine, is both a blessing and a curse to the bench researcher. Even knowledgeable and experienced scientists can benefit from computational tools that help navigate this vast and rapidly evolving terrain. In this paper, we describe a novel computational approach to this challenge, a knowledge-based system that combines reading, reasoning, and reporting methods to facilitate analysis of experimental data. Reading methods extract information from external resources, either by parsing structured data or using biomedical language processing to extract information from unstructured data, and track knowledge provenance. Reasoning methods enrich the knowledge that results from reading by, for example, noting two genes that are annotated to the same ontology term or database entry. Reasoning is also used to combine all sources into a knowledge network that represents the integration of all sorts of relationships between a pair of genes, and to calculate a combined reliability score. Reporting methods combine the knowledge network with a congruent network constructed from experimental data and visualize the combined network in a tool that facilitates the knowledge-based analysis of that data. An implementation of this approach, called the Hanalyzer, is demonstrated on a large-scale gene expression array dataset relevant to craniofacial development. The use of the tool was critical in the creation of hypotheses regarding the roles of four genes never previously characterized as involved in craniofacial development; each of these hypotheses was validated by further experimental work.

  6. Biomedical Discovery Acceleration, with Applications to Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiguo; Baumgartner, William A.; Kasliwal, Priyanka; Schuyler, Ronald P.; Williams, Trevor; Spritz, Richard A.; Hunter, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The profusion of high-throughput instruments and the explosion of new results in the scientific literature, particularly in molecular biomedicine, is both a blessing and a curse to the bench researcher. Even knowledgeable and experienced scientists can benefit from computational tools that help navigate this vast and rapidly evolving terrain. In this paper, we describe a novel computational approach to this challenge, a knowledge-based system that combines reading, reasoning, and reporting methods to facilitate analysis of experimental data. Reading methods extract information from external resources, either by parsing structured data or using biomedical language processing to extract information from unstructured data, and track knowledge provenance. Reasoning methods enrich the knowledge that results from reading by, for example, noting two genes that are annotated to the same ontology term or database entry. Reasoning is also used to combine all sources into a knowledge network that represents the integration of all sorts of relationships between a pair of genes, and to calculate a combined reliability score. Reporting methods combine the knowledge network with a congruent network constructed from experimental data and visualize the combined network in a tool that facilitates the knowledge-based analysis of that data. An implementation of this approach, called the Hanalyzer, is demonstrated on a large-scale gene expression array dataset relevant to craniofacial development. The use of the tool was critical in the creation of hypotheses regarding the roles of four genes never previously characterized as involved in craniofacial development; each of these hypotheses was validated by further experimental work. PMID:19325874

  7. Ecogeographical and phylogenetic effects on craniofacial variation in macaques.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Takeshi; Takai, Masanaru

    2014-05-01

    The widespread and complex ecogeographical diversity of macaques may have caused adaptive morphological convergence among four phylogenetic subgroups, making their phylogenetic relationships unclear. We used geometric morphometrics and multivariate analyses to test the null hypothesis that craniofacial morphology does not vary with ecogeographical and phylogenetic factors. As predicted by Bergmann's rule, size was larger for the fascicularis and sinica groups in colder environments. No clear size cline was observed in the silenus and sylvanus groups. An allometric pattern was observed across macaques, indicating that as size increases, rounded faces become more elongated. However, the elevation was differentiated within each of the former two groups and between the silenus and sylvanus groups, and the slope decreased in each of the two northern species of the fascicularis group. All allometric changes resulted in the similar situation of the face being more rounded in animals inhabiting colder zones and/or in animals having a larger body size than that predicted from the overarching allometric pattern. For non-allometric components, variations in prognathism were significantly correlated with dietary differences; variations in localized shape components in zygomatics and muzzles were significantly correlated with phylogenetic differences among the subgroups. The common allometric pattern was probably influenced directly or indirectly by climate-related factors, which are pressures favoring a more rounded face in colder environments and/or a more elongated face in warmer environments. Allometric dissociation could have occurred several times in Macaca even within a subgroup because of their wide latitudinal distributions, critically impairing the taxonomic utility of craniofacial elongation. PMID:24449333

  8. Characterization of porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers for craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Yoon, Diana M; Spicer, Patrick P; Henslee, Allan M; Scott, David W; Wong, Mark E; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2013-07-01

    Porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been used as an alloplastic bone substitute in the craniofacial complex, showing integration with the surrounding soft and hard tissue. This study investigated the physicochemical properties of curing and cured mixtures of a PMMA-based bone cement and a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) gel porogen. Four formulations yielding porous PMMA of varied porosity were examined; specifically, two groups containing 30% (w/w) CMC gel in the mixture using a 7% (w/v) or 9% (w/v) stock CMC gel (30-7 and 30-9, respectively) and two groups containing 40% (w/w) CMC gel (40-7 and 40-9). An additional group comprising solid PMMA without CMC was investigated. The incorporation of the CMC gel into the PMMA bone cement during polymerization decreased the setting time from 608 ± 12 s for the solid PMMA to 427 ± 10 s for the 40-9 group, and decreased the maximum temperature from 81 ± 4°C for the solid PMMA to 38 ± 2°C for the 40-9 group. The porous PMMA groups exhibited reduced compressive strength and bending modulus and strength relative to the solid PMMA. All the porous PMMA formulations released more unconverted methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT) from cured specimens and less MMA and DMT from curing specimens than the solid PMMA. The data suggest that the physicochemical properties of the porous PMMA formulations are appropriate for their application in craniofacial space maintenance.

  9. Dissociable parietal systems for primacy and subsequent memory effects.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Tobias; Rose, Michael; Büchel, Christian

    2006-05-01

    The frequently observed superior memory for the first items on a list is referred to as primacy. The aetiology of this effect in terms of cognitive processes and their neural substrate is subject to an ongoing debate. However, the brain areas generally involved in successful encoding are well described by subsequent memory studies in which activity during encoding is correlated with memory performance. We employed an object-location association paradigm to differentiate the neural correlate of the primacy from the subsequent memory effect. Activity in the intraparietal sulcus predicted memory performance across all encoding positions. Increased activity in the inferior parietal lobe and angular gyrus resulted exclusively in a more efficient encoding of the first item presented. These areas are part of the ventral frontoparietal network involved in stimulus driven attention. Our results implicate the relatively elevated attention to the first item probably due to its contextual distinctiveness, as a major contributor to the primacy effect.

  10. [Parietal-scar endometriosis after cesarean section: a rare entity].

    PubMed

    El Fahssi, Mohammed; Lomdo, Massama; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Sair, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Wall endometriosis is a rare clinical entity whose pathophysiology remains unclear. It occurs most frequently after gynecologic or obstetric surgery. We report the case of a patient with cyclic pain at the caesarean section scar. Clinical examination showed a 5 cm mass in the right iliac fossa. Tomodensitometry revealed a tissue density mass (45mm on the major axis). Hence, the decision to perform a wide excision of the lesion. Anatomo-pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of parietal endometriosis. Postoperative sequelae were simple with a follow-up period of 20 months with no recurrence of the mass or of the pain. Our study highlights the characteristics of this disease to allow the health practitioner to understand the importance of diagnosis, of early treatment of this disease as well as of the possibility to prevent it during each gynecologic or obstetric surgery. PMID:27642418

  11. Transient contribution of left posterior parietal cortex to cognitive restructuring

    PubMed Central

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Nagaoka, Sawako; Chakraborty, Sudesna; Ishii, Daisuke; Matsuda, Shingo; Tomizawa, Haruna; Ito, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive restructuring is a fundamental method within cognitive behavioural therapy of changing dysfunctional beliefs into flexible beliefs and learning to react appropriately to the reality of an anxiety-causing situation. To clarify the neural mechanisms of cognitive restructuring, we designed a unique task that replicated psychotherapy during a brain scan. The brain activities of healthy male participants were analysed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the brain scan, participants underwent Socratic questioning aimed at cognitive restructuring regarding the necessity of handwashing after using the restroom. The behavioural result indicated that the Socratic questioning effectively decreased the participants' degree of belief (DOB) that they must wash their hands. Alterations in the DOB showed a positive correlation with activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while the subject thought about and rated own belief. The involvement of the left PPC not only in planning and decision-making but also in conceptualization may play a pivotal role in cognitive restructuring. PMID:25775998

  12. Sleep Related Hypermotor Seizures with a Right Parietal Onset.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Steve A; Figorilli, Michela; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Proserpio, Paola; Nobili, Lino

    2015-08-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a syndrome characterized by the occurrence of sleep related seizures of variable complexity and duration. Hypermotor seizures (HMS) represent a classic manifestation of this syndrome, associated with a perturbation of the ventromesial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus regions. Nevertheless, in recent years, reports have showed that the seizure onset zone (SOZ) need not be of frontal origin to generate HMS. Here we report an unusual case of a patient presenting with a seven-year history of drug-resistant sleep related HMS arising from the mesial parietal region. The presence of an infrequent feeling of levitation before the HMS was key to suspecting a subtle focal cortical dysplasia in the right precuneus region. A stereo-EEG investigation confirmed the extra-frontal seizure onset of the HMS and highlighted the interrelationship between unstable sleep and seizure precipitation. PMID:25902821

  13. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W.; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient’s first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified. PMID:27774355

  14. A parietal memory network revealed by multiple MRI methods.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2015-09-01

    The manner by which the human brain learns and recognizes stimuli is a matter of ongoing investigation. Through examination of meta-analyses of task-based functional MRI and resting state functional connectivity MRI, we identified a novel network strongly related to learning and memory. Activity within this network at encoding predicts subsequent item memory, and at retrieval differs for recognized and unrecognized items. The direction of activity flips as a function of recent history: from deactivation for novel stimuli to activation for stimuli that are familiar due to recent exposure. We term this network the 'parietal memory network' (PMN) to reflect its broad involvement in human memory processing. We provide a preliminary framework for understanding the key functional properties of the network. PMID:26254740

  15. Diverse spatial reference frames of vestibular signals in parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaodong; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reference frames are important for understanding how sensory cues from different modalities are coordinated to guide behavior, and the parietal cortex is critical to these functions. We compare reference frames of vestibular self-motion signals in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), and dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd). Vestibular heading tuning in VIP is invariant to changes in both eye and head positions, indicating a body (or world)-centered reference frame. Vestibular signals in PIVC have reference frames that are intermediate between head- and body-centered. In contrast, MSTd neurons show reference frames between head- and eye-centered, but not body-centered. Eye and head position gain fields were strongest in MSTd and weakest in PIVC. Our findings reveal distinct spatial reference frames for representing vestibular signals, and pose new challenges for understanding the respective roles of these areas in potentially diverse vestibular functions. PMID:24239126

  16. Scalp Medical Tattooing Technique to Camouflage Bifid Parietal Whorls

    PubMed Central

    You, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no reports have described cosmetic problems arising from the hair direction around the parietal whorl (PW). This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of scalp medical tattooing technique for camouflaging bifid PWs. Methods: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of scalp medical tattooing in 38 patients who were admitted for camouflage of a bifid PW. Results: All patients’ cosmetic appearance was judged, by both the patients and the surgeon, to be markedly improved. No specific complications occurred, such as infection, hair loss in the operative field, or other problems. Conclusion: Scalp medical tattooing appears to be an effective method that helps to camouflage the see-through appearance of bifid PWs. PMID:27200232

  17. Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dixon, Jill; Achilleos, Annita; Dixon, Michael; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all birth defects and are a significant cause of infant mortality. Since the majority of the bones, cartilage and connective tissues that comprise the head and face are derived from a multipotent migratory progenitor cell population called the neural crest, craniofacial disorders are typically attributed to defects in neural crest cell development. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of craniofacial development and although TCS arises primarily through autosomal dominant mutations in TCOF1, no clear genotype–phenotype correlation has been documented. Here we show that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency results in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and neuroepithelial cell death. Consistent with this discovery, maternal treatment with antioxidants minimizes cell death in the neuroepithelium and substantially ameliorates or prevents the pathogenesis of craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1+/− mice. Thus maternal antioxidant dietary supplementation may provide an avenue for protection against the pathogenesis of TCS and similar neurocristopathies. PMID:26792133

  18. PATHOGENESIS OF METHANOL-INDUCED CRANIOFACIAL DEFECTS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol administered to C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation causes severe craniofacial dysmorphology. We describe dysmorphogenesis, cell death, cell cycle assessment, and effects on development of cranial ganglia and nerves observed following administration of methanol...

  19. Identifying craniofacial features associated with prenatal exposure to androgens and testing their relationship with brain development.

    PubMed

    Marečková, Klára; Chakravarty, Mallar M; Lawrence, Claire; Leonard, Gabriel; Perusse, Daniel; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce G; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    We used magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins (n = 119, 8 years of age) to study possible effects of prenatal androgens on craniofacial features. Using a principal component analysis of 19 craniofacial landmarks placed on the MR images, we identified a principal component capturing craniofacial features that distinguished females with a presumed differential exposure to prenatal androgens by virtue of having a male (vs. a female) co-twin (Cohen's d = 0.76). Subsequently, we tested the possibility that this craniofacial "signature" of prenatal exposure to androgens predicts brain size, a known sexually dimorphic trait. In an independent sample of female adolescents (singletons; n = 462), we found that the facial signature predicts up to 8% of variance in brain size. These findings are consistent with the organizational effects of androgens on brain development and suggest that the facial signature derived in this study could complement other indirect measures of prenatal exposure to androgens.

  20. Postnatal Development of the Craniofacial Skeleton in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    C57BL/6J is one of the most commonly used inbred mouse strains in biomedical research, including studies of craniofacial development and teratogenic studies of craniofacial malformation. The current study quantitatively assessed the development of the skull in male C57BL/6J mice by using high-resolution 3D imaging of 55 landmarks from 48 male mice over 10 developmental time points from postnatal day 0 to 90. The growth of the skull plateaued at approximately postnatal day 60, and the shape of the skull did not change markedly thereafter. The amount of asymmetry in the craniofacial skeleton seemed to peak at birth, but considerable variation persisted in all age groups. For C57BL/6J male mice, postnatal day 60 is the earliest time point at which the skull achieves its adult shape and proportions. In addition, C57BL/6J male mice appear to have an inherent susceptibility to craniofacial malformation. PMID:27025802

  1. 76 FR 30370 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and...

  2. Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dixon, Jill; Achilleos, Annita; Dixon, Michael; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-01-21

    Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all birth defects and are a significant cause of infant mortality. Since the majority of the bones, cartilage and connective tissues that comprise the head and face are derived from a multipotent migratory progenitor cell population called the neural crest, craniofacial disorders are typically attributed to defects in neural crest cell development. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of craniofacial development and although TCS arises primarily through autosomal dominant mutations in TCOF1, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been documented. Here we show that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency results in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and neuroepithelial cell death. Consistent with this discovery, maternal treatment with antioxidants minimizes cell death in the neuroepithelium and substantially ameliorates or prevents the pathogenesis of craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1(+/-) mice. Thus maternal antioxidant dietary supplementation may provide an avenue for protection against the pathogenesis of TCS and similar neurocristopathies.

  3. Assessing Species-specific Contributions To Craniofacial Development Using Quail-duck Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of chimeric embryos is a widespread and powerful approach to study cell fates, tissue interactions, and species-specific contributions to the histological and morphological development of vertebrate embryos. In particular, the use of chimeric embryos has established the importance of neural crest in directing the species-specific morphology of the craniofacial complex. The method described herein utilizes two avian species, duck and quail, with remarkably different craniofacial morphology. This method greatly facilitates the investigation of molecular and cellular regulation of species-specific pattern in the craniofacial complex. Experiments in quail and duck chimeric embryos have already revealed neural crest-mediated tissue interactions and cell-autonomous behaviors that regulate species-specific pattern in the craniofacial skeleton, musculature, and integument. The great diversity of neural crest derivatives suggests significant potential for future applications of the quail-duck chimeric system to understanding vertebrate development, disease, and evolution. PMID:24962088

  4. The influence of incompetent lip seal on the growth and development of craniofacial complex.

    PubMed

    Drevensek, Martina; Stefanac-Papić, Jadranka; Farcnik, Franc

    2005-12-01

    Abnormal orofacial functions in the period of growth and development can cause morphological anomalies of the craniofacial complex. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between open mouth posture and morphology of craniofacial complex. The shape, size and relationships of skeletal parts of craniofacial complex were determined by analysis of lateral cephalograms in the sample of 84 children--45 girls and 39 boys (aged 8.96 +/- 0.66 years). The sample was divided into two groups--lip competence and lip incompetence group. Differences in cephalometric values between observed groups were found. The values of inclination of lower central incisors (angle ILi/NB), interbasal angle (NL/NSL), angle between occlusal and mandibular plane and anterior lower facial height were significantly higher in the group with open mouth posture. It can be concluded that lip incompetence plays an important role in growth and development of craniofacial complex.

  5. Thyroid hormone and retinoic acid interact to regulate zebrafish craniofacial neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Bohnsack, Brenda L; Kahana, Alon

    2013-01-15

    Craniofacial and ocular morphogenesis require proper regulation of cranial neural crest migration, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although alterations in maternal thyroid hormone (TH) are associated with congenital craniofacial anomalies, the role of TH on the neural crest has not been previously described. Using zebrafish, we demonstrate that pharmacologic and genetic alterations in TH signaling disrupt cranial neural crest migration, proliferation, and survival, leading to craniofacial, extraocular muscle, and ocular developmental abnormalities. In the rostral cranial neural crest that gives rise to the periocular mesenchyme and the frontonasal process, retinoic acid (RA) rescued migratory defects induced by decreased TH signaling. In the caudal cranial neural crest, TH and RA had reciprocal effects on anterior and posterior pharyngeal arch development. The interactions between TH and RA signaling were partially mediated by the retinoid X receptor. We conclude that TH regulates both rostral and caudal cranial neural crest. Further, coordinated interactions of TH and RA are required for proper craniofacial and ocular development.

  6. Thyroid Hormone and Retinoic Acid Interact to Regulate Zebrafish Craniofacial Neural Crest Development

    PubMed Central

    Bohnsack, Brenda L.; Kahana, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial and ocular morphogenesis requires proper regulation of cranial neural crest migration, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although alterations in maternal thyroid hormone (TH) are associated with congenital craniofacial anomalies, the role of TH on the neural crest has not been previously described. Using zebrafish, we demonstrate that pharmacologic and genetic alterations in TH signaling disrupt cranial neural crest migration, proliferation, and survival, leading to craniofacial, extraocular muscle, and ocular developmental abnormalities. In the rostral cranial neural crest that gives rise to the periocular mesenchyme and the frontonasal process, retinoic acid (RA) rescued migratory defects induced by decreased TH signaling. In the caudal cranial neural crest, TH and RA had reciprocal effects on anterior and posterior pharyngeal arch development. The interactions between TH and RA signaling were partially mediated by the retinoid X receptor. We conclude that TH regulates both rostral and caudal cranial neural crest. Further, coordinated interactions of TH and RA are required for proper craniofacial and ocular development. PMID:23165295

  7. Subcortical mapping of calculation processing in the right parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; Lazzarini, Anna; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Rustemi, Oriela; Cagnin, Annachiara; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of calculation processing in brain surgery is crucial for patients' quality of life. Over the last decade, surgical electrostimulation was used to identify and preserve the cortical areas involved in such processing. Conversely, subcortical connectivity among different areas implicated in this function remains unclear, and the role of surgery in this domain has not been explored so far. The authors present the first 2 cases in which the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation were identified during right parietal lobe surgery. Two patients affected by a glioma located in the right parietal lobe underwent surgery with the aid of MRI neuronavigation. No calculation deficits were detected during preoperative assessment. Cortical and subcortical mapping were performed using a bipolar stimulator. The current intensity was determined by progressively increasing the amplitude by 0.5-mA increments (from a baseline of 1 mA) until a sensorimotor response was elicited. Then, addition and multiplication calculation tasks were administered. Corticectomy was performed according to both the MRI neuronavigation data and the functional findings obtained through cortical mapping. Direct subcortical electrostimulation was repeatedly performed during tumor resection. Subcortical functional sites for multiplication and addition were detected in both patients. Electrostimulation interfered with calculation processing during cortical mapping as well. Functional sites were spared during tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful, and calculation processing was preserved. Postoperative MRI showed complete resection of the tumor. The present preliminary study shows for the first time how functional mapping can be a promising method to intraoperatively identify the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation processing. This report therefore supports direct electrical stimulation as a promising tool to improve the current knowledge on

  8. The Use of Genetic Programming for Learning 3D Craniofacial Shape Quantifications.

    PubMed

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati; Shapiro, Linda G; Heike, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Craniofacial disorders commonly result in various head shape dysmorphologies. The goal of this work is to quantify the various 3D shape variations that manifest in the different facial abnormalities in individuals with a craniofacial disorder called 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. Genetic programming (GP) is used to learn the different 3D shape quantifications. Experimental results show that the GP method achieves a higher classification rate than those of human experts and existing computer algorithms [1], [2].

  9. Fgf8 haploinsufficiency results in distinct craniofacial defects in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Albertson, R Craig; Yelick, Pamela C

    2007-06-15

    Significant progress has been made toward understanding the role of fgf8 in directing early embryonic patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton. Considerably less is known about the role this growth factor plays in the coordinated development, growth, and remodeling of the craniofacial skeleton beyond embryonic stages. To better understand the contributions of fgf8 in the formation of adult craniofacial architecture, we analyzed the skeletal anatomy of adult ace(ti282a)/fgf8 heterozygous zebrafish. Our results revealed distinct skeletal defects including facial asymmetries, aberrant craniofacial geometry, irregular patterns of cranial suturing, and ectopic bone formation. These defects are similar in presentation to several human craniofacial disorders (e.g., craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia), and may be related to increased levels of bone metabolism observed in ace(ti282a)/fgf8 heterozygotes. Moreover, skeletal defects observed in ace(ti282a)/fgf8 heterozygotes are consistent with expression patterns of fgf8 in the mature craniofacial skeleton. These data reveal previously unrecognized roles for fgf8 during skeletogenesis, and provide a basis for future investigations into the mechanisms that regulate craniofacial development beyond the embryo. PMID:17448458

  10. Hcfc1b, a zebrafish ortholog of HCFC1, regulates craniofacial development by modulating mmachc expression.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Anita M; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Achilly, Nate; Rosenblatt, David S; Maclean, Kenneth N; Stabler, Sally P; Artinger, Kristin B; Appel, Bruce; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in HCFC1 (MIM300019), have been recently associated with cblX (MIM309541), an X-linked, recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including craniofacial abnormalities. HCFC1 is a transcriptional co-regulator that modulates the expression of numerous downstream target genes including MMACHC, but it is not clear how these HCFC1 targets play a role in the clinical manifestations of cblX. To begin to elucidate the mechanism by which HCFC1 modulates disease phenotypes, we have carried out loss of function analyses in the developing zebrafish. Of the two HCFC1 orthologs in zebrafish, hcfc1a and hcfc1b, the loss of hcfc1b specifically results in defects in craniofacial development. Subsequent analysis revealed that hcfc1b regulates cranial neural crest cell differentiation and proliferation within the posterior pharyngeal arches. Further, the hcfc1b-mediated craniofacial abnormalities were rescued by expression of human MMACHC, a downstream target of HCFC1 that is aberrantly expressed in cblX. Furthermore, we tested distinct human HCFC1 mutations for their role in craniofacial development and demonstrated variable effects on MMACHC expression in humans and craniofacial development in zebrafish. Notably, several individuals with mutations in either HCFC1 or MMACHC have been reported to have mild to moderate facial dysmorphia. Thus, our data demonstrates that HCFC1 plays a role in craniofacial development, which is in part mediated through the regulation of MMACHC expression. PMID:25281006

  11. Hcfc1b, a zebrafish ortholog of HCFC1, regulates craniofacial development by modulating mmachc expression

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Anita M.; Geiger, Elizabeth A.; Achilly, Nate; Rosenblatt, David S.; Maclean, Kenneth N.; Stabler, Sally P.; Artinger, Kristin B.; Appel, Bruce; Shaikh, Tamim H.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in HCFC1 (MIM300019), have been recently associated with cblX (MIM309541), an X-linked, recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including craniofacial abnormalities. HCFC1 is a transcriptional co-regulator that modulates the expression of numerous downstream target genes including MMACHC, but it is not clear how these HCFC1 targets play a role in the clinical manifestations of cblX. To begin to elucidate the mechanism by which HCFC1 modulates disease phenotypes, we have carried out loss of function analyses in the developing zebrafish. Of the two HCFC1 orthologs in zebrafish, hcfc1a and hcfc1b, the loss of hcfc1b specifically results in defects in craniofacial development. Subsequent analysis revealed that hcfc1b regulates cranial neural crest cell differentiation and proliferation within the posterior pharyngeal arches. Further, the hcfc1b-mediated craniofacial abnormalities were rescued by expression of human MMACHC, a downstream target of HCFC1 that is aberrantly expressed in cblX. Furthermore, we tested distinct human HCFC1 mutations for their role in craniofacial development and demonstrated variable effects on MMACHC expression in humans and craniofacial development in zebrafish. Notably, several individuals with mutations in either HCFC1 or MMACHC have been reported to have mild to moderate facial dysmorphia. Thus, our data demonstrates that HCFC1 plays a role in craniofacial development, which is in part mediated through the regulation of MMACHC expression. PMID:25281006

  12. Cdh1 regulates craniofacial development via APC-dependent ubiquitination and activation of Goosecoid.

    PubMed

    Shao, Rui; Liu, Jia; Yan, Guang; Zhang, Jinfang; Han, Yujiao; Guo, Jianfeng; Xu, Zhan; Yuan, Zhu; Liu, Jiankang; Malumbres, Marcos; Wan, Lixin; Wei, Wenyi; Zou, Weiguo

    2016-06-01

    Craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) characterized by birth defects of skull and facial bones are the most frequent congenital disease. Genomic analysis has identified multiple genes responsible for CFAs; however, the underlying genetic mechanisms for the majority of CFAs remain largely unclear. Our previous study revealed that the Wwp2 E3 ubiquitin ligase facilitates craniofacial development in part through inducing monoubiquitination and activation of the paired-like homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid (Gsc). Here we report that Gsc is also ubiquitinated and activated by the APC(Cdh1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, leading to transcriptional activation of various Gsc target genes crucial for craniofacial development. Consistenly, neural crest-specific Cdh1-knockout mice display similar bone malformation as Wwp2-deficient mice in the craniofacial region, characterized by a domed skull, a short snout and a twisted nasal bone. Mechanistically, like Wwp2-deficient mice, mice with Cdh1 deficiency in neural crest cells exhibit reduced Gsc/Sox6 transcriptional activities. Simultaneous deletion of Cdh1 and Wwp2 results in a more severe craniofacial defect compared with single gene deletion, suggesting a synergistic augmentation of Gsc activity by these two E3 ubiquitin ligases. Hence, our study reveals a novel role for Cdh1 in craniofacial development through promoting APC-dependent non-proteolytic ubiquitination and activation of Gsc.

  13. The Role of Right and Left Parietal Lobes in the Conceptual Processing of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Lee, Hwee Ling; Freeman, Elliot D.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional imaging studies have associated the conceptual processing of numbers with bilateral parietal regions (including intraparietal sulcus). However, the processes driving these effects remain unclear because both left and right posterior parietal regions are activated by many other conceptual, perceptual, attention,…

  14. The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Cortex to Spoken Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Leech, Robert; Beckmann, Christian F.; Woodhead, Zoe; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions confined to the parietal lobe. We compared Speech with…

  15. Differences in biomechanical properties and thickness among frontal and parietal bones in a Japanese sample.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Hashimoto, Mari; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties and thickness of adult frontal and parietal bones. The heads of 114 Japanese cadavers (78 male cadavers and 36 female cadavers) of known age and sex were used. A total of 912 cranial samples, 8 from each skull, were collected. Samples were imaged using multidetector computed tomography to measure sample thickness. The fracture load of each sample was measured using a bending test with calculation of flexural strength. Statistical analyses demonstrated no significant bilateral difference in either the mechanical properties or thickness of frontal or parietal bones. The mechanical properties and thicknesses of frontal bones were significantly greater than those of parietal bones regardless of sex. Therefore, the skull may have a great ability to resist frontal impacts compared with parietal impacts. In female samples, parietal bones were found to have a more uniform structure when compared with male samples. Male parietal bones were found to be thicker at medial sites than at lateral sites. This study also revealed parietal bones at lateral sites in female samples were thicker than in male samples. No strong association was observed between age and flexural strength of frontal or parietal bones. However, the fracture load was negatively correlated with age most likely due to the reduction of thickness.

  16. Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos fibres in the lungs and parietal pleura of Corsican goats

    PubMed Central

    Dumortier, P; Rey, F; Viallat, J; Broucke, I; Boutin, C; De Vuyst, P

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Ten goats from areas with asbestos outcrops and two from other areas were slaughtered. Fibre content of lung and parietal pleural samples was determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Results: Both chrysotile and tremolite fibres were detected. In the exposed goats, the geometric mean concentrations of asbestos fibres longer than 1 µm were 0.27 x 106 fibres/g dry lung tissue and 1.8 x 106 fibres/g dry pleural tissue. Asbestos fibres were not detected in the lungs of the two control goats. Chrysotile fibres shorter than 5 µm were predominant in the parietal pleura. Tremolite fibres accounted for 78% and 86% of the fibres longer than 5 µm in lung and parietal pleural samples, respectively. Conclusions: Environmental exposure in northeast Corsica results in detectable chrysotile and tremolite fibre loads in the lung and parietal pleura of adult goats. Tremolite fibres of dimensions with a high carcinogenic potency are detected in the parietal pleura. PMID:12205241

  17. Dissociable Temporo-Parietal Memory Networks Revealed by Functional Connectivity during Episodic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko M.; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval most often recruits multiple separate processes that are thought to involve different temporal regions. Previous studies suggest dissociable regions in the left lateral parietal cortex that are associated with the retrieval processes. Moreover, studies using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) have provided evidence for the temporo-parietal memory networks that may support the retrieval processes. In this functional MRI study, we tested functional significance of the memory networks by examining functional connectivity of brain activity during episodic retrieval in the temporal and parietal regions of the memory networks. Recency judgments, judgments of the temporal order of past events, can be achieved by at least two retrieval processes, relational and item-based. Neuroimaging results revealed several temporal and parietal activations associated with relational/item-based recency judgments. Significant RSFC was observed between one parahippocampal region and one left lateral parietal region associated with relational recency judgments, and between four lateral temporal regions and another left lateral parietal region associated with item-based recency judgments. Functional connectivity during task was found to be significant between the parahippocampal region and the parietal region in the RSFC network associated with relational recency judgments. However, out of the four tempo-parietal RSFC networks associated with item-based recency judgments, only one of them (between the left posterior lateral temporal region and the left lateral parietal region) showed significant functional connectivity during task. These results highlight the contrasting roles of the parahippocampal and the lateral temporal regions in recency judgments, and suggest that only a part of the tempo-parietal RSFC networks are recruited to support particular retrieval processes. PMID:24009657

  18. Intrinsic connections and architectonics of posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, D.N.; Seltzer, B.

    1982-01-10

    By means of autoradiographic and ablation-degeneration techniques, the intrinsic cortical connections of the posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey were traced and correlated with a reappraisal of cerebral architectonics. Two major rostral-to-caudal connectional sequences exist. One begins in the dorsal postcentral gyrus (area 2) and proceeds, through architectonic divisions of the superior parietal lobule (areas PE and PEc), to a cortical region on the medial surface of the parietal lobe (area PGm). This area has architectonic features similar to those of the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). The second sequence begins in the ventral post/central gyrus (area 2) and passes through the rostral inferior parietal lobule (areas PG and PFG) to reach the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). Both the superior parietal lobule and the rostral inferior parietal lobule also send projections to various other zones located in the parietal opercular region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the caudalmost portion of the cingulate sulcus. Areas PGm and PG, on the other hand, project to each other, to the cingulate region, to the caudalmost portion of the superior temporal gyrus, and to the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, a reciprocal sequence of connections, directed from caudal to rostral, links together many of the above-mentioned parietal zones. With regard to the laminar pattern of termination, the rostral-to-caudal connections are primarily distributed in the form of cortical ''columns'' while the caudal-to-rostral connections are found mainly over the first cortical cell layer.

  19. 30-year International Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Partnership: Evolution from the “Third World” Forward

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Skirpan, Jan; Stanek, Beata; Kowalczyk, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Craniofacial diseases constitute an important component of the surgical disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. The consideration to introduce craniofacial surgery into such settings poses different questions, risks, and challenges compared with cleft or other forms of plastic surgery. We report the evolution, innovations, and challenges of a 30-year international craniofacial surgery partnership. Methods: We retrospectively report a partnership between surgeons at the Uniwersytecki Szpital Dzieciecy in Krakow, Poland, and a North American craniofacial surgeon. We studied patient conditions, treatment patterns, and associated complications, as well as program advancements and limitations as perceived by surgeons, patient families, and hospital administrators. Results: Since partnership inception in 1986, the complexity of cases performed increased gradually, with the first intracranial case performed in 1995. In the most recent 10-year period (2006–2015), 85 patients have been evaluated, with most common diagnoses of Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and single-suture craniosynostosis. In the same period, 55 major surgical procedures have been undertaken, with LeFort III midface distraction, posterior vault distraction, and frontoorbital advancement performed most frequently. Key innovations have been the employment of craniofacial distraction osteogenesis, the use of Internet communication and digital photography, and increased understanding of how craniofacial morphology may improve in the absence of surgical intervention. Ongoing challenges include prohibitive training pathways for pediatric plastic surgeons, difficulty in coordinating care with surgeons in other institutions, and limited medical and material resources. Conclusion: Safe craniofacial surgery can be introduced and sustained in a resource-limited setting through an international partnership. PMID:27200233

  20. Short-term memory deficit after focal parietal damage.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, H J; Kalbe, E; Kessler, J; von Stockhausen, H M; Ghaemi, M; Heiss, W D

    1999-12-01

    The neuropsychological symptomatology is reported for a 44-year-old patient of normal intelligence, EE, after removal of a circumscribed left hemispheric tumor the major part of which was located in the angular gyrus and in the subcortical white matter. EE had a distinct and persistent short-term memory impairment together with an equally severe impairment in transcoding numbers. On the other hand, his performance was flawless in calculation tasks and in all other tests involving number processing. Impairments in language tests could be attributed to his short-term memory deficit, which furthermore was characterized by a strong primacy effect in the absence of a recency effect. His graphomotoric output was temporarily inhibited. The patient, with a strong left-sided dominance, manifested a bi-hemispherical activation of the Broca and Wernicke regions in a positron-emission-tomographic investigation when required to produce verbs which he was to derive from nouns. The findings in EE suggest that unilateral and restricted lateral parietal damage can result in a profound short-term memory deficit together with a transcoding deficit for stimuli extending over only a few digits or syllables in the absence of any symptoms of the Gerstmann syndrome.

  1. Spatial invariance of visual receptive fields in parietal cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, J R; Bremmer, F; Ben Hamed, S; Graf, W

    1997-10-23

    Spatial information is conveyed to the primary visual cortex in retinal coordinates. Movement trajectory programming, however, requires a transformation from this sensory frame of reference into a frame appropriate for the selected part of the body, such as the eye, head or arms. To achieve this transformation, visual information must be combined with information from other sources: for instance, the location of an object of interest can be defined with respect to the observer's head if the position of the eyes in the orbit is known and is added to the object's retinal coordinates. Here we show that in a subdivision of the monkey parietal lobe, the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), the activity of visual neurons is modulated by eye-position signals, as in many other areas of the cortical visual system. We find that individual receptive fields of a population of VIP neurons are organized along a continuum, from eye to head coordinates. In the latter case, neurons encode the azimuth and/or elevation of a visual stimulus, independently of the direction in which the eyes are looking, thus representing spatial locations explicitly in at least a head-centred frame of reference. PMID:9349815

  2. Contralesional neglect in monkeys with small unilateral parietal cortical ablations.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J W B; Baker, H F; Ridley, R M

    2002-10-17

    Transient contralesional spatial neglect, in addition to motor impairment in the contralesional arm, is sometimes seen in patients following cerebral infarction in the right hemisphere and is seen following experimental occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in primates. To test whether contralesional visuospatial neglect arises from a disruption of the forward flow of information from the striate cortex through the dorsal territory of the middle cerebral artery, we made a small strip suction ablation in the right parietal cortex from the medial edge of the dorsal cortical surface to the posterior ventral edge of the superior temporal gyrus in marmoset monkeys. These monkeys did not exhibit a motor impairment, or misreaching, with the contralesional arm. When they were unrestrained and free to use either arm, they were impaired at finding rewards in their contralesional space and in choosing the nearer of two rewards hidden in ipsilesional space (i.e. they had an ultra-ipsilesional bias in ipsilesional space). Comparison of performance under four conditions in a task in which the monkeys were constrained to reach into each hemispace with each arm separately indicated that they were impaired at reaching into contralesional, but not ipsilesional, space with either arm but they did not exhibit any impairment confined to the contralesional arm. These impairments in contralesional space were transient suggesting that the monkeys were able to re-align their egocentric spatial coordinates to obviate these deficits.

  3. TMS of posterior parietal cortex disrupts visual tactile multisensory integration

    PubMed Central

    Pasalar, Siavash; Ro, Tony; Beauchamp, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated a number of brain regions, especially the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), as being potentially important for visual–tactile multisensory integration. However, neuroimaging studies are correlational and do not prove the necessity of a region for the behavioral improvements that are the hallmark of multisensory integration. To remedy this knowledge gap, we interrupted activity in the PPC, near the junction of the anterior intraparietal sulcus and the postcentral sulcus, using MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects localized touches delivered to different fingers. As the touches were delivered, subjects viewed a congruent touch video, an incongruent touch video, or no video. Without TMS, a strong effect of multisensory integration was observed, with significantly better behavioral performance for discrimination of congruent multisensory touch than for unisensory touch alone. Incongruent multisensory touch produced a smaller improvement in behavioral performance. TMS of the PPC eliminated the behavioral advantage of both congruent and incongruent multisensory stimuli, reducing performance to unisensory levels. These results demonstrate a causal role for the PPC in visual–tactile multisensory integration. Taken together with converging evidence from other studies, these results support a model in which the PPC contains a map of space around the hand that receives input from both the visual and somatosensory modalities. Activity in this map is likely to be the neural substrate for visual–tactile multisensory integration. PMID:20584182

  4. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masamichi J; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnöve; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject's attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain. PMID:26378440

  5. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnöve; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject’s attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain. PMID:26378440

  6. Beyond natural numbers: negative number representation in parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Blair, Kristen P; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M; Schwartz, Daniel L; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference <4) or far apart (difference >6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.

  7. STRAIN-SPECIFIC MODIFIER GENES GOVERNING CRANIOFACIAL PHENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Webb, Cynthia; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The presence of strain-specific modifier genes is known to modulate the phenotype and pathophysiology of mice harboring genetically engineered mutations. Thus, identification of genetic modifier genes is requisite to understanding control of phenotypic expression. c-Ski is a transcriptional regulator. Ski−/− mice on a C57BL6J (B6) background exhibit facial clefting, while Ski−/− mice on a 129P3 (129) background present with exencephaly. METHODS In the present study, oligonucleotide-based gene expression profiling was utilized to identify potential strain-specific modifier gene candidates present in wild-type mice of B6 and 129 genetic backgrounds. Changes in gene expression were verified by TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS Steady-state levels of 89 genes demonstrated a significantly higher level of expression, and those of 68 genes demonstrated a significantly lower level of expression in the developing neural tubes from E8.5, B6 embryos when compared to expression levels in neural tubes derived from E8.5, 129 embryos. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results from the current comparative microarray study, and taking into consideration a number of relevant published reports, several potential strain-specific gene candidates, likely to modify the craniofacial phenotypes in various knockout mouse models have been identified. PMID:22371338

  8. South Amerindian craniofacial morphology: diversity and implications for Amerindian evolution.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Marina L; Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando; González-José, Rolando; Pucciarelli, Héctor M

    2005-12-01

    The most compelling models concerning the peopling of the Americas consider that modern Amerindians share a common biological pattern, showing affinities with populations of the Asian Northeast. The aim of the present study was to assess the degree of variation of craniofacial morphology of South American Amerindians in a worldwide context. Forty-three linear variables were analyzed on crania derived from American, Asian, Australo-Melanesian, European, South-Saharan African, and Polynesian regions. South America was represented by seven Amerindian samples. In order to understand morphologic diversity among Amerindians of South America, variation was estimated using regions and local populations as units of analysis. Variances and F(ST) values were calculated for each unit, respectively. Both analyses indicated that morphologic variation in Southern Amerindians is extremely high: an F(ST) of 0.01531 was obtained for Southern Amerindians, and values from 0.0371-0.1205 for other world regions. Some aspects linked to the time and mode of the peopling of the Americas and various microevolutionary processes undergone by Amerindians are discussed. Some of the alternatives proposed to explain this high variation include: a greater antiquity of the peopling than what is mostly accepted, a peopling by several highly differentiated waves, an important effect of genetic drift, and gene flow with Paleoamericans. A combination of some of these alternatives explains at least some of the variation.

  9. Effects of hypodontia on craniofacial structures and mandibular growth pattern

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This study was performed to examine craniofacial structures in persons with hypodontia and to reveal any differences, that may occur, when agenetic teeth are only found in the maxilla, the mandible or in both jaws. The groups consistent of 50 children (33 girls, 17 boys) aged between 9 and 13.5 years were analyzed and assigned to three subgroups. Group 1 = upper jaw hypodontia. Group 2 = lower jaw hypodontia. Group 3 = hypodontia in both jaws. Materials and methods Eleven angular and three index measurements from lateral encephalographs and two linear measurements from dental blaster casts were calculated. All data was statistically analyzed, parameters with p < 5% were investigated for each subgroup respectively. Results In comparison with standards the study group showed bimaxillary retrognathism and a reduction of the lower anterior facial height. Moreover both overbite and overjet significantly increased. Other values laid within the normal ranges. Evaluating results of the subgroups, differences in the means of SNA, SNB and overjet between the groups were observed. Analysis of the mandibular growth pattern revealed, that neither vertical nor horizontal patterns are dominant in hypodontia patients. Conclusions In certain dentofacial parameters differences between persons with hypodontia and such with full dentition exist. According to our findings agenetic teeth may have a negative influence on the saggital development of a jaw and the lower face and may be responsible for increased overbites. This should receive attention in orthodontic treatment of hypodontia patients. PMID:22142280

  10. A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Caple, Jodi; Stephan, Carl N

    2016-05-01

    Standardized terms and methods have long been recognized as crucial to reduce measurement error and increase reliability in anthropometry. The successful prior use of craniometric landmarks makes extrapolation of these landmarks to the soft tissue context, as analogs, intuitive for forensic craniofacial analyses and facial photogrammetry. However, this extrapolation has not, so far, been systematic. Instead, varied nomenclature and definitions exist for facial landmarks, and photographic analyses are complicated by the generalization of 3D craniometric landmarks to the 2D face space where analogy is subsequently often lost, complicating anatomical assessments. For example, landmarks requiring palpation of the skull or the examination of the 3D surface typology are impossible to legitimately position; similar applies to median landmarks not visible in lateral photographs. To redress these issues without disposing of the craniometric framework that underpins many facial landmarks, we provide an updated and transparent nomenclature for facial description. This nomenclature maintains the original craniometric intent (and base abbreviations) but provides clear distinction of ill-defined (quasi) landmarks in photographic contexts, as produced when anatomical points are subjectively inferred from shape-from-shading information alone. PMID:26662189

  11. The Nervous System Orchestrates and Integrates Craniofacial Development: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Adameyko, Igor; Fried, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    Development of a head is a dazzlingly complex process: a number of distinct cellular sources including cranial ecto- and endoderm, mesoderm and neural crest contribute to facial and other structures. In the head, an extremely fine-tuned developmental coordination of CNS, peripheral neural components, sensory organs and a musculo-skeletal apparatus occurs, which provides protection and functional integration. The face can to a large extent be considered as an assembly of sensory systems encased and functionally fused with appendages represented by jaws. Here we review how the developing brain, neurogenic placodes and peripheral nerves influence the morphogenesis of surrounding tissues as a part of various general integrative processes in the head. The mechanisms of this impact, as we understand it now, span from the targeted release of the morphogens necessary for shaping to providing a niche for cellular sources required in later development. In this review we also discuss the most recent findings and ideas related to how peripheral nerves and nerve-associated cells contribute to craniofacial development, including teeth, during the post- neural crest period and potentially in regeneration. PMID:26924989

  12. Independence of biomechanical forces and craniofacial pneumatization in Cebus.

    PubMed

    Rae, Todd C; Koppe, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Several different factors have been hypothesized as explanations of variation in primate paranasal sinus size. Biomechanical forces, particularly those associated with mastication, are frequently evoked to account for differences in primate craniofacial pneumatization. To test whether masticatory stresses are responsible for maxillary sinus volume diversity, two platyrrhine species of the genus Cebus (C. apella and C. albifrons) were examined. The former has been identified as a hard object feeder, and many morphological differences between the two species are attributable to differences in the mechanical properties of their respective diets. Sinus volumes were derived from serial coronal CT scans of the crania of adults. Several external cranial measurements were used to scale sinus volume relative to the size of the face. Relative measures of maxillary sinus volume were compared using standard statistical techniques. In all comparisons, the two capuchin species do not differ from one another significantly at P < 0.05. Thus, this "natural experiment" fails to support the interpretation that biomechanical forces acting on the facial skeleton substantially affect the degree of paranasal pneumatization in primates. This result suggests that it is unlikely that the maxillary sinus performs any function in relation to masticatory stress; other factors must be responsible for the variation in sinus volume among primates.

  13. [Genes, forces and forms: mechanical aspects of prenatal craniofacial development].

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert

    2007-12-01

    Current knowledge of molecular signaling during craniofacial development is advancing rapidly. We know that cells can respond to mechanical stimuli by biochemical signaling. Thus, the link between mechanical stimuli and gene expression has become a new and important area of the morphological sciences. This field of research seems to be a revival of the old approach of developmental mechanics, which goes back to the embryologists His [36], Carey [13, 14], and Blechschmidt [5]. These researchers argued that forces play a fundamental role in tissue differentiation and morphogenesis. They understood morphogenesis as a closed system with living cells as the active part and biological, chemical, and physical laws as the rules. This review reports on linking mechanical aspects of developmental biology with the contemporary knowledge of tissue differentiation. We focus on the formation of cartilage (in relation to pressure), bone (in relation to shearing forces), and muscles (in relation to dilation forces). The cascade of molecules may be triggered by forces, which arise during physical cell and tissue interaction. Detailed morphological knowledge is mandatory to elucidate the exact location and timing of the regions where forces are exerted. Because this finding also holds true for the exact timing and location of signals, more 3D images of the developmental processes are required. Further research is also required to create methods for measuring forces within a tissue. The molecules whose presence and indispensability we are investigating appear to be mediators rather than creators of form.

  14. Genes, forces, and forms: mechanical aspects of prenatal craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert

    2006-05-01

    Current knowledge of molecular signaling during craniofacial development is advancing rapidly. We know that cells can respond to mechanical stimuli by biochemical signaling. Thus, the link between mechanical stimuli and gene expression has become a new and important area of the morphological sciences. This field of research seems to be a revival of the old approach of developmental mechanics, which goes back to the embryologists His (1874), Carey (1920), and Blechschmidt (1948). These researchers argued that forces play a fundamental role in tissue differentiation and morphogenesis. They understood morphogenesis as a closed system with living cells as the active part and biological, chemical, and physical laws as the rules. This review reports on linking mechanical aspects of developmental biology with the contemporary knowledge of tissue differentiation. We focus on the formation of cartilage (in relation to pressure), bone (in relation to shearing forces), and muscles (in relation to dilation forces). The cascade of molecules may be triggered by forces, which arise during physical cell and tissue interaction. Detailed morphological knowledge is mandatory to elucidate the exact location and timing of the regions where forces are exerted. Because this finding also holds true for the exact timing and location of signals, more 3D images of the developmental processes are required. Further research is also required to create methods for measuring forces within a tissue. The molecules whose presence and indispensability we are investigating appear to be mediators rather than creators of form.

  15. Cortical connectivity maps reveal anatomically distinct areas in the parietal cortex of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wilber, Aaron A.; Clark, Benjamin J.; Demecha, Alexis J.; Mesina, Lilia; Vos, Jessica M.; McNaughton, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    A central feature of theories of spatial navigation involves the representation of spatial relationships between objects in complex environments. The parietal cortex has long been linked to the processing of spatial visual information and recent evidence from single unit recording in rodents suggests a role for this region in encoding egocentric and world-centered frames. The rat parietal cortex can be subdivided into four distinct rostral-caudal and medial-lateral regions, which includes a zone previously characterized as secondary visual cortex. At present, very little is known regarding the relative connectivity of these parietal subdivisions. Thus, we set out to map the connectivity of the entire anterior-posterior and medial-lateral span of this region. To do this we used anterograde and retrograde tracers in conjunction with open source neuronal segmentation and tracer detection tools to generate whole brain connectivity maps of parietal inputs and outputs. Our present results show that inputs to the parietal cortex varied significantly along the medial-lateral, but not the rostral-caudal axis. Specifically, retrosplenial connectivity is greater medially, but connectivity with visual cortex, though generally sparse, is more significant laterally. Finally, based on connection density, the connectivity between parietal cortex and hippocampus is indirect and likely achieved largely via dysgranular retrosplenial cortex. Thus, similar to primates, the parietal cortex of rats exhibits a difference in connectivity along the medial-lateral axis, which may represent functionally distinct areas. PMID:25601828

  16. Combined frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes indicate compensated cognitive processing across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    van Dinteren, Rik; Arns, Martijn; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the frontal and parietal P300, elicited in an auditory oddball paradigm were investigated in a large sample of healthy participants (N = 1572), aged 6–87. According to the concepts of the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH) it was hypothesized that the developmental trajectories of the frontal P300 would reach a maximum in amplitude at an older age than the amplitude of the parietal P300 amplitude. In addition, the amplitude of the frontal P300 was expected to increase with aging in adulthood in contrast to a decline in amplitude of the parietal P300 amplitude. Using curve-fitting methods, a comparison was made between the developmental trajectories of the amplitudes of the frontal and parietal P300. It was found that the developmental trajectories of frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes differed significantly across the lifespan. During adulthood, the amplitude of the parietal P300 declines with age, whereas both the frontal P300 amplitude and behavioral performance remain unaffected. A lifespan trajectory of combined frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes was found to closely resemble the lifespan trajectory of behavioral performance. Our results can be understood within the concepts of CRUNCH. That is, to compensate for declining neural resources, older participants recruit additional neural resources of prefrontal origin and consequently preserve a stable behavioral performance. Though, a direct relation between amplitude of the frontal P300 and compensatory mechanisms cannot yet be claimed. PMID:25386141

  17. Influence of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal activity on behavioral choice during attention tasks

    PubMed Central

    Katsuki, Fumi; Saito, Mizuki; Constantinidis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal and the posterior parietal cortex have both been implicated in the guidance of visual attention. Traditionally, posterior parietal cortex has been thought to guide visual bottom-up attention, whereas prefrontal cortex to bias attention through top-down information. More recent studies suggest a parallel time course of activation of the two areas in bottom-up attention tasks, suggesting a common involvement, though these results do not necessarily imply identical roles, either. To address the specific roles of the two areas, we examined the influence of neuronal activity recorded from the prefrontal and parietal cortex of monkeys as they performed attention tasks based on choice probability and correlation between reaction time and neuronal activity. The results revealed that posterior parietal but not dorsolateral prefrontal activity correlated with behavioral choice during the fixation period, prior to the appearance of the stimulus, resembling a bias factor. This preferential influence of posterior parietal activity on behavior was transient, so that dorsolateral prefrontal activity predicted choice after the appearance of the stimulus. Additionally, reaction time was better predicted by posterior parietal activity. These findings confirm an involvement of both dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in the bottom-up guidance of visual attention but indicate different roles of the two areas in the guidance of attention and a dynamic time course of their effects, influencing behavior at different stages of the task. PMID:24964224

  18. Perinatal stem cells: A promising cell resource for tissue engineering of craniofacial bone

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jia-Wen; Wang, Xu-Dong; Shen, Steve GF

    2015-01-01

    In facing the mounting clinical challenge and suboptimal techniques of craniofacial bone defects resulting from various conditions, such as congenital malformations, osteomyelitis, trauma and tumor resection, the ongoing research of regenerative medicine using stem cells and concurrent advancement in biotechnology have shifted the focus from surgical reconstruction to a novel stem cell-based tissue engineering strategy for customized and functional craniofacial bone regeneration. Given the unique ontogenetical and cell biological properties of perinatal stem cells, emerging evidence has suggested these extraembryonic tissue-derived stem cells to be a promising cell source for extensive use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we summarize the current achievements and obstacles in stem cell-based craniofacial bone regeneration and subsequently we address the characteristics of various types of perinatal stem cells and their novel application in tissue engineering of craniofacial bone. We propose the promising feasibility and scope of perinatal stem cell-based craniofacial bone tissue engineering for future clinical application. PMID:25621114

  19. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7–7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  20. Craniofacial and cervical morphology related to sagittal spinal posture in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Emil; Segatto, Angyalka; Braunitzer, Gábor; Kirschneck, Christian; Fanghänel, Jochen; Danesh, Gholamreza; Lippold, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between body posture and craniofacial parameters often focus on the cervical spine. Thus, less attention has been paid to the morphology of the vertebra C2 that serves as both a structural and functional link between the craniofacial area and the other part of the spine. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of craniofacial features to certain morphological and positional characteristics of the cervical vertebrae and the spine during growth. We determined body posture indices for 69 children and adolescents by means of a radiation-free method (rasterstereography). The morphological and positional analysis of the craniofacial area and the cervical vertebrae was based on standardized lateral X-ray cephalograms. Medium to strong correlations were found between body posture, C2 morphology, and craniofacial parameters. We found significant correlations between the C2 dens axis height and maxillary indices as well as between the C2 dens axis inclination and cephalometrical values of the mandibular area. Similarly the correlation between the C2 dens axis inclination and the postural index flèche cervicale was highly significant (P < 0.05, r = 0.333). These results suggest that morphological features of the odontoid process may serve as valuable predictive markers in interdisciplinary orthopedic-orthodontic diagnostics.

  1. A systematic review of the oral and craniofacial manifestations of cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corcuera-Flores, José-Ramón; Casttellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Serrera-Figallo, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is an autosomal disorder. Because it affects few people in the population it is considered a rare disease, yet it is one of the most common autosomal chromosomal syndromes in humans. It entails pathognomonic alterations that affect the craniofacial and oral anatomy of patients. The aim of this study is to review these craniofacial and oral abnormalities in patients with Cri du chat syndrome. The PubMed Medline database was searched using two different strategies. First, we used "Dentistry" and "Cri du chat" as keywords; second, we used "Cri du chat" and "craniofacial." Seven articles in which the main orofacial and cranio-skeletal characteristics of patients with Cri du chat syndrome were described were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cri du Chat syndrome entails pathognomonic characteristics in the craniofacial area (epicanthus, short philtrum, and wide nasal bridge), the oral area (mandibular retrognathism and anterior open bite) and the cranial region (alterations at the cranial base angle and a small upper airway). However, more studies on larger samples are needed to specify the orofacial and craniofacial characteristics of patients with Cri du chat syndrome more accurately. Clin. Anat. 29:555-560, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26457586

  2. The Developmental Basis of Quantitative Craniofacial Variation in Humans and Mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Parsons, Trish E; Esparza, Mireia; Sjøvold, Torstein; Rolian, Campbell; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2012-12-01

    The human skull is a complex and highly integrated structure that has long held the fascination of anthropologists and evolutionary biologists. Recent studies of the genetics of craniofacial variation reveal a very complex and multifactorial picture. These findings contrast with older ideas that posit much simpler developmental bases for variation in cranial morphology such as the growth of the brain or the growth of the chondrocranium relative to the dermatocranium. Such processes have been shown to have major effects on cranial morphology in mice. It is not known, however, whether they are relevant to explaining normal phenotypic variation in humans. To answer this question, we obtained vectors of shape change from mutant mouse models in which the developmental basis for the craniofacial phenotype is known to varying degrees, and compared these to a homologous dataset constructed from human crania obtained from a single population with a known genealogy. Our results show that the shape vectors associated with perturbations to chondrocranial growth, brain growth, and body size in mice do largely correspond to axes of covariation in humans. This finding supports the view that the developmental basis for craniofacial variation funnels down to a relatively small number of key developmental processes that are similar across mice and humans. Understanding these processes and how they influence craniofacial shape provides fundamental insights into the developmental basis for evolutionary change in the human skull as well as the developmental-genetic basis for normal phenotypic variation in craniofacial form. PMID:23226904

  3. Application of three-dimensional computed tomography in craniofacial clinical practice and research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P J; Yong, R; Surman, T L; Rajion, Z A; Ranjitkar, S

    2014-06-01

    Following the invention of the first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the early 1970s, many innovations in three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging technology have occurred, leading to a wide range of applications in craniofacial clinical practice and research. Three-dimensional image analysis provides superior and more detailed information compared with conventional plain two-dimensional (2D) radiography, with the added benefit of 3D printing for preoperative treatment planning and regenerative therapy. Current state-of-the-art multidetector CT (MDCT), also known as medical CT, has an important role in the diagnosis and management of craniofacial injuries and pathology. Three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT), pioneered in the 1990s, is gaining increasing popularity in dental and craniofacial clinical practice because of its faster image acquisition at a lower radiation dose, but sound guidelines are needed to ensure its optimal clinical use. Recent innovations in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have revolutionized craniofacial biology research by enabling higher resolution scanning of teeth beyond the capabilities of MDCT and CBCT, presenting new prospects for translational clinical research. Even after four decades of refinement, CT technology continues to advance and broaden the horizons of craniofacial clinical practice and phenomics research. PMID:24611727

  4. Enzyme Replacement for Craniofacial Skeletal Defects and Craniosynostosis in Murine Hypophosphatasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Campbell, Cassie; Nam, Hwa Kyung; Caron, Alexandre; Yadav, Manisha C; Millán, José Luis; Hatch, Nan E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn-error-of-metabolism disorder characterized by deficient bone and tooth mineralization due to loss-of function mutations in the gene (Alpl) encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Alpl−/− mice exhibit many characteristics seen in infantile HPP including long bone and tooth defects, vitamin B6 responsive seizures and craniosynostosis. Previous reports demonstrated that a mineral-targeted form of TNAP rescues long bone, verterbral and tooth mineralization defects in Alpl−/− mice. Here we report that enzyme replacement with mineral-targeted TNAP (asfotase-alfa) also prevents craniosynostosis (the premature fusion of cranial bones) and additional craniofacial skeletal abnormalities in Alpl−/− mice. Craniosynostosis, cranial bone volume and density, and craniofacial shape abnormalities were assessed by microsocopy, histology, digital caliper measurements and micro CT. We found that craniofacial shape defects, cranial bone mineralization and craniosynostosis were corrected in Alpl−/− mice injected daily subcutaneously starting at birth with recombinant enzyme. Analysis of Alpl−/− calvarial cells indicates that TNAP deficiency leads to aberrant osteoblastic gene expression and diminished proliferation. Some but not all of these cellular abnormalities were rescued by treatment with inorganic phosphate. These results confirm an essential role for TNAP in craniofacial skeletal development and demonstrate the efficacy of early postnatal mineral-targeted enzyme replacement for preventing craniofacial abnormalities including craniosynostosis in murine infantile HPP. PMID:25959417

  5. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting for Regenerative Dentistry and Craniofacial Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Obregon, F; Vaquette, C; Ivanovski, S; Hutmacher, D W; Bertassoni, L E

    2015-09-01

    Craniofacial tissues are organized with complex 3-dimensional (3D) architectures. Mimicking such 3D complexity and the multicellular interactions naturally occurring in craniofacial structures represents one of the greatest challenges in regenerative dentistry. Three-dimensional bioprinting of tissues and biological structures has been proposed as a promising alternative to address some of these key challenges. It enables precise manufacture of various biomaterials with complex 3D architectures, while being compatible with multiple cell sources and being customizable to patient-specific needs. This review describes different 3D bioprinting methods and summarizes how different classes of biomaterials (polymer hydrogels, ceramics, composites, and cell aggregates) may be used for 3D biomanufacturing of scaffolds, as well as craniofacial tissue analogs. While the fabrication of scaffolds upon which cells attach, migrate, and proliferate is already in use, printing of all the components that form a tissue (living cells and matrix materials together) to produce tissue constructs is still in its early stages. In summary, this review seeks to highlight some of the key advantages of 3D bioprinting technology for the regeneration of craniofacial structures. Additionally, it stimulates progress on the development of strategies that will promote the translation of craniofacial tissue engineering from the laboratory bench to the chair side.

  6. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7-7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish. PMID:27506155

  7. Utilizing the chicken as an animal model for human craniofacial ciliopathies.

    PubMed

    Schock, Elizabeth N; Chang, Ching-Fang; Youngworth, Ingrid A; Davey, Megan G; Delany, Mary E; Brugmann, Samantha A

    2016-07-15

    The chicken has been a particularly useful model for the study of craniofacial development and disease for over a century due to their relatively large size, accessibility, and amenability for classical bead implantation and transplant experiments. Several naturally occurring mutant lines with craniofacial anomalies also exist and have been heavily utilized by developmental biologist for several decades. Two of the most well known lines, talpid(2) (ta(2)) and talpid(3) (ta(3)), represent the first spontaneous mutants to have the causative genes identified. Despite having distinct genetic causes, both mutants have recently been identified as ciliopathic. Excitingly, both of these mutants have been classified as models for human craniofacial ciliopathies: Oral-facial-digital syndrome (ta(2)) and Joubert syndrome (ta(3)). Herein, we review and compare these two models of craniofacial disease and highlight what they have revealed about the molecular and cellular etiology of ciliopathies. Furthermore, we outline how applying classical avian experiments and new technological advances (transgenics and genome editing) with naturally occurring avian mutants can add a tremendous amount to what we currently know about craniofacial ciliopathies. PMID:26597494

  8. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7–7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish. PMID:27506155

  9. Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Timothy; Kopec, Charles D.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Erlich, Jeffrey C.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual accumulation of evidence is thought to be fundamental for decision-making, and its neural correlates have been found in multiple brain regions1–8. Here we develop a generalizable method to measure tuning curves that specify the relationship between neural responses and mentally-accumulated evidence, and apply it to distinguish the encoding of decision variables in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (frontal orienting fields, FOF). We recorded the firing rates of neurons in PPC and FOF from rats performing a perceptual decision-making task. Classical analyses uncovered correlates of accumulating evidence, similar to previous observations in primates and also similar across the two regions. However, tuning curve assays revealed that while the PPC encodes a graded value of the accumulating evidence, the FOF has a more categorical encoding that indicates, throughout the trial, the decision provisionally favored by the evidence accumulated so far. Contrary to current views3,5,7–9, this suggests that premotor activity in frontal cortex does not play a role in the accumulation process, but instead has a more categorical function, such as transforming accumulated evidence into a discrete choice. To causally probe the role of FOF activity, we optogenetically silenced it during different timepoints of the trial. Consistent with a role in committing to a categorical choice at the end of the evidence accumulation process, but not consistent with a role during the accumulation itself, a behavioral effect was observed only when FOF silencing occurred at the end of the perceptual stimulus. Our results place important constraints on the circuit logic of brain regions involved in decision-making. PMID:25600270

  10. A frontal but not parietal neural correlate of auditory consciousness.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Lugli, Victor; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic correlates of consciousness were investigated in humans during the presentation of a dichotic sequence inducing illusory auditory percepts with features analogous to visual multistability. The sequence consisted of a variation of the original stimulation eliciting the Deutsch's octave illusion, created to maintain a stable illusory percept long enough to allow the detection of the underlying hemodynamic activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two specular 500 ms dichotic stimuli (400 and 800 Hz) presented in alternation by means of earphones cause an illusory segregation of pitch and ear of origin which can yield up to four different auditory percepts per dichotic stimulus. Such percepts are maintained stable when one of the two dichotic stimuli is presented repeatedly for 6 s, immediately after the alternation. We observed hemodynamic activity specifically accompanying conscious experience of pitch in a bilateral network including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG, BA9 and BA10), medial frontal gyrus (BA6 and BA9), insula (BA13), and posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus. Conscious experience of side (ear of origin) was instead specifically accompanied by bilateral activity in the MFG (BA6), STG (BA41), parahippocampal gyrus (BA28), and insula (BA13). These results suggest that the neural substrate of auditory consciousness, differently from that of visual consciousness, may rest upon a fronto-temporal rather than upon a fronto-parietal network. Moreover, they indicate that the neural correlates of consciousness depend on the specific features of the stimulus and suggest the SFG-MFG and the insula as important cortical nodes for auditory conscious experience.

  11. An Interesting Case of Penetrating Craniofacial Trauma Involving a Wooden Stick

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ambadas; Chandrasala, Soumithran; Vishnudas, Praveesh; Dev, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating craniofacial trauma, although uncommon, has a high potential for death or catastrophic consequences from head injury or vital neurovascular injuries. The foreign body may cause significant challenge, especially when it is a large one. Airway obstruction, vascular injuries, intracranial communication, ocular injury and injuries to any other adjacent vital structures when involved may change the treatment objectives from simple foreign body retrieval to a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to stabilize the patient. Retrieval of foreign bodies may be challenging because of many factors including the size of the object, its site, and the surrounding anatomical structures. Accurate localization of the foreign body before removal is essential in craniofacial region. We present a case of penetrating craniofacial trauma from a wooden stick, with an in situ foreign body, that was managed by emergency surgical exploration in general anaesthesia and retrieval of foreign body in Toto under antibiotic coverage and tetanus prophylaxis. PMID:27190963

  12. CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS ON THE MOVE: THEIR ROLES IN CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Dwight R.; Brugmann, Samantha; Chu, Yvonne; Bajpai, Ruchi; Jame, Maryam; Helms, Jill A.

    2010-01-01

    The craniofacial region is assembled through the active migration of cells and the rearrangement and sculpting of facial prominences and pharyngeal arches, which consequently make it particularly susceptible to a large number of birth defects. Genetic, molecular, and cellular processes must be temporally and spatially regulated to culminate in the three-dimension structures of the face. The starting constituent for the majority of skeletal and connective tissues in the face is a pluripotent population of cells, the cranial neural crest cells (NCCs). In this review we discuss the newest scientific findings in the development of the craniofacial complex as related to NCCs. Furthermore, we present recent findings on NCC diseases called neurocristopathies and, in doing so, provide clinicians with new tools for understanding a growing number of craniofacial genetic disorders. PMID:21271641

  13. Scientific research in Latin America: experiences of collaborative projects on craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle

    2006-11-01

    Scientists based in Latin America, particularly in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, substantially increased their rate of scientific publications during the past decades. Brazil experienced the most growth with the implementation of an efficient postgraduate system that is tripling the number of doctors every 10 years. Research on craniofacial anomalies is similarly increasing in Latin American countries. A PUBMED search using the key word "cleft" and a particular country's name showed that Brazil has published the most articles in that field during the past few years, many of which were published by research groups linked to the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies located in Bauru, which provides cleft and craniofacial care for more than 2500 new patients every year. Based on experiences with international collaboration, this report discusses obstacles to collaborative research and presents recommendations to enhance the possibility of creating successful partnerships among international research teams. PMID:17105326

  14. Craniofacial skeletal measurements based on computed tomography: Part I. Accuracy and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Waitzman, A A; Posnick, J C; Armstrong, D C; Pron, G E

    1992-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a useful modality for the management of craniofacial anomalies. A study was undertaken to assess whether CT measurements of the upper craniofacial skeleton accurately represent the bony region imaged. Measurements taken directly from five dry skulls (approximate ages: adults, over 18 years; child, 4 years; infant, 6 months) were compared to those from axial CT scans of these skulls. Excellent agreement was found between the direct (dry skull) and indirect (CT) measurements. The effect of head tilt on the accuracy of these measurements was investigated. The error was within clinically acceptable limits (less than 5 percent) if the angle was no more than +/- 4 degrees from baseline (0 degrees). Objective standardized information gained from CT should complement the subjective clinical data usually collected for the treatment of craniofacial deformities. PMID:1571344

  15. Oral and Craniofacial Clinical Signs Associated to Genetic Conditions in Human Identification Part I: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Fouad; Aoun, Nicole; el Husseini, Hassan; Jassar, Houssam; Sayah, Fida; Salameh, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Forensic dentistry is one of the most reliable methods used in human identification when other technique as fingerprint, DNA, visual identification cannot be used. Genetic disorders have several manifestations that can target the intra-oral cavity, the cranio-facial area or any location in the human body. Materials and Methods: A literature search of the scientific database (Medline and Science Direct) for the years 1990 to 2014 was carried out to find out all the available papers that indicate oral, cranio-facial signs, genetic and human identification. Results: A table with 10 genetic conditions was described with oral and cranio-facial signs that can help forensic specialist in human identification. Conclusion: This review showed a correlation between genetics, facial and intra-oral signs that would help forensic ondontologist in the identification procedures. PMID:26028912

  16. 3D modeling, custom implants and its future perspectives in craniofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Custom implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to better performance over their generic counterparts. This is due to the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, reduced surgical times and better cosmesis. Application of 3D modeling in craniofacial surgery is changing the way surgeons are planning surgeries and graphic designers are designing custom implants. Advances in manufacturing processes and ushering of additive manufacturing for direct production of implants has eliminated the constraints of shape, size and internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for the fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation. This article will review recent trends in 3D modeling and custom implants in craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:24987592

  17. 3D CT Imaging for Craniofacial Analysis Based on Anatomical Regions.

    PubMed

    Wan Harun, W A R; Ahmad Rajion, Zainul; Abdul Aziz, Izhar; Rani Samsudin, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The development of a craniofacial database is a multidisciplinary initiative that will provide an important reference for community, security, social and medical applications. A method of landmark identifications and measurements in 3d on craniofacial patients is described. anatomical regions such as mandible, orbits, zygoma and maxilla are located, created and stored as templates of 3D CAD files for subsequent analysis. Data from these images were tested for accuracy and repeatability by comparing with direct measurements using caliper and CMM. The landmark points are reproducible in CAD system for further analysis. it was found that the approach provides a fast, accurate and efficient method for landmarks identification of the craniofacial areas in database development. PMID:17282309

  18. Stem cells of the suture mesenchyme in craniofacial bone development, repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jeong, Jaeim; Sheu, Tzong-Jen; Hsu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The suture mesenchyme serves as a growth centre for calvarial morphogenesis and has been postulated to act as the niche for skeletal stem cells. Aberrant gene regulation causes suture dysmorphogenesis resulting in craniosynostosis, one of the most common craniofacial deformities. Owing to various limitations, especially the lack of suture stem cell isolation, reconstruction of large craniofacial bone defects remains highly challenging. Here we provide the first evidence for an Axin2-expressing stem cell population with long-term self-renewing, clonal expanding and differentiating abilities during calvarial development and homeostastic maintenance. These cells, which reside in the suture midline, contribute directly to injury repair and skeletal regeneration in a cell autonomous fashion. Our findings demonstrate their true identity as skeletal stem cells with innate capacities to replace the damaged skeleton in cell-based therapy, and permit further elucidation of the stem cell-mediated craniofacial skeletogenesis, leading to revealing the complex nature of congenital disease and regenerative medicine. PMID:26830436

  19. Dental and Nondental Stem Cell Based Regeneration of the Craniofacial Region: A Tissue Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Declan; Song, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction may be a necessary treatment for those who have been affected by trauma, disease, or pathological developmental conditions. The use of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering shows massive potential as a future treatment modality. Currently in the literature, there is a wide variety of published experimental studies utilising the different stem cell types available and the plethora of available scaffold materials. This review investigates different stem cell sources and their unique characteristics to suggest an ideal cell source for regeneration of individual craniofacial tissues. At present, understanding and clinical applications of stem cell therapy remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to overcome. In spite of this, the field displays immense capacity and will no doubt be utilised in future clinical treatments of craniofacial regeneration. PMID:27143979

  20. Wnt signalling underlies the evolution of new phenotypes and craniofacial variability in Lake Malawi cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Kevin J.; Taylor, A. Trent; Powder, Kara E.; Albertson, R. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Progress towards understanding adaptive radiations at the mechanistic level is still limited with regard to the proximate molecular factors that both promote and constrain evolution. Here we focus on the craniofacial skeleton and show that expanded Wnt/β-catenin signalling early in ontogeny is associated with the evolution of phenotypic novelty and ecological opportunity in Lake Malawi cichlids. We demonstrate that the mode of action of this molecular change is to effectively lock into place an early larval phenotype, likely through accelerated rates of bone deposition. However, we demonstrate further that this change toward phenotypic novelty may in turn constrain evolutionary potential through the corresponding reduction in craniofacial plasticity at later stages of ontogeny. In all, our data implicate the Wnt pathway as an important mediator of craniofacial form and offer new insights into how developmental systems can evolve to both promote and constrain evolutionary change. PMID:24699776

  1. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models. PMID:26015880

  2. Canonical and noncanonical intraflagellar transport regulates craniofacial skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kazuo; Kitami, Megumi; Kitami, Kohei; Kaku, Masaru; Komatsu, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-10

    The primary cilium is a cellular organelle that coordinates signaling pathways critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and homeostasis. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) plays a pivotal role in assembling primary cilia. Disruption and/or dysfunction of IFT components can cause multiple diseases, including skeletal dysplasia. However, the mechanism by which IFT regulates skeletogenesis remains elusive. Here, we show that a neural crest-specific deletion of intraflagellar transport 20 (Ift20) in mice compromises ciliogenesis and intracellular transport of collagen, which leads to osteopenia in the facial region. Whereas platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) was present on the surface of primary cilia in wild-type osteoblasts, disruption of Ift20 down-regulated PDGFRα production, which caused suppression of PDGF-Akt signaling, resulting in decreased osteogenic proliferation and increased cell death. Although osteogenic differentiation in cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived cells occurred normally in Ift20-mutant cells, the process of mineralization was severely attenuated due to delayed secretion of type I collagen. In control osteoblasts, procollagen was easily transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. By contrast, despite having similar levels of collagen type 1 alpha 1 (Col1a1) expression, Ift20 mutants did not secrete procollagen because of dysfunctional ER-to-Golgi trafficking. These data suggest that in the multipotent stem cells of CNCs, IFT20 is indispensable for regulating not only ciliogenesis but also collagen intracellular trafficking. Our study introduces a unique perspective on the canonical and noncanonical functions of IFT20 in craniofacial skeletal development. PMID:27118846

  3. The heterogeneity of craniofacial morphology in Prader-Willi patients.

    PubMed

    Belengeanu, D; Bratu, Cristina; Stoian, Monica; Motoc, A; Ormerod, Eli; Podariu, Angela Codruţa; Farcaş, Simona; Andreescu, Nicoleta

    2012-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic disorder with narrow spectrum of facial phenotypic signs, which make the clinical diagnosis difficult in some cases. There are several reports describing the craniofacial appearance of Prader-Willi patients, but there are only a few cephalometric studies for these patients. In this study were included 18 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome and a control group of 18 subjects of both sexes selected based on specific criteria. The cephalometric radiographs of the patients were taken using the standardized technique with centric teeth in occlusion and lips in relaxed position. Angular, horizontal and linear measurements were analyzed for the study group and for the control group. We established that in Prader-Willi patients, there is a decrease of the majority of parameters but the degree of this reduction varies widely between patients and clinically typical facies not always have smaller measurements which can be found in an unusual facies. Facial dysmorphism in Prader-Willi patients varies a group ranging from miss proportions that do not alter the facial architecture as regard of facial typology, skeletal class and pattern of development to a severe disturbance of those. There is a degree of clinical heterogeneity between subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome on clinical evaluation and cephalometric study confirms the heterogeneity for this patients. Because the identification of smaller dimensions for majority of parameters in children and adults, the possibility of developmental delay or growth retardation delay can be excluded. These findings are important for the orthodontist for optimum timing of orthodontic management of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. PMID:22990543

  4. Craniofacial injuries in professional cricket: no more a red herring.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manjul; Shukla, Dhaval P; Bhat, Dhananjaya Ishwar; Bhagavatula, Indira Devi; Mishra, Tejesh

    2016-04-01

    The issue of head injury in a noncontact sport like cricket is a matter of great debate and it carries more questions than answers. Recent incidents of fatal head injuries in individuals wearing a helmet have caused some to question the protective value of the helmet. The authors discuss the pattern, type of injury, incidents, and location of cranio-facio-ocular injuries in professional cricket to date. They evaluate the history of usage of the helmet in cricket, changes in design, and the protective value, and they compare the efficacy of various sports' helmets with injury profiles similar to those in cricket. The drop test and air cannon test are compared for impact energy attenuation performance of cricket helmets. A total of 36 cases of head injuries were identified, of which 5 (14%) were fatal and 9 (22%) were career-terminating events. Batsmen are the most vulnerable to injury, bearing 86% of the burden, followed by wicketkeepers (8%) and fielders (5.5%). In 53% of cases, the ball directly hit the head, while in 19.5% of cases the ball entered the gap between the peak and the faceguard. Ocular injuries to 3 wicketkeepers proved to be career-terminating injuries. The air cannon test is a better test for evaluating cricket helmets than the drop test. Craniofacial injuries are more common than popularly believed. There is an urgent need to improve the efficacy and compliance of protective restraints in cricket. A strict injury surveillance system with universal acceptance is needed to identify the burden of injuries and modes for their prevention. PMID:27032914

  5. Craniofacial Sutures: Morphology, Growth, and In Vivo Masticatory Strains

    PubMed Central

    RAFFERTY, KATHERINE L.; HERRING, SUSAN W.

    2010-01-01

    The growth and morphology of craniofacial sutures are thought to reflect their functional environment. However, little is known about in vivo sutural mechanics. The present study investigates the strains experienced by the internasal, nasofrontal, and anterior interfrontal sutures during masticatory activity in 4–6-month-old miniature swine (Sus scrofa). Measurements of the bony/fibrous arrangements and growth rates of these sutures were then examined in the context of their mechanical environment. Large tensile strains were measured in the interfrontal suture (1,036 με ± 400 SD), whereas the posterior internasal suture was under moderate compression (−440 με ± 238) and the nasofrontal suture experienced large compression (−1,583 με ± 506). Sutural interdigitation was associated with compressive strain. The collagen fibers of the internasal and interfrontal sutures were clearly arranged to resist compression and tension, respectively, whereas those of the nasofrontal suture could not be readily characterized as either compression or tension resisting. The average linear rate of growth over a 1-week period at the nasofrontal suture (133.8 μm, ± 50.9 S.D) was significantly greater than that of both the internasal and interfrontal sutures (39.2 μm ± 11.4 and 65.5 μm ± 14.0, respectively). Histological observations suggest that the nasofrontal suture contains chondroid tissue, which may explain the unexpected combination of high compressive loading and rapid growth in this suture. PMID:10521876

  6. Milestones Contributing to the Evolution of Craniofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tadisina, Kashyap Komarraju; Orra, Susan; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Rampazzo, Antonio; Papay, Francis; Zins, James E

    2015-11-01

    Craniofacial surgery (CFS) has a rich history of collaboration with a wide variety of surgical and nonsurgical specialties. This has resulted in a large volume of publications across this spectrum of subspecialties cataloging the advancements across the field. The authors aim to analyze the characteristics of the most cited articles in CFS. A literature search was performed using the Thomson/Reuters Web of Knowledge database to identify the top 50 most cited articles in CFS. The articles were analyzed for journal distribution, total citations, year of publication, citations per year, number of authors, type of article, institution, departmental affiliation, national affiliation, and top contributors. The articles were extracted from an assortment of 21 journals. The number of citations per article ranged from 115 to 1092 (average of 185). Forty-eight percent of articles were published in the 1990s, and 22% in the 2000s. The average number of years since publication until the present time was 21.34 (range 6-45 y). The most cited article (1092 citations and 52 citations/y) was an article by McCarthy et al on human mandible lengthening via gradual distraction. Departmental distribution indicated that the majority were attributable to departments of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery for 21 articles (42%). Twenty articles were categorized under cranial defect/bone substitutes, 12 under craniosynostosis, 7 under surgical modeling, 6 under distraction osteogenesis, and the remaining 5 under other. These articles qualitatively represent important milestones in CFS. This study affirms the potential value of "number of citations" as a meaningful metric when assessing the importance of an article within CFS.

  7. [The parietal cell mass and acid secretion: Helicobacter pylori does not induce changes in the course of a duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Testino, G; Sumberaz, A; Cornaggia, M

    1995-12-01

    Some studies have postulated that Helicobacter pylori (HP) itself might be responsible for hypergastrinemia and acid secretion in duodenal ulcer (DU). In each DU patient parietal cell mass (expressed by a parietal index) and stimulated acid secretion (expressed by maximal acid output) were evaluated. The study has been conducted grouping DU patients in relation to HP infection in antral mucosa. HP infection does not modify parietal cell mass and stimulated acid secretion. Therefore, mild chronic hypergastrinemia induced by HP infection is not sufficient to justify any increase of parietal index and acid secretion. In fact, parietal cells and acid secretion remain higher in DU subjects independently from HP infection.

  8. Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Gina F.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect to a unified theory of parietal functional organization. PMID:25205661

  9. Phenotypic evolution of human craniofacial morphology after admixture: a geometric morphometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; González-José, Rolando; González-Martín, Antonio; Van der Molen, Silvina; Talavera, Arturo; Hernández, Patricia; Hernández, Miquel

    2006-03-01

    An evolutionary, diachronic approach to the phenotypic craniofacial pattern arisen in a human population after high levels of admixture and gene flow was achieved by means of geometric morphometrics. Admixture has long been studied after molecular data. Nevertheless, few efforts have been made to explain the morphological outcome in human craniofacial samples. The Spanish-Amerindian contact can be considered a good scenario for such an analysis. Here we present a comparative analysis of craniofacial shape changes observed between two putative ancestor groups, Spanish and precontact Aztecs, and two diachronic admixed groups, corresponding to early and late colonial periods from the Mexico's Central Valley. Quantitative shape comparisons of Amerindian, Spanish, and admixed groups were used to test the expectations of quantitative genetics for admixture events. In its simplest form, this prediction states that an admixed group will present phenotypic values falling between those of both parental groups. Results show that, in general terms, although the human skull is a complex, integrated structure, the craniofacial morphology observed fits the theoretical expectations of quantitative genetics. Thus, it is predictive of population structure and history. In fact, results obtained after the craniofacial analysis are in accordance with previous molecular and historical interpretations, providing evidence that admixture is a main microevolutionary agent influencing modern Mexican gene pool. However, expectations are not straightforward when moderate shape changes are considered. Deviations detected at localized structures, such as the upper and lower face, highlight the evolution of a craniofacial pattern exclusively inherent to the admixed groups, indicating that quantitative characters might respond to admixture in a complicated, nondirectional way. PMID:16323202

  10. Cortical networks for visual reaching: physiological and anatomical organization of frontal and parietal lobe arm regions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P B; Ferraina, S; Bianchi, L; Caminiti, R

    1996-01-01

    The functional and structural properties of the dorsolateral frontal lobe and posterior parietal proximal arm representations were studied in macaque monkeys. Physiological mapping of primary motor (MI), dorsal premotor (PMd), and posterior parietal (area 5) cortices was performed in behaving monkeys trained in an instructed-delay reaching task. The parietofrontal corticocortical connectivities of these same areas were subsequently examined anatomically by means of retrograde tracing techniques. Signal-, set-, movement-, and position-related directional neuronal activities were distributed nonuniformly within the task-related areas in both frontal and parietal cortices. Within the frontal lobe, moving caudally from PMd to the MI, the activity that signals for the visuo-spatial events leading to target localization decreased, while the activity more directly linked to movement generation increased. Physiological recordings in the superior parietal lobule revealed a gradient-like distribution of functional properties similar to that observed in the frontal lobe. Signal- and set-related activities were encountered more frequently in the intermediate and ventral part of the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), in area MIP. Movement-and position-related activities were distributed more uniformly within the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in both dorsal area 5 and in MIP. Frontal and parietal regions sharing similar functional properties were preferentially connected through their association pathways. As a result of this study, area MIP, and possibly areas MDP and 7m as well, emerge as the parietal nodes by which visual information may be relayed to the frontal lobe arm region. These parietal and frontal areas, along with their association connections, represent a potential cortical network for visual reaching. The architecture of this network is ideal for coding reaching as the result of a combination between visual and somatic information.

  11. Dental and craniofacial characteristics in a patient with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Christoph; Gölz, Lina; Götz, Werner; Wolf, Michael; Deschner, James; Jäger, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an exceptionally rare medical disorder caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene. Affected patients display typical features of premature aging. Beside general medical disorders, these patients have several specific features related to the craniofacial phenotype and the oral cavity. In this article, the dental and craniofacial characteristics of a 9-year-old girl with HGPS are presented. It is the first report addressing orthodontic tooth movement and microbiological features in a HGPS patient. We describe and discuss pathologic findings and provide a detailed histology of the teeth which had to be extracted during initial treatment.

  12. A Rare Case of Craniofacial Morphology with Absent Face and Neck Structures, with Its Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Lokadolalu Chandracharya; Bhat, Kumar M.R.; D’Souza, Antony Sylvan

    2013-01-01

    The development of the head and the face requires an intimate interaction between two mesenchymal populations, a paraxial mesoderm and neural crest cells for the morphogenesis of the musculoskeletal components of the calvaria, the face and the branchial regions. The disruptions in these interactions can cause foetal fatalities or congenital craniofacial anomalies. We are describing a rarest case with a craniofacial malformation, who was born with complete absence of the facial skeleton and the neck structures, a set of well developed ears in their normal locations and eyelids at the junction between the head and the thorax. PMID:23814746

  13. Disorders of Sex Development: Lessons to be Learned from Studies of Spina Bifida and Craniofacial Conditions.

    PubMed

    Holmbeck, G N; Aspinall, C L

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss research methods and clinical management strategies employed with other conditions (i. e., spina bifida and craniofacial conditions) and how these methods and strategies could be applied to youth with disorders of sex development (DSD). The review focuses specifically on the potential overlap between DSD and these other conditions across the following 3 areas: (1) developmentally-oriented theories that underlie the research base for chronic physical conditions; (2) research designs and methodological features that have proved fruitful in these areas; and (3) the potential applicability to DSD of clinical management practices for youth with craniofacial conditions.

  14. Sustained activity in topographic areas of human posterior parietal cortex during memory-guided saccades

    PubMed Central

    Schluppeck, Denis; Curtis, Clayton E.; Glimcher, Paul W.; Heeger, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study we identified three cortical areas in human posterior parietal cortex that exhibited topographic responses during memory-guided saccades (V7, IPS1, and IPS2), which are candidate homologues of macaque parietal areas such as the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and parietal reach region (PRR). Here, we show that these areas exhibit sustained delay-period activity, a critical physiological signature of areas in macaque parietal areas. By varying delay duration we disambiguated delay-period activity from sensory and motor responses. Mean time-courses in the parietal areas were well-fit by a linear model comprising 3 components representing responses to: (1) the visual target, (2) the delay period, and (3) the eye movement interval. We estimated the contributions of each component: the response amplitude during the delay period was substantially smaller (<30%) than that elicited by the transient visual target. All 3 parietal regions showed comparable delay period response amplitudes, with a trend towards larger responses from V7, to IPS1, and IPS2. Responses to the cue and during the delay period showed clear lateralization with larger responses to trials in which the target was placed in the contralateral visual field, suggesting that both these components contributed to the topography we measured. PMID:16687501

  15. Altered pain and thermal sensation in subjects with isolated parietal and insular cortical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Greenspan, J.D; Kim, J.H.; Lenz, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of sensory function following cortical lesions have often included lesions which multiple cortical, white matter, and thalamic structures. We now test the hypothesis that lesions anatomically constrained to particular insular and parietal structures and their subjacent white matter are associated with different patterns of sensory loss. Sensory loss was measured by quantitative sensory testing (QST), and evaluated statistically with respect to normal values. All seven subjects with insular and/or parietal lesions demonstrated thermal hypoesthesia, although the etiology of the lesions was heterogeneous. Cold and heat hypoalgesia were only found in the subject with the most extensive parietal and insular lesion, which occurred in utero. Cold allodynia occurred clinically and by thresholds in two subjects with isolated ischemic lesions of the posterior insular/ retroinsular cortex, and by thresholds in two subjects with a lesion of parietal cortex with little or no insular involvement. Central pain occurred in the two subjects with clinical allodynia secondary to isolated lesions of the posterior insular/retroinsular cortex, which spared the anterior and posterior parietal cortex. These results suggest that nonpainful cold and heat sensations are jointly mediated by parietal and insular cortical structures so that lesions anywhere in this system may diminish sensitivity. In contrast, thermal pain is more robust requiring larger cortical lesions of these same structures to produce hypoalgesia. In addition, cold allodynia can result from restricted lesions that also produce thermal hypoesthesia, but not from all such lesions. PMID:19939715

  16. Effect of cleft lip palate repair on craniofacial growth

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Zuber Ahamed; Shivalinga, BM; Ravi, S; Munawwar, Syeda Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare craniofacial growth among operated and unoperated unilateral cleft lip and palate non-syndromic subjects. Materials and Methods: A sample of 180 subjects of Indian origin was selected. Of them, 90 were operated, and 90 were unoperated complete unilateral cleft lip and palate individuals. The subjects were divided into three age groups of 3–5, 8–10, and 20–25 years comprised of 30 patients in each group. The following measurements were evaluated: Angle and length of the cranial base; maxillary spatial positioning and length; mandibular spatial positioning; morphology and length; maxillomandibular relationship. Comparative analysis of the means between the groups was performed with Student's t-test at the significance levels of 5%. The ANOVA test has been performed to test the effect of time. Results: No significant differences were observed between the measurements that represented the angle and length of the cranial base of unoperated and the operated patients (P>0.05). There was statistically significant decrease (P˂0.05) in the maxillary length (Co-A; 69.00 mm in 3–5 years, 68.33 mm in 8–10 years, and 67.17 mm in 20–25 years age group), and SNA angle (74.83° in 3–5 years, 74.17 ° in 8–10 years and 73.17 ° in 20–25 years age group) in operated group. No significant difference noticed on cephalometric values of the mandible, except Ar-Go-Me angle (P˂0.05), which showed vertical growth pattern in unoperated patients (132.50 ° in 3–5 years, 132.00 ° I 8–10 years and 138.33 ° in 20–25 years age group). Conclusion: Lip and palate repair has a significant influence on the maxilla and resulting in retarded growth of maxilla, which causes midface deficiency beyond acceptable sagittal limits. The Gonial angle showed vertical growth pattern in unoperated patients, but the cranial base angle and length of unoperated and the operated patients were similar. PMID:26229945

  17. Scaling relationships between craniofacial sexual dimorphism and body mass dimorphism in primates: implications for the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael

    2003-01-01

    Craniofacial remains (the most abundant identifiable remains in the fossil record) potentially offer important information about body size dimorphism in extinct species. This study evaluates the scaling relationships between body mass dimorphism and different measures of craniofacial dimorphism, evaluating taxonomic differences in the magnitude and scaling of craniofacial dimorphism across higher taxonomic groups. Data on 40 dimensions from 129 primate species and subspecies demonstrate that few dimensions change proportionally with body mass dimorphism. Primates show general patterns of greater facial vs. neurocranial and orbital dimorphism, and greater dimorphism in lengths as opposed to breadths. Within any species, though, different craniofacial dimensions can yield very different reconstructions of size dimorphism. There are significant taxonomic differences in the relationships between size and craniofacial dimorphism among primate groups that can have a significant impact on reconstructions of body mass dimorphism. Hominoids tend to show lower degrees of facial dimorphism proportional to size dimorphism than other primates. This in turn implies that strong craniofacial dimorphism in Australopithecus africanus could imply very strong body size dimorphism, conflicting with the relatively modest size dimorphism inferred from postcrania. Different methods of estimating the magnitude of size dimorphism from craniofacial measurements yield similar results, and yield comparatively low percent prediction errors for a number of dimensions. However, confidence intervals for most estimates are so large as to render most estimates highly tentative.

  18. A genome-wide linkage scan for quantitative trait loci influencing the craniofacial complex in humans(Homo sapiens sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Richard J.; Duren, Dana L.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Blangero, John; Dyer, Thomas D.; Cole, Shelley A.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Chumlea, Wm. Cameron; Siervogel, Roger M.; Choh, Audrey C.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Lee, Miryoung; Towne, Bradford

    2011-01-01

    The genetic architecture of the craniofacial complex has been the subject of intense scrutiny because of the high frequency of congenital malformations. Numerous animal models have been used to document the early development of the craniofacial complex, but few studies have focused directly on the genetic underpinnings of normal variation in the human craniofacial complex. The current study examines 80 quantitative traits derived from lateral cephalographs of 981 participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted using the SOLAR analytic platform, a maximum-likelihood variance components method that incorporates all familial information for parameter estimation. Heritability estimates were significant and of moderate to high magnitude for all craniofacial traits. Additionally, significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for 10 traits from the three developmental components (basicranium, splanchnocranium, and neurocranium) of the craniofacial complex. These QTL were found on chromosomes 3, 6, 11, 12, and 14. This study of the genetic architecture of the craniofacial complex elucidates fundamental information of the genetic architecture of the craniofacial complex in humans. PMID:21328561

  19. Prestimulus frontal-parietal coherence predicts auditory detection performance in rats

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Linnea; Salehi, Kia; Bohon, Kaitlin S.

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiology in primates has implicated long-range neural coherence as a potential mechanism for enhancing sensory detection. To test whether local synchronization and long-range neural coherence support detection performance in rats, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in frontal and parietal cortex while rats performed an auditory detection task. We observed significantly elevated power at multiple low frequencies (<15 Hz) preceding the target beep when the animal failed to respond to the signal (misses), in both frontal and parietal cortex. In terms of long-range coherence, we observed significantly more frontal-parietal coherence in the beta band (15–30 Hz) before the signal on misses compared with hits. This effect persisted after regressing away linear trends in the coherence values during a session, showing that the excess frontal-parietal beta coherence prior to misses cannot be explained by slow motivational changes during a session. In addition, a trend toward higher low-frequency (<15 Hz) coherence prior to miss trials compared with hits became highly significant when we rereferenced the LFPs to the mean voltage on each recording array, suggesting that the results are specific to our frontal and parietal areas. These results do not support a role for long-range frontal-parietal coherence or local synchronization in facilitating the detection of external stimuli. Rather, they extend to long-range frontal-parietal coherence previous findings that correlate local synchronization of low-frequency (<15 Hz) oscillations with inattention to external stimuli and synchronization of beta rhythms (15–30 Hz) with voluntary or involuntary prolongation of the current cognitive or motor state. PMID:24572093

  20. Reward-based decision signals in parietal cortex are partially embodied.

    PubMed

    Kubanek, Jan; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-03-25

    Recordings in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) reveal that parietal cortex encodes variables related to spatial decision-making, the selection of desirable targets in space. It has been unclear whether parietal cortex is involved in spatial decision-making in general, or whether specific parietal compartments subserve decisions made using specific actions. To test this, we engaged monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a reward-based decision task in which they selected a target based on its desirability. The animals' choice behavior in this task followed the molar matching law, and in each trial was governed by the desirability of the choice targets. Critically, animals were instructed to make the choice using one of two actions: eye movements (saccades) and arm movements (reaches). We recorded the discharge activity of neurons in area LIP and the parietal reach region (PRR) of the parietal cortex. In line with previous studies, we found that both LIP and PRR encode a reward-based decision variable, the target desirability. Crucially, the target desirability was encoded in LIP at least twice as strongly when choices were made using saccades compared with reaches. In contrast, PRR encoded target desirability only for reaches and not for saccades. These data suggest that decisions can evolve in dedicated parietal circuits in the context of specific actions. This finding supports the hypothesis of an intentional representation of developing decisions in parietal cortex. Furthermore, the close link between the cognitive (decision-related) and bodily (action-related) processes presents a neural contribution to the theories of embodied cognition. PMID:25810518

  1. Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation Marker in Early Recurrence of FSGS in the Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Huma; Moeller, Marcus J.; Smeets, Bart; Yang, Hai-Chun; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Alpers, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Podocyte loss is key in glomerulosclerosis. Activated parietal epithelial cells are proposed to contribute to pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis and may serve as stem cells that can transition to podocytes. CD44 is a marker for activated parietal epithelial cells. This study investigated whether activated parietal epithelial cells are increased in early recurrent FSGS in transplant compared with minimal change disease. Design, setting, participants, & measurements CD44 staining in renal allograft biopsies from 12 patients with recurrent FSGS was performed and compared with native kidneys with minimal change disease or FSGS and normal control native and transplant kidneys without FSGS. CD44+ epithelial cells along Bowman’s capsule in the parietal epithelial cell location and over the glomerular tuft in the visceral epithelial cell location were assessed. Results Cases with early recurrent FSGS manifesting only foot process effacement showed significantly increased CD44+ visceral epithelial cells involving 29.0% versus 2.6% of glomeruli in minimal change disease and 0% in non-FSGS transplants. Parietal location CD44 positivity also was numerically increased in recurrent FSGS. In later transplant biopsies, glomeruli with segmental lesions had more CD44+ visceral epithelial cells than glomeruli without lesions. Conclusions Parietal epithelial cell activation marker is significantly increased in evolving FSGS versus minimal change disease, and this increase may distinguish early FSGS from minimal change disease. Whether parietal epithelial cell activation contributes to pathogenesis of sclerosis in idiopathic FSGS or is a regenerative/repair response to replace injured podocytes awaits additional study. PMID:22917699

  2. Ventral fronto-parietal contributions to the disruption of visual working memory storage.

    PubMed

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Ravizza, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain information in visual working memory (VWM) in the presence of ongoing visual input allows for flexible goal-directed behavior. Previous evidence suggests that categorical overlap between visual distractors and the contents of VWM is associated with both the degree to which distractors disrupt VWM performance and activation among fronto-parietal regions of cortex. While within-category distractors have been shown to elicit a greater response in ventral fronto-parietal regions, to date, no study has linked distractor-evoked response of these regions to VWM performance costs. Here we examined the contributions of ventral fronto-parietal cortex to the disruption of VWM storage by manipulating memoranda-distractor similarity. Our results revealed that the degree of activation across cortex was graded in a manner suggesting that similarity between the contents of VWM and visual distractors influenced distractor processing. While abrupt visual onsets failed to engage ventral fronto-parietal regions during VWM maintenance, objects sharing categorical- (Related objects) and feature-overlap (Matched objects) with VWM elicited a significant response in the right TPJ and right AI. Of central relevance, the magnitude of activation in the right AI elicited by both types of distractor objects subsequently predicted costs to binding change detection accuracy. In addition, Related and Matched distractors differentially affected ventral-dorsal connectivity between the right AI and dorsal parietal regions, uniquely contributing to disruption of VWM storage. Together, our current results implicate activation of ventral fronto-parietal cortex in disruption of VWM storage, and disconnection between ventral frontal and dorsal parietal cortices as a mechanism to protect the contents of VWM.

  3. Ventral fronto-parietal contributions to the disruption of visual working memory storage.

    PubMed

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Ravizza, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain information in visual working memory (VWM) in the presence of ongoing visual input allows for flexible goal-directed behavior. Previous evidence suggests that categorical overlap between visual distractors and the contents of VWM is associated with both the degree to which distractors disrupt VWM performance and activation among fronto-parietal regions of cortex. While within-category distractors have been shown to elicit a greater response in ventral fronto-parietal regions, to date, no study has linked distractor-evoked response of these regions to VWM performance costs. Here we examined the contributions of ventral fronto-parietal cortex to the disruption of VWM storage by manipulating memoranda-distractor similarity. Our results revealed that the degree of activation across cortex was graded in a manner suggesting that similarity between the contents of VWM and visual distractors influenced distractor processing. While abrupt visual onsets failed to engage ventral fronto-parietal regions during VWM maintenance, objects sharing categorical- (Related objects) and feature-overlap (Matched objects) with VWM elicited a significant response in the right TPJ and right AI. Of central relevance, the magnitude of activation in the right AI elicited by both types of distractor objects subsequently predicted costs to binding change detection accuracy. In addition, Related and Matched distractors differentially affected ventral-dorsal connectivity between the right AI and dorsal parietal regions, uniquely contributing to disruption of VWM storage. Together, our current results implicate activation of ventral fronto-parietal cortex in disruption of VWM storage, and disconnection between ventral frontal and dorsal parietal cortices as a mechanism to protect the contents of VWM. PMID:26436710

  4. Neural correlates of superior intelligence: stronger recruitment of posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Ho; Choi, Yu Yong; Gray, Jeremy R; Cho, Sun Hee; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Seungheun; Kim, Kyungjin

    2006-01-15

    General intelligence (g) is a common factor in diverse cognitive abilities and a major influence on life outcomes. Neuroimaging studies in adults suggest that the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices play a crucial role in related cognitive activities including fluid reasoning, the control of attention, and working memory. Here, we investigated the neural bases for intellectual giftedness (superior-g) in adolescents, using fMRI. The participants consisted of a superior-g group (n = 18, mean RAPM = 33.9 +/- 0.8, >99%) from the national academy for gifted adolescents and the control group (n = 18, mean RAPM = 22.8 +/- 1.6, 60%) from local high schools in Korea (mean age = 16.5 +/- 0.8). fMRI data were acquired while they performed two reasoning tasks with high and low g-loadings. In both groups, the high g-loaded tasks specifically increased regional activity in the bilateral fronto-parietal network including the lateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices. However, the regional activations of the superior-g group were significantly stronger than those of the control group, especially in the posterior parietal cortex. Moreover, regression analysis revealed that activity of the superior and intraparietal cortices (BA 7/40) strongly covaried with individual differences in g (r = 0.71 to 0.81). A correlated vectors analysis implicated bilateral posterior parietal areas in g. These results suggest that superior-g may not be due to the recruitment of additional brain regions but to the functional facilitation of the fronto-parietal network particularly driven by the posterior parietal activation.

  5. G-Protein α-Subunit Gsα Is Required for Craniofacial Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Run; Zhang, Ke; Wei, Yanxia; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S; Hong, Yang; Zhu, Minyan; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα couples receptors to activate adenylyl cyclase and is required for the intracellular cAMP response and protein kinase A (PKA) activation. Gsα is ubiquitously expressed in many cell types; however, the role of Gsα in neural crest cells (NCCs) remains unclear. Here we report that NCCs-specific Gsα knockout mice die within hours after birth and exhibit dramatic craniofacial malformations, including hypoplastic maxilla and mandible, cleft palate and craniofacial skeleton defects. Histological and anatomical analysis reveal that the cleft palate in Gsα knockout mice is a secondary defect resulting from craniofacial skeleton deficiencies. In Gsα knockout mice, the morphologies of NCCs-derived cranial nerves are normal, but the development of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia are impaired. Furthermore, loss of Gsα in NCCs does not affect cranial NCCs migration or cell proliferation, but significantly accelerate osteochondrogenic differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that Gsα is required for neural crest cells-derived craniofacial development. PMID:26859889

  6. The Importance of Craniofacial Sutures in Biomechanical Finite Element Models of the Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Jen A.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial sutures are a ubiquitous feature of the vertebrate skull. Previous experimental work has shown that bone strain magnitudes and orientations often vary when moving from one bone to another, across a craniofacial suture. This has led to the hypothesis that craniofacial sutures act to modify the strain environment of the skull, possibly as a mode of dissipating high stresses generated during feeding or impact. This study tests the hypothesis that the introduction of craniofacial sutures into finite element (FE) models of a modern domestic pig skull would improve model accuracy compared to a model without sutures. This allowed the mechanical effects of sutures to be assessed in isolation from other confounding variables. These models were also validated against strain gauge data collected from the same specimen ex vivo. The experimental strain data showed notable strain differences between adjacent bones, but this effect was generally not observed in either model. It was found that the inclusion of sutures in finite element models affected strain magnitudes, ratios, orientations and contour patterns, yet contrary to expectations, this did not improve the fit of the model to the experimental data, but resulted in a model that was less accurate. It is demonstrated that the presence or absence of sutures alone is not responsible for the inaccuracies in model strain, and is suggested that variations in local bone material properties, which were not accounted for by the FE models, could instead be responsible for the pattern of results. PMID:22363727

  7. The FaceBase Consortium: a comprehensive resource for craniofacial researchers

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, James F.; Fisher, Shannon; Harris, Matthew P.; Holmes, Greg; Hooper, Joan E.; Wang Jabs, Ethylin; Jones, Kenneth L.; Kesselman, Carl; Klein, Ophir D.; Maas, Richard L.; Marazita, Mary L.; Selleri, Licia; Spritz, Richard A.; van Bakel, Harm; Visel, Axel; Williams, Trevor J.; Wysocka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium, funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, is designed to accelerate understanding of craniofacial developmental biology by generating comprehensive data resources to empower the research community, exploring high-throughput technology, fostering new scientific collaborations among researchers and human/computer interactions, facilitating hypothesis-driven research and translating science into improved health care to benefit patients. The resources generated by the FaceBase projects include a number of dynamic imaging modalities, genome-wide association studies, software tools for analyzing human facial abnormalities, detailed phenotyping, anatomical and molecular atlases, global and specific gene expression patterns, and transcriptional profiling over the course of embryonic and postnatal development in animal models and humans. The integrated data visualization tools, faceted search infrastructure, and curation provided by the FaceBase Hub offer flexible and intuitive ways to interact with these multidisciplinary data. In parallel, the datasets also offer unique opportunities for new collaborations and training for researchers coming into the field of craniofacial studies. Here, we highlight the focus of each spoke project and the integration of datasets contributed by the spokes to facilitate craniofacial research. PMID:27287806

  8. In vivo bone strain and finite-element modeling of the craniofacial haft in catarrhine primates

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Callum F; Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Porro, Laura B; Richmond, Brian G; Spencer, Mark; Strait, David

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding patterns of stress, strain and deformation in the craniofacial skeleton are central to adaptive explanations for the evolution of primate craniofacial form. The complexity of craniofacial skeletal morphology makes it difficult to evaluate these hypotheses with in vivo bone strain data. In this paper, new in vivo bone strain data from the intraorbital surfaces of the supraorbital torus, postorbital bar and postorbital septum, the anterior surface of the postorbital bar, and the anterior root of the zygoma are combined with published data from the supraorbital region and zygomatic arch to evaluate the validity of a finite-element model (FEM) of a macaque cranium during mastication. The behavior of this model is then used to test hypotheses regarding the overall deformation regime in the craniofacial haft of macaques. This FEM constitutes a hypothesis regarding deformation of the facial skeleton during mastication. A simplified verbal description of the deformation regime in the macaque FEM is as follows. Inferior bending and twisting of the zygomatic arches about a rostrocaudal axis exerts inferolaterally directed tensile forces on the lateral orbital wall, bending the wall and the supraorbital torus in frontal planes and bending and shearing the infraorbital region and anterior zygoma root in frontal planes. Similar deformation regimes also characterize the crania of Homo and Gorilla under in vitro loading conditions and may be shared among extant catarrhines. Relatively high strain magnitudes in the anterior root of the zygoma suggest that the morphology of this region may be important for resisting forces generated during feeding. PMID:21105871

  9. Prenatal ontogeny of subspecific variation in the craniofacial morphology of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Yano, Wataru; Egi, Naoko; Takano, Tomo; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2010-07-01

    We cross-sectionally investigated prenatal ontogeny of craniofacial shape in the two subspecies of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata and Macaca fuscata yakui) using a geometric morphometric technique to explore the process of morphogenetic divergence leading to the adult morphological difference between the subspecies. The sample comprised a total of 32 formalin-fixed fetal specimens of the two subspecies, in approximately the second and third trimesters. Each fetal cranium was scanned using computed tomography to generate a three-dimensional surface model, and 68 landmarks were digitized on the external and internal surface of each cranium to trace the growth-related changes in craniofacial shape of the two subspecies. The results of our study demonstrated that the two subspecies generally shared the same craniofacial growth pattern. Both crania tend to exhibit relative contraction of the neurocranium in the mediolateral and superoinferior directions, a more superiorly positioned cranial base, a more vertically oriented occipital squama, and a more anteriorly positioned viscerocranium as the cranial size increased. However, distinctive subspecific differences, for example relatively narrower orbital breadth, higher orbit, higher position of the nuchal crest, and more protrudent snout found in Macaca fuscata yakui were already present during the prenatal period. This study demonstrated that morphological differentiation in the craniofacial shape may occur at a very early stage of the fetal period even between closely related subspecies of the Japanese macaque.

  10. Bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS): a unique craniosynostosis syndrome or predictable craniofacial phenotype?

    PubMed

    Hing, Anne V; Click, Eleanor S; Holder, Ursula; Seto, Marianne L; Vessey, Kyle; Gruss, Joseph; Hopper, Richard; Cunningham, Michael L

    2009-05-01

    Multisutural craniosynostosis that includes bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS) results in a very characteristic head shape with frontal bossing, turribrachycephaly, biparietal narrowing, occipital concavity, and inferior displacement of the ears. This entity has been reported both in the genetics literature as craniofacial dyssynostosis and in the surgical literature as "Mercedes Benz" syndrome. Craniofacial dyssynostosis was first described in 1976 by Dr. Neuhauser when he presented a series of seven patients with synostosis of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures, short stature, and developmental delay. Over the past 30 years nine additional patients with craniofacial dyssynostosis have been reported in the literature adding to the growing evidence for a distinct craniosynostosis syndrome. The term "Mercedes Benz" syndrome was coined by Moore et al. in 1998 due to the characteristic appearance of the fused sutures on three-dimensional CT imaging. In contrast to the aforementioned reported cases of craniofacial dyssynostosis, all three patients had normal development. Recently, there have been several case reports of patients with BLSS and distinct chromosomal anomalies. These findings suggest that BLSS is a heterogeneous disorder perhaps with syndromic, chromosomal, and isolated forms. In this manuscript we will present the largest series of patients with BLSS and review clinical, CT, and molecular findings.

  11. Craniofacial skeletal measurements based on computed tomography: Part II. Normal values and growth trends.

    PubMed

    Waitzman, A A; Posnick, J C; Armstrong, D C; Pron, G E

    1992-03-01

    Current diagnosis and surgical correction of craniofacial anomalies would benefit from accurate quantitative and standardized points of reference. A retrospective study was undertaken to define normal values for a series of craniofacial measurements and to evaluate the growth patterns of the craniofacial complex through axial computed tomography (CT). Fifteen measurements were taken from 542 CT scan series of skeletally normal subjects. The measurement values were then divided into 1-year age categories from 1 to 17 years, and into four age groups for those under 1 year of age. The normal range and growth pattern of measurement values for the cranial vault, orbital region, and upper midface are presented. The overall size of the cranio-orbito-zygomatic skeleton reaches more than 85 percent of adult size by age 5 years. The cranial vault grows rapidly in the first year of life but growth levels off early. The upper midface grows at a slower rate in infancy, but continues to grow later in childhood and early adolescence. Knowledge of the differential growth patterns and normal measurement values in the craniofacial region will help improve diagnostic accuracy, staging of reconstruction, precision of corrective surgery, and follow-up of patients. PMID:1571345

  12. The FaceBase Consortium: a comprehensive resource for craniofacial researchers.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, James F; Fisher, Shannon; Harris, Matthew P; Holmes, Greg; Hooper, Joan E; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Jones, Kenneth L; Kesselman, Carl; Klein, Ophir D; Maas, Richard L; Marazita, Mary L; Selleri, Licia; Spritz, Richard A; van Bakel, Harm; Visel, Axel; Williams, Trevor J; Wysocka, Joanna; Chai, Yang

    2016-07-15

    The FaceBase Consortium, funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, is designed to accelerate understanding of craniofacial developmental biology by generating comprehensive data resources to empower the research community, exploring high-throughput technology, fostering new scientific collaborations among researchers and human/computer interactions, facilitating hypothesis-driven research and translating science into improved health care to benefit patients. The resources generated by the FaceBase projects include a number of dynamic imaging modalities, genome-wide association studies, software tools for analyzing human facial abnormalities, detailed phenotyping, anatomical and molecular atlases, global and specific gene expression patterns, and transcriptional profiling over the course of embryonic and postnatal development in animal models and humans. The integrated data visualization tools, faceted search infrastructure, and curation provided by the FaceBase Hub offer flexible and intuitive ways to interact with these multidisciplinary data. In parallel, the datasets also offer unique opportunities for new collaborations and training for researchers coming into the field of craniofacial studies. Here, we highlight the focus of each spoke project and the integration of datasets contributed by the spokes to facilitate craniofacial research.

  13. Reciprocal influence of masticatory apparatus, craniofacial structure and whole body homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Moon, Hyung-Joo

    2012-12-01

    There are evidences that the evolution into Homo erectus was partially induced by masticatory muscular dystrophy caused by a gene mutation, which in turn increased brain capacity and led to bipedalism. It is generally accepted that the morphology and function of mammalian skull are partially controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Archeologic evidences support that the masticatory apparatus have influenced the mechanical stress distribution in hominin skull, and consequently changed craniofacial morphology and function. Even after evolution into H. erectus, alterations in food properties by civilization and cultural preferences have caused modification of human masticatory pattern and accordingly craniofacial structure. Since there are evidences that prehuman and human masticatory apparatus has been influenced the craniofacial and whole body morphology and function, this apparatus in turn might influence whole body homeostasis. Plausible reciprocal influencing mechanisms of the masticatory apparatus on the whole body homeostasis might be (1) direct mechanical influence on the craniofacial structure, (2) distortion of cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and/or (3) several neural/humoral routes. Based on these backgrounds, the hypothesis of the present study is that the morphology and function of masticatory apparatus influence the whole body homeostasis and these interactions are reciprocal. Therefore, human masticatory apparatus, at the present time, should be kept in its physiological status to maintain the whole body homeostasis. We recommend basic and clinical approaches to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. G-Protein α-Subunit Gsα Is Required for Craniofacial Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanxia; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S.; Hong, Yang; Zhu, Minyan; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα couples receptors to activate adenylyl cyclase and is required for the intracellular cAMP response and protein kinase A (PKA) activation. Gsα is ubiquitously expressed in many cell types; however, the role of Gsα in neural crest cells (NCCs) remains unclear. Here we report that NCCs-specific Gsα knockout mice die within hours after birth and exhibit dramatic craniofacial malformations, including hypoplastic maxilla and mandible, cleft palate and craniofacial skeleton defects. Histological and anatomical analysis reveal that the cleft palate in Gsα knockout mice is a secondary defect resulting from craniofacial skeleton deficiencies. In Gsα knockout mice, the morphologies of NCCs-derived cranial nerves are normal, but the development of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia are impaired. Furthermore, loss of Gsα in NCCs does not affect cranial NCCs migration or cell proliferation, but significantly accelerate osteochondrogenic differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that Gsα is required for neural crest cells-derived craniofacial development. PMID:26859889

  15. [Craniofacial growth. 1. Critical review of the most authoritative current knowledge].

    PubMed

    Oyen, O J

    1989-01-01

    After an analysis of the knowledge of today about the cranio-facial growth, the author presents a theory of the structural function as a proper conclusion of the change from a genetic hypothesis to a functional matrix. This theory will explain some skeletal modifications that before were incomprehensible.

  16. A role of glypican4 and wnt5b in chondrocyte stacking underlying craniofacial cartilage morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sisson, Barbara E.; Dale, Rodney M.; Mui, Stephanie R.; Topczewska, Jolanta M.

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway controls cell morphology and behavior during animal development. Several zebrafish mutants were identified as having perturbed Wnt/PCP signaling. Many of these mutants have defects in craniofacial formation. To better understand the role that Wnt/PCP plays in craniofacial development we set out to identify which of the mutants, known to be associated with the Wnt/PCP pathway, perturb head cartilage formation by disrupting chondrocyte morphology. Here we demonstrate that while vang-like 2 (vangl2), wnt11 and scribbled (scrib) mutants have severe craniofacial morphogenesis defects they do not display the chondrocyte stacking and intercalation problems seen in glypican 4 (gpc4) and wnt5b mutants. The function of Gpc4 or Wnt5b appears to be important for chondrocyte organization, as the neural crest in both mutants is specified, undergoes migration, and differentiates into the same number of cells to compose the craniofacial cartilage elements. We demonstrate that Gpc4 activity is required cell autonomously in the chondrocytes and that the phenotype of single heterozygous mutants is slightly enhanced in embryos double heterozygous for wnt5b and gpc4. This data suggests a novel mechanism for Wnt5b and Gpc4 regulation of chondrocyte behavior that is independent of the core Wnt/PCP molecules and differs from their collaborative action of controlling cell movements during gastrulation. PMID:26459057

  17. The FaceBase Consortium: a comprehensive resource for craniofacial researchers.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, James F; Fisher, Shannon; Harris, Matthew P; Holmes, Greg; Hooper, Joan E; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Jones, Kenneth L; Kesselman, Carl; Klein, Ophir D; Maas, Richard L; Marazita, Mary L; Selleri, Licia; Spritz, Richard A; van Bakel, Harm; Visel, Axel; Williams, Trevor J; Wysocka, Joanna; Chai, Yang

    2016-07-15

    The FaceBase Consortium, funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, is designed to accelerate understanding of craniofacial developmental biology by generating comprehensive data resources to empower the research community, exploring high-throughput technology, fostering new scientific collaborations among researchers and human/computer interactions, facilitating hypothesis-driven research and translating science into improved health care to benefit patients. The resources generated by the FaceBase projects include a number of dynamic imaging modalities, genome-wide association studies, software tools for analyzing human facial abnormalities, detailed phenotyping, anatomical and molecular atlases, global and specific gene expression patterns, and transcriptional profiling over the course of embryonic and postnatal development in animal models and humans. The integrated data visualization tools, faceted search infrastructure, and curation provided by the FaceBase Hub offer flexible and intuitive ways to interact with these multidisciplinary data. In parallel, the datasets also offer unique opportunities for new collaborations and training for researchers coming into the field of craniofacial studies. Here, we highlight the focus of each spoke project and the integration of datasets contributed by the spokes to facilitate craniofacial research. PMID:27287806

  18. 77 FR 50140 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5...

  19. 78 FR 65345 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... the Federal Register on August 19, 2013, 78 FR 50426. Meeting date has changed from October 17-18... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial...

  20. 78 FR 50426 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5...

  1. 76 FR 79199 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5...

  2. 77 FR 29673 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5...

  3. 76 FR 57748 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5...

  4. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Skeletal Research

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Takehito; Shibata, Shinsuke; Fujimura, Takumi; Kawana, Hiromasa; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Taneaki

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial skeletal tissues are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. This composite material is mainly derived from neural crest cells (NCCs). The neural crest is transient embryonic tissue present during neural tube formation whose cells have high potential for migration and differentiation. Thus, NCCs are promising candidates for craniofacial tissue regeneration; however, the clinical application of NCCs is hindered by their limited accessibility. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible in adults, have similar potential for self-renewal, and can differentiate into skeletal tissues, including bones and cartilage. Therefore, MSCs may represent good sources of stem cells for clinical use. MSCs are classically identified under adherent culture conditions, leading to contamination with other cell lineages. Previous studies have identified mouse- and human-specific MSC subsets using cell surface markers. Additionally, some studies have shown that a subset of MSCs is closely related to neural crest derivatives and endothelial cells. These MSCs may be promising candidates for regeneration of craniofacial tissues from the perspective of developmental fate. Here, we review the fundamental biology of MSCs in craniofacial research. PMID:27006661

  5. Estrogen receptor gene polymorphism and craniofacial morphology in female TMJ osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, D-G; Kim, T-W; Kang, S-C; Kim, S T

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) polymorphism on the craniofacial skeleton in female patients suffering from symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The sample comprised 76 genetically unrelated Korean women diagnosed with OA by research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC-TMD). Direct haplotyping procedure was used to analyze the PvuII and XbaI RFLPs. Twelve cephalometric measurements were taken to evaluate the spatial position and dimensions of the mandible. Mann-Whitney's U-test was used to identify the potential differences in the cephalometric measurements between the subjects grouped according to their carrier status for Px haplotype. In addition, an association study was carried out using chi(2)-test to further examine the relationship between Px haplotype and the craniofacial morphology of the symptomatic OA patients. Female symptomatic TMJ OA patients carrying Px haplotype showed significantly smaller facial axis angle (P<0.05) and mandibular body length (P<0.05) than the non-carriers. The association between the presence of Px haplotype and short mandibular body length was also ascertained. This study suggests that ERa polymorphism contributes to the altered mandibular dimensions in female symptomatic TMJ OA patients. Further studies on the role of the genetic markers relevant to the craniofacial growth and adaptation are expected to broaden our understanding of determinants of the craniofacial morphology. PMID:16154319

  6. Regulating Craniofacial Development at the 3' End: MicroRNAs and Their Function in Facial Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Andre L P; Artinger, Kristin B; Clouthier, David E

    2015-01-01

    Defects in craniofacial development represent a majority of observed human birth defects, occurring at a rate as high as 1:800 live births. These defects often occur due to changes in neural crest cell (NCC) patterning and development and can affect non-NCC-derived structures due to interactions between NCCs and the surrounding cell types. Proper craniofacial development requires an intricate array of gene expression networks that are tightly controlled spatiotemporally by a number of regulatory mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves the action of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs that repress gene expression by binding to miRNA recognition sequences typically located in the 3' UTR of target mRNAs. Recent evidence illustrates that miRNAs are crucial for vertebrate facial morphogenesis, with changes in miRNA expression leading to facial birth defects, including some in complex human syndromes such as 22q11 (DiGeorge Syndrome). In this review, we highlight the current understanding of miRNA biogenesis, the roles of miRNAs in overall craniofacial development, the impact that loss of miRNAs has on normal development and the requirement for miRNAs in the development of specific craniofacial structures, including teeth. From these studies, it is clear that miRNAs are essential for normal facial development and morphogenesis, and a potential key in establishing new paradigms for repair and regeneration of facial defects. PMID:26589932

  7. Elastic properties of external cortical bone in the craniofacial skeleton of the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Dechow, Paul C

    2006-11-01

    Knowledge of elastic properties and of their variation in the cortical bone of the craniofacial skeleton is indispensable for creating accurate finite-element models to explore the biomechanics and adaptation of the skull in primates. In this study, we measured elastic properties of the external cortex of the rhesus monkey craniofacial skeleton, using an ultrasonic technique. Twenty-eight cylindrical cortical specimens were removed from each of six craniofacial skeletons of adult Macaca mulatta. Thickness, density, and a set of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities were measured on each specimen to allow calculation of the elastic properties in three dimensions, according to equations derived from Newton's second law and Hooke's law. The axes of maximum stiffness were determined by fitting longitudinal velocities measured along the perimeter of each cortical specimen to a sinusoidal function. Results showed significant differences in elastic properties between different functional areas of the rhesus cranium, and that many sites have a consistent orientation of maximum stiffness among specimens. Overall, the cortical bones of the rhesus monkey skull can be modeled as orthotropic in many regions, and as transversely isotropic in some regions, e.g., the supraorbital region. There are differences from human crania, suggesting that structural differences in skeletal form relate to differences in cortical material properties across species. These differences also suggest that we require more comparative data on elastic properties in primate craniofacial skeletons to explore effectively the functional significance of these differences, especially when these differences are elucidated through modeling approaches, such as finite-element modeling.

  8. Bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS): a unique craniosynostosis syndrome or predictable craniofacial phenotype?

    PubMed

    Hing, Anne V; Click, Eleanor S; Holder, Ursula; Seto, Marianne L; Vessey, Kyle; Gruss, Joseph; Hopper, Richard; Cunningham, Michael L

    2009-05-01

    Multisutural craniosynostosis that includes bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS) results in a very characteristic head shape with frontal bossing, turribrachycephaly, biparietal narrowing, occipital concavity, and inferior displacement of the ears. This entity has been reported both in the genetics literature as craniofacial dyssynostosis and in the surgical literature as "Mercedes Benz" syndrome. Craniofacial dyssynostosis was first described in 1976 by Dr. Neuhauser when he presented a series of seven patients with synostosis of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures, short stature, and developmental delay. Over the past 30 years nine additional patients with craniofacial dyssynostosis have been reported in the literature adding to the growing evidence for a distinct craniosynostosis syndrome. The term "Mercedes Benz" syndrome was coined by Moore et al. in 1998 due to the characteristic appearance of the fused sutures on three-dimensional CT imaging. In contrast to the aforementioned reported cases of craniofacial dyssynostosis, all three patients had normal development. Recently, there have been several case reports of patients with BLSS and distinct chromosomal anomalies. These findings suggest that BLSS is a heterogeneous disorder perhaps with syndromic, chromosomal, and isolated forms. In this manuscript we will present the largest series of patients with BLSS and review clinical, CT, and molecular findings. PMID:19396832

  9. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat. PMID:26232829

  10. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat.

  11. Speech therapy where there are no speech therapists: the task force for the american cleft palate-craniofacial association.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Nancy J

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the outcome of the 2013 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Task Force entitled "Speech Therapy Where There Are No Speech Therapists." The membership and goals of the initial task force are presented. Survey methods, communication of the members, and meeting discussion of the task force at the 12th International Congress for Craniofacial Anomalies in Orlando, Florida, in May 2013 are described. Conclusions of the task force and recommendations for the future comprised four areas: organization and communication, protocols, service delivery models, and development of training programs/modules in speech-language pathology for craniofacial conditions.

  12. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.

    PubMed

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition.

  13. A regional method for craniofacial reconstruction based on coordinate adjustments and a new fusion strategy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qingqiong; Zhou, Mingquan; Wu, Zhongke; Shui, Wuyang; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Xingce; Liu, Ching Yiu Jessica; Huang, Youliang; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-02-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction recreates a facial outlook from the cranium based on the relationship between the face and the skull to assist identification. But craniofacial structures are very complex, and this relationship is not the same in different craniofacial regions. Several regional methods have recently been proposed, these methods segmented the face and skull into regions, and the relationship of each region is then learned independently, after that, facial regions for a given skull are estimated and finally glued together to generate a face. Most of these regional methods use vertex coordinates to represent the regions, and they define a uniform coordinate system for all of the regions. Consequently, the inconsistence in the positions of regions between different individuals is not eliminated before learning the relationships between the face and skull regions, and this reduces the accuracy of the craniofacial reconstruction. In order to solve this problem, an improved regional method is proposed in this paper involving two types of coordinate adjustments. One is the global coordinate adjustment performed on the skulls and faces with the purpose to eliminate the inconsistence of position and pose of the heads; the other is the local coordinate adjustment performed on the skull and face regions with the purpose to eliminate the inconsistence of position of these regions. After these two coordinate adjustments, partial least squares regression (PLSR) is used to estimate the relationship between the face region and the skull region. In order to obtain a more accurate reconstruction, a new fusion strategy is also proposed in the paper to maintain the reconstructed feature regions when gluing the facial regions together. This is based on the observation that the feature regions usually have less reconstruction errors compared to rest of the face. The results demonstrate that the coordinate adjustments and the new fusion strategy can significantly improve the

  14. Craniofacial anomalies associated with hypospadias. Description of a hospital based population in South America

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Nicolas; Escobar, Rebeca; Zarante, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penis, in which there is incomplete development of the distal urethra. There are numerous reports showing an increase of prevalence of hypospadias. Association of craniofacial malformations in patients diagnosed with hypospadias is rare. The aim of this study is to describe the association between hypospadias and craniofacial congenital anomalies. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the Latin-American collaborative study of congenital malformations (ECLAMC) data was performed between January 1982 and December 2011. We included children diagnosed with associated hypospadias and among them we selected those that were associated with any craniofacial congenital anomaly. Results: Global prevalence was 11.3 per 10.000 newborns. In this population a total of 809 patients with 1117 associated anomalies were identified. On average there were 1.7 anomalies per patient. Facial anomalies were present in 13.2%. The most commonly major facial anomaly associated to hypospadias was cleft lip/palate with 52 cases. We identified that 18% have an association with other anomalies, and found an association between craniofacial anomalies and hypospadias in 0.59 cases/10.000 newborns. Discussion: Hypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly affecting the genitals. Its association with other anomalies is rare. It has been reported that other malformations occur in 29.3% of the cases with hypospadias. The more proximal the meatus, the higher the risk for having another associated anomaly. Conclusion: Associated hypospadias are rare, and it is important to identify the concurrent occurrence of craniofacial anomalies to better treat patients that might need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27564292

  15. Ellis Van Creveld2 is Required for Postnatal Craniofacial Bone Development.

    PubMed

    Badri, Mohammed K; Zhang, Honghao; Ohyama, Yoshio; Venkitapathi, Sundharamani; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Haruko; Ray, Manas; Scott, Greg; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji; Mochida, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a genetic disorder with mutations in either EVC or EVC2 gene. Previous case studies reported that EvC patients underwent orthodontic treatment, suggesting the presence of craniofacial bone phenotypes. To investigate whether a mutation in EVC2 gene causes a craniofacial bone phenotype, Evc2 knockout (KO) mice were generated and cephalometric analysis was performed. The heads of wild type (WT), heterozygous (Het) and homozygous Evc2 KO mice (1-, 3-, and 6-week-old) were prepared and cephalometric analysis based on the selected reference points on lateral X-ray radiographs was performed. The linear and angular bone measurements were then calculated, compared between WT, Het and KO and statistically analyzed at each time point. Our data showed that length of craniofacial bones in KO was significantly lowered by ∼20% to that of WT and Het, the growth of certain bones, including nasal bone, palatal length, and premaxilla was more affected in KO, and the reduction in these bone length was more significantly enhanced at later postnatal time points (3 and 6 weeks) than early time point (1 week). Furthermore, bone-to-bone relationship to cranial base and cranial vault in KO was remarkably changed, i.e. cranial vault and nasal bone were depressed and premaxilla and mandible were developed in a more ventral direction. Our study was the first to show the cause-effect relationship between Evc2 deficiency and craniofacial defects in EvC syndrome, demonstrating that Evc2 is required for craniofacial bone development and its deficiency leads to specific facial bone growth defect. Anat Rec, 299:1110-1120, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cranio-facial remodeling in domestic dogs is associated with changes in larynx position.

    PubMed

    Plotsky, Kyle; Rendall, Drew; Chase, Kevin; Riede, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The hyo-laryngeal complex is a multi-segmented structure integrating the oral and pharyngeal cavities and thus a variety of critical functions related to airway control, feeding, and vocal communication. Currently, we lack a complete understanding of how the hyoid complex, and the functions it mediates, can also be affected by changes in surrounding cranio-facial dimensions. Here, we explore these relationships in a breed of domestic dog, the Portuguese Water Dog, which is characterized by strong cranio-facial variation. We used radiographic images of the upper body and head of 55 adult males and 51 adult females to obtain detailed measures of cranio-facial variation and hyoid anatomy. Principal components analysis revealed multiple orthogonal dimensions of cranio-facial variation, some of which were associated with significant differences in larynx position: the larynx occupied a more descended position in individuals with shorter, broader faces than in those with longer, narrower faces. We then tested the possibility that caudal displacement of the larynx in brachycephalic individuals might reflect a degree of tongue crowding resulting from facial shortening and reduction of oral and pharyngeal spaces. A cadaver sample was used to obtain detailed measurements of constituent bones of the hyoid skeleton and of the tongue body, and their relationships to cranio-facial size and shape and overall body size supported the tongue-crowding hypothesis. Considering the presence of descended larynges in numerous mammalian taxa, our findings establish an important precedent for the possibility that laryngeal descent can be initiated, and even sustained, in part in response to remodeling of the face and cranium for selective pressures unrelated to vocal production. These integrated changes could also have been involved in hominin evolution, where the different laryngeal positions in modern humans compared with nonhuman primates have been traditionally linked to the evolution

  17. Fuz Regulates Craniofacial Development through Tissue Specific Responses to Signaling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zichao; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Niederreither, Karen; Venugopalan, Shankar; Florez, Sergio; Finnell, Richard H.; Amendt, Brad A.

    2011-01-01

    The planar cell polarity effector gene Fuz regulates ciliogenesis and Fuz loss of function studies reveal an array of embryonic phenotypes. However, cilia defects can affect many signaling pathways and, in humans, cilia defects underlie several craniofacial anomalies. To address this, we analyzed the craniofacial phenotype and signaling responses of the Fuz−/− mice. We demonstrate a unique role for Fuz in regulating both Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during craniofacial development. Fuz expression first appears in the dorsal tissues and later in ventral tissues and craniofacial regions during embryonic development coincident with cilia development. The Fuz−/− mice exhibit severe craniofacial deformities including anophthalmia, agenesis of the tongue and incisors, a hypoplastic mandible, cleft palate, ossification/skeletal defects and hyperplastic malformed Meckel's cartilage. Hh signaling is down-regulated in the Fuz null mice, while canonical Wnt signaling is up-regulated revealing the antagonistic relationship of these two pathways. Meckel's cartilage is expanded in the Fuz−/− mice due to increased cell proliferation associated with the up-regulation of Wnt canonical target genes and decreased non-canonical pathway genes. Interestingly, cilia development was decreased in the mandible mesenchyme of Fuz null mice, suggesting that cilia may antagonize Wnt signaling in this tissue. Furthermore, expression of Fuz decreased expression of Wnt pathway genes as well as a Wnt-dependent reporter. Finally, chromatin IP experiments demonstrate that β-catenin/TCF-binding directly regulates Fuz expression. These data demonstrate a new model for coordination of Hh and Wnt signaling and reveal a Fuz-dependent negative feedback loop controlling Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:21935430

  18. Nested Levels of Adaptive Divergence: The Genetic Basis of Craniofacial Divergence and Ecological Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Kevin J.; Wang, Jason; Anderson, Graeme; Albertson, R. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Exemplary systems for adaptive divergence are often characterized by their large degrees of phenotypic variation. This variation represents the outcome of generations of diversifying selection. However, adaptive radiations can also contain a hierarchy of differentiation nested within them where species display only subtle phenotypic differences that still have substantial effects on ecology, function, and ultimately fitness. Sexual dimorphisms are also common in species displaying adaptive divergence and can be the result of differential selection between sexes that produce ecological differences between sexes. Understanding the genetic basis of subtle variation (between certain species or sexes) is therefore important for understanding the process of adaptive divergence. Using cichlids from the dramatic adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi, we focus on understanding the genetic basis of two aspects of relatively subtle phenotypic variation. This included a morphometric comparison of the patterns of craniofacial divergence between two ecologically similar species in relation to the larger adaptive radiation of Malawi, and male–female morphological divergence between their F2 hybrids. We then genetically map craniofacial traits within the context of sex and locate several regions of the genome that contribute to variation in craniofacial shape that is relevant to sexual dimorphism within species and subtle divergence between closely related species, and possibly to craniofacial divergence in the Malawi radiation as a whole. To enhance our search for candidate genes we take advantage of population genomic data and a genetic map that is anchored to the cichlid genome to determine which genes within our QTL regions are associated with SNPs that are alternatively fixed between species. This study provides a holistic understanding of the genetic underpinnings of adaptive divergence in craniofacial shape. PMID:26038365

  19. Behaviorally Relevant Abstract Object Identity Representation in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Su Keun

    2016-01-01

    The representation of object identity is fundamental to human vision. Using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the representation of highly abstract object identity information in human parietal cortex. Specifically, in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region previously shown to track visual short-term memory capacity, we found object identity representations for famous faces varying freely in viewpoint, hairstyle, facial expression, and age; and for well known cars embedded in different scenes, and shown from different viewpoints and sizes. Critically, these parietal identity representations were behaviorally relevant as they closely tracked the perceived face-identity similarity obtained in a behavioral task. Meanwhile, the task-activated regions in prefrontal and parietal cortices (excluding superior IPS) did not exhibit such abstract object identity representations. Unlike previous studies, we also failed to observe identity representations in posterior ventral and lateral visual object-processing regions, likely due to the greater amount of identity abstraction demanded by our stimulus manipulation here. Our MRI slice coverage precluded us from examining identity representation in anterior temporal lobe, a likely region for the computing of identity information in the ventral region. Overall, we show that human parietal cortex, part of the dorsal visual processing pathway, is capable of holding abstract and complex visual representations that are behaviorally relevant. These results argue against a “content-poor” view of the role of parietal cortex in attention. Instead, the human parietal cortex seems to be “content rich” and capable of directly participating in goal-driven visual information representation in the brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The representation of object identity (including faces) is fundamental to human vision and shapes how we interact with the world. Although object representation has traditionally been

  20. UNDERSTANDING THE PARIETAL LOBE SYNDROME FROM A NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Roberto; Chafee, Matthew V.; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Crowe, David A.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2010-01-01

    In human and non-human primates parietal cortex is formed by a multiplicity of areas. For those of the Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL) there exists a certain homology between man and macaques. As a consequence, Optic Ataxia, a disturbed visual control of hand reaching, has similar features in man and monkeys. Establishing such correspondence has proven difficult for the areas of the Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL). This difficulty depends on many factors. First, no physiological information is available in man on the dynamic properties of cells in the IPL. Second, the number of IPL areas identified in the monkey is paradoxically higher that that so far described in man, although this issue will probably be reconsidered in future years, thanks to comparative imaging studies. Third, the consequences of parietal lesions in monkeys do not always match those observed in humans. This is another paradox if one considers that, in certain cases, the functional properties of neurons in the monkeys IPL would predict the presence of behavioral skills, such as construction capacity, that however do not seem to emerge in the wild. Therefore, Constructional Apraxia, which is well characterized in man, has never been described in monkeys and apes. Finally, only certain aspects, i.e. hand Directional Hypokinesia and Gaze Apraxia (Balint's Psychic Paralysis of Gaze), of the multifaceted syndrome Hemispatial Neglect have been described in monkeys. These similarities, differences and paradoxes, among many others, make the study of the evolution and function of parietal cortex a challenging “case”. PMID:20550568

  1. Role of Medio-Dorsal Frontal and Posterior Parietal Neurons during Auditory Detection Performance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Wiest, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    To further characterize the role of frontal and parietal cortices in rat cognition, we recorded action potentials simultaneously from multiple sites in the medio-dorsal frontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex of rats while they performed a two-choice auditory detection task. We quantified neural correlates of task performance, including response movements, perception of a target tone, and the differentiation between stimuli with distinct features (different pitches or durations). A minority of units—15% in frontal cortex, 23% in parietal cortex—significantly distinguished hit trials (successful detections, response movement to the right) from correct rejection trials (correct leftward response to the absence of the target tone). Estimating the contribution of movement-related activity to these responses suggested that more than half of these units were likely signaling correct perception of the auditory target, rather than merely movement direction. In addition, we found a smaller and mostly not overlapping population of units that differentiated stimuli based on task-irrelevant details. The detection-related spiking responses we observed suggest that correlates of perception in the rat are sparsely represented among neurons in the rat's frontal-parietal network, without being concentrated preferentially in frontal or parietal areas. PMID:25479194

  2. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human parietal and ventral extrastriate visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Becke, Andreas; Müller, Notger; Vellage, Anne; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining information in visual working memory is reliably indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA) - a sustained modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) with a topographical maximum over posterior scalp regions contralateral to the memorized input. Based on scalp topography, it is hypothesized that the CDA reflects neural activity in the parietal cortex, but the precise cortical origin of underlying electric activity was never determined. Here we combine ERP recordings with magnetoencephalography based source localization to characterize the cortical current sources generating the CDA. Observers performed a cued delayed match to sample task where either the color or the relative position of colored dots had to be maintained in memory. A detailed source-localization analysis of the magnetic activity in the retention interval revealed that the magnetic analog of the CDA (mCDA) is generated by current sources in the parietal cortex. Importantly, we find that the mCDA also receives contribution from current sources in the ventral extrastriate cortex that display a time-course similar to the parietal sources. On the basis of the magnetic responses, forward modeling of ERP data reveals that the ventral sources have non-optimal projections and that these sources are therefore concealed in the ERP by overlapping fields with parietal projections. The present observations indicate that visual working memory maintenance, as indexed by the CDA, involves the parietal cortical regions as well as the ventral extrastriate regions, which code the sensory representation of the memorized content.

  3. Black spots concentrate oncogenic asbestos fibers in the parietal pleura. Thoracoscopic and mineralogic study.

    PubMed

    Boutin, C; Dumortier, P; Rey, F; Viallat, J R; De Vuyst, P

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic and pathologic data demonstrate that malignant mesothelioma occurs preferentially after exposure to long amphibole asbestos fibers. However, mineralogic studies have rarely detected such fibers in the parietal pleura. We hypothesized that the distribution of asbestos fibers in the pleura was heterogeneous and that they might concentrate in certain areas, as does coal dust in patients showing anthracotic "black spots" of the parietal pleura during thoracoscopy. We collected thoracoscopic biopsy samples from these black spots and from normal areas of the parietal pleura and lung from 14 subjects (eight with and six without asbestos exposure). Asbestos content was determined by transmission electron microscopy. In exposed subjects, mean fiber concentrations were 12.4 +/- 9.8 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry tissue in lung, 4.1 +/- 1.9 in black spots, and 0.5 +/- 0.2 in normal pleura. In unexposed patients, concentrations were 0, 0.3 +/- 0.1, and 0, respectively. Amphiboles outnumbered chrysotile in all samples. A total of 22.5% of fibers were > or = 5 microns in length in black spots. A histologic similarity of these black spots with milky spots is suggested by conventional and electron microscopy. We conclude that the distribution of asbestos fibers is heterogeneous in the parietal pleura. Indeed, the fibers concentrate in black spots, where they can reach high concentrations. These findings could explain why the parietal pleura is the target organ for mesothelioma and plaques.

  4. Frontal and parietal lobe involvement in the processing of pretence and intention.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Apperly, Ian A; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-09-01

    We assessed whether different processes might be at play during pretence understanding by examining breakdowns of performance in participants with acquired brain damage. In Experiment 1 patients with frontal or parietal lesions and neurologically intact adults were asked to categorize videos of pretend and real actions. In Experiment 2 participants saw three types of videos: real intentional actions, real accidental actions, and pretend actions. In one session they judged whether the actions they saw were intentional or accidental, and in a second session they judged whether the actions were real or pretend. Parietal patients had particular difficulties in the identification of pretend actions, and both parietal and frontal patients were more impaired than controls in understanding the intentional nature of pretence. Analyses of individual patients' performance revealed that parietal lesions, and in particular lesions to the temporo-parietal junction, impaired the ability to discriminate pretend from real actions. However, this did not necessarily affect the discrimination of intentional from unintentional actions, which instead may be independently disrupted by damage to frontal areas. Moreover, spared ability to discriminate pretend actions from real actions, and intentional actions from accidental actions, did not grant a full conceptual understanding of the intentional nature of pretence. The implications for pretence understanding are discussed. PMID:19219753

  5. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception. PMID:27529410

  6. Physiological implications of the abnormal absence of the parietal foramen in a late Permian cynodont (Therapsida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Julien; Abdala, Fernando; Van den Brandt, Marc J.; Manger, Paul R.; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2015-12-01

    The third eye (pineal eye), an organ responsible for regulating exposure to sunlight in extant ectotherms, is located in an opening on the dorsal surface of the skull, the parietal foramen. The parietal foramen is absent in extant mammals but often observed in basal therapsids, the stem-group to true mammals. Here, we report the absence of the parietal foramen in a specimen of Cynosaurus suppostus, a Late Permian cynodont from South Africa (SA). Comparison with Procynosuchus delaharpeae, a contemporaneous non-mammalian cynodont from SA, demonstrates that the absence of this foramen is an abnormal condition for such a basal species. Because seasonality was marked during the Late Permian in SA, it is proposed that the third eye was functionally redundant in Cynosaurus, possibly due to the acquisition of better thermoregulation or the evolution of specialized cells in the lateral eyes to compensate for the role of the third eye.

  7. Parietal theta burst TMS: Functional fractionation observed during bistable perception not evident in attention tasks.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Georg; Kanai, Ryota; Brascamp, Jan W

    2016-02-01

    When visual input is ambiguous, perception spontaneously alternates between interpretations: bistable perception. Studies have identified two distinct sites near the right intraparietal sulcus where inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the frequency of occurrence of these alternations, but strikingly with opposite directions of effect for the two sites. Lesion and TMS studies on spatial and sustained attention have also indicated a parcellation of right parietal cortex, into areas serving distinct attentional functions. We used the exact TMS procedure previously employed to affect bistable perception, yet measured its effect on spatial and sustained attention tasks. Although there was a trend for TMS to affect performance, trends were consistently similar for both parietal sites, with no indication of opposite effects. We interpret this as signifying that the previously observed parietal fractionation of function regarding the perception of ambiguous stimuli is not due to TMS-induced modification of spatial or sustained attention.

  8. Effects of parietal lesions in humans on color and location priming.

    PubMed

    Marangolo, P; Di Pace, E; Rafal, R; Scabini, D

    1998-11-01

    To determine whether the parietal lobes contribute tot he selection of nonspatial features known to be processed in the ventral stream, the current study examined the effect of chronic unilateral parietal lobe lesions in humans on color and location priming. Patients and normal controls performed a go/no-go color discrimination task in which either the same color and different color pairs of stimuli (prime and probe) were projected sequentially either in the same hemifield or in opposite hemifields. Control subjects and patients both showed independent effects of color and location priming. In the patients, primes in either field produced color priming for target probes in the ipsilesional field but not for probes in the contralesional field. This observation implicates the parietal cortex in processing activated codes of stimulus attributes not only for spatial information but also for visual features processed in the ventral visual pathways.

  9. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L.; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K.; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant’s individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception. PMID:27529410

  10. Role of the parietal associative area of the cortex for "counting" behavior in dogs.

    PubMed

    Varga, M E; Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N

    2007-10-01

    Experiments were performed on six dogs to study the effects of simultaneous and separate ablation of fields 5 and 7 of the parietal cortex on "counting" behavior. Dogs were trained to discriminate series of five sound clicks presented with variable interstimulus intervals from similar series consisting of three clicks. A food-related operant response (elevation of the right forepaw to place it on the feeder) was used to develop asymmetrical differentiation; the positive signal was a series of five clicks with variable interstimulus intervals and the negative (unreinforced) stimulus was a series of three clicks. Simultaneous bilateral ablation of fields 5 and 7 of the parietal cortex, like bilateral ablation only of field 5, produced profound impairment of differentiation lasting 2-3 months. Isolated bilateral ablation of field 7 produced no impairment of differentiation. These data led to the conclusion that field 5 of the parietal cortex is important for discriminating the numbers of sequential signals.

  11. Benign fibrous histiocytoma of parietal bone: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Feng, Yan; Yan, Xu; Li, Yanhui; Bie, Li

    2015-01-01

    A benign fibrous histiocytoma with primary site of origin in the parietal bone has not yet been reported in the literature. We report here a case concerning a 12-year-old girl with a 14-month history of an enlarging parietal bone mass. The tumor was excised after removal of the cortical bone and resection of the tumor surrounding the cortical bone erosion using pre-plasticity titanium repair. Both postoperative histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with a benign fibrous histiocytoma. No clinical or computed tomography (CT) radiological signs of tumor recurrence and/or metastasis were observed at 12 months. Although a primary benign fibrous histiocytoma of the parietal bone is a rare tumor, it should be considered as a potential diagnosis for any cranial tumor. Surgical intervention is the most effective treatment technique for a benign fibrous histiocytoma. PMID:25951848

  12. Optimized Gamma Synchronization Enhances Functional Binding of Fronto-Parietal Cortices in Mathematically Gifted Adolescents during Deductive Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Gan, John Q.; Wang, Haixian

    2014-01-01

    As enhanced fronto-parietal network has been suggested to support reasoning ability of math-gifted adolescents, the main goal of this EEG source analysis is to investigate the temporal binding of the gamma-band (30–60 Hz) synchronization between frontal and parietal cortices in adolescents with exceptional mathematical ability, including the functional connectivity of gamma neurocognitive network, the temporal dynamics of fronto-parietal network (phase-locking durations and network lability in time domain), and the self-organized criticality of synchronizing oscillation. Compared with the average-ability subjects, the math-gifted adolescents show a highly integrated fronto-parietal network due to distant gamma phase-locking oscillations, which is indicated by lower modularity of the global network topology, more “connector bridges” between the frontal and parietal cortices and less “connector hubs” in the sensorimotor cortex. The time domain analysis finds that, while maintaining more stable phase dynamics of the fronto-parietal coupling, the math-gifted adolescents are characterized by more extensive fronto-parietal connection reconfiguration. The results from sample fitting in the power-law model further find that the phase-locking durations in the math-gifted brain abides by a wider interval of the power-law distribution. This phase-lock distribution mechanism could represent a relatively optimized pattern for the functional binding of frontal–parietal network, which underlies stable fronto-parietal connectivity and increases flexibility of timely network reconfiguration. PMID:24966829

  13. Frontal and Parietal Cortices Show Different Spatiotemporal Dynamics across Problem-solving Stages.

    PubMed

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Arithmetic problem-solving can be conceptualized as a multistage process ranging from task encoding over rule and strategy selection to step-wise task execution. Previous fMRI research suggested a frontal-parietal network involved in the execution of complex numerical and nonnumerical tasks, but evidence is lacking on the particular contributions of frontal and parietal cortices across time. In an arithmetic task paradigm, we evaluated individual participants' "retrieval" and "multistep procedural" strategies on a trial-by-trial basis and contrasted those in time-resolved analyses using combined EEG and MEG. Retrieval strategies relied on direct retrieval of arithmetic facts (e.g., 2 + 3 = 5). Procedural strategies required multiple solution steps (e.g., 12 + 23 = 12 + 20 + 3 or 23 + 10 + 2). Evoked source analyses revealed independent activation dynamics within the first second of problem-solving in brain areas previously described as one network, such as the frontal-parietal cognitive control network: The right frontal cortex showed earliest effects of strategy selection for multistep procedural strategies around 300 msec, before parietal cortex activated around 700 msec. In time-frequency source power analyses, memory retrieval and multistep procedural strategies were differentially reflected in theta, alpha, and beta frequencies: Stronger beta and alpha desynchronizations emerged for procedural strategies in right frontal, parietal, and temporal regions as function of executive demands. Arithmetic fact retrieval was reflected in right prefrontal increases in theta power. Our results demonstrate differential brain dynamics within frontal-parietal networks across the time course of a problem-solving process, and analyses of different frequency bands allowed us to disentangle cortical regions supporting the underlying memory and executive functions.

  14. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated proton transport in the rat parietal cell.

    PubMed

    Kopic, Sascha; Wagner, Maximilian E H; Griessenauer, Christoph; Socrates, Thenral; Ritter, Markus; Geibel, John P

    2012-03-01

    The vacuolar-type H-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in the active acidification of intracellular organelles. In certain specialized cells, such as the renal intercalated cell, apical V-ATPase can also function as a proton secretion pathway. In the parietal cells of the stomach, it has been thought that acid secretion is controlled solely via the H,K-ATPase. However, recent observations suggest that functional V-ATPase is necessary for acid secretion to take place. This study aimed to investigate and characterize the role of V-ATPase in parietal cell proton transport. Individual rat gastric glands were incubated with the pH-sensitive dye (BCECF) to monitor changes in intracellular pH in real time. Parietal cell V-ATPase activity was measured by quantifying the rate of intracellular alkalinization (ΔpH/minute) following an acid load, while excluding the contribution of non-V-ATPase proton transport mechanisms through pharmacological inhibition or ion substitution. Expression of V-ATPase was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We observed concanamycin A-sensitive V-ATPase activity in rat parietal cells following intracellular acidification and H,K-ATPase inhibition. Furthermore, V-ATPase-mediated proton transport could be abolished by inhibiting trafficking mechanisms with paclitaxel and by stimulating H,K-ATPase with acid secretagogues. Our results propose that parietal cells contain a functional V-ATPase that can be mobilized using a microtubule network. V-ATPase may function as an auxiliary acid secretion or proton-buffering pathway in parietal cells, which is inactive during H,K-ATPase activity. Our findings may have important implications for patients experiencing acid breakthrough under proton pump inhibitor therapy.

  15. Frontal and Parietal Cortices Show Different Spatiotemporal Dynamics across Problem-solving Stages.

    PubMed

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Arithmetic problem-solving can be conceptualized as a multistage process ranging from task encoding over rule and strategy selection to step-wise task execution. Previous fMRI research suggested a frontal-parietal network involved in the execution of complex numerical and nonnumerical tasks, but evidence is lacking on the particular contributions of frontal and parietal cortices across time. In an arithmetic task paradigm, we evaluated individual participants' "retrieval" and "multistep procedural" strategies on a trial-by-trial basis and contrasted those in time-resolved analyses using combined EEG and MEG. Retrieval strategies relied on direct retrieval of arithmetic facts (e.g., 2 + 3 = 5). Procedural strategies required multiple solution steps (e.g., 12 + 23 = 12 + 20 + 3 or 23 + 10 + 2). Evoked source analyses revealed independent activation dynamics within the first second of problem-solving in brain areas previously described as one network, such as the frontal-parietal cognitive control network: The right frontal cortex showed earliest effects of strategy selection for multistep procedural strategies around 300 msec, before parietal cortex activated around 700 msec. In time-frequency source power analyses, memory retrieval and multistep procedural strategies were differentially reflected in theta, alpha, and beta frequencies: Stronger beta and alpha desynchronizations emerged for procedural strategies in right frontal, parietal, and temporal regions as function of executive demands. Arithmetic fact retrieval was reflected in right prefrontal increases in theta power. Our results demonstrate differential brain dynamics within frontal-parietal networks across the time course of a problem-solving process, and analyses of different frequency bands allowed us to disentangle cortical regions supporting the underlying memory and executive functions. PMID:27027542

  16. Episodic memory retrieval, parietal cortex, and the default mode network: functional and topographic analyses.

    PubMed

    Sestieri, Carlo; Corbetta, Maurizio; Romani, Gian Luca; Shulman, Gordon L

    2011-03-23

    The default mode network (DMN) is often considered a functionally homogeneous system that is broadly associated with internally directed cognition (e.g., episodic memory, theory of mind, self-evaluation). However, few studies have examined how this network interacts with other networks during putative "default" processes such as episodic memory retrieval. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the topography and response profile of human parietal regions inside and outside the DMN, independently defined using task-evoked deactivations and resting-state functional connectivity, during episodic memory retrieval. Memory retrieval activated posterior nodes of the DMN, particularly the angular gyrus, but also more anterior and dorsal parietal regions that were anatomically separate from the DMN. The two sets of parietal regions showed different resting-state functional connectivity and response profiles. During memory retrieval, responses in DMN regions peaked sooner than non-DMN regions, which in turn showed responses that were sustained until a final memory judgment was reached. Moreover, a parahippocampal region that showed strong resting-state connectivity with parietal DMN regions also exhibited a pattern of task-evoked activity similar to that exhibited by DMN regions. These results suggest that DMN parietal regions directly supported memory retrieval, whereas non-DMN parietal regions were more involved in postretrieval processes such as memory-based decision making. Finally, a robust functional dissociation within the DMN was observed. Whereas angular gyrus and posterior cingulate/precuneus were significantly activated during memory retrieval, an anterior DMN node in medial prefrontal cortex was strongly deactivated. This latter finding demonstrates functional heterogeneity rather than homogeneity within the DMN during episodic memory retrieval.

  17. Latest Research from NIH's National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIDCR conduct research on the full spectrum of topics related to oral health, including oral cancer, chronic pain conditions, salivary gland function and dysfunction, craniofacial development and disorders, biomaterials, and ...

  18. Multimodal responses induced by cortical stimulation of the parietal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Simona; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniela; Provinciali, Leandro; Cardinale, Francesco; Tassi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The functional complexity of the parietal lobe still represents a challenge for neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies. While the somatosensory functions of the anterior parietal cortex are well established, the posterior parietal cortex has a relevant role in processing the sensory information, including visuo-spatial perception, visual attention, visuo-motor transformations and other complex and not completely understood functions. We retrospectively analysed all the clinical manifestations induced by intracerebral bipolar electrical stimulation in 172 patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy (mean age 25.6, standard deviation 11.6; 44% females and 56% males) with at least one electrode stereotactically implanted in the parietal cortex. A total of 1186 electrical stimulations were included in the analysis, of which 88 were subsequently excluded because of eliciting pathological electric activity or inducing ictal symptomatology. In the dominant parietal lobe, clinical responses were observed for 56 (25%) of the low-frequency stimulations and for 76 (50%) of the high-frequency stimulations. In the non-dominant parietal lobe, 111 (27%) low-frequency and 176 (55%) high-frequency stimulations were associated with a clinical response. Body scheme alteration was the only clinical effect showing a lateralization, as they were evoked only in the non-dominant hemisphere. The occurrence of somatosensory sensations, motor symptoms, dysarthria and multimodal responses were significantly associated with stimulation of the postcentral gyrus (odds ratio: 5.83, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 8.77, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 5.44, P = 0.011; odds ratio: 8.33, P = 0.006; respectively). Stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus was associated with the occurrence of sensory illusions or hallucinations (odds ratio: 8.68, P < 0.001) and eyeball/eyelid movements or sensations (odds ratio: 4.35, P = 0.047). To our knowledge, this is the only currently available complete

  19. Anarchic hand with abnormal agency following right inferior parietal lobe damage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Paul M; Edelstyn, Nicola M J; Preston, Catherine; Ellis, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Anarchic hand syndrome (AHS) is characterized by goal-directed movements performed without volitional control (agency). Different AHS subtypes have been identified; however, few studies have examined the posterior subtype. We report a case of AHS following right-hemisphere parietal damage, with left-sided somatosensory and proprioceptive impairment. Agency was examined for nonanarchic (volitional) movements performed using the anarchic hand. The patient experienced abnormal agency for movements whether motor intention and visual feedback were congruent or incongruent, but not when intention was absent (passive movement). Findings suggest a general disturbance of veridical motor awareness and agency in this case of parietal AHS.

  20. Altered prefronto-striato-parietal network response to mental rotation in HIV.

    PubMed

    Schweinsburg, Brian C; Scott, J Cobb; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Jacobus, Joanna; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Frank, Larry R; Weber, Erica; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-02-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of mental rotation in 11 individuals with HIV infection and 13 demographically similar HIV seronegative volunteers. Individuals with HIV showed increased brain response to mental rotation in prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices, striatum, and thalamus, with significant HIV by angle interactions emerging in the prefrontal cortex and caudate. Results indicate that HIV infection is associated with altered brain response to mental rotation in fronto-striato-parietal pathways, which may reflect compensatory strategies, recruitment of additional brain regions, and/or increased neuroenergetic demands during mental rotation needed to offset underlying HIV-associated neural injury.

  1. Identification of novel craniofacial regulatory domains located far upstream of SOX9 and disrupted in Pierre Robin sequence.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher T; Attanasio, Catia; Bhatia, Shipra; Benko, Sabina; Ansari, Morad; Tan, Tiong Y; Munnich, Arnold; Pennacchio, Len A; Abadie, Véronique; Temple, I Karen; Goldenberg, Alice; van Heyningen, Veronica; Amiel, Jeanne; FitzPatrick, David; Kleinjan, Dirk A; Visel, Axel; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia (CD), a disorder of skeletal development associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs). Translocations, deletions, and duplications within a ∼2 Mb region upstream of SOX9 can recapitulate the CD-DSD phenotype fully or partially, suggesting the existence of an unusually large cis-regulatory control region. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a craniofacial disorder that is frequently an endophenotype of CD and a locus for isolated PRS at ∼1.2-1.5 Mb upstream of SOX9 has been previously reported. The craniofacial regulatory potential within this locus, and within the greater genomic domain surrounding SOX9, remains poorly defined. We report two novel deletions upstream of SOX9 in families with PRS, allowing refinement of the regions harboring candidate craniofacial regulatory elements. In parallel, ChIP-Seq for p300 binding sites in mouse craniofacial tissue led to the identification of several novel craniofacial enhancers at the SOX9 locus, which were validated in transgenic reporter mice and zebrafish. Notably, some of the functionally validated elements fall within the PRS deletions. These studies suggest that multiple noncoding elements contribute to the craniofacial regulation of SOX9 expression, and that their disruption results in PRS.

  2. The Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Nol11 Is Required for Optimal rDNA Transcription and Craniofacial Development in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, John N.; Sondalle, Samuel B.; del Viso, Florencia; Baserga, Susan J.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2015-01-01

    The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC) of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival. PMID:25756904

  3. The ribosome biogenesis factor Nol11 is required for optimal rDNA transcription and craniofacial development in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John N; Sondalle, Samuel B; Del Viso, Florencia; Baserga, Susan J; Khokha, Mustafa K

    2015-03-01

    The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC) of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival. PMID:25756904

  4. Identification of novel craniofacial regulatory domains located far upstream of SOX9 and disrupted in Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Attanasio, Catia; Bhatia, Shipra; Benko, Sabina; Ansari, Morad; Tan, Tiong Y.; Munnich, Arnold; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abadie, Véronique; Temple, I. Karen; Goldenberg, Alice; van Heyningen, Veronica; Amiel, Jeanne; FitzPatrick, David; Kleinjan, Dirk A.; Visel, Axel; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia (CD), a disorder of skeletal development associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs). Translocations, deletions and duplications within a ~2 Mb region upstream of SOX9 can recapitulate the CD-DSD phenotype fully or partially, suggesting the existence of an unusually large cis-regulatory control region. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a craniofacial disorder that is frequently an endophenotype of CD and a locus for isolated PRS at ~1.2-1.5 Mb upstream of SOX9 has been previously reported. The craniofacial regulatory potential within this locus, and within the greater genomic domain surrounding SOX9, remains poorly defined. We report two novel deletions upstream of SOX9 in families with PRS, allowing refinement of the regions harbouring candidate craniofacial regulatory elements. In parallel, ChIP-Seq for p300 binding sites in mouse craniofacial tissue led to the identification of several novel craniofacial enhancers at the SOX9 locus, which were validated in transgenic reporter mice and zebrafish. Notably, some of the functionally validated elements fall within the PRS deletions. These studies suggest that multiple non-coding elements contribute to the craniofacial regulation of SOX9 expression, and that their disruption results in PRS. PMID:24934569

  5. Proboscis lateralis: a rare craniofacial anomaly, reconstruction, and long-term evaluation.

    PubMed

    David, Lisa R; Sanger, Claire; Fisher, David; Argenta, Louis C

    2008-07-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a rare spontaneous congenital anomaly that results from a failure of normal embryological nasal development. The ensuing deformity consists of imbrication of the nasal soft tissues into a tubelike proboscis and can be associated with ipsilateral heminasal aplasia, choanal atresia, and multiple other abnormalities. A case report of a patient with proboscis lateralis is presented, with a 27-year follow-up detailing the complexities of long-term surgical management. After 15 major surgical interventions, there is relatively normal facial symmetry, but abnormalities remain with the underlying craniofacial skeleton and nasopharyngeal airway. Proboscis lateralis is not an isolated soft tissue abnormality but is a craniofacial defect that requires a long-term multidisciplinary approach to the surgical timing and treatment with lifelong follow-up. PMID:18650742

  6. Transferrin receptor facilitates TGF-β and BMP signaling activation to control craniofacial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lei, R; Zhang, K; Liu, K; Shao, X; Ding, Z; Wang, F; Hong, Y; Zhu, M; Li, H; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    The Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS), consisting of cleft palate, glossoptosis and micrognathia, is a common human birth defect. However, how this abnormality occurs remains largely unknown. Here we report that neural crest cell (NCC)-specific knockout of transferrin receptor (Tfrc), a well known transferrin transporter protein, caused micrognathia, cleft palate, severe respiratory distress and inability to suckle in mice, which highly resemble human PRS. Histological and anatomical analysis revealed that the cleft palate is due to the failure of palatal shelves elevation that resulted from a retarded extension of Meckel's cartilage. Interestingly, Tfrc deletion dramatically suppressed both transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in cranial NCCs-derived mandibular tissues, suggesting that Tfrc may act as a facilitator of these two signaling pathways during craniofacial morphogenesis. Together, our study uncovers an unknown function of Tfrc in craniofacial development and provides novel insight into the etiology of PRS. PMID:27362800

  7. Pediatric craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis: Our experience and current concepts: Part -1

    PubMed Central

    Anantheswar, Y. N.; Venkataramana, N. K.

    2009-01-01

    Craniostenosis is a disease characterized by untimely fusion of cranial sutures resulting in a variety of craniofacial deformities and neurological sequelae due to alteration in cranial volume and restriction of brain growth. This involves vault sutures predominantly, but cranial base is not immune. Association with a variety of syndromes makes the management decision complex. These children need careful evaluation by multiple specialists to have strategic treatment options. Parental counseling is an important and integral part of the treatment. Recent advancements in the surgical techniques and concept of team approach have significantly enhanced the safety and outcome of these children. We had an opportunity of treating 57 children with craniostenosis in the last 15 years at our craniofacial service. Out of them, 40 were nonsyndromic and 17 were syndromic variety. We describe our successful results along with individualized operative technical modifications adopted based on the current understanding of the disease. PMID:21887189

  8. Hand1 phosphoregulation within the distal arch neural crest is essential for craniofacial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Firulli, Beth A; Fuchs, Robyn K; Vincentz, Joshua W; Clouthier, David E; Firulli, Anthony B

    2014-08-01

    In this study we examine the consequences of altering Hand1 phosphoregulation in the developing neural crest cells (NCCs) of mice. Whereas Hand1 deletion in NCCs reveals a nonessential role for Hand1 in craniofacial development and embryonic survival, altering Hand1 phosphoregulation, and consequently Hand1 dimerization affinities, in NCCs results in severe mid-facial clefting and neonatal death. Hand1 phosphorylation mutants exhibit a non-cell-autonomous increase in pharyngeal arch cell death accompanied by alterations in Fgf8 and Shh pathway expression. Together, our data indicate that the extreme distal pharyngeal arch expression domain of Hand1 defines a novel bHLH-dependent activity, and that disruption of established Hand1 dimer phosphoregulation within this domain disrupts normal craniofacial patterning.

  9. Atypical Case of Congenital Maxillomandibular Fusion with Duplication of the Craniofacial Midline

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Lorena Pingarrón; Pérez, Mercedes Martín; García, Elena Gómez; Martín-Moro, Javier González; González, Jose Ignacio Rodríguez; García, Miguel Burgueño

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of syngnathia with hypophyseal duplication and describe the central nervous system (CNS) and craniofacial anomalies associated with hypophyseal duplication in the reported autopsy case. We studied clinical reports, scanner images, and autopsy results of a 2-months-old female baby. The propositus had frontonasal dysmorphism, retrognathia, and bifid tongue. She also presented maxillomandibular bony fusion (syngnathia) and an intraoral hairy polyp. In the cranium, the sella turcica was broadened, with two complete hypophyses and two infundibulums. The CNS had both olfactory bulbs and corpus callosum agenesis. There are 27 previous cases of maxillomandibular fusion and seven previous autopsy cases of hypophyseal duplication associated with other frontonasal malformations. As far as the authors know, this is the first case reported in the literature that associates syngnathia with duplication of the craniofacial midline including hypophyseal duplication. PMID:22655122

  10. [The craniofacial architecture of class III malocclusion using the Coben analysis].

    PubMed

    Vallée-Cussac, V

    1991-01-01

    In this study, longitudinal tracings of dental and skeletal Class III malocclusion group are compared to tracings of COBEN analysis standard values. Cephalometric measurements and surimpositions illustrate the dynamic variations of Class III cranio-facial architecture for two age ranges: 8 years +/- 1 year and 16 years +/- 1 year. The Class III pathology for children 8 years +/- 1 year aged is characterized by alterations of tracings sizes and position with excessive cranio-facial components length and rotation of cranial base into a more vertical position. A growth rate deficiency in length with a variable individual adaptation is showed for cranial structures except the mandibule after growth at the age of 16 years +/- 1 year.

  11. New Methods to Evaluate Craniofacial Deformity and to Plan Surgical Correction

    PubMed Central

    Gateno, Jaime; Xia, James J.; Teichgraeber, John F.

    2011-01-01

    The success of cranio-maxillofacial (CMF) surgery depends not only on surgical techniques, but also upon an accurate surgical plan. Unfortunately, traditional planning methods are often inadequate for planning complex cranio-maxillofacial deformities. To this end, we developed 3D computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) technique. Using our CASS method, we are able to treat patients with significant asymmetries in a single operation which in the past was usually completed in two stages. The purpose of this article is to introduce our CASS method in evaluating craniofacial deformities and planning surgical correction. In addition, we discuss the problems associated with the traditional surgical planning methods. Finally, we discuss the strength and pitfalls of using three-dimensional measurements to evaluate craniofacial deformity. PMID:21927548

  12. Craniofacial development: current concepts in the molecular basis of Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Daniel Richard; Tucker, Abigail S; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2013-07-01

    The human face and skull are an elegant example of the anatomical sophistication that results from the interplay between the molecular cascades and the tissue interactions that are necessary for the proper development of the craniofacial complex. When it fails to develop normally the consequences can have life-long implications for the biological, psychological, and aesthetic wellbeing of an affected person. Among the many syndromes that affect the region, understanding of the biology that underlies Treacher Collins syndrome has advanced in the last decade, particularly concerning the causative TCOF1 gene that encodes TREACLE protein, a serine/alanine-rich nucleolar phosphoprotein with an essential function during ribosome biogenesis in cranial neural crest cells. Abnormal growth and differentiation of these cells affect much of the craniofacial skeleton.

  13. Finite element method analysis of craniofacial morphology in unilateral cleft lip and palate prior to palatoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A B; Smahel, Z; Moss, M L

    1993-01-01

    The craniofacial morphology in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) prior to palatoplasty was analyzed with the finite element method (FEM). The study examined cross-sectional data sets of affected and control males aged 4.5 to 6.0 years from Czechoslovakia. The facial skeleton and cranial base were discretized into 26 two-dimensional, triangular finite elements. Cranial base morphology is altered in UCLP. The extensive nature of most craniofacial deformities means that almost any registration is likely to be distorted. The fundamental advantage of the FEM is that biological descriptions are not dependent upon the selected reference plane. The FEM localizes changes in form to discrete anatomical regions. Significant shape and size differences characterize UCLP prior to palatoplasty. Dramatic deformations associated with cheiloplasty are localized to the lips and maxillary alveolar process. Nasal deformation reflects loss of structural support for the nose.

  14. Craniofacial skeletal pattern: is it really correlated with the degree of adenoid obstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Feres, Murilo Fernando Neuppmann; Muniz, Tomas Salomão; de Andrade, Saulo Henrique; Lemos, Maurilo de Mello; Pignatari, Shirley Shizue Nagata

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cephalometric pattern of children with and without adenoid obstruction. METHODS: The sample comprised 100 children aged between four and 14 years old, both males and females, subjected to cephalometric examination for sagittal and vertical skeletal analysis. The sample also underwent nasofiberendoscopic examination intended to objectively assess the degree of adenoid obstruction. RESULTS: The individuals presented tendencies towards vertical craniofacial growth, convex profile and mandibular retrusion. However, there were no differences between obstructive and non-obstructive patients concerning all cephalometric variables. Correlations between skeletal parameters and the percentage of adenoid obstruction were either low or not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that specific craniofacial patterns, such as Class II and hyperdivergency, might not be associated with adenoid hypertrophy. PMID:26352848

  15. Dry needling for management of pain in the upper quarter and craniofacial region.

    PubMed

    Kietrys, David M; Palombaro, Kerstin M; Mannheimer, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Dry needling is a therapeutic intervention that has been growing in popularity. It is primarily used with patients that have pain of myofascial origin. This review provides background about dry needling, myofascial pain, and craniofacial pain. We summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of dry needling. For patients with upper quarter myofascial pain, a 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled studies reported that dry needling is effective in reducing pain (especially immediately after treatment) in patients with upper quarter pain. There have been fewer studies of patients with craniofacial pain and myofascial pain in other regions, but most of these studies report findings to suggest the dry needling may be helpful in reducing pain and improving other pain related variables such as the pain pressure threshold. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are clearly needed to more fully elucidate the effectiveness of dry needling.

  16. Data analysis in craniofacial biology with special emphasis on longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, C J

    1993-03-01

    Recommendations are made for strengthening data description and analysis in craniofacial biology. Special emphasis is placed on longitudinal data, and PC programs for accomplishing appropriate analyses in this context are described and made available to interested readers. Some more general recommendations are treated in less detail. These include the effective description of data using stem-and-leaf displays and/or boxplots, the use of decision-analytic methods in the management of patients with dentofacial deformities, and the valid application of certain statistical methods in single-subject studies. Finally, it is conjectured that computer-intensive methods such as randomization tests and jackknifing will play an increasingly prominent role in craniofacial research. PMID:8452829

  17. Hand1 phosphoregulation within the distal arch neural crest is essential for craniofacial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Firulli, Beth A.; Fuchs, Robyn K.; Vincentz, Joshua W.; Clouthier, David E.; Firulli, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examine the consequences of altering Hand1 phosphoregulation in the developing neural crest cells (NCCs) of mice. Whereas Hand1 deletion in NCCs reveals a nonessential role for Hand1 in craniofacial development and embryonic survival, altering Hand1 phosphoregulation, and consequently Hand1 dimerization affinities, in NCCs results in severe mid-facial clefting and neonatal death. Hand1 phosphorylation mutants exhibit a non-cell-autonomous increase in pharyngeal arch cell death accompanied by alterations in Fgf8 and Shh pathway expression. Together, our data indicate that the extreme distal pharyngeal arch expression domain of Hand1 defines a novel bHLH-dependent activity, and that disruption of established Hand1 dimer phosphoregulation within this domain disrupts normal craniofacial patterning. PMID:25053435

  18. Seeing Is Not Feeling: Posterior Parietal But Not Somatosensory Cortex Engagement During Touch Observation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Observing touch has been reported to elicit activation in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and is suggested to underlie our ability to interpret other's behavior and potentially empathy. However, despite these reports, there are a large number of inconsistencies in terms of the precise topography of activation, the extent of hemispheric lateralization, and what aspects of the stimulus are necessary to drive responses. To address these issues, we investigated the localization and functional properties of regions responsive to observed touch in a large group of participants (n = 40). Surprisingly, even with a lenient contrast of hand brushing versus brushing alone, we did not find any selective activation for observed touch in the hand regions of somatosensory cortex but rather in superior and inferior portions of neighboring posterior parietal cortex, predominantly in the left hemisphere. These regions in the posterior parietal cortex required the presence of both brush and hand to elicit strong responses and showed some selectivity for the form of the object or agent of touch. Furthermore, the inferior parietal region showed nonspecific tactile and motor responses, suggesting some similarity to area PFG in the monkey. Collectively, our findings challenge the automatic engagement of somatosensory cortex when observing touch, suggest mislocalization in previous studies, and instead highlight the role of posterior parietal cortex. PMID:25632124

  19. Cortical infarction of the right parietal lobe and neurogenic heart disease: A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Jia, Yujie

    2012-04-25

    Three male patients were diagnosed with new cortical infarctions of the right parietal lobe on the basis of head magnetic resonance imaging; high-intensity signals indicating lesions in the right parietal lobe were noted on diffusion-weighted images at admission. Two of them presented with left hand weakness, and one exhibited left upper limb weakness. Treatment for improving blood supply to the brain was administered. One patient died suddenly because of ventricular fibrillation 3 days after admission. The other two patients had increased troponin levels and abnormal electrocardiograms, and were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction half a month after admission. When lesions exist in field 7 of the parietal cortex (resulting in paralysis of the contralateral hand), the sympathetic center of the posterior lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrates compensatory excitement, which easily causes tachyarrhythmia and sudden death. Our experimental findings indicate that close electrocardiograph monitoring and cerebral infarction treatment should be standard procedures to predict and help prevent heart disease in patients with cerebral infarction in the right parietal lobe and left upper limb weakness as the main complaint. PMID:25722680

  20. Parietal Lobe Volume Deficits in Adolescents with Schizophrenia and Adolescents with Cannabis Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Robinson, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Jensen, Daniel; Schimunek, Caroline; Houri, Alaa; Reis, Tiffany; Lim, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), the earliest structural brain volumetric abnormalities appear in the parietal cortices. Early exposure to cannabis may represent an environmental risk factor for developing schizophrenia. This study characterized cerebral cortical gray matter structure in adolescents in regions of interest (ROIs) that…

  1. The Neural Dynamics of Fronto-Parietal Networks in Childhood Revealed using Magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Astle, Duncan E; Luckhoo, Henry; Woolrich, Mark; Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Nobre, Anna C; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-10-01

    Our ability to hold information in mind is limited, requires a high degree of cognitive control, and is necessary for many subsequent cognitive processes. Children, in particular, are highly variable in how, trial-by-trial, they manage to recruit cognitive control in service of memory. Fronto-parietal networks, typically recruited under conditions where this cognitive control is needed, undergo protracted development. We explored, for the first time, whether dynamic changes in fronto-parietal activity could account for children's variability in tests of visual short-term memory (VSTM). We recorded oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) as 9- to 12-year-old children and adults performed a VSTM task. We combined temporal independent component analysis (ICA) with general linear modeling to test whether the strength of fronto-parietal activity correlated with VSTM performance on a trial-by-trial basis. In children, but not adults, slow frequency theta (4-7 Hz) activity within a right lateralized fronto-parietal network in anticipation of the memoranda predicted the accuracy with which those memory items were subsequently retrieved. These findings suggest that inconsistent use of anticipatory control mechanism contributes significantly to trial-to-trial variability in VSTM maintenance performance.

  2. The Role of the Parietal Lobe in Visual Extinction Studied with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelli, Lorella; Alvarez, George A.; Carlson, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Interhemispheric competition between homologous areas in the human brain is believed to be involved in a wide variety of human behaviors from motor activity to visual perception and particularly attention. For example, patients with lesions in the posterior parietal cortex are unable to selectively track objects in the contralesional side of…

  3. Role of Right Posterior Parietal Cortex in Maintaining Attention to Spatial Locations over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Paresh; Coulthard, Elizabeth J.; Husain, Masud

    2009-01-01

    Recent models of human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) have variously emphasized its role in spatial perception, visuomotor control or directing attention. However, neuroimaging and lesion studies also suggest that the right PPC might play a special role in maintaining an alert state. Previously, assessments of right-hemisphere patients with…

  4. The Role of the Right Posterior Parietal Cortex in Temporal Order Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Sung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2009-01-01

    Perceived order of two consecutive stimuli may not correspond to the order of their physical onsets. Such a disagreement presumably results from a difference in the speed of stimulus processing toward central decision mechanisms. Since previous evidence suggests that the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a role in modulating the…

  5. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  6. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Dingchen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wu, Huawang; Wang, Yinyan; Zhou, Ke; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network. PMID:27047351

  7. Coordinate expression of parietal endodermal functions in hybrids of embryonal carcinoma and endodermal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, W E; Oshima, R G

    1982-01-01

    A derivative, FOT5, of the F9 murine embryonal carcinoma cell line which is resistant to ouabain and thioguanine was fused with a near diploid parietal endodermal cell line, PFHR9, Hybrid clones (ENEC1 to ENEC5) were isolated in HAT Medium containing ouabain at a frequency of approximately 2 x 10(-4). The DNA contents and chromosome number of the ENEC hybrids were approximately the sum of those of the parents. Five hybrid cell lines examined in detail expressed the following parietal endodermal functions: plasminogen activator activity, basement membrane proteins, and endodermal cytoskeletal proteins. Embryonal carcinoma characteristic functions (tumorigenicity, a stage specific embryonic antigen, and high alkaline phosphatase activity) were extinguished in the hybrids. No hybrid clones with embryonal carcinoma morphology were observed among 1,358 hybrid clones examined. Hybrids, propagated for over 100 generations, continued to express endodermal functions and not embryonal carcinoma functions. The coordinate expression of endodermal functions and the extinction of embryonal carcinoma functions in the ENEC hybrids suggest that the parietal endodermal cells contain diffusible activities which extinguish embryonal carcinoma functions and possibly cause the embryonal carcinoma genome to express parietal endodermal characteristics. Images PMID:7202115

  8. Task-Dependent Changes in Frontal-Parietal Activation and Connectivity During Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Maximo, Jose O; Neupane, Ajaya; Saxena, Nitesh; Joseph, Robert M; Kana, Rajesh K

    2016-05-01

    Visual search is an important skill in navigating and locating objects (a target) among distractors in our environment. Efficient and faster target detection involves reciprocal interaction between a viewer's attentional resources as well as salient target characteristics. The neural correlates of visual search have been extensively investigated over the last decades, suggesting the involvement of a frontal-parietal network comprising the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In addition, activity and connectivity of these network changes as the visual search become complex and more demanding. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the modulation of the frontal-parietal network in response to cognitive demand in 22 healthy adult participants. In addition to brain activity, changes in functional connectivity and effective connectivity in this network were examined in response to easy and difficult visual search. Results revealed significantly increased activation in FEF, IPS, and supplementary motor area, more so in difficult search than in easy search. Functional and effective connectivity analyses showed enhanced connectivity in the frontal-parietal network during difficult search and enhanced information transfer from left to right hemisphere during the difficult search process. Our overall findings suggest that cognitive demand significantly increases brain resources across all three measures of brain processing. In sum, we found that goal-directed visual search engages a network of frontal-parietal areas that are modulated in relation to cognitive demand.

  9. Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…

  10. Assembly and use of new task rules in fronto-parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John

    2011-01-01

    Severe capacity limits, closely associated with fluid intelligence, arise in learning and use of new task rules. We used fMRI to investigate these limits in a series of multirule tasks involving different stimuli, rules, and response keys. Data were analyzed both during presentation of instructions and during later task execution. Between tasks, we manipulated the number of rules specified in task instructions, and within tasks, we manipulated the number of rules operative in each trial block. Replicating previous results, rule failures were strongly predicted by fluid intelligence and increased with the number of operative rules. In fMRI data, analyses of the instruction period showed that the bilateral inferior frontal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, and presupplementary motor area were phasically active with presentation of each new rule. In a broader range of frontal and parietal regions, baseline activity gradually increased as successive rules were instructed. During task performance, we observed contrasting fronto-parietal patterns of sustained (block-related) and transient (trial-related) activity. Block, but not trial, activity showed effects of task complexity. We suggest that, as a new task is learned, a fronto-parietal representation of relevant rules and facts is assembled for future control of behavior. Capacity limits in learning and executing new rules, and their association with fluid intelligence, may be mediated by this load-sensitive fronto-parietal network. PMID:20146600

  11. Lower neuronal variability in the monkey dorsolateral prefrontal than posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

    2015-10-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex are two brain areas involved in cognitive functions such as spatial attention and working memory. When tested with identical tasks, only subtle differences in firing rate are present between neurons recorded in the two areas. In this article we report that major differences in neuronal variability characterize the two areas during working memory. The Fano factors of spike counts in dorsolateral prefrontal neurons were consistently lower than those of the posterior parietal cortex across a range of tasks, epochs, and conditions in the same monkeys. Variability differences were observed despite minor differences in firing rates between the two areas in the tasks tested and higher overall firing rate in the prefrontal than in the posterior parietal sample. Other measures of neuronal discharge variability, such as the coefficient of variation of the interspike interval, displayed the same pattern of lower prefrontal variability. Fano factor values were negatively correlated with performance in the working memory task, suggesting that higher neuronal variability was associated with diminished task performance. The results indicate that information involving remembered stimuli is more reliably represented in the prefrontal than the posterior parietal cortex based on the variability of neuronal responses, and suggest functional differentiation between the two areas beyond differences in firing rate. PMID:26269556

  12. The precision of value-based choices depends causally on fronto-parietal phase coupling.

    PubMed

    Polanía, Rafael; Moisa, Marius; Opitz, Alexander; Grueschow, Marcus; Ruff, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    Which meal would you like today, chicken or pasta? For such value-based choices, organisms must flexibly integrate various types of sensory information about internal states and the environment to transform them into actions. Recent accounts suggest that these choice-relevant processes are mediated by information transfer between functionally specialized but spatially distributed brain regions in parietal and prefrontal cortex; however, it remains unclear whether such fronto-parietal communication is causally involved in guiding value-based choices. We find that transcranially inducing oscillatory desynchronization between the frontopolar and -parietal cortex leads to more inaccurate choices between food rewards while leaving closely matched perceptual decisions unaffected. Computational modelling shows that this exogenous manipulation leads to imprecise value assignments to the choice alternatives. Thus, our study demonstrates that accurate value-based decisions critically involve coherent rhythmic information transfer between fronto-parietal brain areas and establishes an experimental approach to non-invasively manipulate the precision of value-based choices in humans. PMID:26290482

  13. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Dingchen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wu, Huawang; Wang, Yinyan; Zhou, Ke; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network. PMID:27047351

  14. Human Topological Task Adapted for Rats: Spatial Information Processes of the Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Howard, Brian P.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Kesner, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    Human research has shown that lesions of the parietal cortex disrupt spatial information processing, specifically topological information. Similar findings have been found in nonhumans. It has been difficult to determine homologies between human and non-human mnemonic mechanisms for spatial information processing because methodologies and neuropathology differ. The first objective of the present study was to adapt a previously established human task for rats. The second objective was to better characterize the role of parietal cortex (PC) and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) for topological spatial information processing. Rats had to distinguish whether a ball inside a ring or a ball outside a ring was the correct, rewarded object. After rats reached criterion on the task (>95%) they were randomly assigned to a lesion group (control, PC, dHPC). Animals were then re-tested. Post-surgery data show that controls were 94% correct on average, dHPC rats were 89% correct on average, and PC rats were 56% correct on average. The results from the present study suggest that the parietal cortex, but not the dHPC processes topological spatial information. The present data are the first to support comparable topological spatial information processes of the parietal cortex in humans and rats. PMID:18571941

  15. Attentional Demands Predict Short-Term Memory Load Response in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Hagit; Emmanouil, Tatiana-Aloi; McMains, Stephanie A.; Kastner, Sabine; Treisman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Limits to the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) indicate a maximum storage of only 3 or 4 items. Recently, it has been suggested that activity in a specific part of the brain, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is correlated with behavioral estimates of VSTM capacity and might reflect a capacity-limited store. In three experiments that…

  16. Lateralization of Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Processing after Parietal Brain Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Conson, Massimiliano; Trojano, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to verify whether left and right parietal brain lesions may selectively impair egocentric and allocentric processing of spatial information in near/far spaces. Two Right-Brain-Damaged (RBD), 2 Left-Brain-Damaged (LBD) patients (not affected by neglect or language disturbances) and eight normal controls were submitted…

  17. Planning Movements in Visual and Physical Space in Monkey Posterior Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shenbing; Morel, Pierre; Gail, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Neurons in the posterior parietal cortex respond selectively for spatial parameters of planned goal-directed movements. Yet, it is still unclear which aspects of the movement the neurons encode: the spatial parameters of the upcoming physical movement (physical goal), or the upcoming visual limb movement (visual goal). To test this, we recorded neuronal activity from the parietal reach region while monkeys planned reaches under either normal or prism-reversed viewing conditions. We found predominant encoding of physical goals while fewer neurons were selective for visual goals during planning. In contrast, local field potentials recorded in the same brain region exhibited predominant visual goal encoding, similar to previous imaging data from humans. The visual goal encoding in individual neurons was neither related to immediate visual input nor to visual memory, but to the future visual movement. Our finding suggests that action planning in parietal cortex is not exclusively a precursor of impending physical movements, as reflected by the predominant physical goal encoding, but also contains spatial kinematic parameters of upcoming visual movement, as reflected by co-existing visual goal encoding in neuronal spiking. The co-existence of visual and physical goals adds a complementary perspective to the current understanding of parietal spatial computations in primates.

  18. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscik, Tim; O'Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no…

  19. Monitoring cerebral tissue oxygen saturation at frontal and parietal regions during carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzhong; Hall, Melanie; Settecase, Fabio; Higashida, Randall T; Gelb, Adrian W

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral oximetry is normally placed on the upper forehead to monitor the frontal lobe cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2). We present a case in which the SctO2 was simultaneously monitored at both frontal and parietal regions during internal carotid artery (ICA) stenting. Our case involves a 79-year-old man who presented after a sudden fall and was later diagnosed with a watershed ischemic stroke in the distal fields perfused by the left middle cerebral artery. He had diffuse atherosclerotic occlusive lesions in the carotid and cerebral arterial systems including an 85 % stenotic lesion in the left distal cervical ICA. The brain territory perfused by the left ICA was devoid of collateral flow from anterior and posterior communicating arteries due to an abnormal circle of Willis. During stenting, the SctO2 monitored at both frontal and parietal regions tracked the procedure-induced acute flow change. However, the baseline SctO2 values of frontal and parietal regions differed. The SctO2-MAP correlation was more consistent on the stroked hemisphere than the non-stroked hemisphere. This case showed that SctO2 can be reliably monitored at the parietal region, which is primarily perfused by the ICA. SctO2 of the stroked brain is more pressure dependent than the non-stroked brain.

  20. The Neural Dynamics of Fronto-Parietal Networks in Childhood Revealed using Magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Astle, Duncan E; Luckhoo, Henry; Woolrich, Mark; Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Nobre, Anna C; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-10-01

    Our ability to hold information in mind is limited, requires a high degree of cognitive control, and is necessary for many subsequent cognitive processes. Children, in particular, are highly variable in how, trial-by-trial, they manage to recruit cognitive control in service of memory. Fronto-parietal networks, typically recruited under conditions where this cognitive control is needed, undergo protracted development. We explored, for the first time, whether dynamic changes in fronto-parietal activity could account for children's variability in tests of visual short-term memory (VSTM). We recorded oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) as 9- to 12-year-old children and adults performed a VSTM task. We combined temporal independent component analysis (ICA) with general linear modeling to test whether the strength of fronto-parietal activity correlated with VSTM performance on a trial-by-trial basis. In children, but not adults, slow frequency theta (4-7 Hz) activity within a right lateralized fronto-parietal network in anticipation of the memoranda predicted the accuracy with which those memory items were subsequently retrieved. These findings suggest that inconsistent use of anticipatory control mechanism contributes significantly to trial-to-trial variability in VSTM maintenance performance. PMID:25410426