Sample records for parim noor interpreet

  1. Stress among Academic Staff and Students' Satisfaction of Their Performances in Payame Noor University of Miandoab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabari, Kamran; Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid


    Present study examined the relationship between stress among academic staff and students' satisfaction of their performances in Payame Noor University (PNU) of Miandoab City, Iran in 2014. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society…

  2. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmon, James B


    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  3. Assessment of rockfall hazard at Al-Noor Mountain, Makkah city (Saudi Arabia) using spatio-temporal remote sensing data and field investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Al-Kathery, Mohamed; Bathrellos, George D.; Skilodimou, Hariklia D.


    Rockfall is one of the major concerns along different urban areas and highways all over the world. Al-Noor Mountain is one of the areas that threaten rockfalls to the Al-Noor escarpment track road and the surrounding urban areas. Thousands of visitors and tourisms use the escarpment track road to visit Hira cave which is located at the top of Al-Noor Mountain. In addition, the surrounding urban areas of Al-Noor Mountain are continuously spreading over the recent years. The escarpment track road and the surrounding urban areas are highly vulnerable and suffers from recurrent rockfall mostly in the rainy season. The steep and highly jointed slope along the different faces of the mountain makes these zones prone to failure due to different actions such as weathering, erosion and anthropogenic effect. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this study to determine the Al-Noor cliff stability, by identifying the unstable areas, and to apply the rockfall simulations. A combination of remote sensing, field study and 2D computer simulation rockfall program were performed to assess surface characteristics of the cliff faces. Bounce height, total and translational kinetic energy, translational velocity, and number of blocks have been estimated. Different unstable zones along the Al-Noor Mountain and escarpment track road were determined using filed investigation and remote sensing based image analysis. In addition the rockfall simulation analysis indicated that rockfall in zone 1 and zone 2 of the Al-Noor Mountain may reach the urban areas, whereas rockfall in zone 3 will not reach the urban areas, and rockfalls along the Al-Noor escarpment track road will have highly impact on the tourists. Proper preventive measures are also suggested to arrest the movement of falling rocks before reaching the urban areas and the Al-Noor escarpment track road. If proper care is taken, then further uncertain rockfall hazards can be prevented.

  4. The Relationship between EQ & Constructive and Non-Constructive Problem Solving Styles among Payame Noor University's Students of Abadan in the Year 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaeipoor, Saeed; Siadat, Ali; Hoveida, Reza; Mohammadi, Nazanin; Keshavarz, Akbar; Salimi, Mohammad Hossein; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Shamsi, Ali


    The objective of the present study is considering the relationship between EQ & constructive and non-constructive problem solving styles among students. The applied methodology is cross-correlation method. The statistical population in this study is all the educational sciences' students of Payame Noor university of Abadan in the year 2014 and…

  5. Anti-atherogenic properties of Deglet Noor Date seeds (Phoenix dactylifera) Methanol extract on Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saryono, S.; Eliyan, J.; Herdiati, D.; Khikmatullah, AA; Silvana, CP; Adi, HP


    This is the first study to investigate the completely anti-atherogenic effect of Deglet Noor Date seeds methanol extract administration on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. About 24 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. The normal control (NC) group, Hypercholesterolemic Control (HC) group was given high cholesterol diet, and Simvastatin Control (SC) group was given 0.18 mg/200g simvastatin after high cholesterol diet induction. The treatment groups of T0.25, T0.5 and T1 were given supplementation of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg of dates seed extract after high cholesterol diet induction, respectively for 21 days. Blood was collected from orbitals plexus vein for plasma lipid profile analysis. The levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) values were significantly decreased (p<0.05) on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats after supplemented with date seeds extract (T0.25, T0.5 and T1) but not in Triglycerides (TG). Along with that, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the T1 group was the best anti-atherogenic activity in compared to other groups. Results showed that plasma lipid profile was significant to get better after supplemented with date seeds extract.

  6. Challenges and Strategies for E-Learning Development in the University of Payam Noor in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamadzadeh, Mahnaz; Farzaneh, Jabraeal; Mousavi, Mina; Maghabl, Rouhallah


    Higher education in Iran is confronting with several challenges; Some of them are increasing demand for education and insufficiency of current programs to meet the growing needs, emerging information age and the necessity of achieving information literacy, speed up in knowledge production and the necessity of development of a lifelong and…

  7. Challenges and Strategies for E-Learning Development in the Payame Noor University of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamadzadeh, Mahnaz; Farzaneh, Jabraeal; Mousavi, Mina; Ma'ghabl, Rouhallah; Moenikia, Mahdi


    Higher education in Iran is confronting with several challenges; some of them are increasing demand for education and insufficiency of current programs to meet the growing needs, emerging information age and the necessity of achieving information literacy, and extending educational justice. It is assumed that a high performance e-learning system…

  8. A resolution calling for the safe and immediate return of Noor and Ramsay Bower to the United States.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kerry, John F. [D-MA


    06/05/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S3736-3737; text as passed Senate: CR S3736) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. 76 FR 73758 - Additional Designation of Four Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ...: Designation of Nuclear Reactors Fuel Company (SUREH), Noor Afzar Gostar Company (NAGCO), Fulmen Group, and... determined that four Iranian entities, Nuclear Reactors Fuel Company (SUREH), Noor Afzar Gostar Company... NUCLEAR REACTORS FUEL COMPANY (a.k.a.: SUREH. Location: 61 Shahid Abtahi St., Karegar e Shomali,...

  10. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 9, September 2016.


    Banaganapalli, Babajan; Mohammed, Kaleemuddin; Khan, Imran Ali; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Elango, Ramu; Shaik, Noor Ahmad


    Cover: The cover image, by Noor Ahmad Shaik et al., is based on the Article A Computational Protein Phenotype Prediction Approach to Analyze the Deleterious Mutations of Human MED12 Gene, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25499.

  11. M-Learning for Qur'an Memorization and Teaching Its Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameh, Ahmed


    Providing a Conversional, Animated Qur'an Memorizer on modern smart phones will allow young generation technology savvies to be able to immerse themselves inside Qur'an and its sciences. Using technological means to deal with Qur'an and its sciences is at the focus of attention of the Noor Center in Taibah University. In this project we use the…

  12. Male and Female EFL Learners' Self-Perceived Strategy Use across Various Educational Levels: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahriri, Abdorreza; Divsar, Hoda


    This study sought to explore the role of language learning strategies (LLSs) in Iran as an EFL context. The major objective was to find out the strategy use of Iranian EFL learners and the possible influence of their educational level and gender on their reported strategy use. Ninety-seven EFL undergraduates studying at Payame Noor University of…

  13. An Analysis of Iranian Language Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalzadeh Borazjani, Ashraf


    The purpose of this study is to investigate how learner variables, including language proficiency, motivation, effort, and family background affect Iranian language learners' EFL vocabulary strategy use? Subjects in this study were 450 EFL students (N = 450) at Payam e Noor University, Borazjan, Iran. After a placement test, they were grouped into…

  14. Proposal to conserve Tamarix ramosissima against T. pentandra Tamaricaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ledebour described Tamarix ramosissima in 1829 from plants collected in Kazakhstan (Lake Noor Zaisan). In the protologue he overlooked T. pentandra Pall. (l.c.) and T. pallasii Desv. (l.c.), two earlier names which apply to the same biological entity, also widespread through Central and Western Asia...

  15. The Relationship between Critical Thinking and EFL Learners' Speaking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramezani, Raana; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezzati; Kiasi, Mohammad Aghajanzadeh


    The current study sought to investigate the relationship between critical thinking and speaking ability among EFL students at Payame Noor University (PNU) of Rasht. This research concerned determining the fact that whether language students who are as critical thinker, perform better in their speaking ability or not. In order to answer the…

  16. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh


    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  17. E-Learning--Organizational Infrastructure and Tools for Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontes, Elvis, Ed.; Silva, Anderson, Ed.; Guelfi, Adilson, Ed.; Kofuji, Sergio Takeo, Ed.


    Chapters in this book include: (1) Factors that Influence Academic Teacher's Acceptance of E-Learning Technology in Blended Learning Environment (Snjezana Babic); (2) Towards Economical E-Learning Educational Environments for Physically Challenged Students (Amir Zeid, Sarah S. Sakit, Noor A. Al-AbdulRazzaq, Mariam M. Al-Tattan, Fatima S. Sakit,…

  18. Counselling and Career Planning: Symposium V A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Amir; And Others

    Focusing generally on counseling and career planning, this symposium provides (1) a review and critique of guidance and counseling in Malaysian schools, by Amir Awang and Latiff Mirasa; (2) a discussion of the needs of Malaysian youth, by Mohd. Yunus Mohd. Noor; and (3) an abstract of the findings of a study of some aspects of student development…

  19. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e


    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence inventory…

  20. My Classroom: Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balazs, Erica


    This article describes the teaching experiences of Alief Noor Farida--a junior lecturer at Indonesia's "Universitas Negeri Semarang" (Semarang State University [UNNES]). Now teaching her fourth semester and an alumna of the English Education program at UNNES, Ms. Farida is an especially motivated and dedicated educator. She teaches 18…

  1. Audiovisual Mass Media and Education. TTW 27/28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Stapele, Peter, Ed.; Sutton, Clifford C., Ed.


    The 15 articles in this special issue focus on learning about the audiovisual mass media and education, especially television and film, in relation to various pedagogical and didactical questions. Individual articles are: (1) "Audiovisual Mass Media for Education in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects" (Ahmed Noor Kahn); (2) "The Role of the…

  2. Comparative Demography of the Spider Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four Date Palm Varieties in Southwestern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Sameh Ben; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge


    The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rates (Ro), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (rm = 0.103 day 1). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold. PMID:22233420

  3. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  4. 78 FR 18808 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; Removal of Person From the Entity List Based on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE..., Dubai, U.A.E.; and Dubai Shopping Center, Office 13, Dubai, U.A.E.; (5) Dr. Artush Parsi, No. 75 Noor... Dubai Shopping Center, Office 13, Dubai, U.A.E.; (8) Liberty House Trading LLC, a.k.a. the following...

  5. Longitudinal variation of the equatorial ionosphere: Modeling and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. R.; Asevedo, W. D.; dos Santos, P. C. P.; Petry, A.; Bailey, G. J.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.


    We describe a new version of the Parameterized Regional Ionospheric Model (PARIM) which has been modified to include the longitudinal dependences. This model has been reconstructed using multidimensional Fourier series. To validate PARIM results, the South America maps of critical frequencies for the E (foE) and F (foF2) regions were compared with the values calculated by Sheffield Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) and IRI representations. PARIM presents very good results, the general characteristics of both regions, mainly the presence of the equatorial ionization anomaly, were well reproduced for equinoctial conditions of solar minimum and maximum. The values of foF2 and hmF2 recorded over Jicamarca (12°S; 77°W; dip lat. 1°N; mag. declination 0.3°) and sites of the conjugate point equatorial experiment (COPEX) campaign Boa Vista (2.8°N; 60.7°W; dip lat. 11.4°; mag. declination -13.1°), Cachimbo (9.5°S; 54.8°W; dip lat. -1.8°; mag. declination -15.5°), and Campo Grande (20.4°S; 54.6°W; dip lat. -11.1°; mag. declination -14.0°) have been used in this work. foF2 calculated by PARIM show good agreement with the observations, except during morning over Boa Vista and midnight-morning over Campo Grande. Some discrepancies were also found for the F-region peak height (hmF2) near the geomagnetic equator during times of F3 layer occurrences. IRI has underestimated both foF2 and hmF2 over equatorial and low latitude sectors during evening-nighttimes, except for Jicamarca where foF2 values were overestimated.

  6. High-Speed Transmission Shadowgraphic and Dynamic Photoelasticity Study of Stress Wave and Impact Damage Propagation in Transparent Materials and Laminates Using the Edge-On Impact (EOI) Method

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Laminates Using the Edge-On Impact (EOI) Method Elmar Strassburger Ernst - Mach -Institut (EMI) Parimal Patel and James W. McCauley Weapons unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES A reprint from the 25th Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, 27–30 November 2006. * Ernst - Mach -Institut...Engineering Center, and the Material Center of Excellence at Johns Hopkins University have entered into a collaboration with The Ernst - Mach Institute

  7. Visualization and Analysis of Impact Damage in Sapphire

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Analysis of Impact Damage in Sapphire Elmar Strassburger Fraunhofer-Institut für Kurzzeitdynamik, Ernst - Mach -Institut (EMI) Parimal Patel and...Miami, FL, 12–16 September 2011. *Fraunhofer-Institut für Kurzzeitdynamik, Ernst - Mach -Institut (EMI), Am Christianswuhr 2, 79400 Kandern, Germany 14...ABSTRACT This report reviews work carried out with the fully instrumented Edge-on Impact (EOI) facility at the Ernst - Mach -Institute (EMI), using a

  8. Non-differentiable minimax fractional programming with generalized [alpha]-univexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayswal, Anurag


    In this paper, we study a non-differentiable minimax fractional programming problem under the assumption of generalized [alpha]-univex function. In this paper we extend the concept of [alpha]-invexity [M.A. Noor, On generalized preinvex functions and monotonicities, J. Inequalities Pure Appl. Math. 5 (2004) 1-9] and pseudo [alpha]-invexity [S.K. Mishra, M.A. Noor, On vector variational-like inequality problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 311 (2005) 69-75] to [alpha]-univexity and pseudo [alpha]-univexity from a view point of generalized convexity. We also introduce the concept of strict pseudo [alpha]-univex and quasi [alpha]-univex functions. We derive Karush-Kuhn-Tucker-type sufficient optimality conditions and establish weak, strong and converse duality theorems for the problem and its three different form of dual problems. The results in this paper extend a few known results in the literature.

  9. Generalized [alpha]-invexity and nondifferentiable minimax fractional programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Pant, R. P.; Rautela, J. S.


    In this paper, we study a nondifferentiable minimax fractional programming problem under the assumptions of [alpha]-invex function. In this paper we utilize the concept of [alpha]-invexity [M.A. Noor, On generalized preinvex functions and monotonicities, J. Inequalities Pure Appl. Math. 5 (2004) 1-9] and pseudo-[alpha]-invexity [S.K. Mishra, M.A. Noor, On vector variational-like inequality problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 311 (2005) 69-75]. We also introduce the concept of strict pseudo-[alpha]-invex and quasi-[alpha]-invex functions. We derive Karush-Kuhn-Tucker-type sufficient optimality conditions and establish weak, strong and converse duality theorems for the problem and its three different dual problems. The results in this paper extend several known results in the literature.

  10. Jordanian National Security and the Future of Middle East Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology


    not so much as a monarch but as an approachable, plain speaking, down to earth and even slightly self -effacing professional army officer.”23 Some...out well, but improved dramatically in the late 1970s as Iraq attempted to assert a leadership role in the Arab World following Egypt’s ostracism over...for the Hashemites. King Hussein’s widow, Queen Noor, for example, has commented on Shi’ite esteem for the Hashemite family.213 King Abdullah

  11. Identification of Large Space Structures on Orbit

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Anderson, M.S. and Greene , W.H.,"Continuurn Models for Beam and Plate-like Lattice Structures," ALAA J., vol. 16, No. 12, 1978, pp. 1219-1228. 43. Noor...Identification, Advances and Caes Studies, Edited by R. K. Mehra and D. G. Lain- iotis, Academic PRess, 1976. Ljung, L., T. Soderatrom and Gustavsson ...Ljung, L., I. Gustavsson and T. Soderstrom, "Identification of Linear, Multivariable Sys- tem Operating Under Linear Feedback Control", IEEE Trans

  12. Applicability of the Continuum-shell Theories to the Mechanics of Carbon Nanotubes

    DTIC Science & Technology


    incorporated into high-order global structural theories through the use of micropolar -continuum models [12]. However, the meaningfulness of all of...lines on this map. For example, micropolar effects [12] may be significant along the Lmin-line where higher-order theories may be required. 6...NOOR, A. K., and NEMETH, M. P., Micropolar Beam Models for Lattice Grids with Rigid Joints, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng., 21 (1980), pp. 249-263

  13. A Model for Predicting Thermomechanical Response of Large Space Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    micropolar analogy to model large grid frameworks under initial axial forces. This continuous approximation is formulated even for the case of variable show that results obtained are accurate especially in the range of long wavelengths. Noor and Nemeth [97] have developed micropolar models for...34 % Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 25, pp. 179- 193, 1981. 95. Bazant, Z. P., Christensen, M., "Analogy Between Micropolar

  14. Impacts on ambient air quality due to flaring activities in one of Oman's oilfields.


    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Ali, Sappurd; Sardar, Sabir; Irfan, Naseem


    This work was conducted to assess the impacts on workplace and ambient air quality due to release of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) into the atmosphere at Al-Noor production station, located in southern desert of Sultanate of Oman. The SO(2) is released because of oxidation of H(2)S to SO(2) on flaring of H(2)S rich off gas at the Al-Noor. In the first phase of the study, CALPUFF modeling system was used to predict the ground level concentrations of SO(2) emissions from the flare stacks. The evaluation of the modeling system was carried out by comparing the predicted results with that of the measured. In the second stage of the study, the estimated results were compared with the air quality standards/guidelines set by Omani regulatory authorities as well as by World Health Organization (WHO). It was concluded on the basis of current study that the sensitive individuals in the workplace of the Al-Noor could experience adverse health effects due to short-term exposure of SO(2).

  15. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.


    Tanskanen, Minna M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Uusitalo, Arja L; Huovinen, Jukka; Nissilä, Juuso; Kinnunen, Hannu; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo


    The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous.

  16. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Big Bear. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology



  17. Chemical Laser Solid Fuels Program

    DTIC Science & Technology


    or other data are used for any purpose other than a definitely related government procurement operation, the Government thereby incurs no...or conveying any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto. FOREWORD This...34^■idmpin i^ »•••PV^V-MM«« ^■^■■^■^^WW 3LAH2 fonnulations (and the related 4LiAlH4: 1NH4C1 fomilations) pro- duced such highly cohesive clinkers that

  18. Theoretical Studies of Heterogeneous Reactions in Silicon CVD (Silicon Vapor Deposition) Catalysis

    DTIC Science & Technology


    1984). (b) D. M. Wardlaw and R. A. Marcus, J . Chem. Phys. , 3462 (1985). (c) D. 14. Wardlaw and R. A. Marcus, 3. PHys. Chem. go, 5383 (1986). 18. W. L...1/84-1/1/86) Mr. Huadong Gai (8/1/87-12/1/87) Mr. Michael Jezcerak (6/1/86-present) Undergraduate Students: Ms. Mia Musset (9/1/88-present) * Mr...Complex," J . Chem. Phys. 84, 3803-3813 (1986). 1. NoorBatcha, L. I. Raff, D. L. Thompson, and R. Viswanathan, "Dynamics of Unimolecular Dissociation of

  19. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.


    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A


    Introducción: Los bebés con bajo peso al nacer reciben asistencia nutricional hospitalaria para reforzar su supervivencia y peso corporal. Sin embargo, cada hospital tiene su propia fórmula de asistencia nutricional. Por lo tanto, la efectividad de esta asistencia nutricional debería ser investigada. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la asistencia nutricional hospitalaria sobre la velocidad del crecimiento velocidad del crecimiento y el estado nutricional de bebés con bajo peso al nacer en el hospital Al-Noor, Arabia Saudita. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio interseccional entre octubre de 2010 y diciembre de 2012. Se seleccionó a trescientos recién nacidos del hospital Al-Noor de la ciudad de Makkah, Arabia Saudita. Los bebés fueron seleccionados según su peso al nacer y fueron separados en tres grupos iguales: (i) Bajo peso al nacer (BPN) (peso de nacimiento 1501- 2500 g), (ii) Muy Bajo peso al nacer (MBPN) (peso de nacimiento 1001-1500 g) y (iii) Peso extremadamente bajo al nacer (PEBN) (peso de nacimiento < 1000 g). Los datos fueron recopilados en el momento del nacimiento y en el momento del alta. Los pesos fueron registrados y se calculó la velocidad del crecimiento. Se hizo la medición de algunos tests bioquímicos y niveles minerales. Resultados: los valores de índice de masa corporal del VBPN y EBPN fueron menores (p < 0.05) que los del grupo BPN. La velocidad de crecimiento de los niños de todos los grupos osciló entre 8.7 y 10.2 g/kg/d sin diferencias (p > 0.05) observadas entre grupos. Los niveles de suero, calcio, fósforo y potasio en el momento del alta fueron superiores (p < 0.05) que los del momento del nacimiento para los grupos de EBPN y VBPN, mientras que los niveles de sodio descendieron en el grupo de EBPN hasta un rango normal. El nivel de albúmina mejoró (p < 0.05) en el grupo de EBPN. Conclusión: La gestión de la atención sanitaria para bebés con bajo peso al nacer en el hospital Al-Noor no fue suficiente para alcanzar

  20. Large gem diamonds from metallic liquid in Earth's deep mantle.


    Smith, Evan M; Shirey, Steven B; Nestola, Fabrizio; Bullock, Emma S; Wang, Jianhua; Richardson, Stephen H; Wang, Wuyi


    The redox state of Earth's convecting mantle, masked by the lithospheric plates and basaltic magmatism of plate tectonics, is a key unknown in the evolutionary history of our planet. Here we report that large, exceptional gem diamonds like the Cullinan, Constellation, and Koh-i-Noor carry direct evidence of crystallization from a redox-sensitive metallic liquid phase in the deep mantle. These sublithospheric diamonds contain inclusions of solidified iron-nickel-carbon-sulfur melt, accompanied by a thin fluid layer of methane ± hydrogen, and sometimes majoritic garnet or former calcium silicate perovskite. The metal-dominated mineral assemblages and reduced volatiles in large gem diamonds indicate formation under metal-saturated conditions. We verify previous predictions that Earth has highly reducing deep mantle regions capable of precipitating a metallic iron phase that contains dissolved carbon and hydrogen.

  1. Investigating Information-Seeking Behavior of Faculty Members Based on Wilson’s Model: Case Study of PNU University, Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Fereydoon; Ghasemi, Shahrzad


    The present research aims to study information seeking behavior of faculty Members of Payame Noor University (PNU) in Mazandaran province of Iran by using Wilson’s model of information seeking behavior. This is a survey study. Participants were 97 of PNU faculty Members in Mazandaran province. An information-seeking behavior inventory was employed to gather information and research data, which had 24 items based on 5-point likert scale. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results showed that the most important goal of faculty members was publishing a scientific paper, and their least important goal was updating technical information. Also we found that they mostly use internet-based resources to meet their information needs. Accordingly, 57.7% of them find information resources via online search engines (e.g. Google, Yahoo). Also we concluded that there was a significant relationship between English language proficiency, academic rank, and work experience of them and their information- seeking behavior. PMID:27157151

  2. Large gem diamonds from metallic liquid in Earth’s deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Evan M.; Shirey, Steven B.; Nestola, Fabrizio; Bullock, Emma S.; Wang, Jianhua; Richardson, Stephen H.; Wang, Wuyi


    The redox state of Earth’s convecting mantle, masked by the lithospheric plates and basaltic magmatism of plate tectonics, is a key unknown in the evolutionary history of our planet. Here we report that large, exceptional gem diamonds like the Cullinan, Constellation, and Koh-i-Noor carry direct evidence of crystallization from a redox-sensitive metallic liquid phase in the deep mantle. These sublithospheric diamonds contain inclusions of solidified iron-nickel-carbon-sulfur melt, accompanied by a thin fluid layer of methane ± hydrogen, and sometimes majoritic garnet or former calcium silicate perovskite. The metal-dominated mineral assemblages and reduced volatiles in large gem diamonds indicate formation under metal-saturated conditions. We verify previous predictions that Earth has highly reducing deep mantle regions capable of precipitating a metallic iron phase that contains dissolved carbon and hydrogen.

  3. Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties in nine Israeli varieties.


    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael


    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties were examined in nine diverse Israeli grown varieties. Ethanol and acetone extracts of 'Amari', 'Barhi', 'Deglet Noor', 'Deri', 'Hadrawi', 'Hallawi', 'Hayani', 'Medjool', and 'Zahidi' fruit were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for anti-atherogenicity by measuring their effects on LDL susceptibility to copper ion- and free radical-induced oxidation, and on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The most frequently detected phenolics were hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonols. Significant differences in phenolics composition were established between varieties as well as extraction solvents. All extracts inhibited LDL oxidation, and most extracts also stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Considerable varietal differences were measured in the levels of the bioactivities. Also, acetone extracts exhibited a significantly higher anti-atherogenic potency for most varieties. The presence of soluble ingredients with anti-atherogenic capacities in dates and the possible involvement of phenolics are discussed.

  4. Role of elasticity on the Rheological Response of the Uterus Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi Khorasani, Nariman; Piroozram, Parastoo


    N. Khorasani and P. piroozram Department of Mechanical Engineering, Payame Noor University, 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran, The effect of uterus tissue viscoelasticity on its internal pressure is explored. The tissue of the uterus is presented by a linear viscoelastic model with two major time constants. A proper user defined function is developed and incorporated in the simulation software, to represent the model. The geometry of the uterus is separately modeled. It is found that viscoelasticity of the tissue which can be controlled and altered by change the concentration can directly affect its internal pressure. It is also observed that the pressure decreases as the moisture of the tissue is increased. The study is repeated for several practical conditions and parameters pertaining to the viscoelasticity of the tissue are evaluated.

  5. Impact of Land Use / Land Cover Changes on Water Quality Using Remote Sensing and GIS - a Case Study of Katedhan Industrial Area, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayaker, T.


    Land Use, the anthropogenic use of the land and Land Cover, the physical state of such land, are among the most evident impacts of human activities on natural resources. Rapid global industrialisation during the last two decades in general and in the Katedhan industrial area in particular has a profound adverse effect on the land use / land cover practices and the water quality. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of industrialisation on the quality of environment. The specific objective of this paper is to study the correlation between impact of land use and water quality. There are about 400 - 500 industries in this area whose effluent outlet is directly mixing into the near by canal or stream. Due to this the lakes present in this catchment area are being polluted. The methodology employed in this study involves the generation of various thematic layers so as to find out the impacts on water quality. According to the results, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulphates and some heavy metals are very high in the surface water near to Noor Mohammad lake. When compared with ground water, all the above parameters are high near to Sivarampally lake which is around 1 km form Noor Mohammad tank. This is because of the slope of the area due to which the ground water is polluted in lower region of this area. To control further degradation of the water quality it is recommended that a common effluent treatment plant should be constructed so as to control the pollution at the source itself.

  6. Conceptualization of Idle (Laghw) and its relation to medical futility

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Aderyani, Mohsen; Javadi, Mohsen; Nazari Tavakkoli, Saeid; Kiani, Mehrzad; Abbasi, Mahmood


    A major debate in medical ethics is the request for futile treatment. The topic of medical futility requires discrete assessment in Iran for at least two reasons. First, the common principles and foundations of medical ethics have taken shape in the context of Western culture and secularism. Accordingly, the implementation of the same guidelines and codes of medical ethics as Western societies in Muslim communities does not seem rational. Second, the challenges arising in health service settings are divergent across different countries. The Quranic concept of idle (laghw) and its derivatives are used in 11 honorable verses of the Holy Quran. Among these verses, the 3rd verse of the blessed Al-Muminūn Surah was selected for its closer connection to the concept under examination. The selected verse was researched in the context of all dictionaries presented in Noor Jami` al-Tafasir 2 (The Noor Collection of Interpretations 2) software. "Idle" is known as any insignificant speech, act, or thing that is not beneficial; an action from which no benefit is gained; any falsehood (that is not stable or realized); an entertaining act; any foul, futile talk and action unworthy of attention; loss of hope; and something that is not derived from method and thought. The word has also been used to refer to anything insignificant. The notes and derived interpretations were placed in the following categories: A) Having no significant benefit (When medical care does not benefit the patient (his body and/or soul and his life in this world and/or the Hereafter), it is wrong to proceed with that medical modality; B) Falsehood (Actions that fail to provide, maintain, and improve health are clearly futile); C) Unworthy of attention (An action that neither improves health nor threatens it is wrong and impermissible). PMID:27390616

  7. Nutritional Concepts and Frequency of Foodstuffs Mentioned in the Holy Quran.


    Tarighat-Esfanjani, Ali; Namazi, Nazli


    The Holy Quran is a religious book of Muslims. In many verses of Quran, various foods are discussed. It seems that limited studies were performed on identification the nutritional verses and their frequencies in the Holy Quran. Therefore, the aims of present study were to establish a numerical model system for studying nutritional verses of Quran, determination of verses with nutritional concepts and frequency of foodstuffs in the Holy Quran. In this descriptive analytical study, "Ghamoos e Quran" and "Vazheyab" online softwares were used to determine the nutritional keywords in Quran. For searching, translating, and interpretation of verses, "Noor-e-Jami Tafasir version 2.1"; "Zekr" and "Pars Quran"softwares were applied. Sixty-four nutritional keywords and 257 nutritional verses were identified. Findings indicated that aliment/foods, eating, water/drinking words, and their derivatives are repeated 171, 109, and 131 times in the Holy Quran, respectively. According to the Holy Quran, except Haram foods (pork meat, wine, carrion meat, blood, and meat of animals not slaughtered properly in the Islamic manner), all foods are tayyeb (lawful). The Holy Quran contains many foodstuffs and verses with nutritional concepts and it recommends eating varied and balanced diet.

  8. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils.


    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad


    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils.

  9. Evaluation of quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.


    Asghari, Alimohamad; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Jalessi, Maryam; Farhadi, Mohammad


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder affecting quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of Quality of Life (QOL) in patients with OSA by means of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. This study was conducted on adult patients with sleep problems referred to Noor Sleep Lab for an overnight sleep study. Subjects were assessed for QOL using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. The Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was also employed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Baseline characteristics, ESS, and measured QOL are reported and their correlations with QOL were examined. Out of 502 patients included in the study, 62.7 % had moderate to severe OSA. The mean score of QOL in physical domain was significantly lower compared with normative population data. While AHI did not show any correlation with quality of life, mean O(2) was weakly correlated with physical domain. Among the baseline characteristics, BMI and ESS were negatively correlated with physical and mental domains. Findings of this study show the impairment in quality of life related to physical functioning in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Our study further supports the lack of association between AHI and QOL.

  10. Cohort profile: Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.


    Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi


    The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

  11. Premarital Sexual Intercourse-Related Individual Factors Among Iranian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Gharlipour Gharghani, Zabihollah; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Ramezankhani, Ali; Movahed, Majeed


    Background Understanding sexual behavior before marriage is relatively rare in the East, especially in Islamic societies, because sexuality is a sensitive subject for many Muslims. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify premarital sexual intercourse-related individual factors among Iranian adolescents. Patients and Methods This qualitative study was performed on 30 students of Payame Noor university of Shiraz city, Iran, in 2014. The study sample includes male and female university students selected using the convenience sampling method. Semistructured interviews were used to collect data. All interviews were conducted by the researcher in a comfortable atmosphere and carried out without the presence of others. Each interview lasted between 30 - 20 minutes. Interviews continued until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis method. Participation in the study was voluntary by obtaining an informed consent. Results The study included 30 participants, 56.6% (n = 17) males and 43.4% (n = 13) females. The age range of study, participants was from 19 to 25 years of age. Data analysis showed that three main categories extracted in shaping premarital sexual intercourse in adolescents: health beliefs, religious-spiritual beliefs, and character. Conclusions This study can help find a culturally appropriate intervention to delay sexual initiation and prevent sexual behavior before marriage in adolescents and young adults. The results of the present study have both experimental and theoretical implications for future research. Finally, this study is a form of shared experience that can help similar studies. PMID:27175301

  12. Organising Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Chairman Associate Professor Sr Dr Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff Secretariat Dr Ahmad Fikri Abdullah Dr Farrah Melissa Muharram Normalina Jamaluddin Siti Nooradzah Adam Members Professor Dr Shattri Mansor, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Professor Sr Dr Mazlan Bin Hashim, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Professor Dr Ruslan Ruainis, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Associate Professor Dr Norzailawati Mohd Nor, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Associate Professor Dr Biswajeet Pradhan, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Associate Professor Dr Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Associate Professor Dr Siva K Balasundram, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Dr Muhamad Radzali Mispan, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Dr Siti Khairunnisa Bejo, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Dr Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Dr Ali Ariapour, Islamic Azad University Dr Eran Sadek Said Md Sadek, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Dr Dinesh Sathyamoorthy, Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE) Sr Mokhtar Azizi Mohd Din, Universiti Malaya Noor Azawani Wahap, National Space Agency Mohd Azahari Faidi, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Abdul Munir Hafizy Ladoni, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) Kay Thoan San, TSKAY Technology Sdn Bhd Kumar Veliayudam, Geo Spatial Solutions Sdn Bhd Muhammad Zakri Tarmidi, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Zailani Khuzaimah, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Saleh Abdullahi, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Mohd Amiruddin, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Siti Sarah Emran, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Sarah Hanim Samsudin, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Maizatul Akma Mohamad, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

  13. Decolorization potential of mixed microbial consortia for reactive and disperse textile dyestuffs.


    Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, H N; Shah, S A H; Asad, M Javaid; Legge, R L


    Four different aerobic mixed consortia collected from basins of wastewater streams coming out of dying plants of Crescent Textile (CT), Sitara Textile (ST), Chenab Fabrics (CF) and Noor Fatima Textile (NF), Faisalabad, Pakistan were applied for decolorization of Drimarene Orange K-GL, Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL, Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN for 10 days using the shake flask technique. CT culture showed the best decolorization potential on all dyestuffs followed by ST, NF and CF, respectively. CT could completely decolorize all dyes within 3-5 days. ST cultures showed effective decolorization potential on Foron Yellow SE4G and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL but complete color removal was achieved after 4 and 7 days, respectively. NF culture showed 100% decolorization efficiencies on Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN but it took comparatively longer time periods (5-7 days). Where as, the NF culture had decolorized only 40% and 50% of Drimarene orange and red, respectively, after 10 days. CF caused complete decolorization of Foron Blue RDGLN and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL after 4 and 8 days, respectively but it showed poor performance on other two dyes.

  14. Development of a virtual system of improvement of the quality in the teaching of materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen


    The last aim of this educational experience is the increase of the motivation of the students for the learning of the matters to giving as well as looking for the raising awareness, placing in the center the student and distinguishing the teaching for every group and specific case with different action plans for subjects and groups. This aim happens for achieving a major participation of the students in the way of developing and raising the matters (active subjects in the teaching), with a major follow-up of the teacher and a constant feedback with possibility of change in the exposition of the subjects to mold it to the characteristics of the groups of students. Besides the previous thing, one tries to obtain a manual of good practices in the classroom as well as a compendium of the actions undertaken before mistakes or aspects identified in the classroom and what results they have served us as tools for future or current teachers. Likewise, also one tries to improve the implantation of the systems of follow-up of the quality and also of coordination of professorship in the subject of Materials Science. The accomplishment of the questionnaires carried out by means of the controls of personalized response Educlick, equipment that was obtained by a Project of Educational Investigation (University of Salamanca), and that provides an experience of participation to the students. As for the teachers, it allows the application of measures of improvement and implementation of the qualit systems. It might extend to other Powers and Centers that are interested in similar experiences. The feedback has distinguished himself as one of the most powerful tools for the learning (Black and Williams, 1998). The investigation-action in the classroom (Avison et to, 1999; Contreras Perez and Arbesú García, 2008; Samian and Noor, 2012) supposes a methodology that allows to modify in time the teaching and to contribute this feedback to the pupils in every moment. The development of

  15. The Role of Inflammatory Processes in Occurrence of Left Ventricular Failure in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shemirani, Hassan; Tavakol, Sara; Atapoor, Abdolamir; Golshahi, Jafar


    Background: Recently, the relationship between increased level of inflammatory mediators and occurrence of left ventricular failure in patients with kidney disease has been suggested. The present study attempted to assess relationship between inflammatory mediators and occurrence of left ventricular failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at Noor and Hazrat Aliasghar hospital in Isfahan between September 2012 to September 2013 on patients aged >19 years that referred for following their chronic kidney disease. Serum level of inflammatory parameters including C-reactive protein (CRP) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was measured using spectrophotometer. All patients were also assessed using M-mode echocardiography to determine left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Results: The group with significant reduced LVEF showed lower GFR when compared to the normal LVEF group (40.73 ± 20.61% versus 44.43 ± 17.98%, P = 0.032). Comparing GFR across the three groups with normal LVEF (>55%), with mild LV dysfunction (LVEF: 45 – 55) those with significant LV dysfunction (LVEF < 45%) showed significantly lower GFR level in latter group compared with normal LVEF and mild LV dysfunction group (P = 0.026). Although the level of serum CRP was significantly higher in patients with significant left ventricular failure than other groups (P = 0.018). Conclusion: Inflammatory processes can potentially affect left ventricular function in patients with chronic kidney disease. In this regard, increased level of CRP may be a main factor for predicting severity of left ventricular failure in these patients. PMID:28299305

  16. The Relationship between Mental Health and Addiction to Mobile Phones among University Students of Shahrekord, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Babadi-Akashe, Zahra; Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Abedini, Yasamin; Akbari, Hojaetolah; Hedayati, Nasim


    Background The risk of cell phone addiction is a social and psychological problem which has been proposed by psychologists, psychiatrists, and educational supervisors. The present study aimed to investigate the behavior of mobile phone addicts and mental health of university students of Shahrekord, Iran. Methods This study was an applied research survey for the purposes of this study. The study population ýconsisted of all the students of Payame Noor University, Islamic Azad University, and University of Medical Sciences. The study population consisted of 296 students who were randomly selected from the target population. To collect data, two types of questionnaires were used, the Symptom Checklist-90-R(SCL-90-R) questionnaire, and the 32-point scale questionnaire of behavior associated with ýmobile phone use (Hooper and Zhou, 2007). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software, statistical analysis, frequency distribution, mean, one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and LSD (Least significance difference). Findings The results showed that university students of Shahrekord, based on the six categories of mobile ýaddiction behaviors, were mostly placed in habitual behaviors (21.49%), addiction (21.49%), and intentional (21.49%) categories. By reviewing mental health indicators, it was found that students were affected with depressive disorder (17.30%), obsessive compulsive disorder (14.20%), and interpersonal sensitivity (13.80%). The results showed that there was a significant inverse relationship ýbetween mental health and habitual behaviors (r = -0.417), dependence (r = -0.317), addiction (r = -0.330), and incontinence (r = -0.309) in using mobile phone (P < 0.001). Conclusion Survey results showed that with increased and improved mental health, the student’s rate of cell phone addiction reduced. PMID:25984275

  17. Effect of add-on valproate on craving in methamphetamine depended patients: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Ghavami, Masoud; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Salehi, Mehrdad; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza


    Background: Methamphetamine dependence lead to the compulsive use, loss of control, and social and occupational dysfunctions. This study aimed to compare the effect of valproate in reducing the craving in methamphetamine dependents. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial on 40 men of 18–40 years old referred to Noor Hospital during December 2012–September 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects participated in matrix program and randomly were divided into two groups of valproate and placebo. A 4-months program of intervention with valproate or placebo was arranged for each group. The rate of craving to methamphetamine and positive methamphetamine urine tests were evaluated in both groups every 2 weeks using cocaine craving questionnaire-brief (CCQ-Brief) and urine test. After the 4 months (active treatment with valproate and placebo), the drug was tapered and discontinued within 10 days, and patients were introduced to self-help groups and monitored regularly on a weekly basis over another 3 months. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS 20 using analysis of covariance repeated measure, Chi-square, and t-test. Results: CCQ score of the intervention group was significantly less than the placebo group (P < 0.001), except on weeks 1, 3, and 28. The ratio of a positive urine test for methamphetamine in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group in all screenings except weeks 3 and 28. Conclusion: Adding valproate to matrix program in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence showed significant effect on the reduction of the craving to methamphetamine. PMID:27656618

  18. Validity, reliability and factor analysis of Persian version of schizophrenia quality of life scale

    PubMed Central

    Masaeli, Nasrin; Omranifard, Victoria; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Khedri, Anahita


    Context: Exact measurement of quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients for evaluation of the patient's deterioration and also to assess the efficacy of therapeutic Interventions has become a daily task, which requires accurate assessment tools. Aims: This study was aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a Persian version of schizophrenia QOL scale (SQLS) as a common transcultural instrument. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty schizophrenia patients who referred to Psychiatric Clinic in Noor Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) have been selected using simple sampling method. Subjects and Methods: Aside with SQLS, short form-36 general health (SF-36) and World Health Organization QOL-brief-26 (WHOQOL-BREF-26). Questionnaires were completed by the cases for determination of correlation coefficients. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, Pearson correlation coefficient by Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 18 (SPSS-18). Results: Total reliability of the questionnaire was reported by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha 0.84, reliability of individual relationships subscales was 0.91, signs 0/87, symptoms 0/72 and motivation/energy 0/61. Correlation coefficients of SF-36 with a total scale of SQLS and correlation coefficient of WHOQOL-BREF-26 with a total scale of SQLS were acceptable. Exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation identified four principle components (interpersonal relationship, symptoms, signs, motivation, and energy), which will determine QOL at 52.7% variance. Conclusions: Persian version of the SQLS can be used as a simple, reliable and valid tool in Iranian population. PMID:27512702

  19. Computer-Assisted Diabetes Risk Assessment and Education (CADRAE) for Medically Vulnerable Populations in the Middle East: a Novel and Practical Method for Prevention.


    Rowther, Armaan A; Dykzeul, Brad; Billimek, John; Abuhassan, Deyana; Anderson, Craig; Lotfipour, Shahram

    The prevalence of diabetes in the Middle East is increasing rapidly due to urbanization, reduced levels of physical activity, and a nutritional transition toward increased consumption of fats and refined carbohydrates. Preventive strategies are of paramount importance to stemming the tide. Portable touch-screen computer technology may hold an answer for alleviating the burdens of cost, time, and training that limit the implementation of diabetes risk screening and intervention, especially among refugees and other vulnerable populations. The Computer-Assisted Diabetes Risk Assessment and Education (CADRAE) Arabic-language intervention program is proposed as a model method for practicing proactive type 2 diabetes prevention in resource-limited settings of the Middle East that combines the efficiency of risk-score screening methods, the advantages of portable computer interface, and the spirit of brief motivational interviewing. This paper aims to describe the theory and novel design of CADRAE-introduced at the Noor Al Hussein Foundation's Institute of Family Health in January 2014-as well as discuss opportunities and challenges for its implementation and evaluation in primary or emergency care settings. Features of CADRAE are elucidated in detail, including development, translation, conceptual framework, theoretical basis, method of risk assessment, brief intervention style, definition of outcomes, requirements for implementation, and potential means of evaluation and quality improvement. CADRAE offers the first example of portable computer technology integrating diabetes risk screening with behavior change counseling tailored for an Arabic-speaking population of mostly refugees and could offer a valuable model for researchers and policy makers of the Middle East as well as other resource-limited settings.

  20. Iatrogenic gall bladder perforations in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 200 cases.


    Zubair, M; Habib, L; Mirza, M R; Channa, M A; Yousuf, M


    This study was done to evaluate the frequency of iatrogenic gall bladder perforation (IGBP) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to determine its association with gender, adhesions in right upper quadrant and types of gall bladder. This retrospective descriptive study included 200 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis at Jamal Noor Hospital and Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi from January 2007 to January 2009. Video recording of all 200 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were analyzed for the IGBP. The different factors; sex of the patient, type of gall bladder, presence of adhesions in the right upper quadrant, timing of perforation, site of perforation, cause of perforation and spillage of stones were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS 15. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to check the significance of these factors in IGBP where applicable. In this study there were 173 females and 27 male patients. IGBP occurred in 51 patients (25.5%) and among them 40(23.12%) were females and 11(40.74%) males. Statistical analysis failed to prove male gender a significant factor in the IGBP (p=0.051). Spillage of stones occurred in 23 patients (11.5% in total study population). In 32(18.49%) patients with chronic calculus cholecystitis IGBP occured while in other cluster of 27 patients suffering from acute cholecystitis, empyema & mucocele, 19(70.37%) had IGBP. Hence the condition of gall bladder (acute cholecystitis, empyema and mucocele) was proved statistically a significant factor in IGBP (p=0.000). Adhesiolysis in right upper quadrant was required in 109 patients in whom 31 patients (28.44%) had IGBP while in 91 patients in whom no adhesiolysis was required, 20 patients (21.98%) had IGBP. Statistically no significant difference was present regarding this factor (p=0.296). In total of 51 patients of IGBP, fundus of gall bladder was the commonest site of perforation in 21(41.18%), followed by body of gall bladder in

  1. Hydro geochemistry Study of Yamama formation water in southern Iraqi oil Fields, Migration,Diagensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; SOC Team


    clay units was identified as zones extends from Kumait - Halfaia - Noor. This study also showed the major role of diagenetic processes such as dissolution and low dolomitization in granular units in changing the chemical composition of Yamama Formation water under study. The ionic ratios and concentration pointed out the occurrences of many sub-basins within the Yamama main basin. The present study showed the movement of formation water is from the centre of the basin toward the periphery, furthermore, the sulphate index clarify the increases in hydrocarbone preservation toward east and northeast direction. .

  2. Behavioural physical activity interventions in participants with lower-limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Wilby; Kluzek, Stefan; Roberts, Nia; Richards, Justin; Arden, Nigel; Leeson, Paul; Newton, Julia; Foster, Charlie


    Objective To assess effectiveness of osteoarthritis interventions to promote long-term physical activity behaviour change. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD4201300444 5 ( Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing physical activity interventions with placebo, no/or minimal intervention in community-dwelling adults with symptomatic knee or hip osteoarthritis. Primary outcomes were change in physical activity or cardiopulmonary fitness after a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Data extraction Outcomes were measures of physical activity (self-reported and objectively measured) and cardiovascular fitness. Standard mean differences between postintervention values were used to describe the effect sizes. Results 27 984 titles were screened and 180 papers reviewed in full. Eleven RCTs satisfied inclusion criteria, total study population of 2741 participants, mean age 62.2. The commonest reasons for study exclusion were follow-up less than 6 months and no physical activity measures. The majority of included interventions implement an arthritis self-management programme targeting coping skills and self-efficacy. Seven studies used self-report measures, the pooled effect of these studies was small with significant heterogeneity between studies (SMD 0.22 with 95% CI −0.11 to 0.56, z=1.30 (p=0.19) I2 statistic of 85%). Subgroup analysis of 6–12 month outcome reduced heterogeneity and increased intervention effect compared to control (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.65, z=8.84 (p<0.00001) I2 of 66%). Conclusions Arthritis self-management programmes achieve a small but significant improvement in physical activity in the short term. Effectiveness of intervention declines with extended follow-up beyond 12 months with no significant benefit compared to control. The small number of studies (11 RCTs) limited ability to define effective delivery methods. Investigation of

  3. What Can Influence Iranian Suicide Attempters to Go Through the Process of Non-Fatal Suicide Act Once Again? A Preliminary Report.


    Toudehskchuie, Gholam Reza Ghassemi; Fereidoon, Mahsa


    The thrust of this study was to examine some of the psycho-social risk factors for the recurrence of non-fatal suicide attempt in a sample of 1121 inmates admitted between April 2012 to June 2013 at the toxicology emergency ward, Noor Medical Centre, Isfahan, Iran. Out of the total participants, 240 of them reported history of suicide attempt and assumed the status of case group. The remaining 881 patients were admitted first their attempt and constituted the control group. Cases were compared to the controls with respect to select demographic features (i.e. age, sex, education, occupation, marital status, type of residence, and locale), current suicide attempt method, family history of suicide and drug abuse, history of psychiatric disorder, physical ailment and physical disability, substance abuse and alcohol use, psychiatric diagnosis, and recent life hassles (i.e. interpersonal, occupational, financial, medical, and home affairs). We used a structured interview schedule to interview the participants. Psychiatric diagnosis was based on the DSM-IV criteria. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS.21 and administering statistical analysis including Chi Square, t-student, and logistic regression. Demographic risk factors for recurrence of suicide attempts at the univariate level included occupational status [Crud odds Ratio (COR) = 0.53] and type of residence (COR = 1.40). Medical and psychiatric risk factors at the univariate level included substance abuse (COR = 1.97), physical ailment (COR = 1.76), alcohol use (COR = 1.84), psychiatric disorder (COR = 3.69), and history of suicide in the family of origin (COR = 1.86). Recent life hassles risk factors at the univariate level included financial constraints (COR = 1.46) and medical emergencies (COR = 3.48). A multivariate logistic regression model identified five variables (i.e. substance abuse, alcohol use, psychiatric illness, suicide in family, and medical emergencies) that were statistically

  4. Prevalence and predictors for compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease (c-ACLD) in patients with chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) infection

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Ingrid; Victoria, Marilu; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Rodrigues, Lorena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Lacerda, Marcus; Victoria, Flamir; Perazzo, Hugo


    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictor factors for compensated advanced chronic liver disease (c-ACLD) in patients with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. Methods This cross-sectional study included consecutive HDV-infected patients defined by positive anti-HDV. Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions that limit liver (LSM) or spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) were excluded. Blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, SSM and LSM by transient elastography (FibroScan®) were performed at the same day. Alcohol consumption was quantified using the AUDIT score and c-ACLD was defined by LSM ≥ 15 kPa performed by an experimented operator blinded for clinical and laboratory data. Results 101 patients were eligible and few patients were excluded due to negative anti-HDV (n = 7), hepatitis C coinfection (n = 2), liver transplantation (n = 10) and limitation for LSM or SSM (n = 5). Therefore, 77 patients [61% male, age = 43 (IQR,36–52) years] were included. The prevalence of c-ACLD was 57% (n = 44/77). Patients with c-ACLD had a higher rate of detectable HBV viral load (p = 0.039), higher levels of transaminases, GGT, alkaline phosphatases, total bilirubin and INR (p<0.001 for all), as well as lower platelet count and albumin levels (p>0.001 for both) compared to those without c-ACLD. Patients with c-ACLD had higher SSM [65.2 (IQR,33.8–75.0) vs 21.8 (16.5–32.0) kPa; p<0.001] and higher splenic volume [475 (IQR,311–746) vs 154 (112–283) cm3; p<0.001] compared to those without. Detectable HBV viral load (>10 UI/ml), alkaline phosphatase (per IU/L) and GGT levels (per IU/L) were independently associated with c-ACLD in all multivariate models. Splenic volume [per cm3,OR = 1.01 (95%CI,1.01–1.02);p = 0.002], SSM [per kPa, OR = 1.04 (1.01–1.07);p = 0.012] and splenomegaly [yes vs no,OR = 28.45 (4.42–182.95);p<0.001] were independently associated with c-ACLD. Conclusions The prevalence of c

  5. Distribution system in Bangladesh spurs decline in growth.



    Fertility reductions in Bangladesh have contributed to a reduction in population growth from 2.5% between 1981 and 1991 to 2.3% in 1991. The average density of 800 persons/sq. km means competition for resources in a subsistence level economy. There is scarcity of land, food shortages, and an abundance of labor. Rapid socioeconomic development is not possible even with an average annual economic growth rate of 3.7% because of population growth. Birth control has doubled to 18.6% in 1991. Sterilization is no longer the primary means of contraception. Contraceptive usage increases are more widespread among young women who are spacing births. A recent study reports that fertility declines are due to increases in the expansion of family planning field workers over the past decade. Home distribution is considered compatible with sociocultural traditions. In 1990, there was 1 field worker/856 married women of reproductive age. 120 private voluntary organizations and the government provide contraceptive services. In 1989, 40% of pill and condom users obtained their supplies from commercial channels. This is possible because of the successful social marketing available through 130,000 commercial retail outlets. Nongovernmental organizations have also been given the freedom to operate independently from government programs. The International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research contributed to the contraceptive effort by field testing in Matlab, Aboynagar, and Sirajganj the introduction of door-to-door injectable contraception services and the building of satellite clinics. The information, education, and communications (IEC) activities also contributed to the 95.4% of women knowledgeable about at least 4 methods of contraception. Kantner and Noor reported that 14.4 million births were averted due to an increase in marriage age (from 16.3 years in 1974) to (17.7 years in 1989). Program efforts are being accelerated because of the 45% of the population that is presently under

  6. The miswak (chewing stick) and oral health. Studies on oral hygiene practices of urban Saudi Arabians.


    al-Otaibi, Meshari


    The miswak, a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth, is made from the plant Salvadora persica. For religious and cultural reasons, miswak use is firmly established and widespread in Saudi Arabia and most other Muslim countries. Only recently has scientific evaluation of the miswak been undertaken. The aims of the thesis were: 1) to explore current oral hygiene habits and oral health awareness among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and educational level (papers I and II); 2) to compare mechanical plaque removal and gingival health after miswak use and toothbrushing (paper III); 3) to compare the effect of miswak use and toothbrushing on subgingival plaque microflora (paper IV). In papers I and II, structured interviews were conducted with 1200 regular patients at two centres in the city of Makkah, providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age, into 6 age groups from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each centre. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subjects' age, gender, and educational levels and analysed statistically by a generalized linear model and ANOVA. In papers III and IV, the subjects comprised 15 healthy Saudi Arabian male volunteers aged 21 to 36 years, attending the Dental Center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah City. A single-blind, randomised crossover design was used. The Turesky modified Quigley-Hein plaque and Löe-Silness gingival indices and digital photographs of plaque distribution were recorded in Paper III and in Paper IV plaque was sampled for DNA-testing. Inhibition zones around miswak material were examined on agar plates with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and the leukotoxicity of this bacterium was analysed in a bioassay with macrophages +/- miswak extracts (paper IV). In papers I and II, 73% of the subjects used a toothbrush and 65% used a miswak daily

  7. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Properties Synthesized through Top Down Approach”, which was warmly welcomed by an eager and highly motivated audience. The second keynote speaker was Prof. Ir. Dradjad Irianto (ITB, Indonesia) on “Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-medium Enterprises”. The organizers are very grateful to them for supporting the conference and sharing their latest research results with the conference participants. The conference organizers would like to express our sincere gratitude and thanks to the honorary chairman Prof. Dato, Dr. Daing Nasir Ibrahim and Prof. Dr. Wan Azhar Wan Yusoff and organizing committee members of iMEC2015, Assoc. Prof. Dr. A.K. Prasada Rao (chairman), Dr. Ing. Mohd Azmir Mohd Azhari (co-chairman), and all committee members Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Razlan Yusoff, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ismed Iskandar, Dr Noraini Mohd Razali, Dr Muhammed Nafis Osman Zahid, Dr Noor Mazni Ismail, Dr Izwan Ismail, Dr Zamzuri Hamedon, Dr Faiz Mohd Turan, Ms Suraya Sulaiman and secretariat Miss Zuryaty, Mrs Wan Norshihah, Mr. Mohd Khairulnazri and Mr Rafilah and also a million thanks to the steering committee from APCOMS Prof. Dr. Kadarsyah Suryadi, Prof. Dr. Bermawi, P. Iskandar, Prof. Dr. Abdul Hakim Halim, Prof. Dr. Dradjad Irianto, Dr. TMA Ari Samadhi, Ir. I Made Dana Tangkas and APCOMS organizing committee Prof. Dr. Abdul Hakim Halim (chair), Dr. Rachmawati Wangsaputra (co-chair) and other committee members Dr. Iwan Inrawan Wiratmadja, Dr. Anas Ma'ruf, Dr. Sukoyo and Dr. Wisnu Aribowo. The editorial board are indebted to all of the reviewers who were willing to spend their precious time in reviewing the papers. Thanks also to all who contributed direct or indirectly in making this conference a success, especially Mr. Mohd Khairulnazri in helping the editors complete the proceedings. Dr. Zamzuri Hamedon Editor in-chief iMEC & APCOMS 2015 Associate Editors 1. Assoc. Prof. Dr. A.K. Prasada Rao 2. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Razlan Yusoff 3. Dr. Ing. Mohd Azmir Mohd Azhari 4. Dr. Muhammed

  8. PREFACE: The 3rd ISESCO International Workshop and Conference On Nanotechnology 2012 (IWCN2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Akrajas Ali; Yahaya, Muhammad; Mat Salleh, Muhamad


    unwavering support dedicated by all the referees. Their tireless work has helped guarantee the high scientific level of this series. Many thanks are also addressed to the ISESCO, COMSATS, MASS, UKM and FST for their financial support. Logistics support provided by IMEN and MNA is also much appreciated. We realized that this volume would never have materialized without the hard work of Ms Siti Khatijah Md Saad who helped the editorial secretariat in many ways communicating with the authors and reviewers and checking and typesetting the papers in the final stage. Finally, great appreciation is addressed to all who have worked hard and given support ensuring that the conference was a success. Editors Associate Professor Dr Akrajas Ali Umar Professor Dr Muhamad Mat Salleh Professor Dato' Dr Muhammad Yahaya IWCN 2012 Organizing Committee International Advisory Board Professor Dato' Dr Muhammad Yahaya (UKM, Malaysia) Dr Faiq Bilal (ISESCO, Morocco) Professor Dr Michael Graetzel (Switzerland) Professor Dr Muhamad Rasat (Malaysia) Prof Dr Masbah R T Siregar (Indonesia) Associate Professor Dr Munetaka Oyama (Japan) Professor Dr Ismat Shah (USA) Professor Dr Muhamad Mat Salleh (Malaysia) Chairman Associate Professor Dr Mohammad Kassim Co-Chairman Dr Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji Jumali Secretary Dr Lorna Jeffry Minggu Treasurer Dr Sharina Abu Hanifah Committee Members Associate Professor Dr Mohd Azmi Abd Hamid Associate Professor Dr Akrajas Ali Umar Dr Zahari Ibarahim Dr Rozidawati Awang Dr Farah Hannan Anuar Secretariat Dr Khuzaimah Mohd Firdauz Ismail Izura Izzuddin Nor Huwaida Janil Jamil Siti Khatijah Md Saad Noor Razinah Rahmat Mark Lee Wun Fui Ng Kim Hang Lee Thian Khoon Law Kung Pui Choong Yan Yi