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Sample records for park costa rica

  1. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1986-05-01

    This discussion of Costa Rica focuses on: geography, people and history, government, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Costa Rica. In 1985 the population totaled 2.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 15.2/1000; life expectancy is 67.5 years for men and 71.9 years for women. Costa Rica, the 2nd smallest Central American country, is located in a narrow strip between Panama and Nicaragua. Costa Ricans are overwhelmingly of European descent. Although preominantly Spanish, there also are many Costa Ricans of German, Dutch, and Swiss origin. The indigenous Indian population numbers about 20,000, 20% fewer than inhabited Costa Rica when the Spanish first settled in 1522. Blacks, descendants of 19th century Jamaican immigrant workers, constitute a significant English-speaking minority of 30,000. Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong systems of checks and balances. The president and 57 legislative assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. Costa Rica's political system has contrasted with that of its neighbors. The nation has steadily developed and maintained democratic institutions and an orderly, constitutional process of government succession. Costa Rica faces severe challenges to its economic stability, although traditionally it is one of the strongest nations in the region. Increases in government spending in the late 1970s and higher world prices for coffee and other important Costa Rican exports stimulated the economy, creating inflationary pressure. The government is pursuing a course of disciplined management. The country is an outsponken and active member of the international community. The cordial relationship between Costa Rica and the US is based on mutual respect for democratic traditions, common goals, and a relationship free from serious political disagreement.

  2. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent.

  3. [Echinoderms from Marino Ballena National Park, Pacific, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Fernández, Cindy

    2005-12-01

    A total of 25 species of echinoderms (four asteroids, six ophiuroids, five echinoids and ten holothurians) were recorded at Marino Ballena National Park, using 25 m2 quadrants, parallel to the coast, at seven sites. The ophiuroids were the most abundant group with 581 individuals and the asteroids the less abundant (48 individuals). Echinoderms densities were low, with the exception of the ophiuroids. Diversity, density and the number of groups were higher where sedimentation was lower. We suggest that sedimentation is having a negative effect on the diversity of echinoderms and on the development of the coral reefs in this park.

  4. Landscape-Scale Canopy Complexity in and Near Braulio Carillo National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Robert G.; Blair, J. B.; Weishampel, J. F.; Clark, D. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Dubayah, R.

    1999-01-01

    Using medium-large footprint lidar sampling of approximately 500 square km of Costa Rica, we assessed the vertical and horizontal complexity of a forest-dominated tropical landscape. As expected, vertical extents of structure and canopy heights estimated from lidar waveforms were smaller in high elevation forests than in forests at lower elevations. In areas of the park and long-protected areas of La Selva Biological Station, forests typically had more consistent ratios of median height to total height than areas with other types of recent land use. Areas outside the park exhibited both stronger and weaker spatial correlations in canopy properties than most areas within the park. We also simulated the effects of these differences on data products gridded from lidar transects, like those produced by the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Mission.

  5. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1981-11-01

    The focus in this discussion of Costa Rica is on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The government of Costa Rica does not advocate direct intervention to modify the rate of population growth, largely because of its rapid decline in fertility and its moderate rate of natural increase. 5 censuses have been conducted since 1892, and the most recent census was conducted in 1973. The registration for births and deaths is complete. A National Fertility Survey was conducted in 1976 in cooperation with the World Fertility Survey. An important government priority in recent years has been the development of an institutional framework for the further integration of population factors within development plans. A National Commission on Population Policy was established in 1978. Population policy is viewed as instrumental in realizing the government's political objectives and overall development goals. The National Commission on Population Policy approved the terms of reference for a comprehensive population policy in 1979. The government considers its rate of population growth to be unsatisfactory because it remains moderately high. The crude death rate was estimated to be slightly more than 4/1000 in 1977. The government considers levels and trends of mortality to be acceptable. The crude birthrate declined to about 22.0 in 1975. The government considers levels and trends of fertility to be unsatisfactory because they are too high. The government now considers levels and trends of emigration to be significant and unsatisfactory

  6. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Costa Rica is a country of 51,032 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 93% are literate. Independence was gained on September 15, 1821. The terrain consists of eastern and western coastal plains separated by a rugged, central massif, with a climate ranging from tropical to subtropical. Spanish and a Jamaican dialect of English are spoken by European, black, and indigenous ethnic groups who are overwhelmingly of Roman Catholic faith. Life expectancy is approximately 70 years. The gross domestic product is $5.6 billion, growing at a rate of 1%. Per capita income is $1810. Hydroelectric power is a natural resource of the country. Food processing, textiles, construction materials, and fertilizer, as well as banana, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain agriculture are areas of economic production. Manufactured goods, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, fuel, food, and fertilizer are imported, and bananas, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of principal US officials in the country.

  7. Habitat features influencing jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) occupancy in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Arce, Stephanny; Guilder, James; Salom-Pérez, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Habitat characteristics and human activities are known to play a major role in the occupancy of jaguars Panthera onca across their range, however the key variables influencing jaguar distribution in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica, have yet to be identified. This study evaluated jaguar occupancy in Tortuguero National Park and the surrounding area. Jaguar detection/non-detection data was collected using digital camera traps distributed within the boundaries of the protected area. Local community members were also interviewed to determine jaguar occurrence in the Park's buffer zone. Occupancy models were then applied to identify the habitat characteristics that may better explain jaguar distribution across the study area. From June 2012 to June 2013, a total of 4,339 camera trap days were used to identify 18 individual jaguars inside the protected area; 17 of these jaguars were exclusively detected within the coastal habitat, whilst the remaining individual was detected solely within the interior of the Park. Interviewees reported 61 occasions of jaguar presence inside the buffer zone, between 1995 and 2013, with 80% of these described by the communities of Lomas de Sierpe, Barra de Parismina and La Aurora. These communities also reported the highest levels of livestock predation by jaguars (85% of attacks). In the study area, jaguar occurrence was positively correlated with the seasonal presence of nesting green turtles Chelonia mydas, and negatively correlated with distance to the Park boundary. Our findings suggested that the current occupancy of the jaguar in the study area may be a response to: 1) the vast availability of prey (marine turtles) on Tortuguero beach, 2) the decline of its primary prey species as a result of illegal hunting inside the Park, and 3) the increase in anthropogenic pressures in the Park boundaries.

  8. Aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Hernández, Giovanna; Caballero, Magaly

    2006-12-01

    Bacteriological examination of 70 nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica was performed to investigate nasal and cloacal aerobic bacteria. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were obtained, including 10 Gram-negative and three Gram-positive genera. Two hundred thirty-nine were Gram-negative and 86 were Gram-positive isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common microbe identified in turtle samples: 27/70 (38.5%) in cloacal, and 33/70 (47.1%) in nasal samples. The Enterobacteriaceae family, including Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, was the largest Gram-negative group of bacteria recovered and comprised 127 of 239 (53.1%) of the Gram-negative isolates. Staphylococcus species was the largest Gram-positive bacteria group, including S. aureus, S. cromogenes, S. epidermis, and S. intermedius, and made up 63 of 86 (73.2%) of the Gram-positive isolates recovered. The results of this study demonstrate that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero National Park is composed of a very wide spectrum of bacteria, including several potential pathogens.

  9. [Diversity and abundance of echinoderms from the reef lagoon at Cahuita National Park, Caribbean from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Natalie; Bourg, Amandine; Gómez, Javier; Alvarado, Juan José

    2005-12-01

    A total of 15 species of echinoderms (one asteroid, seven ophiuroids, five echinoids and two holothurians) were recorded at the Cahuita National Park reef lagoon, between September and October 2003, using a 1 m2 quadrant. The sites with coral substrate and algae were the most diverse, while those with seagrass and sand were the least. Ophiuroids were the most abundant group with 170 individuals, asteroids were the least abundant. Adding other studies and reports of echinoderms to this study, a total of 23 species have been found at Cahuita National Park, which is the most diverse area on the Caribbean of Costa Rica. We report nine new echinoderm records for Costa Rica's Caribbean.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Pigeons from Public Parks in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Peña, K; Esperón, F; Torres-Mejía, A M; de la Torre, A; de la Cruz, E; Jiménez-Soto, M

    2017-02-24

    Antimicrobial resistance is known to be an emerging problem, but the extent of the issue remains incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of nine resistance genes (blaTEM , catI, mecA, qnrS, sulI, sulII, tet(A), tet(Q), vanA) in the faeces of 141 pigeons from four urban parks in Alajuela, Guadalupe, Tres Ríos and San José in Costa Rica. The genes were identified by real-time PCR directly from enema samples. About 30% of the samples were positive for genes catI and sulI; between 13% and 17% were positive for qnrS, sulII, tet(A) and tet(Q); and 4% were positive for blaTEM . The mecA and vanA genes were not detected. The average of antimicrobial resistance genes detected per pigeon was 2. Eight different patterns of resistance were identified, without differences in the sampling areas, being the most common pattern 2 (sulII positive samples). During rainy season, the genes more frequently found were sulI and tet(A). In conclusion, the urban inhabiting pigeons tested are currently carrying antimicrobial resistance genes, potentially acting as reservoirs of resistant bacteria and vectors to humans. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study carried out on direct detection of resistance genes in the digestive metagenomes of pigeons.

  11. Lessons from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene; Lobo, Irina

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the highest concentrations of computers in the Americas and is regarded as a Central American pioneer in technology development. The authors of this article describe their trip to Costa Rica, which included visits to several schools as well as to the Foundation Omar Dengo (FOD) and the Ministry of Public Education (MEP),…

  12. Spotlight: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning.

  13. Costa Rica. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Haub, C; Adams, J

    1985-05-01

    Costa Rica's demographic and economic characteristics are highlighted. Costa Rica's demographic situation is unique in certain respects. Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from about 7 to 4 and then stabilized instead of continuing to decline to 2 as expected. This is especially surprising since the level of contraceptive use is similar to that of most European countries. Approximately 2/3 of all couples practice contraception. It is possible that the rate will slowly decline to the expected level, but a delayed decline will ultimately produce a much larger population than initially expected. The demographic situation in Costa Rica is being carefully monitored for insights which might be useful in predicting future fertility patterns in other developing countries. The government of Costa Rica recognizes that family planning is a necessary component of maternal and child health care; however, most family planning services are provided by private organizations. In 1982, population size was 2.6 million, the crude birth rate was 30.7, the crude death rate was 3.9, infant mortality was 19.3, and the rate of natural increase was 2.7%. The population is predominantly Spanish, and the indigenous population totals only 20,000. 48% of the population is urban. Costa Rica has a relatively stable deomocratic government. It relationshiops with other countries are generally peaceful, but tensions between Nicaragua and Costa Rica are increasing. The country's economic situation deteriorated in recent years due primarily to a decline in the price of coffee, the country's principle export commodity. The trade deficit increased markedly, unemployment increased, and income fell sharply. The economic slowdown is now showing signs of a reversal. In 1983 exports, consisting primarily of coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cane and cacao, totalled US$871 million, and imports, consisting mainly of manufactured goods and equipment, chemicals, fuel, food

  14. Prevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina and ancylostomidae in public parks and beaches in different climate zones of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Paquet-Durand, Isabelle; Hernández, J; Dolz, G; Zuñiga, J J Romero; Schnieder, T; Epe, C

    2007-10-01

    This epidemiological study was conducted in different regions of Costa Rica to determine the prevalence of the developmental stages of potential zoonotic intestinal helminths of dogs and cats in public places. Samples were collected within three main climate zones including rural and urban areas during both the rainy and the dry season. Faecal and environmental samples were taken from 69 parks and beaches. Of the faecal samples 3% contained Toxascaris spp. eggs, 7% Toxocara spp. eggs and 55% contained ancylostomidae eggs. Of the soil samples, 2% contained ancylostomidae eggs and 0.8% contained ascarid eggs. Significant differences in the presence of parasites were found in faecal samples of dry, moist and wet climate zones and between the dry and rainy seasons. Significant differences in the presence of eggs and larvae were also found in the grass samples in the dry, the moist and the wet climate zones and between the different seasons. No significant differences were found between rural and urban areas.

  15. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  16. [Nutritional values in the diet of white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    López, Marco Tulio; Altrichter, Mariana; Sáenz, Joel; Eduarte, Eduardo

    2006-06-01

    We determined the potential nutritional levels in 25 species of plants, and in earthworms, that constitute part of the diet of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica, from January 1998 to March 1999. The highest content of fat and energy was found in seeds of the Myristicacea family. The highest content of calcium was found in vegetative parts of Dieffenbachia spp. Nutritious contents differed among plant parts (seeds, fruits, stems and leaves). Fat and energy content were larger in seeds and fruits, whereas the largest content of protein was found in fruits and leaves. Mineral content also differed among plant parts. Calcium, potassium and magnesium were higher in leaves whereas copper and zinc were higher in seeds. Differences of diet between white-lipped peccaries in Corcovado and in other tropical regions of Latin America could be partially explained by our results. We found several species with higher fat and energy content than palms, which can explain the low consumption of palm seeds in Corcovado. It is possible that the regular consumption of stems and leaves of some species is related to their high mineral content. Seasonality of reproduction in Corcovado seems to be related not only to fruit availability but also to the nutritional quality of food.

  17. Area Assessment. Costa Rica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

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  18. [Temporal comparison of the composition and zonation of rocky intertidal organisms at Cocos Island National Park, Pacific, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Cortés, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Several biological and physical factors change the rocky shore communities. The desiccation time and the tolerance of the intertidal species produce the vertical zonation. In many studies around the world, a temporal change in this zonation is presented.In Costa Rica, only studies that include temporal trends were carried out in Punta Mala and Montezuma, Pacific coast in 80's. The rocky intertidal of the Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica were surveyed photographically. The Chatham bay was sampled in three expeditions (January 2007, October 2007 and April 2008). Photos corresponding to 25x25cm quadrats were taken with the goal to determine diversity and composition differences in rocky shore organisms between sampling dates. The Wafer bay was sampled in January and October 2007. The intertidal of Chatham consists of basaltic rock, while Wafer has basaltic and ignimbrite boulders. The main difference between sites were the higher algae cover (erect-frondose forms) and number of organism bands at Chatham bay. Temporal change was not found in the total cover of sessile fauna and autotrophs. The barnacle Tetraclita stalactifera, that occurs above the algal fringe (lower intertidal), was the invertebrate with the highest coverage. The mobile fauna biodiversity presented no significant trend between sampled months. However, the identity of species, their cover and their abundance showed a moderate temporal change. In October 2007, when the sea surface temperature was 23 degrees C the infralittoral zone had an increase in green algae cover. The red algae (crust and erect-frondose forms) were dominant in January and April. The pulmonate limpet, Siphonaria gigas and a bacterial biofilm at mid littoral showed a negative association. The snails of the high littoral and the supralittoral zone showed a temporal change in their abundance, but with contrasting patterns between sites. The temporal variation in the assemblages increased from the supralittoral to the

  19. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  20. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  1. Evaporation and transpiration differences among successional stages of Tropical Dry Forest, Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, César D.; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal environments in the tropics show strong responses to changes in precipitation regimes. The monthly water availability is the main trigger for ecological responses as flowering, fructification, leaf sprouting and senescence. Among these environments, the tropical dry forests (TDF) depends directly on the soil water availability, defining the forest growing season despite the forest characteristics. However, within the same ecosystem is possible to find differences in the water fluxes due to forest age. The TDF located in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP) in Costa Rica; shows a particular matrix of secondary forest patches varying in age, structure, and species composition allowing us to evaluate the water fluxes differences among successional stages of TDF. Three permanent plots of 1000.0 m2 were selected from the Tropi-Dry project. Each plot characterized a specific successional stage of this ecosystem varying in forest structure and age. Every location was equipped to measure the hourly soil water content and forest growth, while the meteorological conditions were collected by the meteorological station of the national park. The data was collected from December 2005 to June 2009 however, due to data gaps and quality control the data analysis includes only the hydrological years between 2006 and 2009. The soil water content was measured at three depths in each plot (10, 30 and 40 cm) to determine the real evapotranspiration from the forest. The precipitation along these three years shows strong variations registering 326.5 mm-1yr-1 in the first year up to 3004.0 mm-1yr-1 during the last year, these strong changes are influenced by the ENOS phenomena in the region. Regardless the precipitation amounts the evapotranspiration do not differ strongly on a yearly basis, were 726.7 mm-1yr-1, 675.1 mm-1yr-1 and 751.6 mm-1yr-1 were exported to the atmosphere by the early, intermediate and late stages of TDF secondary forest. The yearly strong differences in

  2. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identified as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  4. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O. ); Cohen, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified the potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. The shallow-water fish assemblage of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica: structure and patterns in an isolated, predator-dominated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Ballesteros, Enric; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Bolaños, Allan; Sala, Enric

    2012-01-01

    Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1) and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos) in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.

  6. Behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando A; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    We examined thermoregulatory behaviors in a wild population of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) inhabiting a highly seasonal dry forest in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. The dry season in SRNP lasts approximately 5 months and is characterized by high ambient temperatures regularly exceeding 37 degrees C, low relative humidity, and the near absence of precipitation. This study demonstrates that capuchins rest more and travel shorter distances during the hottest and driest hours of the day, and suggests that they extend their tongues to lower body temperature via evaporative cooling. Seasonal weather patterns and group movement data reported here are based on 940 h of observations on three social groups of capuchins (wet season: 370 h, dry season: 570 h). In the dry season, the proportion of time spent resting increased at higher temperatures whereas the proportion of time spent traveling decreased. Distance traveled between location points taken at half-hour intervals decreased significantly as temperature increased, although the correlation was not strong. Capuchins exposed their tongues during hot, dry, windy conditions, and this behavior was much more frequent in the dry season. Temperature was significantly higher and humidity significantly lower for "tongue-out" events than expected for a random event in the dry season. Finally, as surface water became scarce, home-range areas of heavy use became increasingly centered on the remaining permanent water sources. These results suggest that heat stress and water scarcity are significant influences on the behavior of capuchins in hot, dry conditions.

  7. [The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Lizano, O G

    2001-12-01

    The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island.

  8. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  9. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  10. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  11. The McGill-Costa Rica Project

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M. William L.; Haggerty, Jeannie; Filion-Laporte, Liliane

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, health authorities in Costa Rica started a training program in family and community medicine and requested assistance from the Department of Family Medicine at McGill University. The authors outline the health care system in Costa Rica and the background of the project. The design, implementation, and progress of the project to date are discussed. The problems associated with this kind of project and its future are also discussed. Imagesp1152-a PMID:21221332

  12. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  13. Costa Rica's Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Cortés, Jorge; Esquivel, María Fernanda; Salas, Eva

    2012-03-01

    With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km2 of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA), mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%), National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%), Wetlands (1.5%), Biological Reserves (1%), and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%). According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km2, corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km2. The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.

  14. (Power sector efficiency analysis in Costa Rica). [Power Sector Efficiency Analysis in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-04-10

    I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica, to review the state of the electric power utility with a team of specialists, including a transmission and distribution specialist, a hydroelectric engineering specialist, and a thermal power plant specialist. The purpose of the mission was to determine the costs and benefits of efficiency improvements to supply side technologies employed by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, the national power company in Costa Rica, and the potential contribution of these efficiency measures to the future electric power needs of Costa Rica.

  15. Violent Reform: Costa Rica, Central America's Exception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Shelly

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to Costa Rica's peaceful status in a region of violent political conflict. Describes the country's political and educational systems, stating that its democratic government allows the country to withstand many problems typical of the region and that its high level of education allows it to maintain the highest per…

  16. Area Handbook for Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blutstein, Howard I.; And Others

    This handbook is an attempt to provide an integrated exposition and analysis of the dominant social, political, and economic aspects of the Costa Rican society. It is designed to give readers an understanding of the dynamics of the component elements of the society and an insight into the ideas and goals of its people. Chapters contain material…

  17. Costa Rica turns to the world for help.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Costa Rica's current financial crisis threatens to jeopardize recent gains in health indicators, especially among the low-income population. The increasing costs of developing health services and of providing social security coverage for marginal social groups can no longer be fully met by the Costa Rican government, which has steadily allocated a high percentage of the national budget to health. Given this situation, Costa Rica has appealed for international cooperation to help meet the most urgent health needs in the country. In 1985, Costa Rica's population stood at slightly under 2.6 million, with 36% aged 16 years and older. The country remains primarily rural; only 46% of the population is centered in urban areas. Costa Rica has been described as a country that maintains a strong tradition of peace and democracy. Given its political stability, Costa Rica has been the recipient of large waves of immigrants from other Central American countries in states of social political turmoil.

  18. Recent volcano monitoring in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, R.; Brown, G.; Rymer, H.; Barritt, S.; Randal, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Costa Rican volacno Rincon de la Vieja is loosely but mysteriously translated as the "Old Lady's Corner." It consists of six volcanic centers that form a remote elongated ridge standing some 1300m above the surrounding terraine. Geologically speaking, the Guanacaste province of northern Costa Rica consists of a series of composite volcanic cones built on a shield of ignimbrites (welded and unwelded ash flows) of Pliocene-Pleistocene age (up to 2 million years old), that themselves lie on basement crust of Cretaceious-Tertiary age (up to 90 million years old). the active volcanoes are aligned on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the Middle American oceanic trench in the Pacific Ocean that is the site of subduction of hte Cocos oceanic plate underneath Central America.  

  19. Sustainability and Peace in Costa Rica: The Case of University of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segreda, Alejandrina Mata

    2002-01-01

    This article describes initiatives at the University of Costa Rica, which, in combination with national programs, have strengthened the country's commitment to sustainable development over the past 15 years. It discusses the University's role in defining a national perspective on sustainability starting in 1987, as well as the evolution of the…

  20. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  1. [Determinants of fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rosero, L

    1983-08-01

    An attempt to systematize variables or factors traditionally associated with fertility, this study is not intended as a theoretical framework. 2 periods in Costa Rican fertility are recognized: one before 1960 and one after 1960. Within these periods 4 stages, each with different "key" determinants, are recognized. Until 1960, high fertility rates prevailed, with more than 6 children as total. Fluctuations were due to voluntary factors such as nuptiality and breastfeeding, and involuntary factors such as demand for less children during economic recession. Between 1960 and 1975 fertility declined. It is believed that the "key" factors in this fertility decline were on the contraceptive "offert" side rather than on the children demand side. The participation of peasants and low socioeconomic groups in the fertility decline and governmental health and family planning services are also recognized as important factors. Since the mid 70's a new stage of relative stability has been reached with an apparent convergence towards a total fertility of 3 children. How close this level is reached in the near future will depend on the control of unwanted fertility. The possibility of a 2nd fertility decline in Costa Rica depends mainly on factors which determine why couples have a 3rd child. Consequently, investigation of these factors is suggested to anticipate the future course of Costa Rican fertility. Basic fertility data are given in tables and an appendix.

  2. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  3. [Fresh water macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica I].

    PubMed

    Springer, Monika; Ramirez, Alonso; Hanson, Paul

    2010-12-01

    This is the first in a series of three volumes on the freshwater macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica. The present volume includes an introductory chapter summarizing the major types of freshwater environments, the biology of freshwater macroinvertebrates (habitats, food, respiration, osmoregulation, etc.), ecological and economic importance, conservation and a synopis of the major groups, followed by a simplified key. The next two chapters discuss collecting methods and biomonitoring. These are followed by chapters on mayflies (Ephemeroptera: 10 families), dragonflies (Odonata: 13 families), stoneflies (Plecoptera: 1 family) and caddisflies (Trichoptera: 15 families). Both in this volume and in those to follow, the chapters treating individual taxa include a summary of the natural history, importance, taxonomy, collecting methods, morphology and an illustrated key to the families; each family is discussed separately and an illustrated key to genera is provided; each chapter ends with a bibliography and a table listing all the genera with information on number of species, distribution, habitat and tolerance to water pollution. While the emphasis is on families and genera known from Costa Rica, additional taxa occurring elsewhere in Central America are mentioned. The present volume also includes numerous color plates of aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  4. Catalog of crater lakes from Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.

    2010-12-01

    Costa Rica has a diversity of volcanic crater lakes that can be classified into two groups: hot and cold lakes. The country contains at least 5% of the world's hot lakes. Costa Rica has 2 hot hyperacidic lakes, both of them on active volcanoes, the Rincón de la Vieja (38.0°C, pH = 0 - 1) and the Poás Laguna Caliente (36.1°C - 56°C, pH = 0.55 - 0.74), nowadays the Poás hot lake is the most active crater lake in the world, with more than 200 eruptions only on 2010. One of the most studied cold crater lakes is Irazú (13°C, pH = 3.5), that used to contain bubbling and clear areas of upwelling involving CO2 liberation and subaqueous fumaroles with temperatures up to 50°C, but since 2005 the lake presents an important descend until April 2010 when it disappeared. On February 9, 2003, Irazú's lake underwent a drastic change of color, from clear green to mustard with reddish loops, similar to the color of the waters of Lake Nyos after the gas burst of August 1986. Other studied cold lakes include Botos, Chato, and Tenorio, all at the summit of Quaternary volcanoes as well as Barva and Danta, located in recent pyroclastic cones. Some cold lakes are located in Holocene maar-type explosion craters, among them are Congo, Bosque Alegre, Hule, and Río Cuarto. These last two have undergone repeated rapid reddish color changes over the last 10 years, in association with fish kills and the liberation of apparently sulfurous scents. On March 2010, University of Costa Rica was the host of the 7th Workshop on Volcanic Lakes, part of the Commission of Volcanic Lakes of the IAVCEI, 51 participants from 14 countries attended the workshop; they presented 27 talks and 17 posters, also they visited and sample 4 of the lakes mentioned above (Botos, Irazú, Río Cuarto and Hule). Level of Study: 1: few or no data, 2: regular, 3: acceptable

  5. Economics of health planning--Costa Rica as an example.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, D

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica has been unusually successful in providing high levels of health for its people given its economic resources. It is proposed that there are two reasons for its success. Having no military, Costa Rica has had resources to invest in health care. Having a relatively equal income and education distribution and a democratic government, it has been able to provide health care widely rather than just to the elites. This paper examines production functions for health and possible directions for appropriate management of health as Costa Rica confronts the chronic disease pattern of the developed world.

  6. [The health system of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, María del Rocío; Acosta, Mónica; Muiser, Jorine; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. CCSS provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. The private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. These services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. The Ministry of Health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. Among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (EBAIS), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the Health Boards.

  7. A report from rural Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fishel, J

    1997-01-01

    This report provides findings from interviews conducted among single mothers and other community members from Monteverde, Costa Rica in 1995. Costa Rica has experienced recent, rapid fertility decline. The population still includes 33% who are under 15 years old and capable of adding to population increases. The sample of single mothers includes women who were never married, or those who were divorced, widowed, or separated. This group of mothers contends with primary headship and decision making in family affairs and with social stigma from being single mothers. Many employers discriminate against single mothers in hiring. Single mothers were concerned about making enough money to pay for basic items, such as rent, food, and child care. Some worried about the lack of a father's love and discipline. All sample respondents stated that it was important to plan the number and timing of childbearing. The single mothers were familiar with several modern and traditional methods of contraception. Few pregnancies were planned. Most were mistrustful of the effectiveness and safety of modern contraceptives. The negative attitudes were attributed to religious influences, misinformation, or lack of information. High school sex education provides information about biological reproduction, sexually transmitted diseases, and methods of contraception. One instructor said that she recommends rhythm as the safest and best method. The only other source of information about family planning is the clinic. Little information is directed to unmarried girls and or male responsibility. The community organization that sponsored the survey is working to empower women and decrease social discrimination against single mothers. The author recommends improved information dissemination on sexuality, reproductive health, and contraception and improved access of unmarried teens to contraceptives.

  8. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  9. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal2 in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis. PMID:22665618

  10. [Perception about biotechnology in university students in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marta; Rodríguez, Iris; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-09-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the perception and knowledge about biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in a sample (n=750) of university students from three public universities in Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional and Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. The study revealed that 88% of the students showed a satisfactory level of knowledge about modem biotechnology and 79% of them reported a favorable opinion and good acceptance of this technology. Students would accept some risks associated to biotechnology if it represents an improvement to the competitiveness of Costa Rica. Some differences were detected in the opinions from students of the three universities that can be associated to the area of study. Students from social disciplines showed a higher percentage of negative acceptances to biotechnology and GMOs when their opinions were compared with those of students from life sciences and technologies.

  11. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  12. Seroepidemiology of chlamydia in Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, K M; Barnes, R C; Oberle, M W; Rosero-Bixby, L; Schachter, J

    1990-01-01

    A population-based study of the sero-epidemiology of chlamydia was performed among a nationally representative sample of 760 Costa Rican women aged 25 to 59 years. Interviews and sera collection were completed between September 1984 and February 1985. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among these women was 56.1%. Women 25 to 39 years of age had a seroprevalence of 51.1%, while women 40 to 59 years of age had a seroprevalence of 64.2%. Women who reported no prior sexual activity had a seroprevalence rate of 48.6%, compared with a seroprevalence rate of 80.7% among women who reported three or more lifetime sexual partners. The geometric mean titre (GMT) of seropositive women ranged from 34.4 among the women who reported no prior sexual activity to 155.0 among the women with three or more lifetime sexual partners. Sero-positivity was more consistently associated with sexual activity than with age. Women with serological evidence of past Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or syphilis infection were more likely to be seropositive than were women without evidence of exposure to these sexually transmitted diseases, even when controlled for age and the number of lifetime sexual partners. The seropositivity among never sexually active women indicates the probable presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections, while the high seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among the sexually active women suggests that sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent a public health problem not previously quantified in Costa Rica. Further seroepidemiological and/or culture studies are warranted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection among men and younger women. PMID:2370061

  13. Costa Rica: achievements of a heterodox health policy.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-04-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica's population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system.

  14. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  15. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Guadamuz, Saul; Mora, Jaime; Ansejo, Jose; Zamora, Esteban; Herrera, Julio; Chaves, Esteban; Romero, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R<0.14m, a<0.10m, BT<0.5T, Ip<40kA, 3ms pulse)[1] is in a process of donation to Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objective of MEDUSA is to train students in plasma physics /technical related issues which will help all tasks of the very low aspect ratio stellarator SCR-1(A≡R/>=3.6, under design[2]) and also the ongoing activities in low temperature plasmas. Courses in plasma physics at undergraduate and post-graduate joint programme levels are regularly conducted. The scientific programme is intend to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including transport, heating and current drive via Alfv'en wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter[3,4]. [1] G.D.Garstka, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1997 [2] L.Barillas et al., Proc. 19^th Int. Conf. Nucl. Eng., Japan, 2011 [3] C.Ribeiro et al., IEEJ Trans. Electrical and Electronic Eng., 2012(accepted) [4] C.Ribeiro et al., Proc. 39^th EPS Conf. Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Sweden, 2012

  16. Costa Rica: Achievements of a Heterodox Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica’s population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system. PMID:17901439

  17. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  18. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-22

    trade agreements with China and Singapore, while strengthening the country’s social welfare programs. Throughout much of the electoral campaign...Ministerio Del Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas,” available at http://www.sinac.go.cr/ planificacionasp.php. 31 “Costa Rica...and reflected the polarization of the issue among the Costa Rican electorate . Trade unions, students, a variety of social movements, and the PAC

  19. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems: Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, G. W. S. V.

    A case study of Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia, an Open University school with a distance learning system, is presented. Areas of discussion include characteristics of the country, the educational system of Costa Rica, and the university. Specific topics include: the physical setting of Costa Rica; the population; the economy;…

  20. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  1. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jorge; Fonseca, Ana C; Nivia-Ruiz, Jaime; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Salas, Eva; Martínez, Solciré; Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla

    2010-10-01

    The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10 m depth) at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park), increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7 +/- 1.15 g/m2/d) and biomass (822.8 +/- 391.84 g/m2) compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge), surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9.0 +/- 0.58 trees/100 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/d) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems.

  2. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  3. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  4. Conversion or conservation? Understanding wetland change in northwest Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Amy E; Cumming, Graeme S

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are more threatened than any other ecosystem type, with losses exceeding 50% of their original extent worldwide. Despite the small portion of the Earth's surface that they comprise, wetlands contribute significantly to global ecosystem services. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the location and rate of change in wetland amount in the Tempisque Basin of northwest Costa Rica is predictable from landscape setting. Our results demonstrate that a strong potential exists for developing predictive models of wetland conversion based on an understanding of wetland location and surrounding trends of land use. We found that topography was the single most important predictor of wetland conversion in this area, entraining other conversion processes, and that spatial patterns of wetland loss could consistently be predicted from landscape-level variables. Areas with highest probabilities of conversion were found in the most accessible, non-protected regions of the landscape. While Palo Verde National Park made a substantial contribution to wetland conservation, our results highlight the dependence of lower-lying protected areas on upland processes, adding a little-addressed dimension of complexity to the dialogue about protected area management. Conservation strategies aimed at reducing wetland loss in tropical habitats will benefit from careful analysis of the dominant land use system(s) at a relatively broad scale, and the subsequent development of management and policy responses that take into account dynamic opportunities and constraints in the landscape.

  5. Mammals of the Braulio Carrillo- La Selva Complex, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Timm, Robert M.; Wilson, Don E.; Clauson, Barbara L.; LaVal, Richard K.; Vaughan, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Costa Rica's La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex encompasses a 60-km protected corridor of Caribbean rain and cloud forest extending from 30 m at the La Selva Biological Station to 2,906 m at the top of Volcán Barva. The 52,000-ha complex covers four life zones and two transitional zones, including tropical wet forest, tropical wet forest cool-transition, tropical premontane wet-transition rain forest, tropical premontane rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane rain forest. Located in the northeastern part of the country, the area is representative of Central American Caribbean slope forests that extend from Mexico to Panama. The extensive elevational gradient of the complex provides protected habitat for a variety of altitudinal migrants. With support from the National Geographic Society and Rice Foundation, the Organization for Tropical Studies organized a biological survey of the complex in early 1986. The mammal team worked at six sites along the elevational transect established by the expedition: 300 m, 700 m, 1,000 m, 1,500 m, 2,050 m, and 2,600 m. We supplemented our collecting records with unpublished records made available by colleagues, records in the published literature, and specimens in museum collections. In addition, observations recorded by a variety of observers at the La Selva Biological Station are summarized. The mammal fauna of the complex comprises 142 species including 79 bats, 23 rodents, 15 carnivores, 7 marsupials, 6 edentates, 4 artiodactyls, 3 primates, 2 rabbits, 2 shrews, and 1 perissodactyl. At least 10 additional species are likely to occur there. The only species of mammal likely to have been extirpated from the area is the giant anteater. Recognizing the importance of the area to wildlife and to mankind in general, the government of Costa Rica added 13,500 ha to the complex on 13 April 1986. This area, previously known as the “Zona Protectora,” provided the mid-elevational link between the lowlands of the La Selva

  6. 77 FR 37997 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... / Tuesday, June 26, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD54 Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the plants...

  7. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  8. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed.

  9. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  10. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic…

  11. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  12. [Migration and employment in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1986-04-01

    The relationship between rural-urban migration and employment in Costa Rica is explored. "The main purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions in which immigrants are absorbed in the labour market." The data are from the Survey on Migration and Employment in Metropolitan Areas carried out by the Ministry of Planning and Political Economics in 1982. (summary in ENG)

  13. Interdisciplinary Team Teaching on Sustainable Development in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessor, Roberta; Reeves, Margaret; Andrade, Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of an interdisciplinary field course in Costa Rica focused on sustainable development. The semester-long curriculum integrated sociology, political economy, and agricultural ecology. The curriculum was empirically based and involved faculty members and students working collaboratively on different…

  14. Area Handbook Series: Costa Rica, a Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Costarricense de Electricidad -ICE) furnishes electricity either directly or ,4 through sale to private or government companies. Authority in each canton...34 San Jos6: 1979. Costa Rica. Servicio Nacional de Electricidad . Estadistica elkc- trica, 1972. n. pl.: n. d. * Estadistica elctrica, 1978. n. pl

  15. Science and Mathematics Education Research in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berty, Rolando; Esquivel, Juan M.

    Increased emphasis on science and mathematics education research in Costa Rica since 1973 is reported. The majority of the studies carried out in the past 12 years have been diagnostic studies. General findings are listed, under the headings of certification, supervision, basic skills, teaching methods, attitudes, and curriculum. The diagnostic…

  16. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Victoria; Gomez, Carolina; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC) and the drug information services (DIS). Objective To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened. PMID:25246999

  17. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  18. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    PubMed

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces.

  19. Electronic Invoice in Costa Rica: Challenges for Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Juan José; De La O-Selva, Mario; Cortés-Morales, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the current situation that Costa Rica faces around fiscal issues and high evasion rates. Using actors and multidimensional analysis, it proposes the electronic invoice as an e-government strategic solution that will close the gap around tax evasion and the government incomes. The success achieved by Brazil in this area…

  20. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  1. Education in Costa Rica: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Zaher

    Costa Rican education, although fairly successful compared to other Third World or Latin American countries, has serious problems needing action, including (1) large discrepancies between educational ideals and the realities of urban privilege, with regard to access and quality, and (2) a rote, narrow, superficial, impractical education. Other…

  2. Rights of the Child in Costa Rica: Report Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luz Angela

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Costa Rica. The report's introduction notes that in addition to ratifying the Convention, Costa Rica's…

  3. The Orbiniidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) of Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2015-05-08

    Seven species of Orbiniidae are described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica including two new species. Leodamas hamatus n. sp., a commonly occurring species on the coast of Pacific Costa Rica, is described from 11‒18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and Bahia Culebra. This species is unusual in that the neuropodial uncini differ morphologically from anterior to posterior in the thorax. Scoloplos cryptospinigerus n. sp. is described from 18-22 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and has only a few short, toothed spines amidst numerous capillary setae in most of the thoracic neuropodia. This arrangement of thoracic neurosetae is unusual and has been seen only in one other described species of Scoloplos from Australia.

  4. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Children from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cristian; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.; Arias, María L.

    2010-01-01

    More than 5,000 diarrheal cases per year receive medical care at the National Children's Hospital of Costa Rica, and nearly 5% of them require hospitalization. A total of 173 Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea were characterized at the molecular, serologic, and phenotypic level. Multiplex and duplex polymerase chain reactions were used to detect the six categories of diarrheagenic E. coli. Thirty percent (n = 52) of the strains were positive, indicating a high prevalence among the pediatric population. Enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli pathotypes were the most prevalent (21% and 19%, respectively). Pathogenic strains were distributed among the four E. coli phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D, with groups A and B1 the most commonly found. This study used molecular typing to evaluate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli reported in Costa Rica and demonstrated the importance of these pathotypes in the pediatric population. PMID:20682870

  5. Population genetic data for 18 STR loci in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Arrieta, G; Sanóu, I; Vargas, M C; García, O; Yurrebaso, I; Pérez, J A; Villalta, M; Espinoza, M

    2007-05-03

    Allele frequencies for 18 STR autosomal loci (D3S1358, VWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, Penta D, Penta E, D19S433, D2S1338 and SE33) were obtained from a sample of 191-500 unrelated individuals from Costa Rica, Central America.

  6. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

  7. (Findings of the Costa Rica power sector efficiency study)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-10-08

    To present findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to the Instituto Costarricense de Electridad, and to the Ministry of Energy, Natural Resources and Mining. To discuss the progress and plans for the Central American Rural Electrification Project with US Agency for International Development (USAID)/Regional Office Central American Program (ROCAP). I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica to present the findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to our counterparts in the utility and the Ministry of Energy. Discussions were held with line level managers at Instituto Costarricensede Electricidad (ICE) and Ministry of Energy Mines and Natural Resources (MIRENEM), as well as a plan of action set for the final stage of the project. Discussions were held for a one day period with both the bilateral Agency for International Development (AID) and the regional AID mission regarding the need for a similar study in Guatemala and matters directly pertaining to the Central American Rural Electrification Study (CARES) project.

  8. A guide to the winged aphids (Homoptera) of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Voegtlin, David; Villalobos, William; Sánchez, Marco Vinicio; Saborio-R, Guido; Rivera, Carmen

    2003-05-01

    This guide is a compilation of limited morphological and biological information on the winged morphs of 60 species of aphids that have been collected in Costa Rica. It should not be viewed as a definitive taxonomic treatise on the aphids of Costa Rica, rather it is a tool that can be used to assist in research on the biology, host plant relationships, taxonomy, and virus transmission capabilities of aphids. Each species is covered in an identical manner. Morphological and biological information is provided in both Spanish and English as well as photographs of slide mounted specimens. Keys are provided to help the user in identifying the species. Most of the specimens examined were taken in traps associated with epidemiological studies. Limited field collecting has generated host records and these have been added to a list of the aphids of Central America that was compiled by Pamela Anderson and appended in the guide with her permission. The authors hope that this book will be useful to entomologists in Costa Rica and Central America.

  9. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica - an updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Cáceres González, Daniel A; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%).

  10. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  11. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores.

  12. [Abnormal haemoglobins in the newborn human population of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Abarca, Gabriela; Navarrete, Marta; Trejos, Rafael; de Céspedes, Carlos; Saborío, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary autosomic recessive diseases. A total of 70 943 samples of whole blood collected by heel prick in filter paper (S&S 903) from throughout Costa Rica (October 2005-October 2006) were analyzed to detect variants of hemoglobin by the iso-electric focusing technique. Eight hundred ninety one cases presented some variant, for a frecuency of 1/79. Five cases are homozygous for hemoglobin S (sickle cell disease) and one shows the double heterozygous genotype SC. In this study the S and C variants of hemoglobin, although with some local differences, are widespread all over the country. Thus, the prevention of new cases is important through the testing of hemoglobin in the Costa Rican National Newborn Screening Program, together with a Interdisciplinary National Program of Education for the disease and carrier status (AS/AC) for patients, families and medicar personnel. This is the basis for proper genetic counseling, to improve treatment and to reduce morbi-mortality.

  13. Teacher Expectations and Students from Low Socioeconomic Background: A Perspective from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regalla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' academic expectations of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) in Costa Rica for the purpose of cross-cultural comparison. A group of 17 teachers from two different elementary schools located in a small town in Costa Rica were questioned about their expectations of low SES students enrolled in their classes.…

  14. Differences and Similarities between School Principals in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The need for effective school leadership is a global concern. This paper provides a comparison of the school principal in Costa Rica to the United States. Differences and similarities are described for principals in both nations. Major differences for principals in Costa Rica include administrative salaries, selection procedures, induction, no…

  15. The Impact of Post-Secondary Privatization: The Case of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Lorelle L.; Santos, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1985 and 2000, the Central American country of Costa Rica experienced rapid and unprecedented private university growth as part of an international movement towards post-secondary privatization. Costa Rica stands apart from other developing countries in that all 50 of the nation's private universities are proprietary, resulting in a…

  16. Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia: A Case Study. DERG Papers, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED), the education system in the country, and information on Costa Rica are considered. UNED is helping to equalize geographical inequalities of access to higher education. Overall, UNED's academic programs have been aimed at those who want to obtain professional qualifications. In the first semester…

  17. Special Education and Severe Disabilities in Costa Rica: Developing Inclusion in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of special education in Costa Rica is provided. Costa Rica has promulgated four educational service models that extend special education expertise: consulting teachers, educational assistance teams, itinerant teams, and resource centers. Their educational classification system describes the level of modifications required by students.…

  18. Human Rabies: A Reemerging Disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in persons. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  19. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention.

  20. Hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Survey work from 1992–2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7%) followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%). The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3%) of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, Alurnus salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni. PMID:22303103

  1. Demography and development: the lessons of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on demography and development in Costa Rica. In a 15-year period, during the 1960s and the 1st years of the 1970s, Costa Rica achieved the fastest and steepest fertility decline yet recorded in Latin America. The crude birthrate dropped from a high point in 1959 of 48.3/1000 to a low of 29.9/1000 in 1973. During the same period, the death rate declined from 9.2/1000 to 5.2/1000 by 1973. Because of this, the drop in the rate of natural increase, from 3.9% a year in 1959 to 2.47% in 1973, was not quite as pronounced in percentage terms. During those same years infant mortality dropped from 74/1000 to about 45/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 7.3 children in 1960 to 5.5 in 1968 and to just above 4 children in 1973. The major thrust of the decline originated primarily in popular perception of the imbalance between an unnecessarily high birthrate and changed socioeconomic conditions toward the end of the 1950s, of which improvements in health and general social care were among the most influential. It is not so much the economic performance of Costa Rica that distinguishes it from its neighbors as its social condition. What keeps Costa Rica from being a "banana republic" is its comparatively much higher level of social indicators: newspaper circulation per capita and the amount of newsprint consumption, the extraordinary number of bookstores in San Jose, the number of physicians and hospital beds per person, the number of teachers and students enrolled at all levels of education, and its extremely low mortality rate and very high longevity. The total fertility rate appears to have entered a period of stagnation or pause, with virtually no decline since 1974 and even a slight increase since 1976. In the 5-year period since 1973, the decline through 1978 amounted to only 5%. In the preceding 1968-73 period it wasmore than 26%. The number of births/1000 women in the 15-19 year old age group remains constant and is comparatively very

  2. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  3. Willow Flycatcher nonbreeding territory defense behavior in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.; Koronkiewicz, T.J.; van Riper, Charles; Durst, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the intraspecific territorial defense behavior of wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in Costa Rica using a randomized playback experiment that exposed male and female birds to recordings of Willow Flycatcher songs and calls, Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygius) vocalizations, and random noise. Flycatchers of both sexes responded most strongly to simulated conspecific territory intrusion, and the agonistic behaviors that we observed were similar to those seen during natural intraspecific encounters in winter. Both males and females engaged in song and aggressive behaviors in defense of territories, and there was no significant difference between the sexes in scored agonistic responses. The similarity between the sexes in intraspecific territorial defense behaviors and aggressiveness may account for both sexes of flycatchers using the same habitats at our study sites in Costa Rica, and wintering females defending territories against males. The Willow Flycatcher, a sexually monomorphic species, differs in this way from a number of sexually dimorphic passerines, in which behaviorally dominant males occur in more optimal winter habitats. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  4. [Mass screening for gastric cancer performed in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Yumiko; Sasagawa, Tsuyoshi; Takasaki, Ken

    2002-06-01

    We performed mass screening for gastric cancer by means of X-ray in Costa Rica from 1996 through 1999. Screening was performed on 10,064 subjects and 69 gastric cancers were detected (screening group). During the same period 172 gastric cancer patients were referred to us (non-screening group). Results of screening in Japan (Japanese group) were quoted from the annual report of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterological Mass Survey. This study is a comparison of these 3 groups. The detection rate was 0.68% in the screening group, 0.11% in the Japanese group. The operability was 92.7%, 76.1%, 97.0%, the resectability 96.8%, 83.2%, 98.6%, the rate of early gastric cancer 64.5%, 30.3%, 65.9%, and the rate of curability A 79.0%, 38.5%. 82.6% in the screening group, non-screening group and Japanese group respectively. The results in the screening group were exactly equal to those in the Japanese group. These results show that the same results can be obtained in Costa Rica as in Japan, if screening is performed with the same diagnostic level and skill as in Japan.

  5. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    PubMed

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone.

  6. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  7. Status and conservation of coral reefs in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos E; Fonseca, Ana C; Alvarado, Juan José

    2010-05-01

    Costa Rica has coral communities and reefs on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch reefs, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has coral communities, reefs and isolated coral colonies. Coral reefs have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific reefs) and by El Niño warming events (both coasts). Monitoring is being carried out at three sites on each coast. Both coasts suffered significant reductions in live coral cover in the 1980's, but coral cover is now increasing in most sites. The government of Costa Rica is aware of the importance of coral reefs and marine environments in general, and in recent years decrees have been implemented (or are in the process of approval) to protect them, but limited resources endanger their proper management and conservation, including proper outreach to reef users and the general public.

  8. Mantle Xenoliths of Cerro Mercedes, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, F. N.; Carr, M. J.; Herzberg, C. T.; Feigenson, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Mantle peridotite occurs as xenoliths in lavas and bombs at Cerro Mercedes, a Plio-Quaternary potassic alkaline basalt volcano approximately 70 km behind the volcanic front of northern Costa Rica (Tournon and Alvarado, 1997). Mineral exploration led to the first discovery of abundant mantle xenoliths in Central America (Vargas and Alfaro, 1992). The compositions of 71 xenoliths recovered in January 2003 include dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite and olivine websterite. Twenty xenoliths have a diameter of at least 3 cm. The nodules are abundant in basalt outcrops and the rare bombs. In spite of substantial soil development in a rain forest environment, both xenoliths and host lava remain well preserved. Olivine, pyroxenes and spinel are common, plagioclase is present and garnet appears to be absent. There is no obvious shearing or deformation and several pyroxenes are as much as 1 cm in diameter. The mineralogy suggests a relatively shallow upper mantle source, within either the lithosphere or possibly the uppermost asthenosphere. Cerro Mercedes, at latitude 10° 58' N and longitude 82° 21' W, lies along the Rio San Juan, which is locally the border between Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Central America. This location approximately coincides with a boundary between dominantly depleted mantle to the northwest and OIB or Galapagos-like mantle to the southeast. We will use mineralogical data to better define the likely depths and oxidation states of representative nodules and isotopic data to define the type of mantle source.

  9. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel.

  10. [Punta Cocles coral reef, Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cindy; Alvarado, Juan José

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica). Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%), was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995), and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%). Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%), particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta) is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns or river mouths nearby, and because of the coast formation. The refuge character is enhanced by the environmental conscience of the people that live close to the reef and help to protect the environment.

  11. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  12. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Sims, Katharine R E; Healy, Andrew; Holland, Margaret B

    2010-06-01

    As global efforts to protect ecosystems expand, the socioeconomic impact of protected areas on neighboring human communities continues to be a source of intense debate. The debate persists because previous studies do not directly measure socioeconomic outcomes and do not use appropriate comparison groups to account for potential confounders. We illustrate an approach using comprehensive national datasets and quasi-experimental matching methods. We estimate impacts of protected area systems on poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand and find that although communities near protected areas are indeed substantially poorer than national averages, an analysis based on comparison with appropriate controls does not support the hypothesis that these differences can be attributed to protected areas. In contrast, the results indicate that the net impact of ecosystem protection was to alleviate poverty.

  13. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lips, Karen R.; Green, D.E.; Papendick, R.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, the amphibian fauna of Las Tablas, Costa Rica, began to decline, and by 1998 approximately 50% of the species formerly present could no longer be found. Three years later, at the Reserva Forestal Fortuna, in western Panama, a site approximately 75 km east southeast of Las Tablas, KRL encountered a mass die-off of amphibians and a subsequent decline in abundance and species richness. The epidemiological features of the anuran population declines and die-offs at both sites were similar, suggesting a similar cause. Herein we document the presence of the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in dead and dying wild frogs collected at Las Tablas just prior to population declines of several anuran species.

  14. The chemical and hydrologic structure of Poas volcano, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, G.L.; Brantley, S.L.; Fernandez, J.F.; Borgia, A.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the chemical characteristics of spring and river water draining the flanks of Poas Volcano, Costa Rica indicates that acid chloride sulfate springs of the northwestern flank of the volcano are derived by leakage and mixing of acid brines formed in the summit hydrothermal system with dilute flank groundwater. Acid chloride sulfate waters of the Rio Agrio drainage basin on the northwestern flank are the only waters on Poas that are affected by leakage of acid brines from the summit hydrothermal system. Acid sulfate waters found on the northwestern flank are produced by the interaction of surface and shallow groundwater with dry and wet acid deposition of SO2 and H2SO4 aerosols, respectively. The acid deposition is caused by a plume of acid gases that is released by a shallow magma body located beneath the active crater of Poas. -from Authors

  15. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Roger; Chavarría, Juan B

    2004-12-01

    Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica's Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA). Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters) artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ) Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1) with a seasonal component of the Yt = lamda(t-1) + gammaS12 + a(t) type.

  16. Seismic reflection images of the accretionary wedge of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, T.H.; Stoffa, P.L. ); McIntosh, K.; Silver, E.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The large-scale structure of modern accretionary wedges is known almost entirely from seismic reflection investigations using single or grids of two-dimensional profiles. The authors will report on the first three-dimensional seismic reflection data volume collected of a wedge. This data set covers a 9-km-wide {times} 22-km-long {times} 6-km-thick volume of the accretionary wedge just arcward of the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica. The three-dimensional processing has improved the imaging ability of the multichannel data, and the data volume allows mapping of structures from a few hundred meters to kilometers in size. These data illustrate the relationships between the basement, the wedge shape, and overlying slope sedimentary deposits. Reflections from within the wedge define the gross structural features and tectonic processes active along this particular convergent margin. So far, the analysis shows that the subdued basement relief (horst and graben structures seldom have relief of more than a few hundred meters off Costa Rica) does affect the larger scale through going structural features within the wedge. The distribution of mud volcanoes and amplitude anomalies associated with the large-scale wedge structures suggests that efficient fluid migration paths may extend from the top of the downgoing slab at the shelf edge out into the lower and middle slope region at a distance of 50-100 km. Offscraping of the uppermost (about 45 m) sediment occurs within 4 km of the trench, creating a small pile of sediments near the trench lower slope. Underplating of parts of the 400-m-thick subducted sedimentary section begins at a very shallow structural level, 4-10 km arcward of the trench. Volumetrically, the most important accretionary process is underplating.

  17. Health care in Costa Rica: boom and crisis.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Lago, C

    1985-01-01

    In 1960-1980 Costa Rica experienced a health boom, achieving significant improvements which moved that country into the number two position in Latin America for indicators such as population coverage, infant mortality, life expectancy and health services. In addition, there was a gradual process of integration of health services. But in the same period, the cost of health care as a percentage of GNP increased almost 5-fold and in 1980 was the fourth highest in the region. The economic crisis of the 1980s aggravated the financial difficulties; to cope with them, the government introduced an austere program to reduce costs and plans to transform the current model of health care into a more efficient one capable of maintaining Costa Rica's high health standards in the future. The paper is divided into five sections: summary of the historical development of health care, and description of its current organization and of its gradual process of integration; estimation of population coverage and its trends, evaluation of inequalities in coverage, and identification of the non-covered group; analysis of health-care financing and its sources, as well of the recent financial desequilibrium, its causes and measures to restore the equilibrium; description of health care benefits and their differences among groups and regions, analysis of the country's advances in health-care facilities and standards, and measurement of the impact of the health care system in income distribution; and description of the rising cost of health care and the current crisis, analysis of the causes of both phenomena, and review of the measures that have been and should be implemented to solve these problems.

  18. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) nest characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Guittar, John L; Dear, Fiona; Vaughan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considdrable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), Ceibapentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw's long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching.

  19. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-12-01

    This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast

  20. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  1. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  2. Quality Early Childhood Education in Costa Rica? Policy, Practice, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata

    2005-01-01

    High-quality early childhood education has been shown to improve school outcomes in several developing and developed nations. The history of policy around pre-school education in Costa Rica is described as background to presenting cross-sectional data on the emergent literacy skills of low-income Costa Rican children in kindergarten, 1st and 2nd…

  3. Educational Change and Structural Adjustment: A Case Study of Costa Rica. [Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Torres, Carlos

    In the 1960s and 1970s, steady economic growth helped the Costa Rican government expand its education system rapidly. The 1979 oil shocks, the U.S. 1981-82 recession, and other factors ended this prosperity and exposed the fragility of Costa Rica's late 1970s debt-financed development. To restore economic growth, new economic policies were…

  4. Incidence, distribution and association of Spongospora subterranea and Potato mop-top virus in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 39 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields in Costa Rica to determine incidence and association of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea and Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV). The fields were located in Costa Rica’s two major potato production regions, and were further char...

  5. The Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) species group in Costa Rica (Geometridae, Ennominae).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J Bolling

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the name Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) has been applied to what is a complex of three undescribed species in Costa Rica. They are very similar in maculation, but can be differentiated by genitalic characters and barcodes. P. alajuela Sullivan, sp. n. occurs at lower altitudes in the northwestern part of Costa Rica whereas P. intermediata Sullivan, sp. n. and P. esperanza Sullivan, sp. n. are found at partially overlapping altitudes in the central mountain ranges.

  6. The Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) species group in Costa Rica (Geometridae, Ennominae)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Historically, the name Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) has been applied to what is a complex of three undescribed species in Costa Rica. They are very similar in maculation, but can be differentiated by genitalic characters and barcodes. P. alajuela Sullivan, sp. n. occurs at lower altitudes in the northwestern part of Costa Rica whereas P. intermediata Sullivan, sp. n. and P. esperanza Sullivan, sp. n. are found at partially overlapping altitudes in the central mountain ranges. PMID:25061377

  7. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae) on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Laurie A; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S; Brien, Matthew L; Boston, Michael; Mazzotti, Frank J; Spotila, James R

    2012-12-01

    The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN) and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40) and Santa Rosa (N=9) National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13), and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11). We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc) were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9%) were either hatchlings (<0.5m) or juveniles (0.5-1.25m). The average non-hatchling encounter rate per survey for the Pacific coast was 3.1 crocodiles/km, with individual encounter rates ranging from 1.2 crocodiles/km to 4.3 crocodiles/ km in Las Baulas National Park and the Osa Conservation Area respectively. Distribution of size classes within the individual locations did not differ with the exception of Santa Rosa and Las Baulas National Parks, where hatchlings were found in water with lower salinities. These were the first systematic surveys in several of the areas studied and additional work is needed to further characterize the American crocodile population in Costa Rica.

  8. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  9. A radio voice for women. Organizing for change: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Suarez Toro, M

    1995-01-01

    The Feminist Radio Endeavor (FIRE) was organized in Costa Rica in 1991 and broadcasts in English and Spanish for two hours every day on its own short-wave radio station, Radio for Peace International. In January 1995, FIRE discovered that the Costa Rican government planned to create a huge garbage land-fill proximate to a unique forest reserve which is the last primary forest reserve near the city of San Jose. The 100 acres of forest rests in a transitional zone between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts and hosts a wide variety of flora and fauna. On one side of the forest, a small village is situated whose inhabitants have protected the forest for decades. On the other side, the indigenous Quitirisi continue their centuries-old protection of the forest. In February, FIRE staff traveled by horseback and used walkie-talkie radios to air a live Radio Eco-tour of the forest and its neighboring village. People from over 100 countries listened to the broadcast. Within days, the staff was broadcasting live from outside the municipal building where delegates were discussing the growing protest over the dump site. The delegates emerged to announce that they would oppose the use of the road for dump trucks. FIRE then invited call-ins to their broadcast, and the lines were flooded with people expressing fears and frustration with the delegates for refusing to discuss the issues. Callers from the US stated that hearing the voices of the people affected brought the issue to life for them. To FIRE, this is the essential element of global communications.

  10. [Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific Coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Orrego, Carlos Mario; Hernández Gómez, Giovanna

    2006-03-01

    Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) was studied at Nancite nesting beach, in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacific) during July and August 2002. Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles. Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered. The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45) and Citrobacter freundi (6/45) from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp. (32/45), Staphylococcus aureus (6/45) and Corynebacterium spp. (5/45) from nasal ducts. The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of several potential human and animal microbe pathogens.

  11. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  12. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  13. Pesticides in blood from spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) downstream of banana plantations in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul B C; Woudneh, Million B; Ross, Peter S

    2013-11-01

    Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) are fish-eating crocodilians that inhabit freshwater habitat in tropical regions of the Americas. To assess the exposure of caiman to pesticides from banana plantations, the authors collected whole blood samples (30 mL) from 14 adult caiman that were captured in the North Atlantic region of Costa Rica. Blood samples were analyzed for 70 legacy- and current-use pesticides and breakdown products using newly developed ultra-trace, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Caiman accumulated pesticides ranked by concentration as dieldrin > permethrin > mirex > 4,4'-DDE > alpha-endosulfan > heptachlor epoxide > oxychlordane > heptachlor > cypermethrin. Caiman within the high-intensity banana crop watershed of Rio Suerte had higher pesticide burdens relative to other more remote locations (F = 12.79; p = 0.00). Pesticide concentration decreased with distance from upstream banana plantations in this river system (F = 20.76; p = 0.00). Caiman body condition was negatively correlated with total pesticide concentrations (F = 6.23; p = 0.02) and with proximity to banana plantations (F = 5.05; p = 0.04). This suggests that either pesticides elicited toxic effects in caiman, resulting in diminished overall health, or that the quantity or quality of their prey was reduced by pesticides downstream of plantation waterways. The authors' results indicate that pesticide use in banana plantations is impacting a high trophic level species inhabiting one of the most important wilderness areas in Costa Rica (Tortuguero National Park).

  14. Costa Rica's payment for environmental services program: intention, implementation, and impact.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan Andres; Boomhower, Judson P

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the intention, implementation, and impact of Costa Rica's program of payments for environmental services (PSA), which was established in the late 1990s. Payments are given to private landowners who own land in forest areas in recognition of the ecosystem services their land provides. To characterize the distribution of PSA in Costa Rica, we combined remote sensing with geographic information system databases and then used econometrics to explore the impacts of payments on deforestation. Payments were distributed broadly across ecological and socioeconomic gradients, but the 1997-2000 deforestation rate was not significantly lower in areas that received payments. Other successful Costa Rican conservation policies, including those prior to the PSA program, may explain the current reduction in deforestation rates. The PSA program is a major advance in the global institutionalization of ecosystem investments because few, if any, other countries have such a conservation history and because much can be learned from Costa Rica's experiences.

  15. [Intestinal parasites in howler monkeys Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae) of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Carmona, Misael Chinchilla; Bermúdez, Olga Guerrero; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Porras, Ronald Sánchez; Ortiz, Beatriz Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Fecal samples of 102 howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from several sites of Costa Rica were studied for intestinal parasites. The zones studied were: Central Valley (San Ramón, Alajuela), Central Pacific (Chomes and Manuel Antonio National Park. Puntarenas), North Pacific (Palo Verde Park and Playa Potrero, Guanacaste). Chira Island in the Nicoya Gulf and Caribean area (Cahuita. Limón). Animals were anesthetized with dards containing Telazol in order to collect the fecal material; some monkeys defecated spontaneously and others by direct stimulation. Samples were studied in saline solution (0.85%) and a Iodine solution, or stained with Haematoxylin. The material was also cultured in Dobell culture medium to determine the presence of amoeba and flagellates. Strongvloides. Controrchis. Trypanoxyuris genera were found in 3.4% of the samples. In addition 16.7% to 80% of the animals showed protozoa infection with Endolimax, Entamoeba, Trichomonas and Giardia. It is discussed the relationships of parasite infection with environmental conditions, animal population and human presence, specially in the monkey conservation programs point of view.

  16. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  17. [Trace metals in coastal sediments from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Céspedes, Jairo; Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A

    2004-12-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 microg/g, respectively) and lower in Moín Bay (3.4% and 52 microg/g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 microg/g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 microg/g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moín Bay (6.4 microg/g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 microg/g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moín Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition.

  18. [The phytoplankton community of Punta Morales, Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica ].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli Olivera, E; Morales Ramirez, A

    2001-12-01

    Three daily samplings of the phytoplankton community were made at two consecutive days in March, April, May, September, October, November and December 1997, at Punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Samples were collected during each tide at depths of 50% and 10% of light penetration using a Niskin bottle. A total of 43 taxa were identified. Centric diatoms, pennates and flagellates represented 90% of total phytoplankton abundance. In the phytoplankton fraction (cells > 30 microm), diatoms were the most abundant group, and Skeletonema costatum (32%) dominated. In nannophytoplankton (cells < 30 microm), Chaetoceros (23.7%) was the most abundant taxon, followed by flagellates (23%) and Cylindrotheca closterium (13.1%). These results agree with previous surveys and suggest that a typical net phytoplankton community persist through time in the Punta Morales zone. The number of nannophytoplankton fraction cells varied seasonally and suggests quantitative changes in species abundance, with possible modifications of cellular size or chain length in filamentous species. The codominance between S. costatum and Chaetoceros spp. during the rainy season suggested the ocurrence of an early ecological sucession, and nutrients could be the factor generating such population changes.

  19. [A biogeochemical model for the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In agreement with the Broecker and Penn two-boxes model, I generated a biogeochemical balance model for the Gulf of Nicoya (Guanacaste, Costa Rica) using two nutrient reservoirs: surface water and deep water. The mixing zone was located at a depth of 20 m. There is a balance between surface waters descending to the bottom and upwelling waters that carry nutrients and other chemical elements to the surface. The main source of nitrogen (nitrate), was the outlet of the Tempisque and Tárcoles rivers. The Gulf of Nicoya is a net source of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) with an availability rate of 87 x 10(3) mol day(-1) in the dry season and 3044 x 10(3) mol day(-1)in the rainy season. Dissolved Inorganic Phosphate (DIP) was estimated in 27 mol day(-1) in the dry season and 207 mol day(-1) in the rainy season. The dynamics of these biolimited nutrients, in relation to runoff seasonal variations, fits the biological processes reported for the gulf, for example, for variations in primary productivity levels, and maturity and reproduction seasons for species with short and long life cycles.

  20. A clandestine burial in Costa Rica: prospection and excavation.

    PubMed

    Congram, Derek R

    2008-07-01

    This case report describes the search for a clandestine grave in Costa Rica for which the police sought the assistance of an archaeologist. An anonymous informant suggested that the victim had been kidnapped and murdered, placed in a shallow grave in the woods, then covered with lime and cement. A search of the area to detect conventional signs of burial (e.g., slumping, different plant growth) resulted in excavation of unrelated features of past disturbance. Different aspects of the grave including the deposition of cement powder over the body prevented its initial discovery. Improvisation of conventional archaeological excavation methods and use of police familiar with archaeological excavation resulted in the location of the grave and exhumation of the victim without loss of important contextual evidence that supported testimony on the cause of death. The taphonomic effects of high-lying ground water and lime in the tropical burial environment are briefly discussed. Recommendations such as the construction of a temporary sump to lower the ground water level in the grave during excavation are made to assist in similar investigations in the future.

  1. Ocular disease in American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Millichamp, Nicholas J; Barrantes, Luz Denia Barrantes; Barr, Brady R; Montero, Juan R Bolaños; Platt, Steven G; Abel, Mike T; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

    2011-04-01

    Beginning in early 2006, an ocular disease of unknown etiology was routinely observed in American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) inhabiting the highly polluted Tarcoles River in west-central Costa Rica. We examined the nature and incidence of ocular disease in Tarcoles crocodiles and assessed the possible association between the disease and accumulation of chemical pollutants in diseased individuals. During 12-15 September and 12-13 December 2007, crocodiles were captured and examined for ocular disease and sampled to determine environmental contaminant accumulation. Three of 11 (27.3%) crocodiles captured (all males) exhibited unilateral ocular disease, primarily characterized by corneal opacity and scarring, anterior synechia, and phthisis bulbi. Multiple pollutants were detected in crocodile caudal scutes (organochlorine pesticides [OCPs] and metals), crocodile blood (OCPs), and sediments (OCPs and metals) from the Tarcoles, but no associations were found between contaminant accumulation and the incidence of eye disease. On the basis of the limited number of diseased animals examined and the potential exposure of crocodiles to pathogens and other pollutants not targeted in this study, we cannot rule out infection or chemical toxicosis as causes of the eye lesions. However, circumstantial evidence suggests that the observed ocular disease is likely the result of injury-induced trauma (and possibly secondary infection) inflicted during aggressive encounters (e.g., territorial combat) among large adult crocodiles living at relatively high densities.

  2. Health insurance and child mortality in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dow, William H; Schmeer, Kammi K

    2003-09-01

    This study uses a natural experiment approach to evaluate the effect of health insurance on infant and child mortality. In the 1970s Costa Rica adopted national health insurance, which expanded children's insurance coverage from 42 percent in 1973 to 73 percent by 1984. Aggregate infant and child mortality rates dropped rapidly during this period, but this trend had begun prior to the insurance expansion, and may be related to other changes during this period. We use county-level vital statistics and census data to isolate the causal insurance effect on mortality using county fixed effects models. We find that insurance increases are strongly related to mortality decreases at the county level before controlling for other time-varying factors. However, after controlling for changes in other correlated maternal, household, and community characteristics, fixed effects models indicate that the insurance expansion could have explained only a small portion of the mortality change. These results question the proposition that health insurance can lead to large improvements in infant and child mortality, and that expanding insurance to the poor can substantially narrow socioeconomic differentials in mortality.

  3. Meiofauna associated with a Pacific coral reef in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Héctor M.; Obando, Vilma L.; Cortés, Jorge

    1987-10-01

    The meiofauna of two coral reef habitats at Isla del Naño, Costa Rica was studied over a one year period. The dominant groups were: Foraminifera (21.2%), Copepoda (19.7%), Nematoda (19.1%), Gastropoda (16.5%), Polychaeta (7.2%) and Bivalvia (6.6%). The highest diversity was found in coarse, heterogeneous sands with the highest percentage of carbonates. The meiofauna showed a high degree of horizontal aggregation, which is a characteristic pattern for macro- and meiofauna in sediments of variable composition. No vertical variation in distribution was evident, probably due to the deep location of the Redox Potential Discontinuity layer. The total densities of organisms found in this study (99 to 575 ind/10 cm2) are low compared with densities in similar non-reefal sands (7 to 6116), and from fine sediments (80 to 17 000), but are comparable to densities found in other reef areas (39 to 609.5 ind/10 cm2). This is the first report on meiofauna from the eastern Pacific, and the first time that foraminiferans are the dominant group.

  4. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women’s health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women’s rights to life and health. PMID:26557876

  5. Phytoplankton production and grazing balances in the Costa Rica Dome.

    PubMed

    Landry, Michael R; Selph, Karen E; Décima, Moira; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Stukel, Michael R; Taylor, Andrew G; Pasulka, Alexis L

    2016-03-01

    We investigated phytoplankton production rates and grazing fates in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) during summer 2010 based on dilution depth profiles analyzed by flow cytometry and pigments and mesozooplankton grazing assessed by gut fluorescence. Three community production estimates, from (14)C uptake (1025 ± 113 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) and from dilution experiments analyzed for total Chla (990 ± 106 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) and flow cytometry populations (862 ± 71 mg C m(-2) day(-1)), exceeded regional ship-based values by 2-3-fold. Picophytoplankton accounted for 56% of community biomass and 39% of production. Production profiles extended deeper for Prochlorococcus (PRO) and picoeukaryotes than for Synechococcus (SYN) and larger eukaryotes, but 93% of total production occurred above 40 m. Microzooplankton consumed all PRO and SYN growth and two-third of total production. Positive net growth of larger eukaryotes in the upper 40 m was balanced by independently measured consumption by mesozooplankton. Among larger eukaryotes, diatoms contributed ∼3% to production. On the basis of this analysis, the CRD region is characterized by high production and grazing turnover, comparable with or higher than estimates for the eastern equatorial Pacific. The region nonetheless displays characteristics atypical of high productivity, such as picophytoplankton dominance and suppressed diatom roles.

  6. Urban structure and dengue fever in Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Fuller, Douglas O.; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Solano, Mayra E.; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most important arboviral disease globally and is usually associated with built environments in tropical areas. Remotely sensed information can facilitate the study of urban mosquito-borne diseases by providing multiple temporal and spatial resolutions appropriate to investigate urban structure and ecological characteristics associated with infectious disease. In this study, coarse, medium and fine resolution satellite imagery (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and QuickBird respectively) and ground-based data were analyzed for the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica for the years 2002–04. The results showed that the mean normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was generally higher in the localities with lower incidence of dengue fever during 2002, although the correlation was statistically significant only in the dry season (r=−0.40; p=0.03). Dengue incidence was inversely correlated to built area and directly correlated with tree cover (r=0.75, p=0.01). Overall, the significant correlations between dengue incidence and urban structural variables (tree cover and building density) suggest that properties of urban structure may be associated with dengue incidence in tropical urban settings. PMID:20161131

  7. Phytoplankton production and grazing balances in the Costa Rica Dome

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Michael R.; Selph, Karen E.; Décima, Moira; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Stukel, Michael R.; Taylor, Andrew G.; Pasulka, Alexis L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated phytoplankton production rates and grazing fates in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) during summer 2010 based on dilution depth profiles analyzed by flow cytometry and pigments and mesozooplankton grazing assessed by gut fluorescence. Three community production estimates, from 14C uptake (1025 ± 113 mg C m−2 day−1) and from dilution experiments analyzed for total Chla (990 ± 106 mg C m−2 day−1) and flow cytometry populations (862 ± 71 mg C m−2 day−1), exceeded regional ship-based values by 2–3-fold. Picophytoplankton accounted for 56% of community biomass and 39% of production. Production profiles extended deeper for Prochlorococcus (PRO) and picoeukaryotes than for Synechococcus (SYN) and larger eukaryotes, but 93% of total production occurred above 40 m. Microzooplankton consumed all PRO and SYN growth and two-third of total production. Positive net growth of larger eukaryotes in the upper 40 m was balanced by independently measured consumption by mesozooplankton. Among larger eukaryotes, diatoms contributed ∼3% to production. On the basis of this analysis, the CRD region is characterized by high production and grazing turnover, comparable with or higher than estimates for the eastern equatorial Pacific. The region nonetheless displays characteristics atypical of high productivity, such as picophytoplankton dominance and suppressed diatom roles. PMID:27275036

  8. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women's health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women's rights to life and health.

  9. The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R; Salinas, Zenia M

    2002-06-01

    Many nations promote nature-based tourism in order to promote the dual goals of nature conservation and income generation. To be most effective in providing services that facilitate achievement of these goals, decision makers will need to understand and incorporate tourist preferences for nature appreciation, infrastructure, use restrictions, and other attributes of national parks and protected areas. This paper presents the use of choice experiments as a mechanism to analyze preferences of national and international tourists in relation to the development of Barva Volcano Area in Costa Rica. In this section of the Braulio Carrillo National Park, managers are faced with an immediate need to plan for greatly increased visitation rates due to a new road, which will greatly improve access. Choice sets were developed in collaboration with park managers. A survey was conducted of 171 Costa Rican and 271 foreign tourists who visited Poás Volcano, a well-visited alternative site to Barva Volcano. Survey data was analyzed using conditional multinomial logit models. Results of the study demonstrate, that both sets of tourists preferred: (i) improved infrastructure; (ii) aerial trams with observation towers and picnic areas; (iii) more information; and (iv) low entrance fees. Foreign tourists demonstrated strong preferences for the inclusion of restrictions in the access to some trails, whereas Costa Ricans did not show any significant preference for restrictions. Marginal willingness-to-pay for greater information was estimated to be $1.54 for foreign tourists and $1.01 for Costa Rican visitors. The study concludes that choice experiments are a useful tool in the analyses of tourist preferences for the development of protected areas in developing countries.

  10. Undeserving mothers? Shifting rationalities in the maternal healthcare of undocumented Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sara Leon Spesny

    2015-01-01

    The case of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica is emblematic of the issues that immigration generates in host countries. Undocumented Nicaraguan women seeking maternal care constitute a key challenge to the universal coverage of Costa Rica's health system. Can the long-standing commitment to universality, solidarity and equality expressed in the legislation be translated into practice? Discourses of health professionals in Costa Rica reveal a contradiction between merit and prejudice in prenatal and delivery care. Here, I present qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses at a Costa Rican National Hospital. The data show that migrant women, rejected from primary care, do find help in emergency services, but not without difficulties, as they must engage in individual negotiations centred on their bodies. The discourses of health providers reflect an ambivalence between the perceived undeservingness of undocumented migrant women and the medical realisation that two lives are at risk. While the foetus often evokes compassion, the mother commonly provokes repression, as specific and shifting rationalities reflect new moral regimes that are applied to this population. Women are perceived as being 'illegal', 'immoral' and 'irrational', and the baby, although legally Costa Rican due to jus solis policy, embodies 'the other'. Ultimately, otherness frames perceptions of deservingness of maternal care for undocumented migrant women in Costa Rica.

  11. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  12. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  13. Accretionary processes along the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, T.H.; Stoffa, P.L. ); McIntosh, K.; Silver, E.A. )

    1990-06-01

    The geometry of large-scale structures within modern accretionary prisms is known entirely from seismic reflection studies using single or grids of two-dimensional profiles. Off Costa Rica the authors collected a three-dimensional reflection data set covering a 9 km wide {times} 22 km long {times} 6 km thick volume of the accretionary prism just arcward of the Middle America Trench. The three-dimensional processing and ability to examine the prism as a volume has provided the means to map structures from a few hundred meters to kilometers in size with confidence. Reflections from within the prism define the gross structural features and tectonic processes active along this particular portion of the Middle America Trench. So far in the analysis, these data illustrate the relationships between the basement, the prism shape, and overlying slope sedimentary deposits. For instance, the subducted basement relief (of several hundred meters amplitude) does seem to affect the larger scale through-going faults within the prism. Offscraping of the uppermost 45 m of sediments occurs within 4 km of the trench creating a small pile of sediments at the base of the trench. How this offscraped sediment is incorporated into the prism is still being investigated. Underplating of parts of the 400 m thick subducted section begin: at a very shallow structural level, 4 to 10 km arcward of the trench. Amplitude anomalies associated with some of the larger arcward dipping structures in the prism and surface mud volcanoes suggest that efficient fluid migration paths may extend from the top of the downgoing slab at the shelf edge out into the lower and middle slope region, a distance of 50 to 100 km.

  14. Forearc sedimentation in Terraba Trough, Costa Rica, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, P.B.; Lowe, D.R.

    1987-05-01

    Sedimentary rocks of Terraba Trough, Costa Rica, were deposited in a forearc basin developed at an ocean-ocean convergent boundary. The basin developed in the middle to late Eocene when the Farallon plate began its subduction beneath the Caribbean plate. Shallow-water carbonates of the Brito Formation were deposited on shoals of basement blocks. These were surrounded by deeper marine areas in which volcaniclastics and carbonate debris accumulated. The Brito Formation consists of algal-foraminiferal packstone to grainstone, rudstone, and rare wackestone formed in fore-slope, carbonate buildup, and open platform environments in a warm, tropical sea. The Eocene Brito Formation is overlain by rocks of the upper Oligocene Rio Claro Member of the Terraba Formation. It is composed of rhodolite and bioclastic grainstone deposited in shallow water. A combination of little subsidence, mild volcanism, and possible erosion at about 30 Ma during a global drop of sea level may be responsible for the absence of lower Oligocene rocks in the study area. After the deposition of the Rio Claro Member, the area subsided rapidly to become a trough possibly deeper than 2000 m. Sedimentation took place in deep water from sediment gravity flows. In the early to early middle Miocene, coarser sediments and thicker sand units containing coal fragments became more abundant, suggesting that the basin was gradually filled. This study indicates that the timing and degree of subsidence of the fore-arc basin and the vertical variation in lithology are closely related to the variation in convergence rate between lithospheric plates in this part of Central America and the eastern Pacific.

  15. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Haberyan, Kurt A; Horn, Sally P; Umaña, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2, but low in dissolved O2; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic). The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1), Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.

  16. [The importance of genealogy applied to genetic research in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O

    2004-09-01

    The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.

  17. Space geodetic studies of crustal deformation in subduction zones: The Central Andes and Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norabuena, Edmundo O.

    Subduction zones are regions that account for most of the total energy released by large earthquakes around the world. Two of these regions, the Costa Rica Margin and the southern Peru Margin, historically prone to devastating earthquakes with severe social and economic impact, are the focus of my dissertation. I use GPS derived velocity fields estimated from time series of coordinates of campaign stations deployed between 1994 and 2001 over the Costa Rica and Peru subduction zones to infer fault geometry and slip distribution on the plate boundary, and study the corresponding seismogenic zones. Regions of locking are associated with asperities that may break at the end of the corresponding earthquake cycle; their area extent may signify amount of energy to be released. I also show that fore-arc motion in Costa Rica, as well as postseismic relaxation, are factors that contribute to or alter the observed velocity fields and must be taken into account.

  18. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  19. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America.

  20. Two new species and a new combination in Protium (Burseraceae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría-Aguilar, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Laura P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Protium (Burseraceae) are described and illustrated: Protium aguilarii sp. nov., from the Pacific slope of the Osa Peninsula, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica; and Protium hammelii sp. nov., from wet forests on the Caribbean slopes of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In addition, Protium brenesii comb. nov., is proposed as a new combination based on Trichilia brenesii, a name that was based on a specimen collected with flowers in the mountains near San Ramón, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. It is compared with Protium costaricense, a similar species with which it has been confused for more than 90 years. Finally, illustrations and specimen citations are provided for all the aforementioned taxa, and some others with which they have been confused. PMID:28228688

  1. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    PubMed

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes.

  2. The fertility plateau in Costa Rica: a review of causes and remedies.

    PubMed

    Holl, K D; Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1993-01-01

    Costa Rica achieved a substantial reduction in its overall fertility rate in a very short period of time. The halving of the fertility rate which occurred in less than ten years in Costa Rica transpired over the course of 100 years in France and 170 in Sweden. The level of contraceptive use in Costa Rica is twice that in other Central American nations. The authors summarize the recent demographic history of Costa Rica and review factors influencing its remarkable fertility decline. They then discuss possible explanations for the ensuing fertility plateau and conclude by suggesting strategies for affecting a further decrease in fertility rates. With regard to the reasons for the fertility plateau, cultural factors, socioeconomic factors, declining government commitment and family planning services, education, and the Church are considered. To reduce the level of fertility even further, the authors recommend that the government adopt a clear population policy which could serve as a basis for other changes such as increased support of family planning programs, improvements in the educational system, increased women's status and employment opportunities, and extensive education in schools and through the mass media on the socioeconomic and environmental effects of overpopulation. It is important to increase Costa Ricans' understanding of the negative impacts of continued population growth and the role of individual family planning decisions in that growth.

  3. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  4. [Costa Rica: a geographical approach to the study of its population (1522-1984)].

    PubMed

    Carvajal Alvarado, G

    1990-01-01

    The author provides a geographical interpretation of population dynamics in Costa Rica from 1522 to 1984. Sections are included on Spanish colonialism as a demographic catastrophe, 1500-1821; the country's stable demographic behavior after obtaining its independence in 1821; the population as a product of cross-breeding; the unequal spatial distribution of the country's population; model demographic growth, 1900-1984; low mortality and high fertility as factors driving population growth; the age structure of the population; regional migration in Costa Rica and areas of migratory attraction; the growth of the urban population and the extent of assimilation of diverse groups; and the problem of poverty.

  5. Four new species of Symmerista Hübner, 1816 (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Symmerista Hübner (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) is reviewed for Costa Rica, based on 49 wild-caught specimens. Four species are newly described: Symmerista luisdiegogomezi Chacón, Symmerista inbioi Chacón, Symmerista minaei Chacón and Symmerista aura Chacón. All are from the cloud forests of the Talamanca moutain range, southern Costa Rica. Photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and barcodes are also provided. The species Symmerista tlotzin Schaus (1892) is removed from Symmerista and assigned to the genus Elymiotis Walker as a new combination. PMID:25061379

  6. Chromobacterium violaceum Infection in a free-ranging howler monkey in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Mario; Morales, Juan A; Hernández, Giovanna; Jiménez, Mauricio; Alfaro, Alejandro; Barquero-Calvo, Elias

    2010-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram-negative saprobe bacterium that is a rare opportunistic pathogen in mammals. There are numerous reports in humans including fatalities, but no record exists in free-ranging nonhuman primates. Here we report an infection by C. violaceum in a wild adult male howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) captured at Ballena Marine National Park, in southwestern Costa Rica. The individual had severe skin lesions over its extremities; gross findings included multiple skin ulcers, white foci in liver, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Histologic results included deep dermatitis with presence of necrotic epithelial cells where clusters of coccoid-shaped bacteria were detected. In the liver, numerous neutrophils forming microabscesses, telangiectasia, and focal necrotic areas were observed. Necrotic liver tissue sampled for bacteriologic culture resulted in the isolation of C. violaceum. We could not ascertain the source or mechanism of infection in this case, although infection through skin microabrasions is suspected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for this pathogen in a wild, nonhuman primate. This report also draws attention to this infectious agent as a potential emerging wildlife disease and consideration should be paid by regional veterinary and epidemiologic vigilance services.

  7. [Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Carmen; Valerio, Idalia; Blanco, Kinndle; Chinchilla, Misael

    2012-06-01

    As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out.

  8. Handling and aflatoxin contamination of white maize in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mora, M; Lacey, J

    1997-01-01

    Projects funded by International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada and the European Commission have enabled the examination of more than 3000 samples of maize collected from all regions of Costa Rica at different stages, from the growing crop through storage to final sale, and at different water contents. Contamination with Aspergillus flavus was frequent and about 80% of samples contained more than 20 ng aflatoxins g(-1) grain. Average contamination with aflatoxins in the Brunca Region was > 274 ng g(-1) while that in other regions was < 70 ng g(-1). Except in Brunca region, where it averaged 376 ng g(-1), contamination of grain from commercial sources was slightly less than of that from farms (< or = 15 ng g(-1)). It appeared that samples kept on the cob after harvest contained almost no aflatoxin while shelled samples were frequently highly contaminated. Experiments were therefore done in Brunca and Huetar Atlantic Regions, utilising 34 experimental maize crops to study in detail the development of A. flavus and aflatoxin from before harvest, through postharvest treatment before drying and through storage for six months. A. flavus was isolated more frequently from maize shelled immediately after harvest than from that kept on the cob until it could be dried, and from more samples from the Brunca Region than from the Huetar Atlantic Region. Samples harvested with > or = 18% water content often contains > 70% of grains infected with A. flavus but sometimes there were few grains infected. As found in the initial survey, more aflatoxin contamination developed in shelled maize than in that handled on the cob during the period from harvesting to drying, especially if the delay was more than 5 days, and more in Brunca than in Huetar. Shelled grain contained 400-800 ng aflatoxin g(-1) in Brunca but < 100 ng g(-1) in Huetar while grain kept on the cob contained < 30 ng g(-1), even with > 18% water content. Incidence of Fusarium spp. exceeded 50% except where A

  9. The modeling of daily precipitation in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, John Michael

    The understanding of precipitation and its underlying processes is important to many human activities. Agricultural planning, hydroelectric resource management, and industrial infrastructure development all rely heavily on being able to make reasonable predictions concerning rainfall. The lack of sufficient rainfall can have devastating social and economic consequences for developing nations that are reliant on subsistence agriculture and hydroelectric power. This study examines the means by which daily precipitation in Costa Rica can be modeled, and how the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects the precipitation generating mechanisms. A selection of three meteorological stations are used to test how daily rainfall can be characterized by the occurrence and intensity of the individual rainfall events. The occurrence is modeled using a two-state first-order Markov model, which provides insight into the relative length of wet and dry spells. The intensity model uses L-moments to determine the optimum statistical distribution. These statistical parameters are used to understand the inter-annual and inter-seasonal variations in the precipitation-generating mechanisms as they are modified by the ENSO phenomenon. The parameters are also combined to create monthly rainfall simulations based on the state of the ENSO, as well as test whether accurate forecasts can be created up to one year in advance. It is found that the ENSO plays an important role in the daily rainfall process, by altering the behavior of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the Northeast Trade Winds, and the advance of cold air masses from North America during the winter. The eastern Caribbean slope of the country receives proportionally more rainfall during El Nino events, while the western Pacific slope receives less rainfall during the same period. Cold front (norte) intrusion is minimized by the El Nino, resulting in less winter rainfall during El Nino years. Simulations based on the

  10. Modeling a tsunami from the Nicoya, Costa Rica, seismic gap and its potential impact in Puntarenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia E.; Protti, Marino

    2011-04-01

    Although subduction zones around the world are known to be the source of earthquakes and/or tsunamis, not all segments of these plate boundaries generate destructive earthquakes and catastrophic tsunamis. Costa Rica, in Central America, has subduction zones on both the Pacific and the Caribbean coasts and, even though large earthquakes (Mw = 7.4-7.8) occur in these convergent margins, they do not produce destructive tsunamis. The reason for this is that the seismogenic zones of the segments of the subduction zones that produce large earthquakes in Costa Rica are located beneath land (Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limón) and not off shore as in most subduction zones around the world. To illustrate this particularity of Costa Rican subduction zones, we show in this work the case for the largest rupture area in Costa Rica (under the Nicoya peninsula), capable of producing Mw ˜ 7.8 earthquakes, but the tsunamis it triggers are small and present little potential for damage even to the largest port city in Costa Rica. The Nicoya seismic gap, in NW Costa Rica, has passed its ˜50-year interseismic period and therefore a large earthquake will have to occur there in the near future. The last large earthquake, in 1950 generated a tsunami which slightly affected the southwest coast of the Nicoya Peninsula. We present here a simulation to study the possible consequences that a tsunami generated by the next Nicoya earthquake could have for the city of Puntarenas. Puntarenas has a population of approximately eleven thousand people and is located on a 7.5 km long sand bar with a maximum height of 2 m above the mean sea level. This condition makes Puntarenas vulnerable to tsunamis.

  11. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  12. Active Subduction on Both Coasts of Costa Rica Does not Represent an Important Tsunami Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2007-05-01

    Costa Rica, on the southern terminus of the Middle American Trench is being affected by active subduction on both, along the Pacific coast as well as on its Caribbean coast. Three main subduction segments can be recognized along the Pacific coast: 1) under northwestern Costa Rica, off Papagayo Gulf and Nicoya peninsula, the Cocos plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate; 2) under southern Costa Rica (Osa and Burica peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under the Panama Block and 3) in the central Pacific coast (between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under a shear zone that marks the transition between the Caribbean and the Cocos plate. Along the Caribbean coast, south of Puerto Limon, the Caribbean plate subducts under the Panama block. Large subduction earthquakes occur under the Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limon. Most of the rupture area of these large events lies below land so the deformation of the ocean floor is minimal and therefore the tsunamis they generate are small. No large subduction earthquakes occur under the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica due to the subduction of small sea mounts that act as small asperities without potential to accumulate large amounts of slip. For this reason the region between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas is not an important tsunamigenic zone.

  13. Two new species of the Hagnagora anicata complex (Geometridae, Larentiinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J Bolling

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the lectotype (here designated) reveals that Hagnagora anicata (Felder & Rogenhofer) does not occur in Costa Rica. Instead two new species are described, Hagnagora eliannesp. n. and Hagnagora unniasp. n., and their distribution is discussed. The previous treatment of Hagnagora anicata as a single widespread species ranging from Jamaica and Mexico to Bolivia needs to be critically evaluated.

  14. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  15. An Emerging Institution: The University for Peace in Costa Rica. Discussion Paper Series, No. 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Margaret A.

    A new United Nations college, the University for Peace in Costa Rica, is discussed. After providing a brief historical sketch on peace efforts since the Ancient Greeks, the objectives of the United Nations University are identified. The University for Peace is a new international university that is part of the United Nations University network, a…

  16. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  17. Environmental Education in Costa Rica: Building a Framework for Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly claimed to be at the centre of efforts to achieve sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Costa Rica has been one of the acknowledged leaders in efforts to promote environmental learning, and national policy includes a three-fold national development strategy which simultaneously promotes education,…

  18. A new species of Erythrodiplax breeding in bromeliads in Costa Rica (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Haber, William A; Wagner, David L; De La Rosa, Carlos

    2015-04-16

    We describe a new species, Erythrodiplax laselva (Libellulidae), that breeds in bromeliads and Cochliostema (Commelinaceae) in the eastern lowlands of Costa Rica. The closest known relative is thought to be E. castanea, widespread in Central and South America, and not E. bromeliicola, which is known to breed in bromeliads in Cuba and Jamaica. The male, female, genitalia, and larva are described and illustrated.

  19. Dying with AIDS in Costa Rica. Access to care and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stern, R

    1997-01-01

    Costa Rica, with a population of 3 million people, has approximately 1200 cumulative diagnosed cases of AIDS. 70% of AIDS cases in the country have been among gay men. About 500 people with AIDS (PWA) are still alive and it is estimated that just as many people may be asymptomatic carriers of HIV. At the cost of $800-1000 per month per person, approximately 700,000 people, mostly in the US and Europe, are being treated with combination drug therapy capable of managing AIDS as a fairly curable chronic illness. However, most people in Costa Rica, where the per capita annual income is $2500, cannot afford to pay for such therapy. Arguing that the drugs are too expensive, the government has not approved any of the retroviral medications for general use in its socialized medical system which otherwise guarantees appropriate medical treatment to its citizens. The pharmaceutical companies which distribute the medications in Costa Rica, Roche and Bristol Meyers, refuse to provide patients with either free or significantly discounted drugs. The author discusses social discrimination against gay people in Costa Rica and describes attempts made to negotiate drug supplies for PWA with the government and pharmaceutical companies.

  20. Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

  1. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  2. First Report of Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Tomato in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In early 2007, severe yellowing and chlorosis symptoms were observed in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica. The symptoms resembled those of the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae) and large populations of whiteflies were observed in the fields and...

  3. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  4. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  5. Learning Disabilities in Costa Rica: Challenges for an "Army of Teachers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Aguirre-Roy, Ana Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history and evolution of special education services in Costa Rica, along with critical issues that impede the expansion of educational services to students with learning disabilities. These include shortages of trained personnel, geographic isolation of a large sector of the population, and severe economic limitations. (Author/CR)

  6. An Information Guide to Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; Monge, Gerardo

    The report on rehabilitation and special education in Costa Rica covers the history of special services, with emphasis on medical, educational, and vocational efforts. Future priorities for each field are noted. A second section discusses the institutions that are the main national organizational forces in rehabiliation and special education, as…

  7. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  8. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  9. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY: Defense... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive the applicability of the Buy American... United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive the applicability of the...

  10. Music Education for Social Change in the Secondary Public Schools of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a recently implemented general music curriculum in secondary public schools, whose main goal is to address social issues in Costa Rica. The author describes and discusses its context, rationale, theoretical tenets, and proposed practices with the purpose of advancing theory-practice reflection on music education practices…

  11. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  12. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  13. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  14. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  15. Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Saborío, Guiselle Guzman; Clara, Alexey; Garcia, Antonio; Quesada, Fabio; Palekar, Rakhee; Minaya, Percy; Cervantes, Marvin; Lopez, Mariel; Lara, Jenny; Jara, Jorge; Blanco, Natalia; Bresee, Joseph; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Data needed to guide influenza vaccine policies are lacking in tropical countries. We multiplied the number of severe acute respiratory infections by the proportion testing positive for influenza. There were ≈6,699 influenza hospitalizations and 803 deaths in Costa Rica during 2009–2012, supporting continuation of a national influenza vaccine program. PMID:24750897

  16. Babies and belonging: reproduction, citizenship, and undocumented nicaraguan labor migrant women in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Goldade, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from an ethnographic study of 43 Nicaraguan labor migrant women in Costa Rica, among whom two thirds were undocumented. Drawing from more than a year of field research, this research explores how undocumented migrant women parlayed reproductive capacities in a context of a modernizing democratic host nation-state increasingly limited in its capacity to fulfill longstanding national ideals of "health for all." Pregnancy and postpartum periods presented unique opportunities for achieving gains related to citizenship. As the third most common migrant destination context in the Western hemisphere, Costa Rica is grappling with its dual role as a nation of emigration and immigration and is attempting to maintain its "exceptional" national identity in the face of rapid globalization. Due to the jus soli citizenship model, the health care system has become a site for struggle over inclusion in the Costa Rican nation-state.

  17. Seismogenic zone structure along the Middle America subduction zone, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshon, Heather Rene

    Most large (MW > 7.0) underthrusting earthquakes nucleate along a shallow region of unstable frictional stability on or near the subducting plate interface termed the seismogenic zone. The studies presented here investigate along-strike spatial and temporal variability in microseismicity and seismic velocity and provide spatial constraints on the updip and downdip limits of microseismicity within the Middle America subduction offshore western Costa Rica. All chapters utilize data recorded by the Costa Rica Seismogenic Zone Experiment (CRSEIZE), a collaborative seismic and geodetic study undertaken from September 1999--June 2001 to better understand subduction zone behavior near the Osa and Nicoya Peninsulas, Costa Rica. Chapter 1 serves as a broad introduction to the thesis while Chapter 2 provides an overview of Costa Rica seismicity, the CRSEIZE experiment setup, data processing, and data quality. Chapter 3 discusses simultaneous inversion for 1D P- and S-wave velocity models, station corrections, and hypocenter parameters for both the Nicoya and Osa experiments and presents a refined location for the continental Moho in northern Costa Rica. Chapter 4 presents absolute and relative relocations of ˜300 aftershocks of the 1999 Quepos, Costa Rica, underthrusting earthquake and analyzes seismogenic zone structure offshore central Costa Rica during a period of increased seismicity rate. Subduction of highly disrupted seafloor north of the Osa Peninsula has established a set of conditions that presently limit the seismogenic zone to be between 10--35 km below sea level, 30--95 km from the trench axis. Chapter 5 presents high resolution earthquake locations and P-wave and P-wave/S-wave 3D velocity models for the locked Nicoya Peninsula segment of the Middle America subduction zone calculated using an iterative, damped least squares local tomography method. In the southern Nicoya Peninsula, microseismicity along the plate interface extends from 12--26 km depth, 73

  18. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  19. Morphotectonic segmentation along the Nicoya Peninsula seismic gap, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Morrish, S.; Butcher, A.; Ritzinger, B.; Wellington, K.; Lafromboise, E.; Protti, M.; Gardner, T.; Spotila, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica forms a prominent morphologic high along the outer forearc of the erosive southern Middle America convergent margin. This emergent coastal landmass overlies the seismogenic zone and occupies a seismic gap that last ruptured in 1950 with a M7.7 megathrust earthquake. The edges of both the Nicoya seismic gap and the peninsula’s abrupt shorelines correspond with the aftershock limits of the more recent 1992 M7.2 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake to the north, and the 1990 M7.0 Cobano seamount rupture to the south. The coincidence of emergent topography and recent earthquake rupture zones suggests persistence of the Nicoya segment through multiple seismic cycles. Along the Nicoya Peninsula's seaward-facing coastline, net Quaternary uplift is recorded by emergent strandlines, marine terraces, and incised valley-fill alluvium. Ongoing field mapping, surveying, and isotopic dating reveal uplift variations along the Nicoya segment that coincide with three contrasting domains of subducting seafloor offshore (EPR, CNS-1, CNS-2). Uplift rates vary between 0.1-0.2 m/k.y. inboard of older EPR crust along the northern Nicoya coast; 0.2-0.3 m/k.y. inboard of younger CNS-1 crust along the southern Nicoya coast; and 1.0-2.0 m/k.y. inboard of CNS-2 seamounts impacting the peninsula’s southern tip. These results are consistent with geophysical observations that indicate finer scale segmentation of the Nicoya seismogenic zone related to along-strike changes in the characteristics of the subducting plate. Variable upper-plate uplift along the Nicoya segment may reflect differences in subducting-plate roughness, thermal structure, fluid flow, and seismogenic-zone locking (up-dip/down-dip limits). Based on the rapid convergence rate (9 cm/yr) and the frequency of historic seismicity, the recurrence interval for large Nicoya earthquakes is estimated at ~50 years. The most recent event, in 1950, generated >1m of coseismic uplift along the central Nicoya

  20. [Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Ramírez, Alonso; Umaña, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Pacific, at 496km from Cabo Blanco, Costa Rica. This 24 km2 island is surrounded by a protected marine area of 9640 km2. it was declared National Park in 1978 and a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1997. Freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna was collected in 20 sites covering three rivers (Genio, Chatam and Sucio) and two creeks (Minuto and an unnamed creek behind the park rangers' house). Tank bromeliads or phytotelmata were also examined for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Physicochemical parameters were determined in 13 study sites. Additionally, a comparison with other islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific was conducted to determine the most important factors controlling the diversity in Tropical Pacific islands. A total of 455 individuals were collected belonging to 20 taxa (mostly identified to genus level) from 15 families of aquatic insects. Other macroinvertebrates such as Palaemonid shrimps, Hidrachnida and Oligochaeta were also collected. The family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) was the most abundant, followed by Chironomidae (Diptera). Diptera was the order of insects with the highest taxonomic richness. A relationship between distance and the number of families was observed supporting the premises of the Theory of island Biogeography. This relationship was improved by correcting area by island elevation, indicating that mountainous islands had the richest faunas, potentially due to high cloud interception that feeds freshwater environments favoring the establishment of aquatic fauna. Physicochemical variables were similar in all sites, possibly due to the geology and the absence of significant sources of pollution on the island.

  1. Ecology and management of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans/miles complex (Perciformes: Scorpaenidae) in Southern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Vera; Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Sierra, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystem integrity and functioning and are considered one of the major threats to biodiversity on a global scale. The indopacific lionfish (Plerois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] / miles [Bennet, 1882] complex) is the first non-native marine fish that has established itself in the Western Atlantic. It was first reported in Florida in the 1980s and then spread across the entire Caribbean in subsequent years. In Costa Rica, lionfish were first sighted by the end of 2008 and are now present in all South Caribbean reefs. Lionfish are a major problem for local fisherman by displacing native fish species. The aim of this study was to determine population density, size and diet of lionfish populations at four study sites along the Southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Two of the sites were located inside the National Park Cahuita where regular lionfish removal occurs, whereas the other two study sides do not experiment this kind of management. Total length and wet weight of >450 lionfish individuals were determined between March and June 2011. Three relative metrics of prey quantity (percent number, percent frequency, and percent weight) were compared from approximately 300 lionfish caught with the polespear in shallow waters (<7 m depth). Population density was assessed weekly through visual transect surveys. Our results showed that lionfish preyed mostly upon teleosts and crustaceans. Teleosts dominated lionfish diet in percent frequency (71%) and percent weight (85%), whereas crustaceans had the highest percent number (58%). The top five teleost families of dietary importance were Pomacentridae, Acanthuridae, Blennidae, Labridae and Serranidae. The average total length (+/- SD) of lionfish was 18.7 (+/- 5.7)cm and varied significantly between sites (p<0.001). Mean density of lionfish was 92fish/ha with no significant differences between sites. Smallest fish and lowest densities were found at the two sites inside the National Park Cahuita. Despite

  2. Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Costa Rica. Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston

    To assist the Costa Rican Social Security Systems in designing a Rural Community Comprehensive Health Model, a study identified functional limitations among 1253 persons over age 7; assessed functional development of 293 children, ages 0-6; identified possible preventive factors of disability; and explored practices and resources in the districts…

  3. The Marine Education Programme and ESD Schools in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata-Segreda, Alejandrina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share information about the Costa Rican Marine Education Programme in relation to the quality criteria for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Schools. We found that the application of these criteria is feasible, not only to the organisation and management of schools that are looking to become ESD Schools,…

  4. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  5. Longitudinal Relation of Community-Level Income Inequality and Mortality in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Modrek, Sepideh; Ahern, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The controversy regarding the direct relationship between income distribution and health remains unresolved. Empirical evidence has often failed to advance our understanding because in the countries studied there was limited ability to distinguish hypotheses. This study examines the relation between inequality and mortality in the context of Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s unique social and political structure makes confounding through resource and political channels less likely, thus any effects would work predominantly through direct psychosocial channels. Using mortality data extracted from the Vital Statistics Registry, we evaluate the longitudinal relations between income inequality and cause-specific mortality in Costa Rica from 1989–2005. For those aged 15–60, results indicate that there is a significant adverse relation between increases in lagged inequality and mortality from liver disease, and marginal adverse relations with mortality from diabetes and suicide. For those aged 60 and over, there is a limited evidence of a relation between inequality and health. These results suggest increases in inequality may impact health behavior of the working aged population in Costa Rica. PMID:21873102

  6. Educational Gradients in Psychotropic Medication Use Among Older Adults in Costa Rica and the United States†

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Marisa E.; Dow, William H.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship among education, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication use has been explored in the United States, but little is known about patterns in poorer countries, despite their high documented burden of mental illness. Educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic use were estimated in the United States and Costa Rica – a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Methods Analyses were conducted using data on older adults (ages 60+) in nationally representative surveys from each country: the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (n=4788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (n=2827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of lower educational attainment, income and urban residence on diagnosis and on psychotropic medication use with and without an associated mental illness diagnosis. Results Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the U.S. (12% U.S.; n=598) than in, Costa Rica (20%; n=526), but may reflect differences in survey wording. Measures of self-reported and screened depression decreased with education in both countries. Psychotropic medication use among those with diagnoses increased with education in Costa Rica only. Conclusions We find similar patterns of educational gradients in diagnosis and screening between the U.S. and Costa Rica, but different patterns of medication use by education. Differences in stigma and access to care may play an important role in explaining differences between the countries, though we did not find evidence that insurance affected educational gradients in the U.S. These analyses increase the evidence on the role of education in the use of the health care system. PMID:24932755

  7. The Tobosi Fault: Source of the 2011-2012 Tobosi Earthquake Swarm in Central Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M. C.; Linkimer, L.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Rojas, W.

    2014-12-01

    The Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) is a ~100 km broad zone of deformation that marks the boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the Panama Microplate. From December 2011 to February 2012 an earthquake swarm took place on a portion of the CCRDB, near the town of Tobosi, in the Cartago province. In this study, we use data recorded by the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) to relocate 22 of these earthquakes and calculate focal mechanisms. Additionally, we analyze the Tectonic Geomorphology of the region. Our results show a transtension structure near the town of Tobosi, which comprises at least three faults, named: the Tobosi, Tablon, and Alumbre faults. This structure is located only 5 km south of the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4). The earthquake locations analyzed are aligned with the Tobosi Fault. The events varied in moment magnitude between 2.4 and 3.9 Mw and depths of 1 and 8 km. The largest events were felt mainly in the town of Tobosi and as far as San Jose, the capital city of Costa Rica. We found that the Tobosi fault is an active left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component and is the source of the Tobosi earthquake swarm. The study of active faults in Central Costa Rica is significant as it may greatly improve seismic hazards assessment for this region where most of the population and the main economic activities are concentrated.

  8. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  9. Impact of Deforestation on Cloud Properties and Rainfall Over the Costa Rica-Nicaraguan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.

    2002-12-01

    The Nicaraguan-Costa Rican region in Central America exhibits the typical pattern of complex deforestation now seen throughout the tropics. The region is a mixture of lowland, mostly converted to agriculture, and mountainous regions, where pristine forests still persist. At present the northern fertile plains of Costa Rica are mostly utilized for agriculture. However in the adjacent regions of southern Nicaragua lowland forests are relatively intact. The extensive agricultural areas of northern Costa Rica is a region of discontinuity in the proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor which would connect the montane forests in Costa Rica to the lowland forests in Nicaragua. The present study is part of a larger study which investigates the effects of continuing lowland deforestation and associated regional climate change in Central America on the stability of the entire proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The present work focuses on the effects of land use on the formation of cloudiness, cloud properties and rainfall in the forested regions of southern Nicaragua and the deforested regions of northern Costa Rica. Land surface and cloud properties are retrieved using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data and products. The land surface properties retrieved are land surface temperature, albedo, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Available Soil Moisture fraction and surface energy fluxes. The cloud properties retrieved are cloud optical thickness and effective radii. In addition, the frequency of cumulus cloudiness on hourly basis are derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and rainfall is studied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite products. The correlations between the surface properties, cloud properties, cumulus cloudiness and rainfall as a function of ecosystem and topography is

  10. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  11. Exploring the Notion That Subduction Erosion Has Removed or Submerged Costa Rica's Early Tertiary Arc Massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2007-05-01

    Arc igneous rocks of Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene age are widely exposed in the southern, coastal region of Panama (Lissinna et al., EGU abstract, 2006). These rocks intrude or overlie mafic basement rock of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) of Late Cretaceous age that extends to the east to underlie the Caribbean Basin and form the Caribbean plate. Immediately west of Panama, in coastal Costa Rica, exposures of CLIP basement are not intruded or overlain by arc magmatic rocks of early Tertiary age. EXPLANATIONS: Potentially, the early Tertiary subduction zone that dipped beneath the Pacific margin of Panama did not extend to the west, thus no arc magmatism occurred where Costa Rica presently exists. Alternatively, the subduction zone bordering the Pacific edge of the CLIP extended below Costa Rica but former exposures of early Tertiary arc magmatic rocks piled there have been erosionally removed or buried beneath Miocene and younger arc massifs of interior mountain belts. EXPLORING A SUBDUCTION EROSION EXPLANATION Onshore and offshore evidence documents that subduction erosion thins and truncates the submerged rock framework of the Middle and South America forearc. The eroded (removed) material is transported toward and into the mantle within the subduction channel separating the upper plate of the forearc and lower plate of the subducting oceanic crust. The long-term (greater than 10 Myr) rate of truncation (i. e., migration of the trench toward a fixed, onshore reference) averages 2 to 3 km/Myr. Because of the subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge beneath Costa Rica, during at least the past 4 to 5 Myr the rate of truncation at this margin has been much higher. It is proposed that during the past 50 Myr subduction erosion has truncated the Costa Rica forearc by at least 100 km and either obliterated or deeply submerged arc massifs of early Tertiary age. Their exposed presence to the east in neighboring Panama reflects the circumstance that since

  12. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-22

    legislative elections were held in February 2006, though the presidential election was so close that the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) did not...Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas,” available at <http://www.sinac.go.cr/planificacionasp.php>. 24 Thomas L. Friedman, “(No) Drill...polarization of the issue among the Costa Rican electorate . Trade unions, students, a variety of social movements, and the PAC opposed the ratification

  13. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-21

    legislative elections were held in February 2006, though the presidential election was so close that the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) did not...Del Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas,” available at http://www.sinac.go.cr/ planificacionasp.php. 25 Thomas L. Friedman, “(No...among the Costa Rican electorate . Trade unions, students, a variety of social movements, and the PAC opposed the ratification of CAFTA-DR, while

  14. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-02

    and legislative elections were held in February 2006, though the presidential election was so close that the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) did not...Government seeks green credentials,” Oxford Analytica, October 21, 2008. 23 Ministerio Del Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas...CAFTA-DR. The referendum was held in October 2007 and reflected the polarization of the issue among the Costa Rican electorate . Trade unions

  15. Constructions of Difference and Deficit, a Case Study: Nicaraguan Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling of the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican…

  16. Ecotourism, sustainable development, and conservation education: Development of a tour guide training program in Tortuguero, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Robles, Rafael

    1992-11-01

    A tour guide training program was developed for rural communities near Costa Rica's Tortuguero National Park to respond to the impacts of the 24-fold increase in park visitation in the past decade, to involve local communities in resource management, and to provide regional environmental education. The development of the training course involved a survey of scientists and park managers to ascertain resource management needs, priorities for information to be disseminated, and impacts of tourism on the resource base. Current and potential tour guides were surveyed to identify their information needs, solicit their input in the training program, and to determine their knowledge and skills. Written questionnaires were developed and given to 400 tourists to determine their activities and environmental information needs, and hotel owners were censused to examine the economic feasibility of a local guide program. A pilot training course and guide program involving 12 Tortuguero residents demonstrated that a tour guide program: (1) helped mitigate negative tourism impacts on Tortuguero National Park's natural resources, particularly by regulating tourists on the park's 35-km beach used for nesting by endangered sea turtles; (2) provided environmental education to an important segment of the local community not traditionally reached through school or government development projects; (3) provided environmental information to tourists, thus enhancing their visit; and (4) provided local economic benefits through lucrative part-time employment, thereby allowing local people to participate more fully in the tourism system. An extended training course is being planned to provide further environmental education programming and to increase year-round employment opportunities for the tour guides.

  17. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  18. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  19. [Incidence and altitudinal distribution of 13 virus cultures in Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae) from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Viviana; Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Rivera, Carmen

    2006-12-01

    A survey was conducted in 30 fields located at three different altitudes in Cartago, Costa Rica's main potato producing area. Twenty plants were sampled per farm, for a total of 600 samples with 200 samples per altitude. ELISA was used with commercial reagents to independently test for PVX, PVY, PVM, PVA, PVS, PLRV, PMTV, PAMV, PVV, PVT, APLV, APMoV and TRSV. The presence of the following viruses was determined: PVX (77 %), PAMV (62 %), PLRV (42 %), TRSV (42 %), PVT (39 %), PVV (37 %), PMTV (31%), PVY (30 %), PVS (19 %), PVM (13 %), PVA (8 %), and APMoV (8%). APLV was not detected in any sample. This is the first report in Costa Rica of the presence of the viruses PMTV, PAMV, PVV, PVT and APMoV. A high viral incidence in the tuber seed production area as well as a high rate of mixed infections is reported.

  20. [Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

    2011-03-01

    Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889).

  1. [Bacteriological load of the fishes Cynoscion squamipinnis and Lutjanus gutattus in the marketing chain, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Marín, Carolina; Fonseca, Cristian; Arias, Sidey; Villegas, Irene; García, Andrea; Ishihara, Hikaru

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriological load of the fishes Cynoscion squamipinnis and Lutjanus gutattus in the marketing chain, Costa Rica. To determine the bacteriological quality of fishery products in the different stages from commercialization, monthly samples were taken during March 2004 and February 2006 from a Costa Rica marketing chain. Microbiological analyses were made to determine total coliforms (CT), faecal coliforms (CF), Escherichia coli (EC), aerobic total count (RTA), Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Three body zones were analyzed: skin, belly and muscle. There were differences in the amount of CT between parts: skin had the highest counts, 11% of samples were identified as E. coli. and 2.5% of total counts were higher than the legal limit. Only 1.3% of the samples were S. aureus-positive. Salmonella sp., V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus were absent.

  2. Management commitments and primary care: another lesson from Costa Rica for the world?

    PubMed

    Soors, Werner; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Maintained dedication to primary care has fostered a public health delivery system with exceptional outcomes in Costa Rica. For more than a decade, management commitments have been part of Costa Rican health reform. We assessed the effect of the Costa Rican management commitments on access and quality of care and on compliance with their intended objectives. We constructed seven hypotheses on opinions of primary care providers. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, we tested these hypotheses and interpreted the research findings. Management commitments consume an excessive proportion of consultation time, inflate recordkeeping, reduce comprehensiveness in primary care consultations, and induce a disproportionate consumption of hospital emergency services. Their formulation relies on norms in need of optimization, their control on unreliable sources. They also affect professionalism. In Costa Rica, management commitments negatively affect access and quality of care and pose a threat to the public service delivery system. The failures of this pay-for-performance-like initiative in an otherwise well-performing health system cast doubts on the appropriateness of pay-for-performance for health systems strengthening in less advanced environments.

  3. [Isolation of enteropathogenic Vibrio in bivalves and mud from the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García Cortés, V; Antillón, F

    1990-11-01

    The presence of enteropathogenic Vibrio was evaluated in 36 sediment samples and 41 bivalve samples obtained from 3 collecting sites in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Isolation methods for halophilic and non halophilic Vibrio were used. The biochemical profiles of the strains obtained revealed the presence of the following isolates: 224 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 3 V. furnissii, 1 V. damsela and 3 V. fluvialis. V. cholerae was not isolated, due principally to the use of TCBS agar.

  4. [Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Costa Rica: epidemiologic importance].

    PubMed

    Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1991-01-01

    On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.

  5. A new genus and species of Coenosiini from Costa Rica (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Márcia Souto; de Carvalho, Claudio José Barros

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Palpilongus gen. n. is herein described for one species – Palpilongus bifurcus sp. n., from Costa Rica, based on male and females. The striking morphological characters of the species – palpus very long, about as long as prementum; upper calypter truncate and very short and setae of male sternite 5 bifurcated, confirm that this new species is also a new genus in the tribe Coenosiini. Male and female terminalia were dissected and illustrated. PMID:23950688

  6. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time.

  7. Arcobacter butzleri: first isolation report from chicken carcasses in costa rica

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Maria Laura; Cid, Adriana; Fernandéz, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Arcobacter butzleri isolation from chicken carcasses in Costa Rica is reported for the first time. The isolated strains (P and R) were presumptively identified by their phenotypic characteristics. Definitive identification was made using a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and identification of Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus and Arcobacter skirrowii. These first isolations indicate the necessity of further investigation about the prevalence, distribution, ecology and interactions with human beings of this and other Arcobacter species. PMID:24031682

  8. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Christopher; Nemeth, Nicole; Marineros, Leonel

    2006-09-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica.

  9. Tobacco industry success in Costa Rica: The importance of FCTC Article 5.3

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze how the tobacco industry influenced tobacco control policymaking in Costa Rica. Materials and Methods Review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles, and interviewing of key informants. Results During the mid-to-late 1980s, Health Ministry issued several advanced (for their time) smoking restriction decrees causing British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris International (PMI) to strengthen their political presence there, resulting in passage of a weak 1995 law, which, as of August 2011, remained in effect. Since 1995 the industry has used Costa Rica as a pilot site for Latin American programs and has dominated policymaking by influencing the Health Ministry, including direct private negotiations with the tobacco industry which violate Article 5.3’s implementing guidelines of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Conclusions The Costa Rica experience demonstrates the importance of vigorous implementation of FCTC Article 5.3 which insulates public health policymaking from industry interference. PMID:22286826

  10. Conservation genetics of American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, populations in Pacific Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauger, Laurie A.; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brien, Matthew L.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Spotila, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is crucial for the survival and management of threatened and endangered species. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and population genetic structure at neutral loci in American crocodiles, Crocodylus acutus, from several areas (Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Parque Nacional Palo Verde, Rio Tarcoles, and Osa Conservation Area) in Pacific Costa Rica. We genotyped 184 individuals at nine microsatellite loci to describe the genetic diversity and conservation genetics between and among populations. No population was at Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) over all loci tested and a small to moderate amount of inbreeding was present. Populations along the Pacific coast had an average heterozygosity of 0.572 across all loci. All populations were significantly differentiated from each other with both FST and RST measures of population differentiation with a greater degree of molecular variance (81%) found within populations. Our results suggest C. acutus populations in Pacific Costa Rica were not panmictic with moderate levels of genetic diversity. An effective management plan that maintains the connectivity between clusters is critical to the success of C. acutus in Pacific Costa Rica.

  11. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  12. Differentials by socioeconomic status and institutional characteristics in preventive service utilization by older persons in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2009-08-01

    Objective.The goals of this article are to assess the level of preventive service utilization by older persons in Costa Rica and to determine whether there are differentials in utilization across socioeconomic status (SES) and institutional characteristics. Method. Using data from the Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging (CRELES) project, a study of healthy aging in Costa Rica, the authors use self-reported information on preventive service utilization. The SES differentials are studied using logistic regressions. Results. Preventive services linked to cardiovascular disease prevention are frequently utilized; preventive services linked to cancer screening, vaccination, and sense impairments are not so widely used. Higher SES people are more likely to utilize most preventive services. Utilization rates among uninsured seniors are lower than among their insured peers. Home visits by community health workers are positively associated with higher utilization rates. Discussion. The SES disparities in preventive service utilization exist in Costa Rica, and institutional characteristics are positively associated with increasing utilization.

  13. The Role of Water in Arc Magmatism in Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, S. J.; Hoernle, K.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of varying subduction parameters on arc magma geochemistry. Here we examine melt inclusions trapped in olivine phenocrysts in young mafic tephras from the active arc segments in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These segments of the subduction zone provide starkly contrasting situations with differing oceanic crustal input (East Pacific Rise vs. oceanic crust overprinted by the Galapagos hot spot) and slab dip ( ˜70° vs. ˜30° ) in Nicaragua and Costa Rica respectively. We collected major-, trace-, and volatile-element concentration data from olivine-hosted (Fo68-87) melt inclusions from volcanoes Cerro Negro, Nejapa, Masaya, and Mombacho along the volcanic front in central Nicaragua and Irazu and Arenal in Costa Rica. In Nicaragua H2O shows a general increase with decreasing Fo of the host olivine, reflecting incompatible behavior during differentiation from 1-3 wt. % in samples from Fo>85 to ˜ 5% in some of the slightly more evolved, yet still relatively undegassed, samples. This is best illustrated by samples from Mombacho and Cerro Negro. Comparison of the major element data with experimental melting studies indicates that the Nicaraguan melts with higher FeO and lower SiO2 (at similar MgO contents) could have formed at greater depths and temperatures in the presence of less water than the Costa Rican melts with higher SiO2 and lower FeO. The most primitive samples from Irazu (host olivine Fo84-89) are extremely rich in H2O (3-5 wt. %). H2O enrichment correlates with enrichment of some LILE, LREE (i.e., Ba, La, K), relative to HFSE for most samples from the Nicaraguan volcanoes. S/Nb and Cl/Nb also show some correlation with H2O/Nb in Nicaraguan samples, with some exceptions possibly related to volatile loss is the less primitive samples. These correlations are generally not present in the Costa Rican samples, thus suggesting that despite apparent larger initial water contents

  14. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  15. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H

    2016-02-02

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States' poor health performance. The United States' underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica's lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica's overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension.

  16. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  17. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  18. Characterization of the Mid Summer Drought in the Central Valley of Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The IAS region is characterized by climate features of unique nature, one of them is the Mid-Summer Drought (MSD) or "veranillo", an atmospheric feature rarely observed in other tropical regions. On the Pacific slope of Central America, the precipitation annual cycle is characterized by two rainfall maxima in June and September-October, an extended dry season from November to May, and a secondary precipitation minima during July-August (MSD). Three daily gauge stations records, e.g. La Argentina, Fabio Baudrit and Juan Santamaria, located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica were studied to characterize the MSD from 1937 to 2010. Among the aspects considered are the MSD duration, intensity, timing and seasonal predictability. The modulation of these aspects by climate variability sources as Equatorial Eastern Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic was lately explored, including their interannual and decadal variability. The MSD signal strongly impact social and economic life in the region like energy and the agriculture sector. Additionally, the Central Valley of Costa Rica hosts most of the Costa Rican population with the higher level of exposure and vulnerability to hydro-meteorological hazards.

  19. New records of benthic marine algae and Cyanobacteria for Costa Rica, and a comparison with other Central American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecker, Andrea; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of an intensive sampling program carried out from 2000 to 2007 along both coasts of Costa Rica, Central America. The presence of 44 species of benthic marine algae is reported for the first time for Costa Rica. Most of the new records are Rhodophyta (27 spp.), followed by Chlorophyta (15 spp.), and Heterokontophyta, Phaeophycea (2 spp.). Overall, the currently known marine flora of Costa Rica is comprised of 446 benthic marine algae and 24 Cyanobacteria. This species number is an under estimation, and will increase when species of benthic marine algae from taxonomic groups where only limited information is available (e.g., microfilamentous benthic marine algae, Cyanobacteria) are included. The Caribbean coast harbors considerably more benthic marine algae (318 spp.) than the Pacific coast (190 spp.); such a trend has been observed in all neighboring countries. Compared to other Central American countries, Costa Rica has the highest number of reported benthic marine algae; however, Panama may have a similarly high diversity after unpublished results from a Rhodophyta survey (Wysor, unpublished) are included. Sixty-two species have been found along both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica; we discuss this result in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus.

  20. Organochlorine chemicals and neurodegeneration among elderly subjects in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Mora, A.M.; Barr, D.B.; Juncos, J.; Roman, N.; Wesseling, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously screened 400 elderly Costa Ricans for neurodegenerative disease. Those reporting occupational pesticide exposure (18%) had an increased Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk (OR 2.57, 95% CI 0.91–7.26), and worse cognition (Mini-Mental States Exam (MMSE) 24.5 versus 25.9 points, p=0.01). We subsequently measured long-lasting organochlorine pesticides (β-HCH, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin) in a sub-sample (n=89). Dieldrin and β-HCH have been linked to PD, and DDE to Alzheimer’s disease. Methods We ran regression models for MMSE and tremor-at-rest to assess associations with pesticides in 89 subjects. Results The percent of β-HCH, DDE, DDT (parent compound for DDE), and dieldrin above their limit of detection (LOD) were 100%, 93%, 75%, and 57%, respectively. Tremor-at-rest was found in 21 subjects, and the mean MMSE was 25. Those who reported occupational pesticide exposure (n=36) had more detectable dieldrin samples (p=0.005), and higher mean levels of dieldrin (p=0.01), than those not reporting exposure. Other pesticides did not differ between those with and without self-reported occupational exposure. There was a positive but non-significant trend of higher risk for tremor-at-rest with higher dieldrin (p=0.10 for linear trend). Neither DDE nor DDT showed a relationship with MMSE. However, after excluding two outliers with the lowest MMSE scores, higher DDT levels showed some modest association with lower MMSE (p=0.09 for linear trend). Conclusions Our data are limited by small sample size. However, dieldrin was high in our population, has been previously linked to PD, and could be partly responsible for the excess PD risk seen in our population. PMID:25173053

  1. Breeding habit of the toad Bufo coccifer in Costa Rica, with a description of the tadpole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Foster, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The breeding habits of Bufo coccifer were studied in northwestern Costa Rica between 1971 and 1974. This species breeds during the rainy season, at least from May through August. Males chorus from areas of shallow water. Their calls resemble those of Mexican representatives of the species in pulse rate and duration, but are closer to those of other Costa Rican and Panamanian populations in dominant frequency. Thus, our data do not clearly support recognition of Bufo cycladen as a distinct species for the Mexican populations. Amplexus is axillary, and two strings of eggs are extruded simultaneously during oviposition. Tadpoles, described for the first time in this paper, are secretive and do not aggregate. Development to metamorphosis requires about 5 weeks.

  2. Empirical findings on socioeconomic determinants of fertility differentials in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, M J; Geithman, D T

    1986-01-01

    "This paper seeks to (1) identify socioeconomic variables that are expected to generate fertility differentials; (2) hypothesize the direction and magnitude of the effect of each variable by reference to a demand-for-children model; and (3) test empirically the model using evidence from Costa Rica. The estimates are obtained from a ten-percent systematic random sample of all Costa Rican individual-family households. There are 15,924 families in the sample...." The authors specifically seek "to capture the effects of changing relative prices and available income and time constraints on parental preferences for children. Least-squares estimates show statistically significant relationships between household fertility and opportunity cost of time, parental education, occurrence of an extended family, medical care, household sanitation, economic sector of employment, and household stock of nonhuman capital."

  3. [The privatization of public services. The case of health services in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Fuentes, M

    1993-01-01

    This article analyzes the role of the State and public enterprises in the development of nations, from a particular standing point, and inquires into the privatization issue, reviewing both its concept and the possible mechanisms for its implementation. Also, emphasis is made on the selling of public enterprises as one of the several ways to privatize. Within this context, some measures for the reorganization of the Costa Rican National Health System are proposed. These measures uphold fundamental values of social justice. This article is based on a theoretical-conceptual framework from an innovative experience in health services management in Costa Rica, in which a self-managing cooperative society (a nonprofit enterprise) manages, by contract with national health care public institutions, an urban local health care system.

  4. (Energy efficiency improvement studies for Costa Rica and Guatemala)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-05-30

    I travelled to San Jose, Cost Rica, on May 20, 1990 to report on the progress of the Integrated Power Sector Efficiency Analysis Project to the Instituto Costarrincense de Electricidad, and to USAID/San Jose. I also discussed the progress and plans for the CONELECTRICAS Small Hydroelectric Project supported by ORNL through the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project. Both projects are proceeding on schedule. ORNL will complete further supply side analysis after comments are submitted by ICE, with respect to the information provided on this visit. The CONELECTRICAS project will require further ORNL input to assist in optimization of equipment selection and to perform the required financial and economic cost analyses. I travelled to Guatemala City on May 22, 1990. I met with Instituto Nacional de Electricacion (INDE) to discuss the findings and recommendations of the Electric Power Utility Efficiency Improvement Study undertaken in February, 1990. I also met with Mario Funes to discuss future ORNL assistance to ROCAP in support of the CARES project as well as other ROCAP energy initiatives.

  5. The annual cycle and biological effects of the Costa Rica Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Paul C.

    2002-02-01

    The Costa Rica Dome is similar to other tropical thermocline domes in several respects: it is part of an east-west thermocline ridge associated with the equatorial circulation, surface currents flow cyclonically around it, and its seasonal evolution is affected by large-scale wind patterns. The Costa Rica Dome is unique because it is also forced by a coastal wind jet. Monthly climatological fields of thermocline depth and physical forcing variables (wind stress curl and surface current divergence) were analyzed to examine the structure and seasonal evolution of the dome. The annual cycle of the dome can be explained by wind forcing in four stages: (1) coastal shoaling of the thermocline off the Gulf of Papagayo during February-April, forced by Ekman pumping on the equatorward side of the Papagayo wind jet; (2) separation from the coast during May-June when the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) moves north to the countercurrent thermocline ridge, the wind jet stops, and the North Equatorial Countercurrent extends toward the coast on the equatorward flank of the ridge; (3) countercurrent thermocline ridging during July-November, when the dome expands to the west as the countercurrent thermocline ridge shoals beneath a band of cyclonic wind stress curl on the poleward side of the ITCZ; and (4) deepening during December-January when the ITCZ moves south and strong trade winds blow over the dome. Coastal eddies may be involved in the coastal shoaling observed during February-March. A seasonally predictable, strong, and shallow thermocline makes the Costa Rica Dome a distinct biological habitat where phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass are higher than in surrounding tropical waters. The physical structure and biological productivity of the dome affect the distribution and feeding of whales and dolphins, probably through forage availability.

  6. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  7. [Medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from a coastal upwelling zone, Culebra Bay, Pacific, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáenz, Karina; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Segura-Puertas, Lourdes

    2012-12-01

    The hydromedusae have an important role in marine trophic webs due to their predatory feeding habits. This is the first study of this group of gelatinous marine zooplankton in a coastal upwelling area of Central America. The composition and abundance variability of hydromedusae were studied during six months in 1999 at four stations in Culebra Bay, Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (10 degrees 37' N-85 degrees 40' W). A total of 53 species were identified, of which 26 are new records for Costa Rica, 21 are new records for Central America, and eight are new records for the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The more abundant species (more than 30% of the total abundance) were Liriope tetraphylla, Solmundella bitentaculata and Aglaura hemistoma. Six species occurred throughout the sampling period, 10 were present only during the dry season (December-April), and 17 were so during the rainy season (May-November). Significant differences of medusan abundances were found between seasons (dry vs. rainy). Maximum abundance (2.1 +/- 4.3ind./m3) was recorded when upwelled deeper water influenced the Bay, as indicated by local higher oxygen concentrations and lower water temperatures. The relatively high species richness of medusae found in Culebra Bay is probably related to factors like the pristine condition of the Bay, the arrival of oceanic species transported by the Equatorial Counter Current (ECC), the eastward shoaling of the Costa Rica Dome, and local currents. Illustrations of the 15 more important species are included to facilitate their identification and foster future work in the region.

  8. The Gulf of Nicoya Estuary, Costa Rica: Past, present, and future cooperative research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J. A.

    1995-03-01

    The Gulf of Nicoya is a tectonic estuary on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica (10°N 85°W), extending about 100 km from the Tempisque river to the 500 m isobath. A dry season (December April) and a rainy season (May November) exert a significant impact on its water characteristics. The estuary is the most important fishing ground of Costa Rica, and the main Pacific ports are located within it. Coastal zone development has increased in recent years. In 1979 a research programme to study the Gulf was established at the University of Costa Rica, and foreign scientists were invited to work jointly with local experts to achieve the goals of the evaluation. More than 80 papers have been published to date, making the Gulf one of the best known tropical estuaries. The study of soft-bottom communities is an important component of this research programme. Past benthic research focused on the description of the structure of communities, while future efforts will find an unexplored field in the study of energy flow and community interactions. More than 200 species of fish, and 400 of benthic invertebrates have been identified. Future cooperative research is most welcome in larval ecology, interactions between size groups, and physiological tolerances. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the experimental manipulation of soft-bottom communities of high latitudes. This branch of ecology, however, remains little explored in the tropics. Future cooperative efforts in the Gulf of Nicoya will be established on solid ground, formed by a data base that has been improved since 1979, the existence of a marine research centre and a group of active, local scientists who have experience in working together with foreign expertise.

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of Xylella fastidiosa from coffee plants in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Aguilar, Estela; Rodríguez, Carlos Mario; Garita, Laura; Villalobos, William; Moreira, Lisela; Hartung, John S; Rivera, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    Coffee plants exhibiting a range of symptoms including mild to severe curling of leaf margins, chlorosis and deformation of leaves, stunting of plants, shortening of internodes, and dieback of branches have been reported since 1995 in several regions of Costa Rica's Central Valley. The symptoms are referred to by coffee producers in Costa Rica as "crespera" disease and have been associated with the presence of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Coffee plants determined to be infected by the bacterium by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were used for both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and for isolation of the bacterium in PW broth or agar. Petioles examined by TEM contained rod-shaped bacteria inside the xylem vessels. The bacteria measured 0.3 to 0.5 microm in width and 1.5 to 3.0 microm in length, and had rippled cell walls 10 to 40 nm in thickness, typical of X. fastidiosa. Small, circular, dome-shaped colonies were observed 7 to 26 days after plating of plant extracts on PW agar. The colonies were comprised of Gram-negative rods of variable length and a characteristic slight longitudinal bending. TEM of the isolated bacteria showed characteristic rippled cell walls, similar to those observed in plant tissue. ELISA and PCR with specific primer pairs 272-l-int/272-2-int and RST31/RST33 confirmed the identity of the isolated bacteria as X. fastidiosa. RFLP analysis of the amplification products revealed diversity within X. fastidiosa strains from Costa Rica and suggest closer genetic proximity to strains from the United States of America than to other coffee or citrus strains from Brazil.

  10. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients

    PubMed Central

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States’ poor health performance. The United States’ underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica’s lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica’s overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension. PMID:26729886

  11. Cryptic species within cryptic moths: new species of Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Isidro A; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; J Bolling Sullivan; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Based on almost 1,700 recently reared and wild-collected specimens, the genus Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaelinae) in Costa Rica is reviewed. Eight species are recorded of which seven are newly described: Dunama jessiehillae Chacón, Dunama jessiebarronae Chacón, Dunama janewaldronae Chacón, Dunama jessiebancroftae Chacón, Dunama janecoxae Chacón, Dunama biosise Chacón, Dunama indereci Chacón. Dunama angulinea Schaus is redescribed and associated with its correct genitalia. Dunama tuna (Schaus), previously listed as ocurring in Costa Rica, is restricted to Colombia. Most species are described through their distinctive CO1 barcodes, genitalia and life histories. Dunama adults and caterpillars, their foodplants, and their parasites in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica are described where known. Many life history stages are illustrated.

  12. [Isolation of Vibrio cholerae no-01 in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Antillón, F; Rodríguez, E

    1992-08-01

    In a bacteriological study on samples of bivalves, mud and surface waters from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, 18 strains of non-01 Vibrio cholerae and 50 of V. mimicus were isolated. The samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water, and streaked on MacConkey and inositol-brilliant green bile agars. Biochemical and serological tests were used for their identification. Both species were isolated from all sampling sites (Lepanto, Jicaral and Puntarenas) with either of the two agar media, even though these were not specific for vibrios.

  13. A new fish, Peristedion nesium (Scorpaeniformes: Peristediidae) from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bussing, William A

    2010-12-01

    Several expeditions in recent years to Isla del Coco have increased the total number of species of fishes known from the island. Several of these species have been described as new endemics (Bussing 1983, 1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1997). During the 1972 R/V Searcher Expedition to Costa Rica several trawl collections were made around Isla del Coco. At five localities in depths between 110 and 180m, 86 specimens of a new species of Peristedion were taken and are described herein. A key to the four species of Eastern Pacific Peristedion is included.

  14. The decline in infant mortality in Costa Rica, 1950-1973: modernization or technological diffusion?

    PubMed

    Klijzing Fkh; Taylor, H W

    1982-06-01

    Spatial patterns of infant mortality in Costa Rica are examined for the period 1950-1973, with special attention paid to contagious diffusion effects. In more general terms, the study is considered as an example of the spatial structures that arise during the process of demographic transition and modernization. The data are from official sources. The authors conclude that the census year 1950 probably marks the transition from a stage where technological diffusion had the primary effect on mortality to a stage where socioeconomic modernization played the major role.

  15. Spatial patterns of age-sex structures in Costa Rica: a study in demographic modernization.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H W; Fesenmaier, D R

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and demographic factors in Costa Rica is examined. "Specifically, the paper illustrates the evolution of spatial patterns in age-sex structures over three points in time for a single case study area." The authors suggest that there is order in the evolving patterns and that this order may be explained by the economic modernization process. Data are from the 1950, 1963, and 1973 censuses. Although some spatial order is indicated, the patterns are confused primarily by an increase in fertility that apparently occurred between 1950 and 1963.

  16. Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Integrated power sector efficiency analysis: A case study of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Naegleria fowleri-associated encephalitis in a cow from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Morales, Juan A; Chaves, Aida J; Visvesvara, G S; Dubey, J P

    2006-06-30

    Species of Naegleria, Acanthamoeba, and Balamuthia are soil amoebae that can cause encephalitis in animals and humans. Of these, Naegleria fowleri is the cause of often fatal primary meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri-associated encephalitis was diagnosed in a cow that was suspected to have rabies. Only formalin-fixed brain was available for diagnosis. There was severe meningoencephalitis involving all parts of the brain and numerous amoebic trophozoites were present in lesions. The amoebae reacted with N. fowleri-specific polyclonal antibodies in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. This is the first report of amoebic encephalitis in any host from Costa Rica.

  19. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2012-01-01

    The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented.

  20. [Phytogeography of dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas Ulate, G

    2001-03-01

    The dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica is mapped. Plant community distribution is intimately related to the type of relief, soils and humidity. In the upper parts of the meseta, characterised by soils which are stony, sandy, and acidic, herbacious vegetation such as savanna and edaphic steppe is dominant. By contrast, woodland is found on the deep and organically rich soils of the valley floors. Within the herbaceous formations dwarf varieties of Byrsonima crassifolia (nance), Curatella americana (raspa guacal) and Quercus oleoides (encino) are found because of the acid and infertile soils.

  1. Annual Proxy Records from Tropical Cloud Forest Trees in the Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; Wheelwright, N. T.; Schrag, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    The extinction of the Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest prompted research into the causes of ecological change in the montane forests of Costa Rica. Subsequent analysis of meteorological data has suggested that warmer global surface and tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures contribute to an observed decrease in cloud cover at Monteverde. However, while recent studies may have concluded that climate change is already having an effect on cloud forest environments in Costa Rica, without the context provided by long-term climate records, it is difficult to confidently conclude that the observed ecological changes are the result of anthropogenic climate forcing, land clearance in the lowland rainforest, or natural variability in tropical climate. To address this, we develop high-resolution proxy paleoclimate records from trees without annual rings in the Monteverde Cloud Forest in Costa Rica. Calibration of an age model in these trees is a fundamental prerequisite for proxy paleoclimate reconstructions. Our approach exploits the isotopic seasonality in the δ18O of water sources (fog versus rainfall) used by trees over the course of a single year. Ocotea tenera individuals of known age and measured annual growth increments were sampled in long-term monitored plantation sites in order to test this proposed age model. High-resolution (200μm increments) stable isotope measurements on cellulose reveal distinct, coherent δ18O cycles of 6 to 10‰. The calculated growth rates derived from the isotope timeseries match those observed from basal growth increment measurements. Spatial fidelity in the age model and climate signal is examined by using multiple cores from multiple trees and multiple sites. These data support our hypothesis that annual isotope cycles in these trees can be used to provide chronological control in the absence of rings. The ability of trees to record interannual climate variability in local hydrometeorology

  2. Description of Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Coffee in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. Morgan; López Ch., Róger; Vílchez R., Hernán

    1992-01-01

    A lesion nematode, Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp., collected from the roots of coffee in the Central Plateau of Costa Rica, is described and illustrated. Its relationships to Pratylenchus flakkensis, P. similis, and P. gibbicaudatus, the only other species of the genus having two head annules, males, or spermatheca with sperm, and an annulated tail terminus, is discussed. Other distinctive characters are its posterior vulva (mean of 80%); its prominently rounded stylet knobs, low head, and subcylindrical tail. SEM observations provide additional details of females and males, especially face views, which show for the first time sexual dimorphism. PMID:19282999

  3. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M. Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  4. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  5. Altitude and regional gradients in chronic kidney disease prevalence in Costa Rica: Data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Meera N.; Harhay, Michael O.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando; Bixby, Luis Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Recent studies in Central America indicate that mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising rapidly. We sought to determine the prevalence and regional variation of CKD and the relationship of biologic and socioeconomic factors to CKD risk in the older-adult population of Costa Rica. Methods We used data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Health Aging Study (CRELES). The cohort was comprised of 2657 adults born before 1946 in Costa Rica, chosen through a sampling algorithm to represent the national population of Costa Ricans >60 years of age. Participants answered questionnaire data and completed laboratory testing. The primary outcome of this study was CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results The estimated prevalence of CKD for older Costa Ricans was 20% (95% CI 18.5 – 21.9%). In multivariable logistic regression, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.08 per year, 95%CI 1.07–1.10, p<0.001) was independently associated with CKD. For every 200 meters above sea level of residence, subjects’ odds of CKD increased 26% (aOR 1.26 95% CI 1.15–1.38, p<0.001). There was large regional variation in adjusted CKD prevalence, highest in Limon (40%, 95% CI 30%–50%) and Guanacaste (36%, 95% CI 26–46%) provinces. Regional and altitude effects remained robust after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusions We observed large regional and altitude-related variations in CKD prevalence in Costa Rica, not explained by the distribution of traditional CKD risk factors. More studies are needed to explore the potential association of geographic and environmental exposures with the risk of CKD. PMID:26466575

  6. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida) as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, G; Sánchez-Monge, A

    2015-11-01

    Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884) was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845). This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) of the specimens are given.

  7. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, L; Solís, M

    2008-06-01

    Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (< 100 m) and slope (< 10%), and locate the key breeding and nursing habitat of the species within the continental shelf domains. Proposed Marine Protected Areas (MPA's) network plans should consider connectivity of Cafio Island-Drake Bay and the extension of Corcovado National Park maritime borders.

  8. Avian community response to lowland tropical rainforest isolation: 40 years of change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Bryan J; Sherry, Thomas W; Young, Bruce E

    2006-02-01

    Since 1960, most of the forest surrounding the La Selva Biological Station, an intensively studied tropical research facility in Costa Rica, has been converted to agricultural uses. We used quantitative censuses and analysis of previously published categorical abundances to assess changes in the bird community, and we evaluated potential causes of species-specific changes by assessing their association with habitat, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, and nest type. Approximately the same percentage of species increased as decreased in abundance from 1960 to 1999 (10-20% of all species, depending on method of assessment). Diet was the single most important trait associated with declining species. At least 50% of the species that declined have insectivorous diets. Use of forest habitat and participation in mixed-species flocks were also significant factors associated with declines, but nest type was unrelated to change in abundance. The species that increased in abundance tended to occur in open habitats and have omnivorous diets. These results reinforce the importance of several population risk factors associated with tropical understory insectivory and mixed-species flocking: patchy spatial distribution, low population density, large home range, and dietary specialization. La Selva's protected area (1611 ha), despite a forested connection on one boundary with a higher elevation national park, is apparently too small to maintain at least one major guild (understory insectivores). This first quantitative assessment of bird community change at La Selva highlights the need to intensify study of the mechanisms and consequences of biological diversity change in tropical forest fragments.

  9. Impact of jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) predation on marine turtle populations in Tortuguero, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Arce, Stephanny; Salom-Pérez, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the effects of jaguars on the population of marine turtles nesting in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica. This study assessed jaguar predation impact on three species of marine turtles (Chelonia mydas, Dermochelys coriacea and Eretmochelys imbricata) that nest in Tortuguero beach. Jaguar predation data was obtained by using two methodologies, literature review (historical records prior the year 2005) and weekly surveys along the 29 km stretch of beach during the period 2005-2013. Our results indicated that jaguar predation has increased from one marine turtle in 1981 to 198 in 2013. Jaguars consumed annually an average of 120 (SD = 45) and 2 (SD = 3) green turtles and leatherbacks in Tortuguero beach, respectively. Based on our results we concluded that jaguars do not represent a threat to the population of green turtles that nest in Tortuguero beach, and it is not the main cause for population decline for leatherbacks and hawksbills. Future research should focus on continuing to monitor this predator-prey relationship as well as the factors that influence it so the proper management decisions can be taken.

  10. Export-led growth as a determinant of social development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, M

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica has put considerable effort into the development of education, health care, housing and social security. In order to be sustainable, this process requires that the output of such sectors as agriculture and manufacturing expands over time. The article examines the growth of the Costa Rican economy in a long run perspective, with an emphasis on foreign trade policy. The fate of the Costa Rican economy has been highly dependent on the exports of primary products, mainly coffee and bananas, for more than a century. This, however, has created a very vulnerable economy. As a result, during the 1960s, a new development strategy emerged: production of manufactures for the Central American Common Market (CACM). At the end of the 1970s, the prices of traditional export fell and the CACM more or less collapsed. The Central American economies were thrown into an acute crisis, aggravated by faculty domestic economic policies, which also jeopardized social development. This necessitated a stabilization effort on the one hand, and the development of a new trade strategy--promotion of non-traditional exports--on the other. It would appear that both efforts have been successful, although not without difficulties.

  11. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing.

  12. Helium and Carbon Relationships in Geothermal Fluids From the Central American arc in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Fischer, T. P.; Zimmer, M. M.; Alvarado, G.

    2001-12-01

    A fundamental aim of arc-related studies is to quantify the flux of elements from the various subduction zone reservoirs: a) the mantle wedge, b) the overlying arc crust through which the magmas erupt and c) both the oceanic basement and sedimentary veneer of the subducting slab. In the case of estimating the CO2 mass balance at convergent margins, one approach has been to couple CO2 and He measurements (isotopes and relative abundances) which allows both identification and quantitative assessment of the various contributors to the magmatic output. The Central American arc presents a unique opportunity to consider the He-C approach given prior studies which show dramatic variations in the angle of subduction, the amount and type of sediments subducted and the crustal thickness. The Costa Rica subduction zone is particularly intriguing due to the pronounced steepening of the down-going slab to the north and the occurrence of carbonate rich sediments on the down-going plate. Here, we report 3He/4He ratios, He, Ne, and CO2 abundances as well as δ 13C values for volatiles from the volcanic output along the Costa Rican segment utilising fumaroles, geothermal wells, water springs and bubbling hot springs. The results from our study show the following: 1) 3He/4He ratios of the southern volcanoes (Turrialba, Irazu and Poas) are slightly higher (6.9-8.1 RA) than those of Miravalles and Rincon de la Vieja in the north (5.1-6.8 RA), 2) water spring samples show poor preservation of magmatic gases (low 3He/4He; very high CO2/3He) relative to other sampling media, 3) CO2/3He ratios range from 9.9-27 x 109 in the south to 13-78 x 109 in the north, and 4) δ 13C values trend from isotopically heavier values in the north ( ~ -1.0 ‰ at Rincon de la Vieja) to lighter more MORB-like values in the south ( ~ -6.1 ‰ at Poas volcano). The He-CO2 relationships are consistent with a large input of marine carbonate/limestone carbon to magma sources in Costa Rica. The average ratio of

  13. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica. Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of airborne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprising.

  14. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America.

  15. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Sesnie, S. E.; Arroyo, J. P.; Walker, W.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.

    2013-09-01

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture.

  16. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Solórzano-Morales, Ántony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88) and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29) were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33), Amazona autumnalis (24), Amazona ochrocephala (21), and Ara ararauna (8) being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4%) birds using molecular detection (PCR). The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds. PMID:24163776

  17. [Basal state of the nutritional information declared in labels of foods products marketed in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, A; Roselló-Araya, M; Núñez-Rivas, H P

    2011-03-01

    The nutritional labeling regulations for prepackaged foods based on the Codex Alimentarius legislation enacted in 2002 in Costa Rica. In the same year, a research was conducted in order to describe the baseline of nutritional labeling. The declared information on the labels of all prepackaged foods was collected, except for alcoholic beverages. Six variables were analyzed using SPSS. 2,910 labels of foods were reviewed and classified in 19 food categories. 58.4% (n = 1698) included nutritional information, proportion that varied by country of origin and food category. Of the labels that included nutritional information, 68.1% had nutritional panel, 1.2% nutrient claims and 27.4%, both. 95% of the nutritional components declared on the labels included energy and macronutrients data. At least 100 different nutritional and health claims were identified. Most frequently used claims were content (74.7%), followed by addition (16.9%). The components most frequently mentioned were vitamins and minerals, vitamins (alone), carbohydrates, total fat, cholesterol and energy. Food groups who reported these descriptors were: cereals and by products, baby foods, milks, beverages, foods for special dietary uses and substitutes. One to five descriptors were used in a label. In a decade the proportion of prepackaged foods with nutritional labeling tripled in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. It is concluded that the tendency of nutrition information declaration is up, sustained and represents an accessible tool for health promotion, if the information provided is reliable and secure.

  18. Natural radiation doses for cosmic and terrestrial components in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Picado, Esteban; Minato, Susumu

    2007-01-01

    A study of external natural radiation, cosmic and terrestrial components, was carried out with in situ measurements using NaI scintillation counters while driving along the roads in Costa Rica for the period July 2003-July 2005. The geographical distribution of the terrestrial air-absorbed dose rates and the total effective dose rates (including cosmic) are represented on contour maps. Information on the population density of the country permitted the calculation of the per capita doses. The average effective dose for the total cosmic component was 46.88+/-18.06 nSvh(-1) and the average air-absorbed dose for the terrestrial component was 29.52+/-14.46 nGyh(-1). The average total effective dose rate (cosmic plus terrestrial components) was 0.60+/-0.18 mSv per year. The effective dose rate per capita was found to be 83.97 nSvh(-1) which gives an annual dose of 0.74 mSv. Assuming the world average for the internal radiation component, the natural radiation dose for Costa Rica will be 2.29 mSv annually.

  19. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Javier; Raventós, Henriette; Rodríguez, Gloriana; Leandro, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.

  20. Gender, migration and urban development in Costa Rica: the case of Guanacaste.

    PubMed

    Chant, S

    1991-01-01

    Factors fueling urbanization in Guanacaste province, Costa Rica are explored and how the pattern of urban growth reflects gender divisions of labor is considered. Urbanization in Latin America has been due largely to the expansion of economic activities in urban centers, but in Guanacaste, rural employment persists among the poor. Towns in this peripheral province have witnessed no major expansion in urban-based employment opportunities. On the basis of an in-depth survey of urban dwellers in the province's 3 leading towns (Liberia, Canas, and Santa Cruz), an attempt is made to explain Guanacaste's urbanization. The 1st section discusses the migration, urbanization, and economic development in Costa Rica, as well as Guanacaste. The 2nd section provides the findings of the survey of 350 low-income, urban households in Guanacaste, focusing on the households' reported reasons for moving. Section 3 examines household survival strategies in the areas surveyed, paying close attention to gender and age selectivity of short-term out-migration to external labor markets. Section 4 interprets the apparent connection between gender-differentiated labor migration and the dominance of reproductive factors in household decisions to move to urban centers. Section 5 considers the implications of the migration patterns on women, while section 6 discusses the wider implications of the study. The study reveals that in Guanacaste, urbanization is more strongly linked to the reproductive (e.g., housing and welfare) needs of household survival than to productive (employment and income) needs.

  1. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  2. Baird's tapir density in high elevation forests of the Talamanca region of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Schipper, Jan; Polidoro, Beth; Hoepker, Annelie; Zárrate-Charry, Diego; Belant, Jerrold L

    2012-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is currently endangered throughout its neotropical range with an expected population decline >50% in the next 30 years. We present the first density estimation of Baird's tapir for the Talamanca mountains of Costa Rica, and one of the first for the country. Ten stations with paired cameras were established in Valle del Silencio within Parque Internacional La Amistad (PILA). Seventy-seven tapir pictures of 15 individuals comprising 25 capture-recapture events were analyzed using mark-recapture techniques. The 100% minimum convex polygon of the sampled area was 5.7 km(2) and the effective sampled area using half mean maximum distances moved by tapirs was 7.16 km(2) . We estimated a tapir density of 2.93 individuals/km(2) which represents the highest density reported for this species. Intermountain valleys can represent unique and important habitats for large mammal species. However, the extent of isolation of this population, potentially constrained by steep slopes of the cordillera, remains unknown. Further genetic and movement studies are required to understand meta-population dynamics and connectivity between lowland and highland areas for Baird's tapir conservation in Costa Rica.

  3. Ectoparasites of dogs in home environments on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Alvarado, Gilbert; Vargas-Castro, Luis E; Avendaño, Adrián

    2012-01-01

    Reports on ectoparasites on dogs in Central America are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify flea, louse and tick species infesting dogs in home environments on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica, and determine their frequency and coexistence. Ectoparasites were collected from dogs in 83 rural homes at five study sites. Specimens were identified and separated according to species. Fleas were the most common ectoparasite (G = 22,217, DF = 8, p = 0.004). Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex simulans were found in 83% and 55% of the homes with ectoparasites, respectively. Trichodectes canis (13%), Heterodoxus spiniger (10%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (18%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (5%) and Amblyomma ovale (8%) were also present. More than one species was collected in most cases (66%), and the most common combination was C. felis and P. simulans (59% of homes with fleas). The high frequency of P. simulans emphasizes the need for adequate identification. This was the first study involving different ectoparasites of dogs in Costa Rica, as well as the first report of T. canis in this country. The relative frequency and coexistence of these ectoparasites in the home environment may have implications for animal and human health.

  4. Sensitivity of Costa Rica's native cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and Simocephalus serrulatus to the organophosphate pesticide ethoprophos.

    PubMed

    Arias-Andrés, María; Torres, Freylan Mena; Vargas, Seiling; Solano, Karla

    2014-01-01

    The study of pesticide toxicity in aquatic environments is assessed with ecotoxicological tests and most research has been performed using species from temperate regions. In the present study, series of acute (48 hrs) toxicity tests to compare the sensibility of two indigenous cladocera of Costa Rica and two reference species were used in temperate regions to the organophosphate pesticide, Ethoprophos. Additionally, reproduction tests using S. serrulatus with sub lethal concentrations of ethoprophos and a control were assayed to check its sensitivity over a longer period exposure. The sensitivity of Costa Rica's native species Daphnia ambigua (EC50 48 hr: 12.9 +/- 3.0 microg(l(-1)) and Simocephalus serrulatus (10.6 +/- 2.1 microg l(-1)) to ethoprophos were higher (p < 0.05) when compared to the exotic species Daphnia magna (289.8 +/- 77.4 microg l(-1)), and were comparable to that of the more widely distributed species, Ceriodaphnia dubia (18.2 +/- 5.2 microg l(-1)). No effect on S. serrulatus reproduction was observed at concentrations between 1 and 4 microg l(-1). This study provides information that can be considered in the selection of species for ecosystem studies of pesticide toxicity in neotropical regions.

  5. Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic Basin framework and petroleum potential of Panama and Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P. ); Kolarsky, R. )

    1993-02-01

    Despite its location between major petroleum provinces in northwestern South America and northern Central America, there is a widespread negative perception of the petroleum potential of Panama and Costa Rica in southern Central America. Several factors may contribute to this perception: (1) the on and offshore geology of many areas has only be studied in a reconnaissance fashion; (2) sandstone reservoirs and source rocks are likely to be of poor quality because Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic sandstones are eroded from island arc or oceanic basement rocks and because oil-prone source rocks are likely to be scarce in near-arc basins; and (3) structural traps are likely to be small and fragmented because of complex late Cenozoic thrust and strike-slip tectonics. On the other hand, onshore oil and gas seeps, shows and small production in wildcat wells, and source rocks with TOC values up to 26% suggest the possibility of future discoveries. In this talk, we present the results of a regional study using 3100 km of offshore seismic lines kindly provided by industry. Age and stratigraphic control of offshore lines is constrained by limited well data and detailed field studies of basin outcrops in coastal areas. We describe the major structures, stratigraphy, and tectonic history of the following areas: Gulf of Panama and Gulf of Chiriqui of Panama and the Pacific and Caribbean margins of Costa Rica.

  6. Seismic cycle and plate margin deformation in Costa Rica: GPS observations from 1994 to 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, P.; Protti, M.; Donnellan, A.; Heflin, M.; Hernandez, E.; Jefferson, D.

    1999-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) observations in Costa Rica from 1994 to 1997 reveal a complex pattern of motion consistent with the superposition of seismic cycle and secular plate margin deformation. In the south, velocity vectors are consistent with motion of the Panama Block plus postseismic deformation following the 1991 Limon earthquake and interseismic strain due to partial locking of the Middle America Trench (MAT) thrust. In the northwest, sites west of the volcanic arc are moving to the NW as a forearc sliver. Superimposed on this sliver motion are vertical and horizontal interseismic deformations from the adjacent Nicoya segment of the MAT. We apply two different inverse methods to understand the source of the seismic strain in NW Costa Rica. We compare fault-locking models derived using a singular value decomposition inversion with that of a simulated annealing global optimization approach. Both methods yield similar models for partial locking of the thrust interface beneath the Nicoya Peninsula. Our results define an area of nearly fully locked fault beneath the outer coast of the southern portion of the peninsula, with somewhat lower coupling beneath the northern half and with low coupling elsewhere. These initial results show the promise for detailed imaging of the locked portion of a thrust interface responsible for future large subduction zone earthquakes.

  7. The Moín High, East Costa Rica: Seamount, laccolith or contractional structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Astorga, Allan; Winsemann, Jutta

    2009-07-01

    The back-arc area of the southern Central American arc-trench system in East Costa Rica is characterized by a complex basin system. An extensional back-arc area (the North Limón Basin) and a compressional retro-arc foreland basin (the South Limón Basin) are closely related. Both basins are separated by an approximately 50 km long and 30 km wide mound-shaped structure referred to as Moín High, which evolved in Eocene times. The Moín High has previously been interpreted as a basement structure or paleo-high. The modern geothermal gradient is 3 °C/100 m. There is no evidence for thermal anomaly or higher heat flow in that area. A mean heat flow of 56-60 mW/m 2 implies that an origin as a volcanic seamount or magmatic intrusion is unlikely. 3D static models show that the Moín High trends NNE-SSW and has an antiformal shape in cross-section and an elliptic outline in map view. The trend of the Moín High coincides with the orientation of folds in West Costa Rica that formed in response to an Eocene deformation phase. The seismic lines show that Miocene reflectors onlap against the structure. Based on this data set it is likely that the Moín High is an anticline formed due to contraction.

  8. Breast Cancer Characteristics and Survival in a Hispanic Population of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Srur-Rivero, Nadia; Cartin-Brenes, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer characteristics may vary according to the patient’s ethnic group. The goal of this cohort study was to evaluate the characteristics of a group of Costa Rican breast cancer patients and their relationship with survival. METHODS Age, stage, tumor grade, immunohistochemistry, lymphovascular invasion, recurrence, and survival data on 199 Hispanic patients with breast cancer diagnosis, treated between January 2009 and May 2010, were collected from a single institution in San Jose, Costa Rica. The data were statistically analyzed for significance. RESULTS Median age at diagnosis was 53 years. With a median follow-up of 46.5 months, there was an 88% overall survival rate. Thirty-seven percent of the patients (p < 0.001) were at stages III and IV during diagnosis. The hormone receptor human epidermal receptor negative phenotype (HR−HER2−) (p < 0.001) was present in 17% of the cases. In a multivariate analysis, local (risk ratio, RR: 7.2; confidence interval, CI 95%: 3.8–7.6; p = 0.06) and distant recurrence (RR: 14.9; CI 95%: 7.7–28.9; p = 0.01) showed the strongest association with the probability of death from the disease. Patients with HR−HER2− phenotype tumors reported more local recurrences (p = 0.04), a higher tumor grade (p < 0.01), and lower overall survival than patients with other breast cancer phenotypes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Although this study analyzes a modest number of cases, it is an initial insight into factors that may contribute to differences in breast cancer outcomes among Hispanic women in Costa Rica. The higher proportion of triple negative tumors, advanced stage, and younger median age at diagnosis could contribute to the inferior prognostic described among Hispanic women. There may be a different distribution of tumor subtypes compared to non-Hispanic white women. Further studies are necessary to confirm such findings. PMID:25125980

  9. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  10. Southern Costa Rica: an Island-arc Segment That Behaves Like a Doubly Vergent Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J.

    2007-12-01

    Southern Central America is a Mesosoic/Cenozoic island-arc that evolved from the subduction of the Farallón Plate below the Caribbean Plate. The southern Costa Rican land-bridge comprises deformed fore-arc and back-arc basins in the west and east, respectively, separated by the up to 3.8 km high Talamanca Range. The structure of the southern Central American island-arc is similar to doubly vergent and asymmetric orogens. The deformed fore-arc basin in the west and the Limon fold-and-thrust belt in the east can be interpreted as pro-wedge and retro-wedge, respectively. The Talamanca Range represents the uplifted block in between. The pro-wedge is wider and has a lower slope angle than the retro-wedge. The uplift of the Talamanca Range is probably related to a system of conjugate shear zones. Precipitation is unevenly distributed, with orographic effects concentrating precipitation in SW Costa Rica, which has caused pro-wedge denudation, leading to exhumation of granitic rocks at in the interior of the mountain range. The large-scale structure of the Central American island-arc in southern Costa Rica can be described using models of continental collision zones. Previous studies attributed the deformation and uplift pattern to the subduction/collision of the Cocos Ridge. Another reasonable driving mechanism for the evolution of such an orogen in an oceanic island-arc setting is the basal traction due to long-term subduction of the Cocos Plate at a very low angle.

  11. [Environmental Guarantees in the Constitution: a new ecological-political model for Costa Rica and the rest of the world].

    PubMed

    Quesada A, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    In the last thirty years significant changes to protect the environment have been introduced in the judicial, administrative and social systems. Costa Rica is a well known international model in the field of sustainable development, and here I present a proposal for adding environmental gaurantees to the Costa Rican Constitution. One of the most important changes in the Costa Rican judicial system has been the introduction of an environmental amendment in the Constitution (Article 50). However, it is still fundamental to introduce a Title of Environmental Guarantees in the Constitution of Costa Rica, with these components: first, the State, the public and the private sector have the duty of defending the right to a safe environment; second, public domain over environmental issues, and third, the use of the environment should be regulated by scientific and technical knowledge. If current efforts succeed, Costa Rica will be the first country in the world to include Environmental Guarantees in its Constitution. This would be an example to other nations.

  12. New species of Potamocoris Hungerford (Heteroptera, Potamocoridae) from Costa Rica and a key to the species .

    PubMed

    Herrera, Federico; Springer, Monika

    2014-11-18

    A new potamocorid species, Potamocoris sitesi NEW SPECIES, with its two wing morphs (coleopteroid and macropterous) are described from Costa Rica.  Descriptions are supported with photographs and illustrations. Parameres become progressively narrower, ending in a sharp needle-like point. This is the third species of Potamocoris known from Central America. A key to the species of the genus is provided.

  13. Understanding Social Justice Leadership: An International Exploration of the Perspectives of Two School Leaders in Costa Rica and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Charles; Potter, Ian; Torres, Nancy; Briceno, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article is an examination of two social justice leaders, one in Costa Rica and one in England. It is part of the International Study of Leadership Development Network, a multi-nation study of social justice and educational leadership. A brief discussion of the philosophy of social justice and an examination of the macro and micro context in…

  14. Characterization of a Collective Action between Farmers' Organizations and Institutions in an Innovative Process to Face Liberalization in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faure, Guy

    2004-01-01

    In Northern Costa Rica, agricultural production conditions change very rapidly due to public policies that encourage the exportation of new crops according to the liberalization process imposed by the international context. For many years, farmers' organizations at the local, regional and national levels have taken initiatives to respond to this…

  15. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with...

  16. First report of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in Costa Rica and detection of viruliferous whiteflies in greenhouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies are a complex that comprises multiple species and biotypes or races which are capable of affecting crops by phloem feeding, virus transmission and promotion of fungal colonization. The distribution of these pests is worldwide. In Costa Rica, a country located in the tropics, the most prob...

  17. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  18. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Peru AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), ] and National... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective... rule added Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru to the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country''. The...

  19. First report of new phytoplasma diseases associated with soybean, sweet pepper, and passion fruit in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new soybean disease outbreak occurred in 2002 in a soybean (Glycine max) plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. Symptoms in the affected plants included general stunting, little leaf, formation of excessive buds, and aborted seed pods. Another two diseases occurred in sweet pepper (Capsicum ...

  20. "Candidatus phytoplasma costaricanum" a new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease, soybean stunt (SoyST), in soybean (Glycine max) was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same or very closely related phytoplasma also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome ...

  1. Piagetian Study of Science Teaching: An Adaptation of SCIIS to Schools in San Ramon, Alajuela, Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria del Carmen Hernandez; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary project from the University of Costa Rica conducted to contribute to the improvement of science teaching in primary schools by adopting the Science Curriculum Improvement Study. Changes included the use of woods, rocks, shells, and rain water in science class and integration of science with other subjects. Student…

  2. Upper-Plate Seismicity Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including examples in Costa Rica after the large (Mw > 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1941, 1950, 1983, 1990, and 1991. On September 5, 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the largest earthquakes and earthquake swarms that took place during the first nine months after the Nicoya earthquake. These swarms occurred at distances of 150 to 450 km from the Nicoya source region in different tectonic settings: the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region, the Sixaola region near the Costa Rica-Panama border in the backarc Caribbean region, the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc, and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera in an inactive portion of the magmatic arc. The Calero swarm with 70 2.0-to-4.2 Mw earthquakes took place from September 22 to October 9, 2012. The earthquake pattern suggests a smaller-scale fault as a possible source, which is located along the inland projection of the Hess Escarpment. The Cartago swarm with 284 1.8-to-4.1 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 31, 2012. The focal mechanism solutions suggest that strike-slip faulting predominates in this region, consistent with neotectonic observations. The San Vito earthquake swarm with 30 2.3-to-4.5 Mw earthquakes occurred between October 14, 2012 and January 28, 2013. These earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of north-south striking faults, which are located along the inland projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. The largest earthquake (5.6 Mw) occurred on the Sixaola region on 27 of May, 2013. The focal mechanism solution suggests a thrust fault that correlates with

  3. Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori babA2 and babA2/B in Costa Rica and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Con, Sergio A; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Nishioka, Mitsuaki; Morimoto, Norihito; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Yasuda, Nobufumi; Con-Wong, Reinaldo

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) babA2, babB and a recombinant gene between babA2 and babB (babA2/B), and their role in the development of atrophic gastritis in Costa Rican and Japanese clinical isolates. METHODS: A total of 95 continuous H. pylori-positive Costa Rican (41 males and 54 females; mean age, 50.65 years; SD, ± 13.04 years) and 95 continuous H. pylori-positive Japanese (50 males and 45 females; mean age, 63.43; SD, ± 13.21 years) patients underwent upper endoscopy from October 2005 to July 2006. They were enrolled for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping of the H. pylori babA2, babB and babA2/B genes. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 test and the Fisher’s exact probability test and multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression adjusting for gender and age. P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: The PCR-based genotyping of 95 Costa Rican and 95 Japanese isolates showed a higher prevalence of babA2 in Japan (96.8%) than in Costa Rica (73.7%), while that of babA2/B was higher in Costa Rica (11.6%) than in Japan (1.1%). In Costa Rican isolates only, babA2 was significantly associated with atrophic gastritis (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the status of babA2 and babA2/B shows geographic differences, and that babA2 has clinical relevance in Costa Rica. PMID:20101774

  4. Apparent Stress Variation in Response to Seamount Subduction at Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankova-Pursley, J.; Bilek, S. L.; Phillips, W. S.; Newman, A. V.

    2008-12-01

    Seamounts are high relief features seen on many oceanic plates, including the Cocos plate offshore Costa Rica. As these features enter the subduction zone at Middle America Trench, they may perturb interface coupling by changing physical properties of the plate interface. Here we explore the role of seamounts on rupture process of microseismicity along Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. This peninsula lies close to a region where down-going Cocos plate structure varies along-strike of the trench. The Cocos plate has low relief along the north and central parts of Nicoya Peninsula, where the subducting plate was created at East Pacific Rise (EPR). Seamounts dot the plate subducting at the southern tip of the peninsula, where the plate was created at Cocos-Nazca Spreading center (CNS). Given these structural differences, we are able to evaluate possible along-strike variations in earthquake source properties. We use 357 earthquakes from the Costa Rica Seismogenic Zone (CR-SEIZE) project to estimate the effects of seamount subduction on apparent stress (σa). We compute σa, which is a measure of stress drop combined with seismic efficiency, using waveform coda because of its proven stability relative to measurements using direct arrivals. We allow variable source scaling, finding that non-constant scaling provides good fit for our data, suggesting that seismic moment is not proportional to the cube root of corner frequency at ML 0.8 to 4.2. σa values for well constrained data indicate along strike variations between the northern and southern tips of the peninsula. Except in the region of a previously subducted seamount in the Gulf of Nicoya where the mean σa is 1.03 MPa, the southern and central portions of the peninsula have mean σa values 0.79 and 0.89 MPa respectively, while the mean σa value in the northern region is 1.66 MPa. The larger mean σa values in the northern region and in the Gulf of Nicoya implies that the interface is more strongly coupled where there

  5. Three-Dimensional Thermal Model of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-10-01

    The thermal structure of a subduction zone controls many key processes, including subducting plate metamorphism and dehydration, the megathrust earthquake seismogenic zone and volcanic arc magmatism. Here, we present the first three-dimensional (3D), steady-state kinematic-dynamic thermal model for the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone. The model consists of the subducting Cocos plate, the overriding Caribbean Plate, and a viscous mantle wedge in which flow is driven by interactions with the downgoing slab. The Cocos plate geometry includes along-strike variations in slab dip, which induce along-strike flow in the mantle wedge. Along-strike flow occurs primarily below Costa Rica, with a maximum magnitude of 4 cm/year (~40 % of the convergence rate) for a mantle with a dislocation creep rheology; an isoviscous mantle has lower velocities. Along-margin flow causes temperatures variations of up to 80 °C in the subducting slab and mantle wedge at the volcanic arc and backarc. The 3D effects do not strongly alter the shallow (<35 km) thermal structure of the subduction zone. The models predict that the megathrust seismogenic zone width decreases from ~100 km below Costa Rica to just a few kilometers below Nicaragua; the narrow width in the north is due to hydrothermal cooling of the oceanic plate. These results are in good agreement with previous 2D models and with the rupture area of recent earthquakes. In the models, along-strike mantle flow is induced only by variations in slab dip, with flow directed toward the south where the dip angle is smallest. In contrast, geochemical and seismic observations suggest a northward flow of 6-19 cm/year. We do not observe this in our models, suggesting that northward flow may be driven by additional factors, such as slab rollback or proximity to a slab edge (slab window). Such high velocities may significantly affect the thermal structure, especially at the southern end of the subduction zone. In this area, 3D models that

  6. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  7. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases in Costa Rica: a feasibility study toward a national screening program

    PubMed Central

    Wesseling, Catharina; Román, Norbel; Quirós, Indiana; Páez, Laura; García, Vilma; María Mora, Ana; Juncos, Jorge L.; Steenland, Kyle N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The integration of mental and neurologic services in healthcare is a global priority. The universal Social Security of Costa Rica aspires to develop national screening of neurodegenerative disorders among the elderly, as part of the non-communicable disease agenda. Objective This study assessed the feasibility of routine screening for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the public healthcare system of Costa Rica. Design The population (aged ≥65) in the catchment areas of two primary healthcare clinics was targeted for motor and cognitive screening during routine annual health check-ups. The screening followed a tiered three-step approach, with increasing specificity. Step 1 involved a two-symptom questionnaire (tremor-at-rest; balance) and a spiral drawing test for motor assessment, as well as a three-word recall and animal category fluency test for cognitive assessment. Step 2 (for those failing Step 1) was a 10-item version of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Step 3 (for those failing Step 2) was a comprehensive neurologic exam with definitive diagnosis of PD, AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), other disorders, or subjects who were healthy. Screening parameters and disease prevalence were calculated. Results Of the 401 screened subjects (80% of target population), 370 (92%), 163 (45%), and 81 (56%) failed in Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3, respectively. Thirty-three, 20, and 35 patients were diagnosed with PD, AD, and MCI, respectively (7 were PD with MCI/AD); 90% were new cases. Step 1 sensitivities of motor and cognitive assessments regarding Step 2 were both 93%, and Step 2 sensitivities regarding definitive diagnosis 100 and 96%, respectively. Specificities for Step 1 motor and cognitive tests were low (23% and 29%, respectively) and for Step 2 tests acceptable (76%, 94%). Based on international data, PD prevalence was 3.7 times higher than expected; AD prevalence was as

  8. Genetic diversity in Oryza glumaepatula wild rice populations in Costa Rica and possible gene flow from O. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Meneses Martínez, Allan; Calvo, Amanda; Muñoz, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Wild crop relatives are an important source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Diversity estimates are generally lacking for many wild crop relatives. The objective of the present study was to analyze how genetic diversity is distributed within and among populations of the wild rice species Oryza glumaepatula in Costa Rica. We also evaluated the likelihood of gene flow between wild and commercial rice species because the latter is commonly sympatric with wild rice populations. Introgression may change wild species by incorporating alleles from domesticated species, increasing the risk of losing original variation. Specimens from all known O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica were analyzed with 444 AFLP markers to characterize genetic diversity and structure. We also compared genetic diversity estimates between O. glumaepatula specimens and O. sativa commercial rice. Our results showed that O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica have moderately high levels of genetic diversity, comparable to those found in South American populations. Despite the restricted distribution of this species in Costa Rica, populations are fairly large, reducing the effects of drift on genetic diversity. We found a dismissible but significant structure (θ = 0.02 ± 0.001) among populations. A Bayesian structure analysis suggested that some individuals share a significant proportion of their genomes with O. sativa. These results suggest that gene flow from cultivated O. sativa populations may have occurred in the recent past. These results expose an important biohazard: recurrent hybridization may reduce the genetic diversity of this wild rice species. Introgression may transfer commercial traits into O. glumaepatula, which in turn could alter genetic diversity and increase the likelihood of local extinction. These results have important implications for in situ conservation strategies of the only wild populations of O. glumaepatula in Costa Rica. PMID:27077002

  9. Taxonomy of the freshwater crabs of Costa Rica, with a revision of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2015-01-13

    The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae            Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of

  10. Upper-Plate Earthquake Swarms Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Rojas, W.

    2013-05-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including damaging upper-plate 5.0-to-6.0 magnitude earthquakes in Costa Rica after the large (Mw > 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1983, 1990, and 1991. On September 5, 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the largest earthquake swarms that took place during the first five months after the Nicoya earthquake. These swarms occurred at distances of 200 to 300 km from the Nicoya source region in three different tectonic settings: the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region, the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc, and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera, an inactive portion of the magmatic arc. The Calero swarm with 64 2.0-to-4.2 Mw earthquakes took place from September 22 to October 9, 2012. The earthquake pattern suggests a smaller-scale fault as a possible source even though this swarm is located along the inland projection of the Hess Escarpment. The Cartago swarm with 284 2.0-to-3.7 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 5, 2012. The location and left-lateral solution of the largest event focal mechanism suggest that the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4), is the source of some of this triggered seismicity. The San Vito earthquake swarm with 30 2.0-to-4.5 Mw earthquakes occurred between December 9, 2012 and January 28, 2013. These earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of the San Vito and Agua Buena faults, which are located along the inland projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Documenting remotely triggered earthquakes may provide us with insight into the

  11. First isolation and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis in Costa Rica, Central America.

    PubMed

    Romero, L E; Meneses, A I; Salazar, L; Jiménez, M; Romero, J J; Aguiar, D M; Labruna, M B; Dolz, G

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated Ehrlichia species in blood samples from dogs suspected of clinical ehrlichiosis, using molecular and isolation techniques in cell culture. From a total of 310 canine blood samples analyzed by 16S rRNA nested PCR, 148 (47.7%) were positive for Ehrlichia canis. DNA from Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii was not detected in any sample using species-specific primers in separated reactions. Leukocytes from five PCR-positive dogs were inoculated into DH82 cells; successful isolation of E. canis was obtained in four samples. Partial sequence of the dsb gene of eight canine blood samples (including the five samples for in vitro isolation) was obtained by PCR and their analyses through BLAST showed 100% of identity with the corresponding sequence of E. canis in GenBank. This study represents the first molecular diagnosis, isolation, and molecular characterization of E. canis in dogs from Costa Rica.

  12. Poor alkaloid sequestration by arrow poison frogs of the genus Phyllobates from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Alvarez, Joseph Vargas; Pogoda, Werner; Toennes, Stefan W; Köhler, Gunther

    2014-03-01

    Frogs of the genus Phyllobates from Colombia are known to contain the highly toxic alkaloid batrachotoxin, but species from Central America exhibit only very low levels or are entirely free of this toxin. In the present study alcohol extracts from 101 specimens of Phyllobates lugubris and Phyllobates vittatus and 21 of three sympatric species (Dendrobates pumilio, Dendrobates auratus, Dendrobates granuliferus) from Costa Rica were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas the extracts of the Dendrobates species exhibited typical profiles of toxic alkaloids, those of the two Phyllobates species contained low levels of few alkaloids only, batrachotoxin was not detected. Although the feeding pattern of the Dendrobates and Phyllobates species are similar as revealed by examination of their stomach content (mainly ants and mites), the Phyllobates species are poorly sequestering alkaloids from their food source in contrast to the Dendrobates frogs.

  13. The 'foremost ornithological mystery of Costa Rica': Amazilia alfaroana Underwood, 1896.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Guy M; Collar, Nigel J

    2016-11-10

    The hummingbird Amazilia alfaroana is known from a single specimen, collected on the Volcán de Miravalles, in north-west Costa Rica, in September 1895. Since the early 20th century, the taxon has been almost always been treated as a subspecies of Indigo-capped Hummingbird A. cyanifrons, which is otherwise endemic to Colombia, although it has also been tentatively suggested that the holotype might represent a hybrid between two unnamed species of trochilids. Our detailed analysis of the specimen reveals species-level differences between A. alfaroana and A. cyanifrons, and no evidence of characters that might suggest a hybrid between two species known to occur in the relevant region. Until molecular techniques have been brought to bear, we believe that A. alfaroana is best treated as a possibly now extinct species.

  14. A new genus and species of Leptocheliidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from Isla del Coco (Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Esquete, Patricia; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Troncoso, Jesús S

    2013-11-27

    Samples from the scarcely-studied sedimentary seabed from the Isla del Coco (Costa Rica) yielded a single species of Tanaidacea, belonging to a new genus of Leptocheliidae, Cocotanais. The new genus shows affinities with Pseudonototanais and Heterotanais in bearing a conspicuous forcipate cheliped in the males, which in Cocotanais has a modified merus and carpal flange. Other distinct characters of the males are a triangular cephalothorax, a three-articled antennular peduncle and swollen bases of pereopods 4-6. Females have a four-articled antennule, a maxilliped endite with three distal flat spines and two inner coupling hooks, and a maxilliped basis with two long setae. The species was found in sheltered bays, both free-living in the sediment and also as a commensal of anemones (Infraorder Boloceroidaria), thus representing the first reported case of such an association. 

  15. An ecological risk assessment of pesticides and fish kills in the Sixaola watershed, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Morra, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Along the southeastern coast of Costa Rica, a variety of pesticides are intensively applied to produce export-quality plantains and bananas. In this region, and in other agricultural areas, fish kills are often documented by local residents and/or in the national news. This study examines principal exposure pathways, measured environmental concentrations, and selected toxicity thresholds of the three most prevalent pesticides (chlorpyrifos, terbufos, and difenoconazole) to construct a deterministic risk assessment for fish mortality. Comparisons of observed pesticide concentrations, along with estimated biological effects and observations during actual fish kills, highlight gaps in knowledge in correlating pesticide environmental concentration and toxicity in tropical environments. Observations of fish kill events and measured pesticide concentrations in the field, along with other water quality indicators, suggest that a number of environmental conditions can interact to cause fish mortality and that current species toxicity datasets may not be applicable for estimating toxicological or other synergistic effects, especially in tropical environments.

  16. Do Birds Select Habitat or Food Resources? Nearctic-Neotropic Migrants in Northeastern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Ralph, C. John

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover periods. Our models indicated that frugivorous migrants primarily used food abundance, while insectivorous migrants chiefly used vegetation structure as cues for habitat use during stopover. In addition to habitat use models, we documented fruiting plant phenology and found a general relationship between migrant arrival and the timing of ripe fruit availability. Our results suggest that insectivorous migrants probably rely on structural features when using habitat because it may be inherently difficult to assess cryptic-arthropod availability during a short period of time in a novel habitat, such as stopover periods. PMID:24489701

  17. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Acanthamoeba Strains from Dental Units in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Retana-Moreira, Lissette; Abrahams-Sandí, Elizabeth; Castro-Artavia, Esteban; Fernández-Sánchez, Ana; Castro-Castillo, Alfredo; Reyes-Batlle, María; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Free-living amoebae are protozoa widely distributed in nature, which can be found in a variety of environments. Four genera are recognized as causal agents of infections in humans and animals: Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia, and Sappinia. In this study, the presence of Acanthamoeba in dental units was determined and the isolates obtained were molecularly characterized; osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays were also performed to evaluate multiplication under these conditions, frequently associated with pathogenicity. The morphological analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in 14% of the units sampled. Osmotolerance and thermotolerance tests were positive for more than 80% of the isolates. Up to date, this is the first study that reports the detection, identification, and genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolated from dental units in Costa Rica and even in Latin-America. Further assays to determine the potential pathogenicity of these Acanthamoeba isolates are underway.

  18. Clinica Tibas: an experimental response to health system challenges in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pezza, P E; Barquero Bolaños, J F

    1994-10-01

    Several experiments in health services delivery featuring contractual arrangements between government and the private sector have been initiated in Costa Rica. This report describes a public-private partnership serving a community of 50,000. A 'cooperative' of providers stands to gain financially if it succeeds in providing clinic services in an efficacious and efficient manner. This experimental approach retains elements of the existing public system for health promotion and disease prevention while introducing innovations for increased organizational efficiency and client satisfaction. The clinic provides easier access to better care, including ambulatory surgery, pharmacy service, and home visits, and at a lower cost to government than that budgeted under pre-existing arrangements. Inappropriate usage of area hospitals has been reduced; and a commitment to community participation and organized programming permit greater responsiveness to community needs. Those served by the clinic report satisfaction. Personnel also report satisfaction and enthusiasm for their work. Issues concerning extension of this model are considered.

  19. [The mangrove and others vegetation associations in de Gandoca lagoon, Limón, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Coll, M; Fonseca, A C; Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Six plant associations were identified at Gandoca Lagoon by photointerpretation and field verification: a) mangroves, b) palm trees swamp, and palm trees with Acrostichum aureum and A. danaefolium, c) mixed palm trees, d) very humid tropical rain forest, and e) tropical beach vegetation. The mangroves cover 12.5 ha surrounding the lagoon and extend 2 km up the Gandoca River. Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the dominant species, with Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) and Conocarpus erectus (buttonwood) also present. Moving inland the mangroves grade into a tropical rain forest. Gandoca, the largest and best preserved mangrove of Caribbean Costa Rica, tripled its area from 1976 to 2000. Possible causes include sedimentation and the Limón earthquake, which may have subside the lagoon area.

  20. Secondary mineral growth in fractures in the Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, C.A. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Milodowski, A.E.; Savage, D. . Fluid Processes Research Group); Corella, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A mineralogical, fluid-chemical, and theoretical study of hydrothermal alteration in veins from drillcore from the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica has revealed a complex history of mineral-fluid reaction which may be used to characterize changes in temperature and fluid composition with time. Mineralogical and mineral-chemical data are consistent with hydrothermal alteration in the temperature range 200{sup 0}-270{sup 0}C, with deeper portions of the system having undergone temperatures in excess of 300{sup 0}C. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the observed alteration assemblage is not equilibrium with current well fluids, unless estimates of reservoir pH are incorrect. Fe-Al zoning of prehnite and epidote in veins is consistent with rapid, isothermal fluctuations in fluid composition at current reservoir temperatures, and may be due to changes in volatile content of the fluid due to tectonic activity.

  1. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jared D; Johnson, Matthew D; Ralph, C John

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover periods. Our models indicated that frugivorous migrants primarily used food abundance, while insectivorous migrants chiefly used vegetation structure as cues for habitat use during stopover. In addition to habitat use models, we documented fruiting plant phenology and found a general relationship between migrant arrival and the timing of ripe fruit availability. Our results suggest that insectivorous migrants probably rely on structural features when using habitat because it may be inherently difficult to assess cryptic-arthropod availability during a short period of time in a novel habitat, such as stopover periods.

  2. [Preliminary plant inventory of the palm-swamps in the Caribbean of Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Ricardo; Jarquín, Orlando; Munguía, Blanca; Reyes, Aquiles; Coronado, Indiana

    2013-09-01

    In the Caribbean slope of Isthmian Central America, plant associations dominated by the palms Raphia taedigera and Manicaria saccifera develop in poorly drained or waterlogged soils. These associations are known locally as yolillales or palm-swamps, although there are differences in the forest structure and plant diversity associated with both palm species. In this paper, we report the results of a preliminary inventory of tree species found in eight palm-swamps at five locations in southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica. Our data reveal low tree diversity in these swamps with only 60 species accounted in them. This figure is equivalent to close to 8% of the plant species known for this region. In general, R. taedigera dominates flooded areas with extensive hydroperiods and lower floristic diversity, while M. saccifera is often found in flooded forests with more structure and diversity.

  3. Crepidotus crocophyllus found in Costa Rica and Mexico and revision of related species in subsection Fulvifibrillosi.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Victor M; Montoya, Leticia; Mata, Milagro

    2008-01-01

    The study of Crepidotus specimens collected in Costa Rica and Mexico revealed that C. crocophyllus occurs in the tropical and subtropical forests of both countries. Type specimens of seven species related to C. crocophyllus in subsection Fulvifibrillosi s. Hesler and Smith were re-examined. Based on the morphological features, specimens supporting C. appalachianensis, C. aureifolius, C. distortus, C. subaureifolius and C. subnidulans are interpreted to be C. crocophyllus, thus all herein are proposed as its synonyms. Furthermore A. nephrodes is confirmed as a synonym of Crepidotus crocophyllus while Agaricus malachius, long considered contaxic with the former, is proposed as synonym of Crepidotus applanatus. The known records of C. crocophyllus indicate a wide but fragmented range of extension of the taxon throughout the Americas. Description, illustrations of microscopic features and discussions are provided.

  4. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D.; Adler, Gregory H.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  5. Interstitial water chemistry of sediments of the Costa Rica Accretionary Complex off the Nicoya Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuleger, E.; Gieskes, J. M.; You, C.-F.

    Interstitial water analyses from numerous piston, gravity, and Alvin push cores show that fluid flow at the Costa Rica Accretionary Prism is spatially limited and can only be detected by visually directed cores in zones of biogenic activity. Most of the sites cored show evidence for normal diagenetic processes in rapidly deposited, organic carbon-rich sediments, with little evidence for fluid advection. However, in visually directed Alvin push cores, obtained from black sulfidic sediments characterized by the presence of Calyptogena clams or tubeworms, evidence for fluids advected upward from greater depth horizons is shown. These zones are associated with a large mudvolcano on the prism and with the zoes of Out Of Sequence Thrusts. As changes from sea water concentrations are still relatively small, substantial mixing with sea water must have occurred during this upward fluid movement.

  6. [Fulminant Wilson's disease in Costa Rica. Clinico-pathological study of 7 cases].

    PubMed

    Herra, S A; Hevia, F J; Vargas, M; Schosinsky, K

    1990-01-01

    In the last eighteen years, from 1972 to 1989, around 150 cases of Wilson's disease have been diagnosed in Costa Rica (6/100.000 inhabitants). In the San Juan de Dios Hospital, 120 cases have been studied during this period, seven of whom died with a picture of acute hepatic insufficiency, hemolytic anemia, encephalopathy, intestinal bleeding and renal insufficiency. In four of the cases, postmortem histopathologic studies were done with high resolution microscopy, which revealed extensive submassive necrosis of the liver, with severe cholestatic, lytic and acidophilic necrosis with nodular, irregular regeneration and specially microvacuolar steatosis, different from that observed in other forms of fulminant hepatitis. With the clinical, laboratory and histopathologic findings, we concluded that fulminant Wilson's disease is a well-defined pathological clinical entity of fatal evolution with no response to therapy, including early treatment with penicillamine and steroids.

  7. [Juvenile fish in a tidal pool, Térraba-Sierpe Forest Reserve, Puntarenas, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chicas, F A

    2001-12-01

    Juvenile fish were sampled with a 10 m long net in a tide pool (17,000 m2) on the West margin of Boca Guarumal, Térraba-Sierpe Forest Reserve, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, from October 1992 through January 1994. Water temperature and surface salinity were recorded in each visit. The specimens were fixed in 5% formaldehyde and preserved in 70% ethanol. Abundance and size data were pooled based on precipitation, a main ecological influence in the Reserve. A total of 13,494 individuals from 18 species were captured. Eucinostomus currani, Gobionellus sagittula, Diapterus peruvianus, Agonostomus monticola and Atherinella sp. represented more than 97% of the captures. Although many species presented the tendency of concentrating during the dry season, significant differences in temporal abundance were found. The fish entered the estuary when their body length was between 20 and 60 mm.

  8. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    PubMed

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America.

  9. Use of a national reporting system for occupational injuries in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Susan; Krantz, Anne; Klempner, Sophia; Alvarado, Rebeca; Wesseling, Catharina; Fernández, Eduardo; Forst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Occupational injury surveillance in developing countries may be hindered by the lack of health data infrastructure as well the large numbers of informal-sector workers. The goal of this study was to elucidate the scope of occupational injury in the Monteverde district of Costa Rica using data collected through the national workers social security system. A list of occupational injuries occurring in the district reported to the National Insurance Institute (INS) central office between 1998 and 2002 was taken to the regional INS office, and the original injury reports for the cases were pulled. Specific data on the injuries were collected. There were 184 injuries reported during the five year period. Occupations with the highest number of injuries included production, building and grounds maintenance, and agricultural/forestry/fishing. Descriptive data showed that prevention efforts in this rural region should target food manufacturing, hotels, and construction.

  10. The blood parasites of anurans from Costa Rica with reflections on the taxonomy of their trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Desser, S S

    2001-02-01

    During May 1997, specimens of 7 species of anurans, that included 5 Phrynohyas venulosa Laurenti, 5 Rana forreri Boulenger, 7 Rana vaillanti Brucchi, 6 Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri Schimdt, 4 Smilisca baudinii Duméril and Bibron, 1 Leptodactylus melanonotus, and 3 Bufo marinus Linneaus, from the Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica were examined for blood parasites. Their hematozoan fauna included intraerythrocytic and intraleukocytic icosahedral viruses, a rickettsia (Aegyptianella sp.), 2 species of Hepatozoon, Lankesterella minima, 2 unknown species of apicomplexans, 9 morphologically distinct types of trypanosomes, and 2 species of microfilariae. Rana vaillanti, the most aquatic species of frog, harbored the most species of parasites. Recent evidence indicates that morphological changes in the highly pleomorphic trypanosomes of anurans from different geographical regions have not kept pace with biochemical (isozyme) and molecular (DNA sequence) changes. Describing new species based solely on bloodstream trypomastigotes is discouraged. Additional criteria described herein should be applied when naming new species of anuran trypanosomes.

  11. [Feeding habits of the squirrel Sciurus variegatoides (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, Javier; Hilje, Luko

    2006-06-01

    Food items consumed by the squirrel Sciurus variegatoides atrirufus were determined in an agricultural setting in the Nicoya Peninsula (9 degrees 47' N, 84 degrees 56' W), Costa Rica, where two life zones (Premontane Moist Forest Basal Belt Transition, and Tropical Dry Forest) predominate. By analyzing the gut contents of 120 squirrels, from February 1987 through January 1988, it was determined that coconut (Cocos nucifera), indian almond (Terminalia catappa) and flamboyant (Delonix regia) were the most common dietary items. There were differences in food consumption according to age: adults preferred coconut, whereas young individuals preferred almond. This finding can be explained in terms of fruit characteristics, as well as tree architecture and accessibility for squirrels; almendro trees provide higher protection and a more accessible food resource, so that it was better used by young individuals.

  12. A hydrothermal seep on the Costa Rica margin: middle ground in a continuum of reducing ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Lisa A.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Rouse, Greg W.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Ussler, William; Cook, Geoffrey S.; Goffredi, Shana K.; Perez, Elena M.; Waren, Anders; Grupe, Benjamin M.; Chadwick, Grayson; Strickrott, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Upon their initial discovery, hydrothermal vents and methane seeps were considered to be related but distinct ecosystems, with different distributions, geomorphology, temperatures, geochemical properties and mostly different species. However, subsequently discovered vents and seep systems have blurred this distinction. Here, we report on a composite, hydrothermal seep ecosystem at a subducting seamount on the convergent Costa Rica margin that represents an intermediate between vent and seep ecosystems. Diffuse flow of shimmering, warm fluids with high methane concentrations supports a mixture of microbes, animal species, assemblages and trophic pathways with vent and seep affinities. Their coexistence reinforces the continuity of reducing environments and exemplifies a setting conducive to interactive evolution of vent and seep biota. PMID:22398162

  13. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ERβ-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ERβ-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  14. Checklist and identification key of Anomalini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Filippini, Valentina; Micó, Estefanía; Galante, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A checklist and identification key for the species of the tribe Anomalini in Costa Rica are presented. The Anomalini species are important economically, as they have larvae that are or can become agricultural pests, as well as ecologically, having potential as bioindicators. In spite of their importance and richness, identification tools for the group in the Neotropics remain scarce. The Costa Rican fauna comprises six genera (Anomala, Anomalorhina, Callistethus, Epectinaspis, Moroniella, and Strigoderma) and a total of 120 species. Anomala contusa Filippini, Micó, Galante, 2015 is proposed as a synonym of Anomala inbio (Ramírez-Ponce, Bitar, Curoe 2014); Anomala limon nom. n. is proposed as a new name for Anomala inbio Filippini, Galante, Micó, 2015, a homonym of Anomala inbio (Ramírez-Ponce, Bitar, Curoe, 2014); Anomala cinaedias nom. n. is proposed as a new name for Anomala chloropyga Ohaus, 1897, a homonym of Anomala chloropyga Burmeister, 1844; and Anomala chrysomelina is moved to the genus Callistethus. PMID:27833420

  15. Active deformation near the Nicoya Peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, between 1996 and 2010: Interseismic megathrust coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lujia; Newman, Andrew V.; Protti, Marino; GonzáLez, VíCtor; Jiang, Yan; Dixon, Timothy H.

    2012-06-01

    We use campaign and continuous GPS measurements at 49 sites between 1996 and 2010 to describe the long-term active deformation in and near the Nicoya Peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica. The observed deformation reveals partial partitioning of the Cocos-Caribbean oblique convergence into trench-parallel forearc sliver motion and less oblique thrusting on the subduction interface. The northern Costa Rican forearc translates northwestward as a whole ridge block at 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative to the stable Caribbean. The transition from the forearc to the stable Caribbean occurs in a narrow deforming zone of ˜16 km wide. Subduction thrust earthquakes take 2/3 of the trench-parallel component of the plate convergence; however, surface deformation caused by interseismic megathrust coupling is primarily trench-normal. Two fully coupled patches, one located offshore Nicoya centered at ˜15 km depth and the other located inland centered at ˜24 km depth, are identified in Nicoya with the potential to generate an Mw 7.8 1950-type earthquake. Another fully coupled patch SE of Nicoya coincides with the rupture region of the 1990 Nicoya Gulf earthquake. Interface microearthquakes, non-volcanic tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and transient slow-slip events generally occur in the intermediately to weakly coupled regions.

  16. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Mayorga, Marcela; Fuchs, Eric J; Hernández, Eduardo J; Herrera, Franklin; Hernández, Jesús; Moreira, Ileana; Arnáez, Elizabeth; Barboza, Natalia M

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346), but considerable compared to worldwide values for J. curcas. The PIC (PIC = 0.274) and inbreeding coefficient (f =  - 0.102) were both low. Clustering was not related to the geographical origin of accessions. International accessions clustered independently of collection sites, suggesting a lack of genetic structure, probably due to the wide distribution of this crop and ample gene flow. Molecular markers identified only one non-toxic accession (JCCR-24) from Mexico. This work is part of a countrywide effort to characterize the genetic diversity of the Jatropha curcas germplasm bank in Costa Rica.

  17. Environmental hazards associated with pesticide import into Costa Rica, 1977-2009.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Elba; Bravo-Durán, Viria; Ramírez, Fernando; Castillo, Luisa E

    2014-01-01

    Raw pesticide import data from 1977 to 2009 obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture in Costa Rica were processed and analyzed. The quantity of specific active ingredients (a.i.), and chemical groups were calculated by year and presented in ten-year periods. Three sets of environmental hazard indicators were constructed: one for general pesticides exposure to monitor tendencies in time, including total quantities imported divided by significant denominators, such as hectares of protected and wetland areas. The second indicator calculates pesticide use on the Pacific or Caribbean slope. The third one is an assessment of environmental hazards intended to estimate fate and toxicity to aquatic biota. A review of Costa Rican aquatic ecosystems' contamination with pesticides is presented. The annual average import as well as the quantity of pesticides capable of reaching water bodies increased during the analyzed period. The same was observed for harmful a.i., 98% of the pesticides imported were classified as acutely toxic for fish and crustaceans and 73% for amphibians. Approximately 8.4 kg of a.i. were imported per hectare of protected areas and 24.3 kg of a.i. per hectare of wetlands. The contamination of aquatic systems over time by specific pesticides matches quite well the list of imported ones. We recommend using data of pesticide imports as a source of information to evaluate environmental risk exposure and promote changes to reduce impacts on aquatic systems.

  18. Registration of fatal occupational injuries in Costa Rica, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana Maria; Mora-Mora, Maria Gabriela; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Data on fatal occupational injuries (FOIs) for Latin America are controversial. Costa Rican national rates are inconsistent with estimates extrapolated from other countries. We reviewed the files for all possible FOIs in Costa Rica for 2005-2006 at the National Insurance Institute and at the Center of Forensic Sciences by formality/informality of work, sex, age, economic activity, occupation, and cause of death. The national mortality rate was estimated at 9.5/100,000 person-years (342 deaths). The informal/formal rate ratio was 1.06. Men's rates were over 10 times higher than women's and increased with age. The highest rates were found for transport, storage, and communication (32.1/100,000 person-years), and, by occupation, for messengers and delivery men (91.4). Leading causes of death were traffic injuries and gunshots. Recalculated rates are probably underestimates. Data limitations include the absence of systematic identification and registration among informal sector workers and other groups such as children and farm workers.

  19. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Mayorga, Marcela; Fuchs, Eric J.; Hernández, Eduardo J.; Herrera, Franklin; Hernández, Jesús; Moreira, Ileana; Arnáez, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346), but considerable compared to worldwide values for J. curcas. The PIC (PIC = 0.274) and inbreeding coefficient (f =  − 0.102) were both low. Clustering was not related to the geographical origin of accessions. International accessions clustered independently of collection sites, suggesting a lack of genetic structure, probably due to the wide distribution of this crop and ample gene flow. Molecular markers identified only one non-toxic accession (JCCR-24) from Mexico. This work is part of a countrywide effort to characterize the genetic diversity of the Jatropha curcas germplasm bank in Costa Rica. PMID:28289556

  20. The impact of hospital management reforms on absenteeism in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    García-Prado, Ariadna; Chawla, Mukesh

    2006-03-01

    The reduction of high levels of absenteeism among health care workers was one the objectives of the reforms undertaken to improve public hospital performance during the 1990s in Costa Rica. This paper attempts to assess the impact of changes in reimbursement methods and organizational reform on absence rates among health care personnel in Costa Rican public hospitals for the period 1995-2001. Our results show the reforms to have had a negative impact on absenteeism, which increased throughout the considered period. Results further indicate that the policy of not substituting absentee workers, which was introduced through the reforms, did not work as expected in a permissive environment in which peer pressure mechanisms were lacking. In addition, the explicit incentives for workers included in the reforms were retained and used at facility level. There is a pressing need in the future for control and disciplinary mechanisms for health care personnel and for the introduction of absence rates as an explicit goal to be monitored and evaluated.

  1. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species.

  2. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; Hernández Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sandí, Janet; Nuñez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths.

  3. The Nicoya region of Costa Rica: a high longevity island for elderly males

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H.; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable data show that the Nicoyan region of Costa Rica is a hot spot of high longevity. A survival follow-up of 16,300 elderly Costa Ricans estimated a Nicoya death rate ratio (DRR) for males 1990–2011 of 0.80 (0.69–0.93 CI). For a 60-year-old Nicoyan male, the probability of becoming centenarian is seven times that of a Japanese male, and his life expectancy is 2.2 years greater. This Nicoya advantage does not occur in females, is independent of socio-economic conditions, disappears in out-migrants and comes from lower cardiovascular (CV) mortality (DRR = 0.65). Nicoyans have lower levels of biomarkers of CV risk; they are also leaner, taller and suffer fewer disabilities. Two markers of ageing and stress—telomere length and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate—are also more favourable. The Nicoya diet is prosaic and abundant in traditional foods like rice, beans and animal protein, with low glycemic index and high fibre content. PMID:25426140

  4. Evaluation model for developing, implementing, and assessing conservation education programs: Examples from Belize and Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    1991-03-01

    Evaluation of conservation education programs can: (1) provide accountability in demonstrating a program's worth, (2) offer an opportunity for receiving feedback and improving programs, (3) further our understanding of the process of program development, and (4) promote conservation education by substantiating claims about its benefits. The Planning-Process-Product systems evaluation model provides feedback needed for making decisions about the development, implementation, and outcome of a program. Planning evaluation was useful in assessing the needs, goals, opportunities, and constraints of a number of programs in Costa Rica and Belize, such as a forestry education project and a zoo outreach program. It provided a basis for making planning decisions incorporating specific objectives, such as the reforestation of a region or a change in knowledge and attitudes in program participants. Process evaluation provided a Costa Rican sustainable development program with feedback during its implementation and enabled it to modify and improve its newsletter for local farmers and its ecology classes for school children. Product evaluation assessed project accomplishments, such as the 700,000 raised by the Children's Rainforest group and the 20 miles of riparian land under conservation management as part of the Belize Community Baboon Sanctuary project. Outcomes are compared with the programs original monetary or land management objectives to determine the success of the programs and to provide feedback for improvement.

  5. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, D; Romero-Zuñiga, J J; Dolz, G

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV.

  6. [Socioeconomic differentials in the decline of fertility in Costa Rica, 1960-1970 (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Behm, H; Guzman, J M

    1979-12-01

    Principal source for investigation on fertility are birth registrations, a source which is very often deficient by omission in Latin America. This situation has prompted the development of more specific methods which use other, and more reliable, information. One of these is the own-children method, which allows estimations based on population censuses. This article presents an investigation on the process of fertility decline in Costa Rica between 1960 and 1970, using the own-children method applied to data from the 1973 census. Costa Rica was selected to evaluate this method since the country's birth registers are relatively reliable. Total fertility rate was higher than that estimated through birth registration; in certain rural regions it was 10-15% higher, possibly because, in those particular regions, omission of birth registration was higher than the national level. Towards the end of the 1950s, half of the women in fertile age were using contraception; the decline in fertility began in the middle and high social classes, and in urban areas. Later, at the end of the 1960s, the decline in fertility reached urban proletarian groups, and the illiterate rural population. It seems obvious that these fertility changes are due to the insertion of families into the system of production, meaning that modernization and education have created a climate favorable to smaller families. These findings are consistent with available information on changes of attitude toward family planning, heavily promoted by the National Family Planning Program begun in 1968. In 1970 the steepest decline in fertility was noted in those groups which, despite the decline, still had the highest fertility rate; by 1977 a tendency toward stabilization was registered.

  7. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  8. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control.

  9. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, D.; Romero-Zuñiga, J.J.; Dolz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV. PMID:26623349

  10. Fishery biology of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off Costa Rica Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjun; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Bilin; Li, Gang; Lu, Huajie

    2014-06-01

    The jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) population was surveyed with the help of Chinese squid jigging vessels off the Costa Rica Dome (4°-11°N, 90°-100°W) in 2009 and 2010. The daily catch of D. gigas in the two survey cruises ranged from 0 to 5.5 t and was mostly obtained from the areas bounded by 6°-9°N and 91°-94°W and by 6°30'-7°30'N and 96°-97°W. The sea surface temperature in the areas yielding the most catch ranged from 27.5 to 29°C. The sex ratio of the total catch was 3.75:1 (female: male). The mantle length of the squid ranged from 211 to 355 mm (male) and from 204 to 429 mm (female) with an average of 297.9 and 306.7 mm, respectively. In the relationship of the mantle length (mm) and body weight (g) of the squid, there was no significant difference between sexes. The female and male were at a similar maturity, and most individuals are maturing or have matured with a few females being spent. The size (mantle length) and age at the first sexual maturity were 297 mm and 195 d in females, and less than 211 mm and 130 d in males, respectively. Most of the sampled stomachs (70.6%) had no food remains. The major preys of the squids were fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, with the most abundant Myctophum orientale and D. gigas. The preys in more than 65% of the non-empty sampled stomachs evidenced the cannibalism of D. gigas. The results improved current understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off the Costa Rica Dome, which may facilitate the assessment and management of relative fishery resources.

  11. [Identification of marine and coastal biodiversity conservation priorities in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Herrera, Bernal; Corrales, Lenin; Asch, Jenny; Paaby, Pía

    2011-06-01

    Costa Rica is recognized as one of the most diverse countries in species and ecosystems, in their terrestrial realm as well as in the marine. Besides this relevance, the country presents a delay on conservation and management of marine and coastal biodiversity, with respect to terrestrial. For 2006, the marine protected surface was 5,208.8 km2, with 331.5 km of coastline, in 20 protected areas. The country has made progress on the conservation priority sites identification for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity, with few efforts on marine planning. This research presents the analysis and results of the gap identification process, for marine and coastal biodiversity conservation in the protected areas system of Costa Rica. The analysis was built with the spatial information available on the presence and distribution of coastal and marine biodiversity, the establishment of the conservation goals and a threat analysis over the ecological integrity of this biodiversity. The selection of high-priority sites was carried out using spatial optimization techniques and the superposition over the current shape of marine protected areas, in order to identify representation gaps. A total of 19,076 km2 of conservation gaps were indentified, with 1,323 km2 in the Caribbean and 17,753 km2 in the Pacific. Recommendations are aimed at planning and strengthening the marine protected areas system, using the gaps identified as a framework. It is expected that the results of this study would be the scientific base needed for planning and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in the country.

  12. Burning bridges: policy, practice, and the destruction of midwifery in rural Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gwynne L

    2003-05-01

    The trend toward hospitalization of birth has a long history in Costa Rica and currently approximately 98% of births take place in the clinical setting. Impoverished rural areas, like the town of Buenos Aires, lag behind national trends and only recently has birth moved from the home to the hospital. Costa Rica's midwife certification program co-opted rural midwives as bridges to biomedicalization, responsible for both pushing women into the biomedical setting and filling the gaps left by a limited national health care system. Despite the eventual illegalization of key practices and of home birth itself, local use of midwives' services continues, albeit with local demands that have transformed midwives into bridges to biomedical care in ways unanticipated by and invisible to national programmers. Midwives provide key services like prenatal massage, treatment of pregnancy crises, and attending unforeseen home births and women unable to afford the modest costs of hospitalization. Yet, midwives report increasing dissatisfaction and the desire to stop providing services in their communities. Practices like prenatal massage are in demand, but are no longer embedded in a system of local exchange that is socially and economically meaningful. Midwives blame their clientele for their dissatisfaction, but directly link these changes to the notions of professionalism, compensation, and changing community values. Thus, the social relationship between midwives and their clients must also be understood as a destructive force burning midwifery as a bridge to safe birth. In this essay, I argue that the process of both remodeling and subsequently destroying midwifery practices begun in the formal health care sector at the national level continues at the local level through changing values and meanings associated with midwives' practices.

  13. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  14. Heat flow along the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project drilling transect: Implications for hydrothermal and seismic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, Bridget; Harris, Robert N.

    2016-06-01

    Heat flow analysis of the Costa Rica convergent margin is carried out for seven sites drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 334 and 344 as part of the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP). These expeditions are designed to better understand erosional subduction zones. Heat flow measurements were made to improve estimates of the thermal structure of this erosive margin and are located on the incoming plate, toe, lower, middle, and upper slopes of the margin. Heat flow values corrected for the effects of seafloor bathymetry and sedimentation are on average 15% higher than uncorrected values and range from approximately 158-200 mW/m2 on the incoming plate to values of approximately 50 mW/m2 on the middle and upper slopes of the margin. These values are consistent with previous estimates of heat flow showing a landward decrease in heat flow consistent with subduction of the Cocos plate. Preferred thermal models of the shallow subduction zone successfully predicting observed values of heat flow incorporate fluid flow within the upper oceanic aquifer have an uppermost permeability of 10-9.5 m2 and a plate boundary effective coefficient of friction of 0.06. These models suggest that temperatures on the subduction thrust reach 100°C at distances between 30 and 35 km landward of the deformation front. The updip limit of seismicity, as defined by aftershocks events of ML 1-4 recorded following the Mw 6.9 Quepos earthquake, occurs at 25 km landward of the deformation front at temperatures cooler than the 100-150°C typically predicted.

  15. [Bacteriological quality of traditional, organic and hydroponic cultured lettuce in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, Claudio; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuces commercialized in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, and cultured in different ways, in order to detect differences between the culturing methods and the risk that these products may represent for Public Health. The study was done at the Food Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, from March to July, 2010. 30 lettuce samples were analyzed (10 obtained by traditional culture, 10 by organic culture and 10 by hydropony). All samples were obtained from markets where their origin was certified. Total aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms count and Escherichia coli were determined to all samples, as well as the presence/abscense of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. Results obtained show that there is no statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between the different types of cultures analyzed for any of the parameters evaluated. An important percentage of the samples presented coliforms, nevertheless, just one E. coli strain was isolated from a traditionally cultured lettuce sample. Four different Salmonella spp. strains were isolated from the samples as well as one Listeria monocytogenes strain. Data obtained show that the consumption of this product, raw or without an adequate hygiene and disinfection may represent a risk for health. Also, from the bacteriological point of view, there is no significant difference between the culturing methods evaluated, suggesting that the specific directions for each type of culture are not followed or that there is an inadequate handling of the products or post harvest contamination.

  16. Differences in the association of cardiovascular risk factors with education: a comparison of Costa Rica (CRELES) and the USA (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite different levels of economic development, Costa Rica and the USA have similar mortalities among adults. However, in the USA there are substantial differences in mortality by educational attainment, and in Costa Rica there are only minor differences. This contrast motivates an examination of behavioural and biological correlates underlying this difference. Methods The authors used data on adults aged 60 and above from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Ageing Study (CRELES) (n=2827) and from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=5607) to analyse the cross-sectional association between educational level and the following risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD): ever smoked, current smoker, sedentary, high saturated fat, high carbohydrates, high calorie diet, obesity, severe obesity, large waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure and BMI. Results There were significantly fewer hazardous levels of risk biomarkers at higher levels of education for more than half (10 out of 17) of the risk factors in the USA, but for less than a third of the outcomes in Costa Rica (five out of 17). Conclusions These results are consistent with the context-specific nature of educational differences in risk factors for CVD and with a non-uniform nature of association of CVD risk factors with education within countries. Our results also demonstrate that social equity in mortality is achieved without uniform equity in all risk factors. PMID:19822554

  17. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Coffeikokkos Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n., with a description of a new species from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pujade-Villar, Juli; Hanson, Paul; Melika, George

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of oak gallwasp, Coffeikokkos Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n., is described from Costa Rica. Diagnostic characters and generic limits of the new genus are discussed in detail. The new genus includes Coffeikokkos copeyensis Pujade-Villar & Melika, sp. n., which induces galls on stems of Quercus bumelioides, an endemic oak to Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama. The new species and galls are described and illustrated. PMID:22423188

  18. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas.

  19. Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Río Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Arias-Andrés, M; Rämö, R; Mena Torres, F; Ugalde, R; Grandas, L; Ruepert, C; Castillo, L E; Van den Brink, P J; Gunnarsson, J S

    2016-10-25

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC5 values for each pesticide, i.e., hazard concentrations for 5 % of the species, often used as environmental criteria values in other countries. We also carried out toxicity tests for selected pesticides with native Costa Rican species in order to calculate risk coefficients according to national guidelines in Costa Rica. The concentrations of herbicides diuron and ametryn and insecticides carbofuran, diazinon, and ethoprophos exceeded either the HC5 value or the lower limit of its 90 % confidence interval suggesting toxic risks above accepted levels. Risk coefficients of diuron and carbofuran derived using local guidelines indicate toxicity risks as well. The assessed fungicides did not present acute toxic risks according to our analysis. Overall, these results show a possible toxicity of detected pesticides to aquatic organisms and provide a comparison of Costa Rican national guidelines with more refined methods for risk assessment based on SSDs. Further higher tier risk assessments of pesticides in this watershed are also necessary in order to consider pesticide water concentrations over time, toxicity from pesticide mixtures, and eventual effects on ecosystem functions.

  20. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  1. [Resupinate basidiomycetes from Costa Rica. Myxariaceae s. Jülich, Sebacinaceae Wells & Oberw., and Tremellodendropsidaceae Jülich].

    PubMed

    Kisimova-Horovitz, L; Oberwinkler, F; Gómez, L D

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen representatives of Myxariaceae sensu Jülich: Heterochaetella brachyspora (Bourdot & Galzin) Luck-Allen, Myxarium atratum (Peck) Ginns & Lefebvre, M. granulum Hauersl., M. laccatum (Bourdot & Galzin) Reid, M. mesomorphum (Bourdot & Galzin) Haursl., M. mesonucleatum Kisim., Oberw. & L.D. Gómez nov. sp., M. subsphaerosporum Kisim., Oberw. & L.D. Gómez nov. sp., Protodontia subgelatinosa (Karst.) Pilát; Pseudohydum gelatinosum (Fr.) P. Karst., P. gelatinosum var. paucidentata Lowy; one species of Sebacinaceae, Efibulobasidium albescens (Sacc. & Malbr.) K. Wells; and the Tremellodrendropisidaceae Tremellodendropsis flagelliformis (Berk.) Crawford var.ovalispora Crawford, are reported or described from Costa Rica. The corticioid Cystidiodontia artocreas (Berk & Curt. ex Cooke) Hjortstam is also reported from Costa Rica.

  2. Baseline assessment for environmental services payments from satellite imagery: a case study from Costa Rica and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kalacska, M; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G A; Rivard, B; Calvo-Alvarado, J C; Quesada, M

    2008-07-01

    In this study we evaluate the accuracy of four global and regional forest cover assessments (MODIS, IGBP, GLC2000, PROARCA) as tools for baseline estimation. We conduct this research at the national scale for Costa Rica and for two tropical dry forest study sites in Costa Rica (Santa Rosa) and Mexico (Chamela-Cuixmala). We found that at the national level, the total forest cover accuracy of the four land cover maps was inflated due to an overestimation of forest in areas with an evergreen canopy. However, the four maps greatly underestimated the extent of the deciduous forest (dry forest); an ecosystem that faces high deforestation pressure and poses complications to the mapping of its extent from remotely sensed data. For the tropical dry forest sites, all maps have low forest cover accuracies (mean for Santa Rosa: 27%; mean for Chamela-Cuixmala: 56%). This has implications for policy implementation.

  3. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  4. Comparative study of the venoms of three subspecies of Lachesis muta (bushmaster) from Brazil, Colombia and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Furtado, M F; Gonçalves, C; Núñez, V; García, M E; Osorio, R G; Romero, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    1998-12-01

    A comparative study was performed on the pharmacology and biochemistry of venoms from three subspecies of Lachesis muta (L. m. stenophrys, L. m. muta and L. m. rhombeata) from Brazil, Colombia and Costa Rica. All venoms induced lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, myotoxic, coagulant and defibrinating effects, showing also proteolytic and indirect hemolytic activities. The venoms of L. m. stenophrys from Costa Rica and L. m. muta from Cascalheira, Brazil, had the highest lethal and hemorrhagic activities and the venom of L. m. rhombeata showed the highest coagulant activity, whereas no significant differences were observed in myotoxic and edema-forming activities at most of the time intervals studied. In addition, venoms showed similar electrophoretic patterns on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, despite quantitative differences in toxic and enzymatic activities, together with subtle variations in electrophoretic patterns, our results indicate that experimental envenomation by these venoms induce a qualitatively similar pathophysiological profile.

  5. [Use and conservation of palm swamps Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in the Area de Conservación Tortuguero, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gutiérrez, Carlos M; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabián; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The swamps dominated by raffia palm Raphia taedigera are conspicuous environments in the Tortuguero floodplains and in other wet regions along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Costa Rica. However, these environments have been little studied and are exposed to numerous threats, most importantly their replacement by agricultural activities or pastureland. In this paper, we describe some applications and uses of the raffia palms and other palms that are common in these flooded swamps. We also describe the efforts that have been made in Costa Rica for the protection or raffia-dominated swamps, through the environmental law frame of the country and the establishment of a protection system based on wilderness areas under different categories of protection. We discuss issues relevant to the future of these environments in the regions where they are distributed.

  6. [Public health programs have greatly reduced infant mortality in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The spectacular decline of infant mortality in Costa Rica from 68/1000 live births in 1970 to 20/1000 in 1980 was largely due to the implementation of public health programs in the 1970s. The abrupt decline was even more notable because deaths of infants constituted the major health problem of the country during the 1960s, accounting for 40% of all registered deaths. Socioeconomic development and reduced fertility contributed to the reduction, but 3/4 of the improvement can be attributed to extension of primary health care to previously unserved rural populations and to better secondary health care, according to a study by the Costa Rican demographer Luis Rosero Bixby. The programs targeted at less privileged groups substantially reduced class and geographic differentials in infant mortality. Infant mortality began to decline at an accelerating rate in 1972, coinciding with the first national health plan and the law of universal social security in 1971, the transfer of public hospitals to the social security system and promulgation of a general health law in 1973, and application of the rural health program in 1973 and community health program in 1976. By 1980, home services reached 60% of the population and immunization programs were in place for measles and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. There was a doubling of outpatient services and a tripling of hours contracted by doctors between 1970-80. Also in 1980, 78% of the Costa Rican population was fully covered by health insurance. After 1972, infant mortality declined from all causes except complications of pregnancy and congenital anomalies. The decline was most rapid for deaths due to prematurity, illnesses avoidable by vaccination, and illnesses such as septicemia and meningitis in which prompt diagnosis and treatment can be lifesaving. Although impressive gains were made in neonatal mortality, the main share of the decline between 1970-80 was in postneonatal mortality. Reductions in deaths due to diarrheal

  7. [Bacteriological study of bivalves from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. I. Condition of the mollusk recently collected].

    PubMed

    Fernández, B; Brunker, T

    1977-07-01

    During the first six months of 1970 we collected 16 lots of the bivalve Anadara tuberculosa from two areas within the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. These were examined bacteriologically and the coliform levels found in all of them were such that they had to be graded as not satisfactory for human consumption, according to generally accepted norms. The source of these coliforms is attributed to the sewage discharge of the city of Puntarenas into its estuary.

  8. Detection of rickettsiae in fleas and ticks from areas of Costa Rica with history of spotted fever group rickettsioses.

    PubMed

    Troyo, Adriana; Moreira-Soto, Rolando D; Calderon-Arguedas, Ólger; Mata-Somarribas, Carlos; Ortiz-Tello, Jusara; Barbieri, Amália R M; Avendaño, Adrián; Vargas-Castro, Luis E; Labruna, Marcelo B; Hun, Laya; Taylor, Lizeth

    2016-10-01

    Outbreaks of spotted fevers have been reported in Costa Rica since the 1950s, although vectors responsible for transmission to humans have not been directly identified. In this study, species of Rickettsia were detected in ectoparasites from Costa Rica, mostly from five study sites where cases of spotted fevers have been reported. Ticks and fleas were collected using drag cloths or directly from domestic and wild animals and pooled according to species, host, and location. Pools were analyzed initially by PCR to detect a fragment of Rickettsia spp. specific gltA gene, and those positive were confirmed by detection of htrA and/or ompA gene fragments. Partial sequences of the gltA gene were obtained, as well as at least one ompA and/or ompB partial sequence of each species. Rickettsia spp. were confirmed in 119 of 497 (23.9%) pools of ticks and fleas analyzed. Rickettsia rickettsii was identified in one nymph of Amblyomma mixtum and one nymph of Amblyomma varium. Other rickettsiae present were 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in A. mixtum, Amblyomma ovale, Dermacentor nitens, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l.; Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma sabanerae; Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis; and Rickettsia sp. similar to 'Candidatus R. asemboensis' in C. felis, Pulex simulans, A. ovale, and Rhipicephalus microplus. Results show the presence of rickettsiae in vectors that may be responsible for transmission to humans in Costa Rica, and evidence suggests exposure to rickettsial organisms in the human environment may be common. This is the first study to report R. rickettsii in A. varium and in A. mixtum in Costa Rica.

  9. A Historical Study of the Effectiveness of U.S. Security Assistance to Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    the site of many major cities. San Jose , the capital of Costa Rica since 1823, is located in the Meseta Central. San Jose has about 200,000 people...high temperatures, and is more comfortable than the eastern basin. But, this eastern basin has an important dairy industry. The western San Jose area...ruling governor of Panama, Marshal Murgeon, and Colonel Jose de Fabrega declared independence from Spain. Panama then joined the Republic of Colombia

  10. A fatal urban case of rocky mountain spotted fever presenting an eschar in San Jose, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Argüello, Ana Patricia; Hun, Laya; Rivera, Patricia; Taylor, Lizeth

    2012-08-01

    This study reports the first urban human case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, in Costa Rica. An 8-year-old female who died at the National Children's Hospital 4 days after her admission, and an important and significant observation was the presence of an "eschar" (tache noire), which is typical in some rickettsial infections but not frequent in Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases.

  11. Key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily precipitation of Costa Rica: Caribbean Sea versus Eastern Pacific Ocean moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Birkel, C.; Welsh, K.; Esquivel-Hernández, G.; Corrales-Salazar, J.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Roupsard, O.; Sáenz-Rosales, O.; Katchan, I.; Arce-Mesén, R.; Soulsby, C.; Araguás-Araguás, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives moisture inputs directly from the Caribbean Sea and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This location includes unique mountainous and lowland microclimates, but only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition. Therefore, the main scope of this project is to identify the key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily-scale precipitation of Costa Rica. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ to -0.9‰ δ18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ δ18O). HYSPLIT air mass back trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of three main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet, the Colombian Low Level Jet, and localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that lifted condensation level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to a) enhance groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management, b) improve the re-construction of paleoclimatic records in the Central American land bridge, c) calibrate and validate regional circulation models.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Control Strategies in Central America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Niëns, Laurens M.; Zelle, Sten G.; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F. H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50–70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40–70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  13. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Niëns, Laurens M; Zelle, Sten G; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F H

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  14. Ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce embayments, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ureña, H

    1996-12-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in December (rainy season), 1993 and February (dry season), 1994, during the RV Victor Hensen German-Costa Rican Expedition to the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Samples from the inner, central, and outer areas of each gulf were collected in oblique tows with a bongo net of 0.6 m mouth diameter, 2.5 m long and 1000-micron mesh. A total of 416 fish larvae of 22 families were sorted out of 14 samples. Stations of both the maximum (11) and the minimum (1) family richness were located in Golfo Dulce. Mean total larval abundances were 124.9 and 197.2 individuals 10 m-2 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, respectively, while mean larval densities ranged from 95.3 larvae 10 m-2 in December to 236.7 larvae 10 m-2 in February. However, no statistical differences between gulfs or seasons were detected, due to the high within-group variability. Cluster Analysis, Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and non-parametric tests showed two well-defined major groups: (1) the Gulf of Nicoya neritic assemblage, represented by Engraulids, Sciaenids, and Gobiids (inner and central stations), and (2) the oceanic assemblage, dominated by Myctophids, Bregmacerotids, Ophiidids, and Trichiurids (outer stations off the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce). A third, although less defined group, was an Ophichthid-dominated assemblage (typical in areas nearby coral or rocky reefs). These assemblages closely resemble the clusters based upon adult fish data of the beamtrawl catches of the same cruise. This publication is the first to report on the ichthyoplankton community of Golfo Dulce.

  15. Maternal history, sensitization to allergens, and current wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema among children in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Silverman, Edwin K; Hanson, Lars A; Weiss, Scott T; Celedón, Juan C

    2002-04-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in Latin American countries. We investigated the relation between potential risk factors and current wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and eczema among 208 Costa Rican children aged 10-13 years participating in phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The geometric mean ( +/- SD) serum total IgE level of children with current wheezing was significantly higher than that of children without current wheezing (533.8 +/- 5.2 vs. 144.7 +/- 6.0 IU/mL, P < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, a maternal history of asthma, skin test reactivity (STR) to house dust mites, and STR to Alternaria were significantly associated with current wheezing. Children who had a maternal history of asthma had 2.4 times higher odds of current wheezing than those without maternal history of asthma (95% CI for OR = 1.1-5.3). Sensitization to either house dust mite or Alternaria was associated with 3.3 times increased odds of current wheezing (95% CI for OR for STR to dust mite = 1.6-6.7; 95% CI for OR for STR to Alternaria = 1.1-11.0). In a multivariate analysis, STR to house dust mite and STR to cat dander were significantly associated with allergic rhinitis, and a maternal history of eczema and STR to dog dander were associated with eczema in the child. The interaction between familial factors and lifestyle changes resulting from social reforms implemented 60 years ago may explain the high prevalence of atopic diseases in Costa Rica.

  16. Thermal Studies at the Middle America Trench Offshore Costa Rica and Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. N.; Solomon, E. A.; Spinelli, G. A.; Scientific Team of IODP Drilling Expedition 334

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the temperature distribution at convergent margins is important to understanding physical and chemical processes such as fluid flow, diagenesis, and faulting mechanics in the forearc region. Seafloor probe measurements offer an economical method for obtaining transects of heat flow across the forearc and along strike. Because these measurements only prick the seafloor they are sensitive to near seafloor processes such as bottom water temperature variations, deformation, and shallow fluid circulation and, although important in their own right, can obfuscate thermal inferences at depth. Ocean drilling provides access to deeper environments where downhole tools, acoustic measurements, and logging technologies can provide important scientific insight. We review recent heat flow results from the Costa Rica and Nankai convergent margins emphasizing ocean drilling transects where measurements of heat flow are available from seafloor probe and ocean drilling. Heat flow measurements offshore the erosive Costa Rican margin show strong along strike variations that reflect different styles of fluid flow and have important impacts on forearc processes. Along both the Nicoya and CRISP drilling transects, heat flow from seafloor probes and ocean drilling are consistent and indicate hydrothermal circulation prior to and after subduction. Fluid flow advects heat from deeper along the subduction thrust and deposits it near the seafloor cooling and warming these regions, respectively. The accretionary Nankai trough also shows important along strike changes in heat flow related to the age of oceanic crust at the trench. Heat flow and geochemical results are consistent with basement fluid flow at the Muroto transect but are more ambiguous at the NanTroSEIZE transect.

  17. Late Tertiary/Quaternary volcanics of southern Costa Rica and northern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.; Byerly, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The recent tectonic evolution of the Isthmus of Panama is marked by a complexity imparted by a subduction zone - magmatic arc, a transform plate boundary, and the attempted subduction of an aseismic ridge. In northern Panama andesites form the morphologically young Chiriqui stratovolcano, while in southern Costa Rica they are found interbedded with thick lahars. Two groups of andesites occur in the region. One is low in Si and K (Group I); the other high in Si and K (Group II). The Panamanian andesites belong to both the groups, while Costa Rican andesites are restricted to Group II. Group I andesites are glassy, plagioclase-phyric (An45 rims), and contain abundant augite (Wo46En46Fs8) and magnetite. Rare, resorbed olivine (Fo82) and amphibole are occasionally observed. The Group II andesites have similar mineralogy but also contain abundant pargasitic hornblende and minor orthopyroxene or pigeonite. Xenoliths are common in the Group II andesites of Chiriqui Volcano. Two types of xenoliths are recognized. Cumulate-textured, hornblende gabbro xenoliths vary from nearly pure plagioclase to nearly pure amphibole. These gabbroic xenoliths contain plagioclase (An90 cores to An53 rims), augite, and pargasitic hornblende often displaying the same reaction products as found in the andesites. These xenoliths are interpreted as cognate. These andesites are all characterized by high alkalis and alkali earths; Group II have over 1500 ppm Ba and 1000 ppm Sr. They are apparently produced by partial melting of a highly metasomatised mantle followed by high-pressure fractionation dominated by hornblende.

  18. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads <500gm), can perform valuable systematic measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of the metacercaria of Paragonimus caliensis, as a separate species from P. mexicanus in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chea, Roderico; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia; Castro, Ruth; Blair, David; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-04-01

    The trematode Paragonimus mexicanus is the etiological agent of paragonimiasis, a food-borne zoonotic disease in Latin America. This species, as well as Paragonimus caliensis, have been reported from Costa Rica, but it is not known if the two are synonymous. Two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from freshwater pseudothelphusid crabs from several localities in Costa Rica were recognized by light microscopy. Morphologically, these corresponded to descriptions of P. mexicanus and P. caliensis. Metacercariae of the former species lacked a membrane or cyst and their bodies were yellow in color. Those of P. caliensis were contained in a transparent thin cyst and were pink in color. Morphotypes of metacercariae were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the number and distribution of papillae in the ventral sucker, three morphotypes were found for P. mexicanus and two for P. caliensis. Analysis of DNA sequences (nuclear ribosomal 28S and ITS2 genes, and partial mitochondrial cox1 gene) confirmed the presence of P. mexicanus and provided the first molecular data for P. caliensis. The two species are phylogenetically distinct from each other and distant from the Asian species. The confirmation of P. caliensis as a separate species from P. mexicanus raises several questions about the ecology, biological diversity, and epidemiology of the genus Paragonimus in Costa Rica.

  20. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs. PMID:28125696

  1. Rabies in Costa Rica: Documentation of the Surveillance Program and the Endemic Situation from 1985 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Brugger, Katharina; Sancho Vargas, Victor Hugo; González, Rocío; Aguilar, Olga; León, Bernal; Tichy, Alexander; Firth, Clair L.; Rubel, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle outbreaks, 82% occurred between 0 and 500 meters above sea level, and seasonality could be demonstrated on the Pacific side of the country, with significantly more outbreaks occurring during the wet season. A total of 1588 animal samples, or an average of 55 samples per year, was received by the veterinary authority (SENASA) for rabies diagnostic testing at this time. Of all samples tested, 9% (143/1588) were positive. Of these, 85.6% (125/1588) were from cattle; four dogs (0.3% [4/1588]) were diagnosed with rabies in this 30-year period. Simultaneously, an extremely low number (n = 3) of autochthonous rabies cases were reported among human patients, all of which were fatal. However, given the virus' zoonotic characteristics and predominantly fatal outcome among both cattle and humans, it is extremely important for healthcare practitioners and veterinarians to be aware of the importance of adequate wound hygiene and postexpositional rabies prophylaxis when dealing with both wild and domestic animal bites. PMID:26982168

  2. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs.

  3. A multidisciplinary and multi-sensor assessment of continuous degassing at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica; insights and their application to hazard management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Tortini, R.; Burson, B.; Carn, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Turrialba is an active stratovolcano located in the Central Cordillera of Costa Rica with an elevation of 3,340 m. Located just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose it looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. After more than 100 years of quiescence Turrialba resumed activity in 1996, marked by progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity with gas emissions becoming continuous in 2007. Intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions that have reached the capital have been occurring since 2010. The activity has resulted in the evacuation of two villages, closure of the National Park that comprises the summit region of the volcano and devastation of the local ecosystem. In this work we present a multi-disciplinary and multi-sensor assessment of the persistent degassing and its impacts on the local ecosystem. Combining a variety of high temporal and high spatial resolution satellite-based time series with ground-based measurements of ambient gas concentrations, element deposition and surveys of species richness, enables a comprehensive assessment of SO2 emissions and changes in vegetation. Satellite-based time-series were obtained from Landsat TM and ETM+, Terra ASTER and MODIS, Aqua MODIS, EO-1 and Aura OMI, with some of the data dating back to 2000. Preliminary results show exposure to the volcanic plume results in high soil acidity and significant uptake of certain heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu, Hg and Pb) by vegetation, in contrast other elements such as Ba, Ca and Sr are leached from the soil as a result of the acid deposition. These factors are likely to be responsible for decreased species richness and physiological damage observed downwind of Turrialba. Ambient SO2 concentrations that exceed WHO guideline values have been recorded, which has potentially important consequences for human health in the area. Analyzing and relating the remote observations to conditions and impacts

  4. Microbial source tracking in shellfish harvesting waters in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Symonds, E M; Young, S; Verbyla, M E; McQuaig-Ulrich, S M; Ross, E; Jiménez, J A; Harwood, V J; Breitbart, M

    2017-03-15

    Current microbial water quality monitoring is generally limited to culture-based measurements of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Given the many possible sources of fecal pollution within a watershed and extra-intestinal FIB reservoirs, it is important to determine source(s) of fecal pollution as a means to improve water quality and protect public health. The principal objective of this investigation was to characterize the microbial water quality of shellfish harvesting areas in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica during 2015. In order to achieve this objective, the specificity and sensitivity of 11 existing microbial source tracking (MST) PCR assays, associated with cows (BacCow), dogs (BacCan, DogBac), domestic wastewater (PMMoV), general avian (GFD), gulls (Gull2), horses (HorseBac, HoF), humans (HF183, HPyV), and pigs (PF), were evaluated using domestic wastewater and animal fecal samples collected from the region. The sensitivity of animal-associated assays ranged from 13 to 100%, while assay specificity ranged from 38 to 100%. The specificity of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and human polyomavirus (HPyV) was 100% for domestic wastewater, as compared to 94% specificity of the HF183 Bacteroidales marker. PMMoV was identified as a useful domestic wastewater-associated marker, with concentrations as high as 1.1 × 10(5) copies/ml and 100% sensitivity and specificity. Monthly surface water samples collected from four shellfish harvesting areas were analyzed using culture-based methods for Escherichia coli as well as molecular methods for FIB and a suite of MST markers, which were selected for their specificity in the region. While culturable E. coli results suggested possible fecal pollution during the monitoring period, the absence of human/domestic wastewater-associated markers and low FIB concentrations determined using molecular methods indicated sufficient microbial water quality for shellfish harvesting. This is the first study to our knowledge to test the

  5. Slip mode segmentation of the megathrust beneath Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Nick; Malservisi, Rocco; Liu, Zhen; Dixon, Timothy H.; Protti, Marino; Gonzales, Victor; Schwartz, Susan; Jiang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, overlies a section of a subduction megathrust close to the Middle America Trench. This location allows terrestrial geodetic monitoring of the surface deformation above the seismogenic zone, a region that is often underwater in many subduction zones. A continuous Global Positioning System network has operated in the Nicoya peninsula of northern Costa Rica since 2002 observing a number of deep and shallow slow slip events (SSEs) with a recurrence interval of ~21 months. On September 5th 2012, a Mw 7.6 nucleated just underneath the geodetic network. We explore the relationship between these recurrent SSEs and the large earthquake. We find that SSE recurrence interval appears constant before and after the earthquake. Using a modified version of the Extended Network Inversion Filter [e.g. McGuire and Segall, 2003] (ENIF) to identify time dependent characteristics of SSEs before and after the 2012 Nicoya earthquake, we find that slip starts updip prior to the earthquake in the shallow, 15 km depth, section of the subduction zone and then migrates to a deep patch beneath the Nicoya gulf. Following the earthquake, high slip rates initiate down dip (40 km depth) and remain downdip, a change from observations of SSEs prior to the earthquake. In this study, we also analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the surface deformation at different temporal scales (from hours to years) after the earthquake to infer the aseismic slip due to postsiesmic response on the fault interface. We compare the portion of postseismic displacement interpreted as afterslip with our previous analysis of SSE. Our results show that the main rupture was followed by significant early afterslip for the first 3 hours after the main event followed by regular afterslip decaying exponentially. During the first few months, the afterslip has most likely filled gaps left by the coseismic rupture (in particular updip). We also show that afterslip seems to be bounded by

  6. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled

  7. Using GIS tools to visually represent complex volcanic issues. Poas volcano, Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraldson, J.; Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    GIS software was used to visualize a series of extraordinary events that have occurred recently at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Maps, images, graphics and other visual instruments were produced during the course of an academic internship at OVSICORI-UNA. Spatial and temporal concepts related to volcano monitoring conventional observations are introduced. Poas (10 11 15 N, 84 13 48 W, and 2708 m.a.s.l) is one of the main massifs on the Central Volcanic range, Costa Rica. It is located NW of the Central Valley, where the most developed and populated cities are located. The volcanogenic pollution and its impact on the environment, as well as the implications over socio-economic activities developed at the surroundings of the volcano, are more severe during increases in subaerial fumarolic outgassing and these points to the important role played by the presence of the crater lake as a buffering system. This is an important aspect to consider due to the frequency of the events and to the prolonged periods of impact over the same areas. The work consisted in putting together a large amount of data varying from notebooks, maps, documents, conventional, multispectral and aerial photographs, in a format readable by the GIS interface, in this case ArcGIS 9.1. As most data refers to geographic locations, a great deal of the data could easily be represented in a GIS. Using the built-in analysis functionalities in ArcGIS, complex issues, concerning volcanogenic pollution and its impact on the surrounding environment, were allowed to be visually represented, using both two and three dimensions. Being able to visualize these issues, do not only help volcanologists to understand the processes involved, but also aids in the communication of these issues to concerned actors in the society. This is of importance due to the fact that volcanogenic pollution does address several areas handled by various authorities. GIS offers a platform for analysis and visualization that could aid in

  8. Structural and hydrologic controls of subduction zone seismogenic behavior along the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audet, P.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Subduction zone thrust faults exhibit variations in rupture behavior that include potentially great (M>8) earthquakes and slow propagating (M~7) slip. The factors controlling transitions in frictional properties are loosely constrained and include variations in temperature, lithologies and pore-fluid pressures. Along the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, the seismogenic zone is characterized by strong heterogeneity in mechanical properties and a lateral change in the origin of the subducting plate. We use observations of scattered teleseismic waves to examine structural properties (compressional to shear velocity ratio, or Vp/Vs) of the subduction zone elements beneath the Nicoya Peninsula and report two findings: 1) evidence for inferred high pore fluid pressures within the subducting oceanic crust, in agreement with results globally and 2) contrasts from lower to higher forearc and oceanic Vp/Vs ratios from northwest to southeast that correlate with changes in interseismic locking, seismogenic behavior and the origin of the subducting plate. We interpret these results as representing differences in permeability and thus fluid overpressures in the oceanic crust. We suggest that enhanced permeability of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) crust being subducted beneath the northwest portion of the Nicoya Peninsula results in lower pore-fluid pressure, higher effective stress and strength compared with the Cocos Nazca Spreading Center (CNS) crust, subducted beneath the southeastern Nicoya Peninsula. The higher pore-fluid pressure within the CNS crust is consistent with the lower coupling and large slow slip events observed in this region. We posit that the elevated fluid pressures here are periodically released allowing fluids to migrate into the upper plate reducing its velocities. Changes in hydrologic properties resulting from differences in the structural integrity of the subducting oceanic crust appear to control the seismogenic segmentation along the Nicoya Peninsula. (a

  9. Serology, molecular detection and risk factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Barrantes-González, Alexander V; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana E; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study combining different serological and molecular techniques for the detection of Ehrlichia species in dogs and their ticks was carried out with data from all regions of Costa Rica. A seroprevalence of 32.1% (131/408), and infection with E. canis of 3.2% (13/407) was found, whereas 6.9% (9/130) of ticks attached to the dogs were PCR positive to E. canis. Higher prevalences were found outside the Greater Metropolitan Area (GMA). Risk factors associated with E. canis seropositivity were age, between 2 and 7 years (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) and 8-15 years (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), number of dogs/total of households [Dogs per Household Ratio (DHR) ≥3.1 (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4-3.0)], number of dogs infested with at least one tick/total of dogs sampled [Tick Infestation Prevalence (TIP)≥31% (RR: 2.1; 95% CI:1.3-3.3)] and living outside the GMA (RR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4) and being a mixed-breed dog (RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). Risk factors for E. canis PCR positive dogs were a depressive attitude (OR: 11.2; 95% CI: 1.1-115.9), fever (OR:4.8; 95% CI:1.2-19.3), DHR≥3.1 (OR: 5.7; 95% CI:1.7-19.2)], number of ticks/total of dogs sampled [Tick Distribution Ratio (TDR) ≥2.1 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.3-31.8)], and TIP≥40% (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-19.2). This paper describes E. canis seroprevalence, PCR prevalence and tick analysis in dogs from Costa Rica, with associated clinical signs and owner perceptions. In summary, most of the E. canis infections in dogs in our country seemed to pass unnoticed by owners. Since most of the seropositive dogs (97.7%, 131/134) were negative for E. canis DNA in their blood, it is important to determine in future studies if these dogs recovered from the E. canis infection without any medication, or are persistently infected, and will develop chronic disease.

  10. Knowledge of cervical cancer pathology of high school students in San Carlos, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Lauren M; Gonzalez, Sam

    2014-09-01

    In Costa Rica, cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer, despite accessibility of screening through the universal health care system. There is little understanding of knowledge levels of the adolescent population on cervical cancer, although this population is the most exposed to risk factors. This study sought to learn about male and female adolescent knowledge of preventative methods, infection acquisition, clinical manifestations and medical services. A total of 533 students from grades 7-12 from five public high schools in the rural San Carlos region participated in the study from March through April 2012. Students were found to lack knowledge, as only 30.8% of students stated that they knew what cervical cancer is. Additionally, a connection was lacking between cervical cancer concepts, as for example 75.2% of students had heard of Human Papiloma Virus, but only 33.9% of those students knew that HPV is related to cervical cancer. Age had a positive relationship with knowledge of main concepts (p < 0.001). More women than men had heard of cervical cancer and the Papanicolaou (p = 0.025, p < 0.0001), but otherwise no significant difference in mean response between genders was found. Students were found to have a limited awareness of the educational cervical cancer campaign (7.7% of the student population) and the ability to go alone to the doctor to receive medical attention (30.6% of students). Additionally, the public education system does not require cervical cancer to be included in the present curriculum. Hence, as students lack education on prevention and risk factors, the majority of prevention responsibility falls only on the universal health care system to regularly perform Papanicolaou exams to detect pre-cancerous or cancerous changes. The findings indicated the importance of including cervical cancer in the sexual education curriculum of the public education system in Costa Rica to educate the at-risk population of preventative methods

  11. Non-elastic Plate Weakening at Tonga, Costa Rica and Japanese Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    Traditionally studies of plate bending in subduction zones have utilized elastic, viscous or elastic-plastic rheologies to model the deformation of subducting plates, yet they are based on averaged plate properties and do not take into account variations in plate strength. Direct measurements of plate strength at subduction zones could permit more detailed models of how plates deform during subduction and may allow differentiation between the elastic and viscous or plastic rheologies. Additionally, weakening of the subducting plate is important for understanding the degree of coupling of the surface plate to the negative buoyancy of descending slabs. To obtain quantitative measurements of changes in plate strength along profiles parallel to the trench, we use analysis of the gravity-topography admittance in three subduction zones: Tonga, Costa Rica and Japan. We show that the plate flexural rigidity decreases near and inside the trench of the Tonga and Japan subduction zones, in agreement with previous results for the Kermadec subduction zone (1). Near the trench the flexural rigidity values are consistently smaller than those predicted by an elastic rheology and the plate age (2). This degree of weakening, by up to 3 orders magnitude, suggests that the plate does not act elastically as it is subducted, possibly due to lithospheric-scale weakening by extensional faulting and plastic yielding at depth. In contrast lithospheric-scale weakening in the Costa Rica subduction zone is less clear. This may be due to the younger age of the subducting plate and the small age difference between the seamounts and surrounding plate, which limits the sensitivity of the gravity field to changes in the non-isostatic support of topographic feature. These results suggest that this technique is only applicable to older plates with large seamounts that are appreciably younger than the subducting plate. Comparison of the flexural rigidity results to the tectonic characteristics of all

  12. Forager size and ecology of Acromyrmex coronatus and other leaf-cutting ants in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wetterer, James K

    1995-12-01

    I compare forager size and foraging ecology of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex coronatus (Fabricius) with published data on three other leaf-cutter species in Costa Rica, Atta cephalotes (L.), Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich), and Acromyrmex volcanus Wheeler. Intra-and interspecific differences in forager size in these leaf-cutting ants appear to reflect the economics of harvesting different preferred resources. Ac. coronatus colonies have relatively small foragers (mean mass=3.4±1.4 mg) that cut almost exclusively the thin, soft leaves and other parts of small herbaceous plants. Similarly, small A. cephalotes colonies have small foragers (3.3±1.0 mg) that attack the leaves of small herbaceous plants. In contrast, mature A. cephalotes colonies have a wider sizerange of foragers (7.3±4.1 mg) that primarily attack the leaves of trees, with larger foragers cutting thicker, tougher leaves. In A. cephalotes, the match of forager size to leaf type (both ontogenetically and behaviorally) increases foraging efficiency. Extreme forager polymorphism in mature A. cephalotes colonies appears to broaden the diversity of tree species that they can exploit efficiently. Ac. octospinosus and Ac. volcanus both have large, relatively monomorphic foragers (13.3±4.2 mg and 30.6±4.3 mg, respectively) that typically scavenge for pieces of fallen vegetation, such as dead leaves, fruit, and flowers, in addition to cutting herbs. The large foragers of Ac. octospinosus and Ac. volcanus appear to be well suited as generalist foragers, able to cut or collect any desirable vegetation encountered. Ac. coronatus is similar to A. cephalotes in other ways. Both Ac. coronatus and A. cephalotes establish and maintain cleared trunk trails for foraging, and both have minima workers that "hitchhike" on the loads carried by foragers, apparently serving to protect the larger foragers from attack by phorid flies. Trunk trails and hitchhikers are not known for Ac. octospinosus and Ac. volcanus. That A

  13. Mapping Depth to Bedrock in a Tropical Pre-Montane Wet Forest in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oien, R. P.; Burns, J. N.; Arnott, R.; Ackerson, J. P.; Morgan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Accounting for all components of the water balance in a watershed includes an estimate of soil water storage, which in turn depends on the depth to bedrock. The soils in this transitional tropical forest contain large amounts of amorphous material from the saprolitic tuff thus classifying the soils as Andisols. Measuring the depth to bedrock in tropical montane environments is complicated by aspect, elevation, slope, landslides, slumping and other mass wasting events. As part of a larger study, Texas A& M Costa Rica REU aimed to close the water budget for a tropical pre-montane forest, the focus of this study is to generate a map of the depth to saprolitic tuff and topographical information for the purpose of estimating the volume of soil water storage in the Howler Monkey Watershed at Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research and Education, San Isidro de Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica. A map of the depth to saprolitic tuff was created using 101 hand- augured holes (over 2.63 ha) spatially distributed throughout the watershed. Saprolitic tuff was defined as being 50% of the sample and containing grittiness and cobble sized chunks. To characterize the soils throughout the watershed, soil horizons at three sites were described and 22 cores for particle size. The cores consisted of over 40-55% clay classifying them as clayey or clayey loam. The samples also ranged from 50-73% water content. A map showing the slopes within the watershed also shows the relationship of soil depth above the bedrock within the watershed. The slopes across the watershed vary from 12-65 degrees but only have a 24% correlation with the depth to saprolitic tuff. Results suggest that the depth of the saprolitic tuff is quite sensitive to small scale topographic variability. Soil with such high water content becomes an integral part of the water budget since a significant portion of the water is maintained within the soil. Depth to bedrock provides necessary data to estimate the total volume

  14. Scattering of Light by Colloidal Aluminosilicate Particles Produces the Unusual Sky-Blue Color of Río Celeste (Tenorio Volcano Complex, Costa Rica)

    PubMed Central

    Castellón, Erick; Martínez, María; Madrigal-Carballo, Sergio; Arias, María Laura; Vargas, William E.; Chavarría, Max

    2013-01-01

    Río Celeste (Sky-Blue River) in Tenorio National Park (Costa Rica), a river that derives from the confluence and mixing of two colorless streams—Río Buenavista (Buenavista River) and Quebrada Agria (Sour Creek)—is renowned in Costa Rica because it presents an atypical intense sky-blue color. Although various explanations have been proposed for this unusual hue of Río Celeste, no exhaustive tests have been undertaken; the reasons hence remain unclear. To understand this color phenomenon, we examined the physico-chemical properties of Río Celeste and of the two streams from which it is derived. Chemical analysis of those streams with ion-exchange chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) made us discard the hypothesis that the origin of the hue is due to colored chemical species. Our tests revealed that the origin of this coloration phenomenon is physical, due to suspended aluminosilicate particles (with diameters distributed around 566 nm according to a lognormal distribution) that produce Mie scattering. The color originates after mixing of two colorless streams because of the enlargement (by aggregation) of suspended aluminosilicate particles in the Río Buenavista stream due to a decrease of pH on mixing with the acidic Quebrada Agria. We postulate a chemical mechanism for this process, supported by experimental evidence of dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectra (EDS). Theoretical modeling of the Mie scattering yielded a strong coincidence between the observed color and the simulated one. PMID:24058661

  15. Seismo-acoustic Investigations of Mud Diapirs Offshore Northern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, N.; Grevemeyer, I.; Reston, T.; Spiess, V.

    2006-12-01

    The erosive subduction system offshore Pacific Costa Rica is characterized by numerous mud domes of up to 100 m heights located on the overriding plate. A series of multi-disciplinary investigations has shown the mounds in the northwestern domain, opposite subducting East Pacific Rise material, to be of diapiric origin. As shown by two case studies over the single large Mound Culebra and the group of Hongo mounds, respectively, the properties of the subducting plate gravely influences the development of the mounds. Based on observations in multi-frequency seismo-acoustic data, the continental slope is subdivided into regions dominated by fast downslope sediment transport, enhanced accumulation, and slow trenchward migration. Inferred deep faults are thought to control diapir location. Fluid venting near the mud domes has been documented by various geochemical and geological techniques. Heat flow values estimated from the depth of a gas hydrate BSR indicate non-vigorous, possibly deteriorating activity at the mounds with decreasing distance from the deformation front. Distinct anomalies are seen related to several morphological features such as, in addition to Mound Culebra, a nearby fault scarp as well as a circular, crater-like structure. Comparison of the target areas highlights the role of subducting morphological differences.

  16. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C

    2009-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100 x 100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  17. Vertical distribution of Eucalanoid copepods within the Costa Rica Dome area of the Eastern Tropical Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melanie L.; Smith, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of ecological strategies for tolerance of low-oxygen conditions within the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) area of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are documented for the copepod family Eucalanidae. During the summer of 2010, we compared the ecological strategies used by the Eucalanidae inside and outside the central CRD region. We compared the vertical and horizontal distributions of five species, Eucalanus inermis, Subeucalanus subtenuis, Subeucalanus subcrassus, Subeucalanus pileatus and Pareucalanus attenuatus together with Rhincalanus species, in the epipelagic (upper 200 m) among four locations, which we grouped into a section roughly crossing the core CRD area (inside–outside core CRD). The coastal area outside the CRD supported the most diverse assemblage, whereas overall abundance of Eucalanidae in the central CRD was 2-fold greater than outside and dominated by E. inermis (>60%). Eucalanidae in the central CRD had a shallow depth distribution, closely associated with the shallow thermocline (10–20 m). There was no evidence of daily vertical migration in the central CRD, but E. inermis demonstrated vertical migration outside the CRD. The vertical abundance patterns of Eucalanidae in the CRD region reflect complex interactions between subtle physical–chemical differences and food resources. PMID:27275032

  18. Distribution and biomass of arrow worms (Chaetognatha) in Golfo de Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, B

    1996-12-01

    The chaetognath species guild was analyzed from samples collected during the cruise of the German RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 and February, 1994, finding the following ten species of the genera Sagitta and Krohnitta: S. enflata, S. hexaptera, S. pacifica, S. neglecta, S. regularis, S. bedoti, S. friderici, S. popovicii, S. pulchra and K. pacifica. Because of their distributional patterns in the study area these species were ascribed to the following ecological groups: neritic, semi-neritic and oceanic. A strong gradient in species richness from offshore to inshore waters (8 to one respectively) was found in both gulf systems. Inshore chaetognaths were dominated by juveniles and adults of S. friderici in Golfo de Nicoya and by S. popovicii in Golfo Dulce. Biomass spectra were more continuous and of wider range in the Golfo Dulce area showing a dominance of larger chaetognaths, suggesting a more general developed pelagic system in Golfo Dulce, where larger chaetognaths might structure the plankton community by strong grazing pressure from above.

  19. On Branchiostoma californiense (Cephalochordata) from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José A; Dean, Harlan K

    2010-12-01

    The cephalochordates are represented by the lancelets, of which species of the genus Branchiostoma are the best known. In recent years, these organisms have been the center of activity of studies focusing on the phylogenetic relationships of the chordates. In 1980, a survey of the benthos at 48 stations in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, yielded 265 specimens of the lancelet Branchiostoma californiense. A total of 48 specimens was also collected at an intertidal flat in the mid upper estuary. Of the 48 subtidal stations, only eight had B. californiense, and these sites all had a sand fraction above 72%. The remaining stations ranged in their sand content from as low as 1% to as high as 92%, with an average of 25.9%, with 29 stations having a sand content lower than 72%. Lower salinities and muddy sediments may limit the distribution of the lancelet further upstream. This information is useful when changes over decades in the ecology of the estuary need to be evaluated against the background of local, regional, and global dynamics.

  20. Flux of crab larvae in a mangrove creek in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittel, A. I.; Epifanio, C. E.; Lizano, O.

    1991-02-01

    Transport of crab zoeae, megalopae, and early juveniles was measured in a mangrove estero (creek) in the Gulf of Nicoya on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. In 1987, larvae were collected by quantitative pumping from a platform moored in the mouth of the estero. During each sampling period, larvae were collected every 2 h over five consecutive tidal cycles. The investigation consisted of one spring-tide sampling period and one neap-tide sampling period during each season of the year (dry season, dry-rainy transition, rainy season, and rainy-dry transition). Hourly tidal heights were available for each sampling period. A model for hindcasting tidal volume flux from the change in sea level over each half tidal cycle was developed from measurements made in the estero in 1989. This model was used to calculate tidal volume flux and consequent larval flux during each of the 1987 sampling periods. There was a net export of zoea stage I of four taxonomic groups ( Uca spp., Pinnotheres spp., Petrolistes spp., and Grapsidae) during most sampling periods, while there was a net import of zoea stage I of only two groups ( Pinnixa spp. and Xanthidae). Intermediate and late zoeal stages of all taxonomic groups were generally imported into the estero, as were megalopal and juvenile stages. Quantitative estimates of net larval transport corroborated earlier qualitative models of larval transport that had been based on observations of the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column.

  1. Multivariate spatial models of excess crash frequency at area level: case of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Recently, areal models of crash frequency have being used in the analysis of various area-wide factors affecting road crashes. On the other hand, disease mapping methods are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the relative risk of the population at different spatial units. A natural next step is to combine these two approaches to estimate the excess crash frequency at area level as a measure of absolute crash risk. Furthermore, multivariate spatial models of crash severity are explored in order to account for both frequency and severity of crashes and control for the spatial correlation frequently found in crash data. This paper aims to extent the concept of safety performance functions to be used in areal models of crash frequency. A multivariate spatial model is used for that purpose and compared to its univariate counterpart. Full Bayes hierarchical approach is used to estimate the models of crash frequency at canton level for Costa Rica. An intrinsic multivariate conditional autoregressive model is used for modeling spatial random effects. The results show that the multivariate spatial model performs better than its univariate counterpart in terms of the penalized goodness-of-fit measure Deviance Information Criteria. Additionally, the effects of the spatial smoothing due to the multivariate spatial random effects are evident in the estimation of excess equivalent property damage only crashes.

  2. Patterns of microbial community biomass, composition and HPLC diagnostic pigments in the Costa Rica upwelling dome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew G.; Landry, Michael R.; Freibott, Alexandra; Selph, Karen E.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We investigated biomass, size-structure, composition, depth distributions and spatial variability of the phytoplankton community in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) in June–July 2010. Euphotic zone profiles were sampled daily during Lagrangian experiments in and out of the dome region, and the community was analyzed using a combination of digital epifluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and HPLC pigments. The mean depth-integrated biomass of phytoplankton ranged 2-fold, from 1089 to 1858 mg C m−2 (mean ± SE = 1378 ± 112 mg C m−2), among 4 water parcels tracked for 4 days. Corresponding mean (±SE) integrated values for total chlorophyll a (Chl a) and the ratio of autotrophic carbon to Chl a were 24.1 ± 1.5 mg Chl a m−2 and 57.5 ± 3.4, respectively. Absolute and relative contributions of picophytoplankton (∼60%), Synechococcus (>33%) and Prochlorococcus (17%) to phytoplankton community biomass were highest in the central dome region, while >20 µm phytoplankton accounted for ≤10%, and diatoms <2%, of biomass in all areas. Nonetheless, autotrophic flagellates, dominated by dinoflagellates, exceeded biomass contributions of Synechococcus at all locations. Order-of-magnitude discrepancies in the relative contributions of diatoms (overestimated) and dinoflagellates (underestimated) based on diagnostic pigments relative to microscopy highlight potential significant biases associated with making community inferences from pigments. PMID:27275024

  3. Chemical mixing model of streamflow generation at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genereux, David; Pringle, Catherine

    1997-12-01

    La Selva Biological Station occupies an area of lowland tropical rainforest in central Costa Rica. Sodium and chloride data were used to quantify the mixing proportions of local runoff and geothermal groundwater at several sites throughout the stream channel system in late April, at the end of the dry season. The fraction of streamflow accounted for by geothermal groundwater varied spatially between 0 and 0.85, indicating a significant contribution to streamflow and to stream solute loads from geothermal groundwater at some sites. In general, higher inputs of geothermal groundwater were found at lower elevations. Over half the flow from one basin (the Salto) was due to geothermal groundwater, suggesting a minimum annual runoff of about 0.7 m of geothermal groundwater from this basin. A plot of {Na}/{Cl} vs. fraction of geothermal groundwater revealed watershed-scale chemical differences between the two major drainage systems (the Sura and the Salto), differences that were not apparent from a traditional two-solute plot of Cl vs. Na concentration. A small (21 mm) storm produced relatively little change in mixing proportions, as most throughfall was apparently retained in the relatively dry soils.

  4. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Lippmann, M. J.; Mainieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells, a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260 C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model, a two-dimensional exploitation model was developed. The field has a production area of about 10 km(exp 2), with temperatures exceeding 220 C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  5. Fatal Paratanaisia bragai (Digenea: Eucotylidae) infection in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Morales, Juan Alberto; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Santoro, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We report on four fatal cases of renal infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) from two rescue centres in Costa Rica. At necropsy, birds had severe dehydration and cachexia. Two birds had hydropericardium, oedematous lungs, and liver lipidic degeneration. All birds had enlarged kidneys with brown pale discoloration and diffuse white spots on the cortical and sliced surfaces. Ureters were filled with many specimens of P. bragai. Histopathologically, the urinary system revealed multifocal interstitial lymphocytic-plasmacytic nephritis, multifocal mineralization of renal tubules, and interstitial fibrosis associated with flukes. Death of all scarlet macaws was related to severe nephritis leading to chronic renal failure due to P. bragai infection. It is plausible that P. bragai infection of scarlet macaws was accidental due to ingestion of the gastropod intermediate host inside the cages during the rainy season when humidity is higher and gastropods are more active. This represents the second report of parasitism by Eucotylidae digeneans in birds of Psittaciformes and the first in scarlet macaws.

  6. Regional warming and the thermal regimes of American crocodile nests in the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher M; Easter, Michael; Padilla, Sergio; Marin, Mahmood Sasa; Guyer, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Spatial variation in global climate change makes population-specific responses to this enigmatic threat pertinent on a regional scale. Organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) potentially possess a unique physiological susceptibility that threatens population viability if rapid environmental effects on sex ratios render populations non-viable. A heavily male-biased sex ratio for hatchling American crocodiles of the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica requires assessment of how nest temperature affects sex determination at this site, how females might compensate for these effects when creating nests, and how current patterns of climate change might alter future sex ratios and survival in hatchling cohorts. We demonstrate high within-nest variation in temperature but predict a female bias at hatching based on nest temperatures quantified here. Further, our data suggest that egg size and metabolic heating associated with this factor outweighs microhabitat parameters and depth in influencing nest thermal regimes. Finally, we document regional warming in the Tempisque Basin over the last 15 years and project that further heating over the next 15 years will not yield hatchling sex ratios as male biased as those currently found at this site. Thus, we find no support for nest temperature or climate change as likely explanations for male-biased American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) sex ratios in the Tempisque Basin.

  7. Mapping turbulent diffusivity associated with oceanic internal lee waves offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Will F. J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Schmitt, Raymond W.

    2016-04-01

    Breaking internal waves play a primary role in maintaining the meridional overturning circulation. Oceanic lee waves are known to be a significant contributor to diapycnal mixing associated with internal wave dissipation, but direct measurement is difficult with standard oceanographic sampling methods due to the limited spatial extent of standing lee waves. Here, we present an analysis of oceanic internal lee waves observed offshore eastern Costa Rica using seismic imaging and estimate the turbulent diffusivity via a new seismic slope spectrum method that extracts diffusivities directly from seismic images, using tracked reflections only to scale diffusivity values. The result provides estimates of turbulent diffusivities throughout the water column at scales of a few hundred meters laterally and 10 m vertically. Synthetic tests demonstrate the method's ability to resolve turbulent structures and reproduce accurate diffusivities. A turbulence map of our seismic section in the western Caribbean shows elevated turbulent diffusivities near rough seafloor topography as well as in the mid-water column where observed lee wave propagation terminates. Mid-water column hotspots of turbulent diffusivity show levels 5 times higher than surrounding waters and 50 times greater than typical open-ocean diffusivities. This site has steady currents that make it an exceptionally accessible laboratory for the study of lee-wave generation, propagation, and decay.

  8. Phytoplankton production and taxon-specific growth rates in the Costa Rica Dome

    PubMed Central

    Selph, Karen E.; Landry, Michael R.; Taylor, Andrew G.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Stukel, Michael R.; Wokuluk, John; Pasulka, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    During summer 2010, we investigated phytoplankton production and growth rates at 19 stations in the eastern tropical Pacific, where winds and strong opposing currents generate the Costa Rica Dome (CRD), an open-ocean upwelling feature. Primary production (14C-incorporation) and group-specific growth and net growth rates (two-treatment seawater dilution method) were estimated from samples incubated in situ at eight depths. Our cruise coincided with a mild El Niño event, and only weak upwelling was observed in the CRD. Nevertheless, the highest phytoplankton abundances were found near the dome center. However, mixed-layer growth rates were lowest in the dome center (∼0.5–0.9 day−1), but higher on the edge of the dome (∼0.9–1.0 day−1) and in adjacent coastal waters (0.9–1.3 day−1). We found good agreement between independent methods to estimate growth rates. Mixed-layer growth rates of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were largely balanced by mortality, whereas eukaryotic phytoplankton showed positive net growth (∼0.5–0.6 day−1), that is, growth available to support larger (mesozooplankton) consumer biomass. These are the first group-specific phytoplankton rate estimates in this region, and they demonstrate that integrated primary production is high, exceeding 1 g C m−2 day−1 on average, even during a period of reduced upwelling. PMID:27275025

  9. Importance of orographic precipitation to the water resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guswa, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Amy L.; Newell, Silvia E.

    2007-10-01

    Monteverde, Costa Rica harbors montane forests that exemplify the delicate balances among climate, hydrology, habitat, and development. Most of the annual precipitation to this region arrives during the wet season, but the importance of orographic precipitation during the dry and transitional seasons should not be underestimated. Development associated with ecotourism has put significant stress on water resources, and recent work has shown evidence that changes in regional land-cover and global climate may lead to reduced precipitation and cloud cover and a subsequent decline in endemic species. Precipitation samples collected from 2003 to 2005 reveal a seasonal signal in stable isotope composition, as measured by δ 18O and δ 2H, that is heaviest during the dry and transitional seasons. Attenuated versions of this signal propagate through to stream samples and provide a means of determining the importance of precipitation delivered by the trade winds during the dry and transitional seasons to water resources for the region. Results from six catchments on the leeward slope indicate that topography exerts a strong control on the importance of orographic precipitation to stream baseflow. The contributions are greatest in those catchments that are close to the Brillante Gap in the Continental Divide. Differences in the temporal variation of precipitation and streamflow isotope compositions provide insight to the hydrologic pathways that move water to the streams.

  10. Movements and diving behavior of internesting green turtles along Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Gabriela S; Morreale, Stephen J; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Paladino, Frank V; Piedra, Rotney; Spotila, James R

    2013-09-01

    Using satellite transmitters, we determined the internesting movements, spatial ecology and diving behavior of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting on Nombre de Jesús and Zapotillal beaches along the Pacific coast of northwestern Costa Rica. Kernel density analysis indicated that turtles spent most of their time in a particularly small area in the vicinity of the nesting beaches (50% utilization distribution was an area of 3 km(2) ). Minimum daily distance traveled during a 12 day internesting period was 4.6 ± 3.5 km. Dives were short and primarily occupied the upper 10 m of the water column. Turtles spent most of their time resting at the surface and conducting U-dives (ranging from 60 to 81% of the total tracking time involved in those activities). Turtles showed a strong diel pattern, U-dives mainly took place during the day and turtles spent a large amount of time resting at the surface at night. The lack of long-distance movements demonstrated that this area was heavily utilized by turtles during the nesting season and, therefore, was a crucial location for conservation of this highly endangered green turtle population. The unique behavior of these turtles in resting at the surface at night might make them particularly vulnerable to fishing activities near the nesting beaches.

  11. Dynamic Passage of Topography Beneath the Southern Costa Rica Forearc seen with Seismic Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, J. H.; Kluesner, J. W.; Silver, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    3D seismic reflection data (CRISP) collected across the southern Costa Rica margin reveals that a thick, deforming sedimentary wedge underlies the younger slope sediments (Silver et al., this meeting). The older wedge material and younger slope sediments are separated by a high-amplitude regional unconformity. Seismic stratigraphy of the sedimentary strata overlying this regional unconformity reflects a dynamic deformation history of the margin. The younger slope sediments contain series of more localized unconformities, separating sedimentary units as thick as 1 km that reveal a dynamically changing set of inverted, overlapping basins. The geometry of these overlapping, inverted basins indicate sequential uplift events. The direction of basin thickening varies upsection, and these basins are cut by both thrust and normal faults and are deformed by folding. Structural development appears to be controlled by relief on the subducting plate interface, which induces uplift and subsidence and thereby controls the pattern of erosion and deposition. We interpret the evolution of these inverted stratigraphic packages as forming from subducting topography. Correlating these seismic-stratigraphic packages to recent drilling based on preliminary magnetostratigraphy from IODP site U1413 (Expedition 344 Scientists, 2013), allows us to date the passage of the subducting plate topography beginning ~2 Ma.

  12. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S. Lippmann, M.J. ); Mainieri, A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260[degrees]C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was develope. The field has a production area of about 10 km[sup 2], with temperatures exceeding 220[degrees]C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  13. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Mainieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells, a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260 C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was developed. The field has a production area of about 10 km{sup 2}, with temperatures exceeding 220 C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  14. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S. Lippmann, M.J.; Mainieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260{degrees}C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was develope. The field has a production area of about 10 km{sup 2}, with temperatures exceeding 220{degrees}C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  15. Diatom Assemblages as Indicators of Solute Levels in Lowland Neotropical Streams, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixby, R. J.; Wydrzycka, U.; Pringle, C.

    2005-05-01

    Previous research in streams draining lowland rainforests of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, has shown that the invertebrate species composition does not differ between solute-poor [soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) < 10 μg L-1] versus solute-rich (SRP > 100 μg L-1) streams that receive groundwater enriched with solutes from geothermal activity. In contrast, algal community analyses shows that solutes play important roles in structuring diatom assemblages in these high- and low-solute streams. Periphyton samples were collected in the wet and dry seasons from epipelic and epilithic substrates in light gaps in streams along a solute gradient. High- solute streams were dominated by taxa associated with high conductivity [i.e., Seminavis sp. and Bacillaria paxillifer (O.F. Müll.) Hendey]. In contrast, cosmopolitan and acidophilic taxa (i.e., Nupela praecipua Reichardt, Navicula longicephala Hustedt, and Frustulia spp.) were most common in low-solute, poorly buffered streams. These results suggest that diatom assemblages in high-solute streams are most likely influenced by a suite of solutes, including phosphorus; low-solute streams have diatom assemblages characteristic of poorly buffered, oligotrophic conditions, and, more importantly, low pH. While these low-solute streams generally have circumneutral pH, diatom response illustrates their poor buffering capacity.

  16. [Ichthyoplankton from the pier area in Limón, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Dominici-Arosemena, A; Brugnoli-Olivera, E; Solano-Ulate, S; Molina-Ureña, H; Ramírez Coghi, A R

    2000-01-01

    Four sampling stations were set 200-500 m off Limon Port, Costa Rica, at an average depth of 20 m. From October 1996 to May 1997 horizontal subsuperficial trawls were done for 12 minutes at a speed of about 2 Km/h, with a 1,000 microns plancton net. A total of 28 samples were processed and 104 physical-chemistry parameter measurements were taken. Average salinity was 30.1 +/- 3.7 and dissolved oxygen 6.9 +/- 0.6 mg l-1 reflecting good aeration throughout the sampling period. This suggests good mixture and a highly dynamic hydrography. Temperature showed no drastic variations (28.0 +/- 1.7 degrees C), possibly because of the constant mixing with shallow water. The highest larval counts were for November and early January and include families common to reefs and estuaries (Balistidae, Lutjanidae) and to coastal areas (Centropomidae, Gerreidae, Haemulidae, Carangidae, Engraulidae, Hemiramphidae, and representative Pleuronectiformes) existing in a common area.

  17. Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Furlani, Dario; Francesco Ficetola, Gentile; Colombo, Giorgio; Ugurlucan, Murat; De Bernardi, Fiorenza

    2009-03-01

    Loss of tropical forests is a major cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. Although drastic modification of the habitat has been shown to negatively affect amphibians, we are far from a complete understanding of the response of amphibian communities to deforestation. We studied frog assemblages in a gradient of forest modification in a humid area of Costa Rica, where the primary forest has been partially converted into pasture. The study area is a mosaic of primary palm forest, abandoned pasture covered by secondary forest, and pasture. Species richness was assessed by randomized walk surveys and audio strip transects. We also measured ecological features to evaluate the relationship between landscape alteration and amphibian distribution. The study area hosted a large number of amphibian species. We focused our monitoring on six anurans: Leptodactylus labialis, Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri, E. diastema, Hyla rosenbergi, H. microcephale, and Cochranella granulosa. Three species (L. labialis, H. rosenbergi, and H. microcephala) were most abundant in pasture areas with livestock presence, while E. fitzingeri, E. diastema, and C. granulosa were associated with primary forest. Most of the variation in community structure was explained by the joint effect of forest alteration and presence of livestock. Whereas forest specialists suffer direct negative effect from deforestation, generalist species can take advantage of forest alteration and the presence of farm animals. Species that are able to take advantage of the new environmental characteristics associated with human modifications of landscapes will come to prevail in the new communities.

  18. Characterization of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Inhibiting Bacteria from Amphibian Populations in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Joseph D.; Berg, Elizabeth A.; Abarca, Juan G.; Whitfield, Steven M.; Gorbatenko, Oxana; Pinto, Adrian; Kerby, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratia marcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed up- and down-regulation of key genes associated with different metabolic and regulatory pathways. This information will be valuable in continued efforts to develop a bacterial-based approach for amphibian protection as well as providing direction for continued mechanistic inquiries of the bacterial anti-Bd response. PMID:28293222

  19. [Diversity, natural history and conservation of mammals from San Vito de Coto Brus, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Jesús; Ceballos, Gerardo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Suzán, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Marcé, Erika

    2006-03-01

    Although Costa Rica has been biologically well studied, few areas have complete mammal inventories, which are essential for ecological studies and conservation. The San Vito region is considered among the most important for scientific research in the country because of the presence of the Wilson Botanical Garden and Las Cruces. However, the knowledge of its mammalian fauna is incomplete. We extensively studied the mammals of San Vito, compiled a checklist, and evaluated its composition, relative abundance, habitat distribution, and conservation status. We recorded 105 species, representing 85 genera, 29 families, and 10 orders. Non-volant mammals represented 62 species, 59 genera, 23 families, and 9 orders. Bats belonged to 6 families, 26 genera and 43 species. The extensive deforestation and hunting have caused the extinction of seven species, but the region still supports, surprisingly, a relatively high number of species, most of which are rare. Few species are common and abundant. Species richness was higher in forest, and forest fragments; fewer species were found in coffee plantations, induced grasslands, and secondary vegetation. Around 21% (13 species) are included in the IUCN red book. Three species are considered endangered (Saimiri oerstedii, Tapirus bairdii, and Sylvilagus dicei), and two threatened (Myrmecophaga trydactila and Caluromys derbianus), of which two (T. bairdii and M. trydactila) are locally extinct. The other species in IUCN are either of low risk (i.e. Chironectes minimus) or data deficient (Lontra longicaudis). Additionally, 24 species (39%) are included in CITES.

  20. Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica's PES Program.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, R A; Sills, E O; Ferraro, P J; Pattanayak, S K

    2015-01-01

    Payments for environmental services (PES) are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica's PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.

  1. Contrasting nitrate adsorption in Andisols of two coffee plantations in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M C; Graham, G R; Rudolph, D L

    2001-01-01

    Fertilizer use in coffee plantations is a suspected cause of rising ground water nitrate concentrations in the ground water-dependent Central Valley of Costa Rica. Nitrate adsorption was evaluated beneath two coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations in the Central Valley. Previous work at one site had identified unsaturated zone nitrate retardation relative to a tritium tracer. Differences in nitrate adsorption were assessed in cores to 4 m depth in Andisols at this and one other plantation using differences in KCl- and water-extractable nitrate as an index. Significant adsorption was confirmed at the site of the previous tracer test, but not at the second site. Anion exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction data, extractable Al and Si, and soil pH in NaF corroborated that differences in adsorption characteristics were related to subtle differences in clay mineralogy. Soils at the site with significant nitrate adsorption showed an Al-rich allophane clay content compared with a more weathered, Si-rich allophane and halloysite clay mineral content at the site with negligible adsorption. At the site with significant nitrate adsorption, nitrate occupied less than 10% of the total anion adsorption capacity, suggesting that adsorption may provide long-term potential for mitigation or delay of nitrate leaching. Evaluation of nitrate sorption potential of soil at local and landscape scales would be useful in development of nitrogen management practices to reduce nitrate leaching to ground water.

  2. Factors affecting Fe and Zn contents of mesozooplankton from the Costa Rica Dome

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Stephen B.; Chen, Xi; Twining, Benjamin S.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Landry, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral limitation of mesozooplankton production is possible in waters with low trace metal availability. As a step toward estimating mesozooplankton Fe and Zn requirements under such conditions, we measured tissue concentrations of major and trace nutrient elements within size-fractioned zooplankton samples collected in and around the Costa Rica Upwelling Dome, a region where phytoplankton growth may be co-limited by Zn and Fe. The geometric mean C, N, P contents were 27, 5.6 and 0.21 mmol gdw−1, respectively. The values for Fe and Zn were 1230 and 498 nmol gdw−1, respectively, which are low compared with previous measurements. Migrant zooplankton caused C and P contents of the 2–5 mm fraction to increase at night relative to the day while the Fe and Zn contents decreased. Fe content increased with size while Zn content decreased with size. Fe content was strongly correlated to concentrations of two lithogenic tracers, Al and Ti. We estimate minimum Fe:C ratios in large migrant and resident mixed layer zooplankton to be 15 and 60 µmol mol−1, respectively. The ratio of Zn:C ranged from 11 µmol mol−1 for the 0.2–0.5 mm size fraction to 33 µmol mol−1 for the 2–5 mm size fraction. PMID:27275034

  3. Efficiency and adaptability of the benthic methane filter at Quepos Slide cold seeps, offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeb, P.; Krause, S.; Linke, P.; Hensen, C.; Dale, A. W.; Nuzzo, M.; Treude, T.

    2014-11-01

    Large amounts of methane are delivered by fluids through the erosive forearc of the convergent margin offshore Costa Rica and lead to the formation of cold seeps at the sediment surface. Besides mud extrusion, numerous cold seeps are created by landslides induced by seamount subduction or fluid migration along major faults. Most of the dissolved methane reaching the seafloor at cold seeps is oxidized within the benthic microbial methane filter by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Measurements of AOM and sulfate reduction as well as numerical modeling of porewater profiles revealed a highly active and efficient benthic methane filter at Quepos Slide site; a landslide on the continental slope between the Nicoya and Osa Peninsula. Integrated areal rates of AOM ranged from 12.9 ± 6.0 to 45.2 ± 11.5 mmol m-2 d-1, with only 1 to 2.5% of the upward methane flux being released into the water column. Additionally, two parallel sediment cores from Quepos Slide were used for in vitro experiments in a recently developed Sediment-F low-Through (SLOT) system to simulate an increased fluid and methane flux from the bottom of the sediment core. The benthic methane filter revealed a high adaptability whereby the methane oxidation efficiency responded to the increased fluid flow within 150-170 days. To our knowledge, this study provides the first estimation of the natural biogeochemical response of seep sediments to changes in fluid flow.

  4. Tectonic setting of Late Cenozoic gold mineralization in the gold belt of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Deruyter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Gold Belt of Costa Rica is a northwest-elongated zone 15 km wide by 120 km long containing numerous auriferous quartz veins and pyritic silicified patterns upon which abundant small mines are developed. Gold veins are related principally to northeast-southwest and north-south striking, steeply dipping faults. Higher grade ore and thicker veins invariably occur at intersections of these fracture orientations, indicating simultaneous opening at the time of gold introduction. Restriction of gold veins to the northwest-trending arc of Miocene Aguacate Group andesite volcanic rocks, a product of Cocos Plate subduction, suggested approximately coeval formation, but recognition by the writer of the important role played by 2-5 m.y. old altered, gold mineralized rhyolite dikes intruded along north-south gold vein structures and intimately involved with high grade ores at the Esperanza Mine and Rio Chiquito prospect, for example, suggest a much younger period of fracturing and gold introduction. The rhyolite intrusions are more brittle and stockwork mineralized than andesite host rocks and form bulk tonnage gold targets. Initiation of right-lateral movement along the north-south Panama Fracture Zone at 5 m.y.a. within the pattern of northeastward Cocos Plate subduction may have tapped rhyolites from subvolcanic magma chambers into new faults.

  5. Ultrastructure of the wild rice Oryza grandiglumis (Gramineae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    Oryza grandiglumis is a wild species of rice endemic to tropical America. This species was first found in 1998 in the wetlands of Caño Negro, located in the northern part of Costa Rica. Twenty five plants of O. grandiglumis were processed for scanning electron microscope. An ultrastructural description of the leaf blade, ligule, auricles, spikelet and caryopsis, with an emphasis on structures of taxonomic value. The leaf blade has a characteristic cuticular wax pattern, composed of dense rod-like structures, and is surrounded by papillae, zipper-like silica cells, abundant bulky prickle trichomes, and hooked trichomes. The blade's edge has three rows of hooked prickle trichomes of various sizes. The auricles wrapped the culm, with long attenuated trichomes at the edges; the base was surrounded by oblong cells. The ligule is a blunt membrane covered by short prickle trichomes. Spikelet morphology is characteristic of the Poaceae family, but the sterile lemmas were nearly as long as the fertile lemmas, and they have an unique crown-like structure of lignified spines between the rachilla and the fertile lemmas. Comparison with Brazilian specimens of O. grandiglumis revealed little differences in the ultrastructural characteristics.

  6. Characterization of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Inhibiting Bacteria from Amphibian Populations in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Madison, Joseph D; Berg, Elizabeth A; Abarca, Juan G; Whitfield, Steven M; Gorbatenko, Oxana; Pinto, Adrian; Kerby, Jacob L

    2017-01-01

    Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratia marcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed up- and down-regulation of key genes associated with different metabolic and regulatory pathways. This information will be valuable in continued efforts to develop a bacterial-based approach for amphibian protection as well as providing direction for continued mechanistic inquiries of the bacterial anti-Bd response.

  7. Comparative anatomy of leaflets of Zamia acuminata and Z. pseudomonticola (Zamiaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Castillo, Rafael; Marin-Méndez, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The genus Zamia is morphologically and ecologically the most diverse of the order Cycadales. Throughout its history this genus has been restricted to the New World and is presently almost entirely restricted to the Neotropics. Unusual anatomical traits of the leaflets, such as the sunken stomata and thick cuticle, are common in this and related genera. The objective of this research was to study and compare the leaflet anatomy of Zamia acuminata and Z pseudomonticola and establish possible phylogenetic relationships between the anatomical traits and the near relatives of these species. The leaf material was obtained from living plants and then processed for electron microscopy study. We found that both species are very similar to each other and to Z fairchildiana, and that they share several unusual traits with other species of the genus, such as the parenchyma morphology, the spatial distribution of tissues between the veins and the stomata morphology. The main differences between these species were seen in their fiber clusters and in the abundance oftrichome basal cells on the epidermis. The anatomical similarities between the three species could be the result of their close phylogenetic relationship and the divergences between them could be the result of recent speciation during the Pleistocene, resulting from geological changes in Southern Costa Rica.

  8. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dangoudoubiyam, S; Oliveira, J B; Víquez, C; Gómez-García, A; González, O; Romero, J J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K

    2011-06-01

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America, were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii by using the surface antigen (SAG) SnSAG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti- S. neurona antibodies were found in 42.2% of the horses by using the SnSAG2 ELISA. Anti- Neospora spp. antibodies were found in only 3.5% of the horses by using the NhSAG1 ELISA, and only 1 of these horses was confirmed seropositive by Western blot. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 34.0% of the horses tested, which is higher than in previous reports from North and South America. The finding of anti- S. neurona antibodies in horses from geographical areas where Didelphis marsupialis has wide distribution suggests that D. marsupialis is a potential definitive host for this parasite and a source of infection for these horses.

  9. Genetic demography of Antioquia (Colombia) and the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Ophoff, Roel; Service, Susan; Hartiala, Jaana; Molina, Julio; Leon, Pedro; Ospina, Jorge; Bedoya, Gabriel; Freimer, Nelson; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2003-05-01

    We report a comparative genetic characterization of two population isolates with parallel demographic histories: the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia (in northwest Colombia). The analysis of mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal polymorphisms shows that Antioquia and the CVCR are genetically very similar, indicating that closely related parental populations founded these two isolates. In both populations, the male ancestry is predominantly European, whereas the female ancestry is mostly Amerind. In agreement with their isolation, the Amerindian mtDNA diversity of Antioquia and the CVCR is typical of ethnically-defined native populations and is markedly lower than in other Latin American populations. A comparison of linkage disequilibrium (LD) at 18 marker pairs in Antioquia and the CVCR shows that markers in LD in both populations are located at short genetic distances (

  10. Dental topography and molar wear in Alouatta palliata from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dennis, John C; Ungar, Peter S; Teaford, Mark F; Glander, Kenneth E

    2004-10-01

    Paleoprimatologists depend on relationships between form and function of teeth to reconstruct the diets of fossil species. Most of this work has been limited to studies of unworn teeth. A new approach, dental topographic analysis, allows the characterization and comparison of worn primate teeth. Variably worn museum specimens have been used to construct species-specific wear sequences so that measurements can be compared by wear stage among taxa with known differences in diet. This assumes that individuals in a species tend to wear their molar teeth in similar ways, a supposition that has yet to be tested. Here we evaluate this assumption with a longitudinal study of changes in tooth form over time in primates. Fourteen individual mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) were captured and then recaptured after 2, 4, and 7 years when possible at Hacienda La Pacifica in Costa Rica between 1989-1999. Dental impressions were taken each time, and molar casts were produced and analyzed using dental topographic analysis. Results showed consistent decreases in crown slope and occlusal relief. In contrast, crown angularity, a measure of surface jaggedness, remained fairly constant except with extreme wear. There were no evident differences between specimens collected in different microhabitats. These results suggest that different individual mantled howling monkeys wear their teeth down in similar ways, evidently following a species-specific wear sequence. Dental topographic analysis may therefore be used to compare morphology among similarly worn individuals from different species.

  11. Protist communities in a marine oxygen minimum zone off Costa Rica by 454 pyrosequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, H.; Rocke, E.; Kong, L.; Xia, X.; Liu, H.; Landry, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    Marine planktonic protists, including microalgae and protistan grazers, are an important contributor to global primary production and carbon and mineral cycles, however, little is known about their population shifts along the oxic-anoxic gradient in the water column. We used 454 pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and gene transcripts to study the community composition of whole and active protists throughout a water column in the Costa Rica Dome, where a stable oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) exists at a depth of 400~700 m. A clear shift of protist composition from photosynthetic Dinoflagellates in the surface to potential parasitic Dinoflagellates and Ciliates in the deeper water was revealed along the vertical profile at both rRNA and rDNA levels. Those protist groups recovered only at the rDNA level represent either lysed aggregates sinking from the upper waters or potential hosts for parasitic groups. UPGMA clustering demonstrated that total and active protists in the anoxic core of OMZ (550 m) were distinct from those in other water depths. The reduced community diversity and presence of a parasitic/symbiotic trophic lifestyle in the OMZ, especially the anoxic core, suggests that OMZs can exert a selective pressure on protist communities. Such changes in community structure and a shift in trophic lifestyle could result in a modulation of the microbial loop and associated biogeochemical cycling.

  12. [Phenology and growth of Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica wetlands].

    PubMed

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    Here, I describe phenological activity of the raffia palm Raphia taedigera that dominates coastal swamps in northeastern Costa Rica. In this species, reproduction extends through the whole year, and it starts with the emergence and development of new inflorescences through the first month of the cycle. Expanded inflorescences develop into open flowers in a process that extends for three to four weeks to give rise to small fruits that are evidenced a month later. During the next twelve months or so, fruits mature but it take around six more months for all fruits to fall from the tree. Therefore, the entire reproductive process may exceed over two years. Different from other palm species, reproductive events in R. taedigera are aseasonal, and it is possible to observe palms in any reproductive state the whole year. Although the long period to fruit maturity exposes the seed to predispersal losses, this disadvantage may be over weighted by the production of large and heavy seeds that mature at different times on the same inflorescence.

  13. Volcanoes in the pre-Columbian life, legend, and archaeology of Costa Rica (Central America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Soto, Gerardo J.

    2008-10-01

    Costa Rica is located geographically in the southern part of the Central American Volcanic Front, a zone where interaction between the Mesoamerican and South American cultures occurred in pre-Columbian times. Several volcanoes violently erupted during the Holocene, when the first nomadic human hunters and later settlers were present. Volcanic rocks were the most important geo-resource in making artifacts and as construction materials for pre-Columbian inhabitants. Some pottery products are believed to resemble smoking volcanoes, and the settlements around volcanoes would seem to indicate their influence on daily life. Undoubtedly, volcanic eruptions disrupted the life of early settlers, particularly in the vicinity of Arenal and Irazú volcanoes, where archaeological remains show transient effects and displacement caused by periodical eruptions, but later resilient occupations around the volcanoes. Most native languages are extinct, with the exception of those presently spoken in areas far away from active volcanoes, where no words are related to volcanic phenomena or structures. The preserved legends are ambiguous, suggesting that they were either produced during the early Spanish conquest or were altered following the pre-Columbian period.

  14. Biological response of Costa Rica Dome phytoplankton to Light, Silicic acid and Trace metals.

    PubMed

    Goes, Joaquim I; Gomes, Helga do Rosario; Selph, Karen E; Landry, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) is a unique open-ocean upwelling system, with picophytoplankton dominance of phytoplankton biomass and suppressed diatoms, yet paradoxically high export of biogenic silica. As a part of Flux and Zinc Experiments cruise in summer (June-July 2010), we conducted shipboard incubation experiments in the CRD to examine the potential roles of Si, Zn, Fe and light as regulating factors of phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Estimates of photosynthetic quantum yields revealed an extremely stressed phytoplankton population that responded positively to additions of silicic acid, iron and zinc and higher light conditions. Size-fractioned Chl a yielded the surprising result that picophytoplankton, as well as larger phytoplankton, responded most to treatments with added silicic acid incubated at high incident light (HL + Si). The combination of Si and HL also led to increases in cell sizes of picoplankton, notably in Synechococcus. Such a response, coupled with the recent discovery of significant intracellular accumulation of Si in some picophytoplankton, suggests that small phytoplankton could play a potentially important role in Si cycling in the CRD, which may help to explain its peculiar export characteristics.

  15. Diazotroph community structure in the deep oxygen minimum zone of the Costa Rica Dome

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Shunyan; Xia, Xiaomin; Guo, Cui; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), characterized by depleted dissolved oxygen concentration in the intermediate depth of the water column, are predicted to expand under the influence of global warming. Recent studies in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean and Arabian Sea have reported that heterotrophic nitrogen fixation is active in the OMZs. In this study, we investigated the community structure of diazotrophs in the OMZ of the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) upwelling region in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean, using 454-pyrosequencing of nifH gene amplicons. Comparing diazotroph assemblages in different depth strata of the OMZ (200–1000 m in depth), we found a unique diazotroph community in the OMZ core, which was mainly dominated by methanotroph-like diazotrophs, suggesting a potential coupling of nitrogen cycle and methane assimilation. In addition, some OTUs revealed in this study, especially those belonging to the large sub-cluster Vibrio diazotrophicus, were reported to be abundant and expressing the nifH gene in other OMZs. Our results suggest that the unique hydrographic conditions in OMZs may support similar assemblages of diazotrophs, and heterotrophic nitrogen fixation could also be occurring in our studied region. Our study provides the first insight into the composition and distribution of putative diazotrophs in the CRD OMZ. PMID:27275037

  16. Assessment of health policy in Costa Rica--some preliminary remarks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, C G; Mohs, E; Eriksson, B

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica is one of the world's success stories in primary health care. During the past 20 years the country has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition. However, during the 80's the economic recession severely affected the country. The social, economic, political and geographic contexts are important for the assessment of health policy. The longstanding democracy, investments in public education and health all contribute to the peace and stability. Assessment of health policy needs both a quantitative and qualitative approach. The policy-making process--how policies are made, translated into action and evaluated--is a research challenge. The national health policy 1986-1990 includes commitment to Health for All strategy; development of the National Health Care System; strengthening of the health care infrastructure; consolidation of health achievements and undertaking of new problems and approaches on integral care for the population; community participation in all health care system activities; and health care priorities. Important research issues are the relationship between the needs of the population and health policy development and the impacts of health policy on the health of the population. A comprehensive study of policy-making includes studies of policy content, process, output and evaluation of impacts (including economy of health policy), and analysis for policy, i.e. information for policy making, process and policy advocacy. Recent successful health policy issues are child health and HIV/AIDS, while water pollution and traffic accidents have been more problematic policy issues.

  17. Mesozooplankton biomass and grazing in the Costa Rica Dome: amplifying variability through the plankton food web

    PubMed Central

    Décima, Moira; Landry, Michael R.; Stukel, Michael R.; Lopez-Lopez, Lucia; Krause, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated standing stocks and grazing rates of mesozooplankton assemblages in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD), an open-ocean upwelling ecosystem in the eastern tropical Pacific. While phytoplankton biomass in the CRD is dominated by picophytoplankton (<2-µm cells) with especially high concentrations of Synechococcus spp., we found high mesozooplankton biomass (∼5 g dry weight m−2) and grazing impact (12–50% integrated water column chlorophyll a), indicative of efficient food web transfer from primary producers to higher levels. In contrast to the relative uniformity in water-column chlorophyll a and mesozooplankton biomass, variability in herbivory was substantial, with lower rates in the central dome region and higher rates in areas offset from the dome center. While grazing rates were unrelated to total phytoplankton, correlations with cyanobacteria (negative) and biogenic SiO2 production (positive) suggest that partitioning of primary production among phytoplankton sizes contributes to the variability observed in mesozooplankton metrics. We propose that advection of upwelled waters away from the dome center is accompanied by changes in mesozooplankton composition and grazing rates, reflecting small changes within the primary producers. Small changes within the phytoplankton community resulting in large changes in the mesozooplankton suggest that the variability in lower trophic level dynamics was effectively amplified through the food web. PMID:27275033

  18. [Paralytic shellfish poisoning by Spondylus calcifer contaminated with Pyrodinium bahamense, Costa Rica, 1989-1990].

    PubMed

    Mata, L; Abarca, G; Marranghello, L; Víquez, R

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), affecting human populations on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica in October 1989. Numbness in arms, face and legs occurred 30 to 45 minutes after ingestion of the large clam Spondylus calcifer. Paralysis of legs and respiratory symptoms followed, often persisting for one week. Large amounts of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense were found in the intestine of the mollusk. A toxin was detected in crude or filtered and heated macerates of intestine, muscle, mantle and hepatopancreas of S. calcifer, and to a lesser extent Tagelus sp., by injection of its crude or diluted extracts in white mice. The effects in mice consisted in paralysis and asphyxia generally leading to death in less than 5 minutes, compatible with saxitoxin. Mice were killed by the toxin in macerates diluted 1:100 to 1:1000. No toxin was detected in Anadara tuberculosa (Bivalvia) or in peneids. Prevention rests on intersectoral actions between state and private sectors in charge of fishing, distribution and marketing of shellfish, as well as on education of the population at large.

  19. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E.; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100×100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. PMID:20073347

  20. Turn up the heat: thermal tolerances of lizards at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Brusch, George A; Taylor, Emily N; Whitfield, Steven M

    2016-02-01

    Global temperature increases over the next century are predicted to contribute to the extinction of a number of taxa, including up to 40% of all lizard species. Lizards adapted to living in lowland tropical areas are especially vulnerable because of their dependence on specific microhabitats, low vagility, and a reduced capacity to physiologically adjust to environmental change. To assess the potential effects of climate change on lizards in the lowland tropics, we measured the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of ten species from La Selva, Costa Rica. We also examined how well body size, microhabitat type, and species predicted the CTmax. We used current temperature data along with projected temperature increases for 2080 to predict which species may be at the greatest risk at La Selva. Of the ten species sampled, four are at serious risk of lowland extirpation and three others might also be at risk under the highest predicted temperature-increase models. Forest floor lizards at La Selva have already experienced significant population declines over the past 40 years, and we found that each of the forest floor species we studied is at serious risk of local extirpation. We also found that microhabitat type is the strongest predictor of CTmax, demonstrating the profound impact habitat specialization has on the thermal limits of tropical lizards.

  1. [Microbiological stability through storage period of Sphyraena ensis in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Dayana; Jiménez-Díaz, Manuel; Arias-Echandi, María Laura

    2011-06-01

    At the present study some of the microbiological and biochemical changes that occur through storage period in Sphyraena ensis, a fish specie of frequent consumption in Costa Rica were studied. Samples of S. ensis obtained during rainy and dry season were evaluated. Analysis included aerobic psychrotrophic count, identification and count of Vibrio, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas through a six day storage period at two different refrigeration temperatures, 2 and 7 degrees C. Same time, a commercial enzymatic immunoassay was used for the evaluation of the variation on the concentration of histamine produced in the different samples. Results obtained show that there is an increase on the bacteriological counts through the storage period, this increase is bigger as refrigeration temperature increases. Most of the samples maintained at 7 degrees C showed counts above 106 CFU/g after three days of storage, those stored at 2 degrees C did not present such high population levels. Nevertheless, after 6 days of storage, all samples, despite the storage temperature used, presented levels above the described one. Also, an histamine concentration increased through storage time, especially when the product was conserved at the higher temperature due to an increase in the number of histidine descarboxilating bacteria. There is no statistical difference between the counts obtained during rainy or dry season; nevertheless, there is a difference assicieated to the bacterial genera isolated.

  2. Molecular Detection of Bartonella Species in Fleas Collected from Dogs and Cats from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Norman; Troyo, Adriana; Castillo, Daniela; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial genus Bartonella includes several species with zoonotic potential, some of which are common in domestic dogs and cats, as well as in their fleas. Because there is no previous information about the presence of Bartonella species in fleas from Central America, this study aimed at evaluating the presence of Bartonella spp. in fleas collected from dogs and cats in Costa Rica. A total 72 pools of Ctenocephalides felis and 21 pools of Pulex simulans were screened by conventional PCR to detect Bartonella DNA fragments of the citrate synthase (gltA) and the β subunit RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. Three (4.2%) pools of C. felis and five pools (22.7%) of P. simulans were found positive for Bartonella DNA. Sequences corresponding to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii strain Winnie, B. rochalimae, and an undescribed Bartonella sp. (clone BR10) were detected in flea pools from dogs, whereas Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae sequences were identified in flea pools from cats. The detection of zoonotic Bartonella spp. in this study should increase the awareness to these flea-borne diseases among physicians and public health workers and highlight the importance of flea control in the region.

  3. Interannual variation and host affiliations of endophytic fungi associated with ferns at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo-Ruiz, Mariana; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are an ancient and diverse lineage of vascular plants that differ morphologically, chemically and in growth habits from the angiosperms with which they co-occur. We used a culture-based approach coupled with phylogenetic analyses to characterize the incidence, diversity and composition of fungal endophyte assemblages in ferns, with a focus on healthy aboveground tissues of seven species of eupolypods at La Selva, Costa Rica. Endophytes were isolated from every individual plant and were similarly abundant and diverse in frond blades and stalks, in different vegetation types, in epiphytic vs. terrestrial species, and between sampling years. However, abundance, diversity and community structure differed significantly among fern species, and composition differed markedly between sampling years. Phylogenetic classification using separate and combined datasets revealed that as for many Neotropical angiosperms, the majority (95%) of endophyte taxa were Ascomycota, with particular dominance by Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes. However, our data suggest higher phylogenetic richness and stronger host affinities in fern associated endophytes relative to those studied in angiosperms thus far.

  4. Biological response of Costa Rica Dome phytoplankton to Light, Silicic acid and Trace metals

    PubMed Central

    Goes, Joaquim I.; Gomes, Helga do Rosario; Selph, Karen E.; Landry, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) is a unique open-ocean upwelling system, with picophytoplankton dominance of phytoplankton biomass and suppressed diatoms, yet paradoxically high export of biogenic silica. As a part of Flux and Zinc Experiments cruise in summer (June–July 2010), we conducted shipboard incubation experiments in the CRD to examine the potential roles of Si, Zn, Fe and light as regulating factors of phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Estimates of photosynthetic quantum yields revealed an extremely stressed phytoplankton population that responded positively to additions of silicic acid, iron and zinc and higher light conditions. Size-fractioned Chl a yielded the surprising result that picophytoplankton, as well as larger phytoplankton, responded most to treatments with added silicic acid incubated at high incident light (HL + Si). The combination of Si and HL also led to increases in cell sizes of picoplankton, notably in Synechococcus. Such a response, coupled with the recent discovery of significant intracellular accumulation of Si in some picophytoplankton, suggests that small phytoplankton could play a potentially important role in Si cycling in the CRD, which may help to explain its peculiar export characteristics. PMID:27275031

  5. Fluid-inclusion evidence for previous higher temperatures in the miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, K.E.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Heating and freezing data were obtained for liquid-rich secondary fluid inclusions in magmatic quartz, hydrothermal calcite and hydrothermal quartz crystals from 19 sampled depths in eight production drill holes (PGM-1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 11, 12 and 15) of the Miravalles geothermal field in northwestern Costa Rica. Homogenization temperatures for 386 fluid inclusions range from near the present measured temperatures to as much as 70??C higher than the maximum measured well temperature of about 240??C. Melting-point temperature measurements for 76 fluid inclusions suggest a calculated salinity range of about 0.2-1.9 wt% NaCl equivalent. Calculated salinities as high as 3.1-4.0 wt% NaCl equivalent for 20 fluid inclusions from the lower part of drill hole PGM-15 (the deepest drill hole) indicate that higher salinity water probably was present in the deeper part of the Miravalles geothermal field at the time these fluid inclusions were formed. ?? 1988.

  6. Translating research into action: a case study on trans fatty acid research and nutrition policy in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Lindsay, Ana C; Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Greaney, Mary L; Campos, Hannia; Peterson, Karen E

    2007-11-01

    Mounting epidemiologic evidence worldwide has fostered policy regulation of industrially made trans fatty acids (TFA) in several developed countries. Despite country-specific evidence about the effects of TFA on cardiovascular disease in Costa Rica, policy regulation has yet to occur. This qualitative study uses a conceptual framework to identify factors that may impede or promote the process of translation of scientific evidence about TFA into policy in the specific context of Costa Rica. We used single case-study methodology to integrate two sources of data: review of relevant internal documents and in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 21 respondents purposively sampled from three sectors: the cooking oil and food industries, research and academia, and government entities. Content analysis, guided by a conceptual framework of research utilization, revealed 68 emergent themes divided across four categories of analysis. In brief, study participants perceived the political context suitable for discussing policies related to healthy fats. Nevertheless, TFA regulation was not part of the Costa Rican political agenda. Barriers perceived by respondents that impede knowledge translation included: (1) lack of awareness of in-country scientific studies on health effects of TFA; (2) lack of consensus or information about policy options (nutrition labelling, dietary guidelines, legislative mandates); (3) perceived distrust and disparate attitudes between sectors, believed by study participants to result in (4) limited collaboration across sectors. Commissioned task forces and other mechanisms to foster research engagement and facilitate sustained interaction and systematic collaboration among government, food industry and researcher sectors appear crucial in the consideration and adoption of nutrition policy in Costa Rica and other emerging economies.

  7. Demersal crustacean assemblages along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica: a quantitative and multivariate assessment based on the Victor Hensen Costa Rica expedition (1993/1994).

    PubMed

    Jesse, S

    1996-12-01

    During the first cruise leg with the RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 (end of the rainy season) the crustacean fauna found in the demersal collections revealed an unexpected species richness and biomass. The Crustacea collections were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively during the fourth leg (February 1994, dry season) in the three study areas Golfo Dulce (GD), Bahía Coronado in the Sierpe-Térraba-estuary (ST) and Golfo de Nicoya (GN). Qualitative data were available for comparison from the first leg in december 1993. A total of 24 beamtrawl and ten ottertrawl sample collections were done on an area of 860.000 m2 yielding a total of 119 species with a biomass of 37.8 kg (10275 specimens). Despite the smaller area covered by the beamtrawl, it collected a higher number of species and more biomass than the ottertrawl due to the smaller mesh size (0.8 cm). Judging from the shape of the species -per-area-curves, the crustacean fauna appeared as representatively sampled for the study area. As compared with the GN (biomass 0.36 g +/- 0.26, SR = 97) and the ST (0.41 g +/- 0.27, SR = 59) and according to the results of the log-series-plots constructed from the abundance data, the GD seems to be a depauperated area with significantly lower biomass (0.05 g +/- 0.07) and species richness (45 sp.). No crustaceans were found in the center of the deep basin of the GD put parts of the interior gulf with adjacent mangrove areas seem to be important as nursery area for some commercially important penaeid shrimp species. The ST-estuary revealed the highest mean species number per station in the whole study area, but the GN had the highest total number of species. Biomass seems to be regularly distributed and not depth-depending within the GN, while species abundance varies clearly, confirming previous results. In contrast, abundance and biomass correlated well in the ST. Based on the results of the multivariate analysis, seven station

  8. Upper-Plate Earthquake Swarms Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Lücke, O. H.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including damaging upper-plate 5.0-to-6.0 magnitude earthquakes in Costa Rica after the large (Mw greater than 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1941, 1950, 1983, 1990, and 1991. On 5 of September 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica again. The number of upper plate-earthquakes outside the Nicoya source region that were recorded by the National Seismological Network (RSN: UCR-ICE) for the six-month period after the Nicoya event was two times higher than that number of upper plate-earthquakes during the six months before it happened. We analyze the three largest upper-plate earthquake swarms that took place during the first six months after the Nicoya event. We relocate the epicenters using a double difference algorithm with a 1D velocity model (HypoDD) and using a probabilistic method with a 3D velocity model (NonLinLoc). Additionally we compute first motion focal mechanisms for the largest events. The three swarms analyzed occurred at distances of 170 to 350 km from the Nicoya source region in three different tectonic settings: the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc (approximately 170 km from the source region), the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region (approximately 220 km), and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera, an inactive portion of the magmatic arc (approximately 300 km). The Cartago swarm with 95 1.8-to-4.1 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 31, 2012. The location and left-lateral solution of the largest event suggest that the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4), is the

  9. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed.

  10. Preliminary review of biomass energy options in Costa Rica and the national alcohol fuel program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.

    1981-01-30

    For an agricultural, oil-importing country such as Costa Rica, the use of biomass as a source of transportation fuels is a topic of great interest. This analysis is intended to assist the Costa Rican government and USAID/CR to identify possible biomass energy projects. While emphasis is on technologies for converting biomass into liquid fuels, agronomic issues and alternative energy options are also explored. Costa Rica plans to build six facilities for converting biomass (primarily sugarcane, supplemented by molasses, cassava, and banana wastes) to hydrous ethanol. The following issues relating to biomass conversion technologies are identified: use of hydroelectrically powered drives in sugarcane processing to allow use of bagasse as a fuel; possible sources and costs of energy for converting starch crops like cassava to ethanol; the optimal method for treating stillage; and the feasibility of using fermentation reactors. No definitive recommendation on the scale of ethanol production is made due to the lack of an environmental impact assessment. Finally, with regard to nonalcohol renewable energy, several ideas warrant consideration: electrically powered mass transit; electric cars; vehicle-mounted gasifiers operating on wood chips or pelletized fuels produced from excess bagasse; anaerobic digestion of animal manure and other agricultural wastes; and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes.

  11. Magmatic evolution of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Alvarado, G. E.; Carr, M. J.; Obando, J.; Alfaro, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Sarapiqui Miocene Arc (22.2-11.4 Ma) is located in the modern back-arc region of northern Costa Rica, Central America. The arc basement is represented by serpentinized peridotites, Albian silicic pelagites, and Paleocene to Middle Eocene turbidites. Magmatic units vary from basalts to rhyolites and include lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and a few subvolcanic bodies. The magmatic evolution of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc consists of three distinct stages: 1) Jardin Basalts (22.2 Ma) showing a primary tendency with high MgO, Ni, Cr, and Nb, high initial La/Yb ratios, and low Ba/La which increase with the slab fluids addition; 2) Arrepentidos Basaltic-andesites, Chaparron Pyroclasts, Hito Sar Basalts, Boca Tapada Gabro, and Chamorro Andesites, that represent the island arc evolution from 17.2 to 11.4 Ma; and 3) Crucitas Rhyolites (14.3 Ma) characterizated by low TiO2 and very high Ba/La ratios represent non-cogenetic, but contemporaneous felsic magmas produced by remelting of pre-existing intrusives. The REE patterns indicate a plagioclase rich, amphibole bearing source for this last unit. The Zr/Nb ratios (7-36) are evidence of the coalescing of a minor OIB source with a dominant MORB source, both modified by subduction. 87Sr/86Sr correlate positively with Ba/La; however, they are still within the OIB field. An inverse model using the REEs of the mafic units is consistent with a source mantle composition of garnet peridotite. All but one of the units show LILE enrichments and HFSE depletions typical of the island arc environment. The exception is a suite of near primary magmas, included in the Jardin Basalts, which probably originated by decompression melting. The Ba/La and La/Yb ratios of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc are very similar to those of the modern Northern Costa Rican Arc, suggesting that the subduction fluid composition and the degree of partial melting have not changed significantly in the last 20 Ma.

  12. Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto

    2009-09-01

    Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of bacteria presented in regular gas, premium gas and diesel from the bottom and superior part of the tanks were done; in the samples containing an aqueous phase, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were also quantified by the most probable number technique (MPN), according to the ASTM D4412-84 standard. The higher contamination was shown at the bottom of the tanks (populations up to 10(4) UFC/l), especially if there was accumulated water, in which case populations reached 10(8) UFC/l. The most contaminated fuel was diesel (counts up to 10(4) UFC/l), whereas the less contaminated was premium gas. The less contaminated fuels were from the facilities of La Garita and Barranca, whereas the most contaminated were from Ochomogo. Nevertheless, the quantified populations did not cause significant alteration in quality physicochemical parameters in the samples analyzed. A total of 149 bacterial strains were isolated, 136 (91.3%) Gram positive and 13 (8.7%) Gram negative. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus (24.0%), Micrococcus (21.9%), Bacillus (18.8%) and Kocuria (11.5%) among Gram positive bacteria and Pseudomonas (7.3%) among Gram negative bacteria. The majority of these genera have been found as fuel contaminants or even as degraders of this kind of products; nevertheless, some species for which their appearance or growth in hydrocarbons have not been described were found with low frequencies. SRB were present in counts up to 10(5) MPN/l in 42.9% of water containing samples

  13. Chewing lice of genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from Turdidae (Passeriformes) of Costa Rica, with descriptions of seven new species.

    PubMed

    Kounek, Filip; Sychra, Oldrich; Capek, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    A total of 166 individuals from 10 bird species belonging to the family Turdidae were examined for chewing lice in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009 and 2010. A total of 12 species of the louse genus Myrsidea were collected from 54 birds, including four previously named, seven new undescribed species, and one identified as Myrsidea sp. Names, descriptions and illustrations are given for the seven new species of Myrsidea. They and their type hosts are: Myrsidea assimilis sp. nov. ex Turdus assimilis (Cabanis, 1850), M. cerrodelamuertensis sp. nov. ex Catharus gracilirostris (Salvin, 1865). M. hrabaki sp. nov. ex Myadestes melanops (Salvin, 1865), M. obsoleti sp. nov. ex Turdus obsoletus (Lawrence, 1862), M. quinchoi sp. nov. ex Catharus frantzii (Cabanis, 1861), M. tapanti sp. nov. ex Catharus fuscater (Lafresnaye, 1845), and M. tapetapersi sp. nov. ex Turdus nigrescens (Cabanis, 1861). Records of four named and one unidentified species of Myrsidea from other Costa Rican thrushes are also given and discussed.

  14. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep

  15. Xenoliths of Cerro las Mercedes, Costa Rica: a Geochemical Record of Arc History?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, F. N.; Gazel, E.; Herzberg, C. T.; Carr, M. J.; Feigenson, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    Over 70 ultramafic xenoliths, many with diameters of at least 3cm, open a window into the mantle beneath Cerro las Mercedes, Costa Rica. This quaternary vent is 70km behind the active volcanic front and near the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plateau. Both xenoliths and host lava remain well preserved in spite of substantial soil development in a rain forest environment. We analyzed the host lava and a subset of 30 rocks for bulk and mineral chemistry, which include both peridotite and pyroxenite populations. The host rock is Plio-Quaternary potassic alkaline basalt; depleted in SiO2 and Al2O3 and enriched in MgO and P2O5 relative to both present day and Miocene volcanics. In terms of trace elements, the host basalt has enriched LREEs and relative depletion of HFSEs, typical of island-arc basalt, both present and past. The coarse-grained pyroxenites have trace element chemistry akin to the volcanic front lavas of Costa Rica, although they are closer to chondritic values. Truly, they are more similar to basalts from Sarapiquí Miocene arc than to present day volcanic front basalts. Although there is enrichment in incompatible elements such as Ba and U and depletions in HFSEs, common in island arc basalts, the pyroxenites have a strong positive Pb anomaly that is characteristic only of the Miocene arc, not present day lavas. We interpret the pyroxenites as cumulates. The peridotite population includes dunites, spinel lherzolites and lherzolites. These rocks have Mg-numbers ranging from 87 to 92 and Cr-numbers ranging from 6 to 61. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the peridotite xenoliths are fragments of mantle associated with the western Caribbean Plateau. SiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and MgO contents of several Cerro Mercedes peridotites are similar to those expected of hot residues that would form in a plume environment. Trace elements reveal some samples with enrichment of Ba and U, and depletion in Nb and Ta indicating variable extents of melt-rock reaction and

  16. Geochemistry of the mantle source and magma feeding system beneath Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.; Rizzo, A. L.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M. L.; De Astis, G.; Romano, C.; Sortino, F.

    2015-09-01

    Turrialba volcano lies in the southern sector of the Central American Volcanic Front (CAVF) in Costa Rica. The geochemistry of major and trace elements, and Sr and Nd isotopes of a selected suite of volcanic rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to dacite and belonging to the last 10 ka of activity of Turrialba volcano is described, together with the He-, Ne-, and Ar-isotope compositions of fluid inclusions hosted in olivine and pyroxene crystals. Most of the variability in the rock chemistry is consistent with typical trends of fractional crystallization, but there is an outlying group of andesites that displays an adakite-like composition (with a consistent depletion in high-field-strength elements and a marked enrichment in Sr) and low 3He/4He ratios (7.0-7.2 Ra). The trace-element composition of these rocks is typical of subduction-related magmas influenced by an OIB-like component at the source associated with the subduction of the Galapagos seamounts. The 87Sr/86Sr (0.703612-0.703678) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512960-0.512984) ratios of the bulk rocks vary within narrow ranges, and are among the least-radiogenic isotope signatures of the CAVF volcanoes. The 3He/4He ratios measured in fluid inclusions hosted in olivine crystals (up to 8.1 Ra) are among the highest for the CAVF, and indicate that radiogenic 4He from fluids derived from the subducting slab contribute negligibly to the mantle wedge. The difference in He isotopes between most of studied rocks and those showing adakite-like features reasonably reflects two distinct components in the local mantle: (1) a MORB-like component, characterized by the highest He-isotope ratios (7.8-8.1 Ra), and (2) an OIB-like component, characterized by lower He-isotope ratios (7.0-7.2 Ra), coming from the subduction of the Galapagos seamounts. An overview at the regional scale indicates that high He-isotope ratios are peculiar to the two extreme sectors of the CAVF (Costa Rica to the south and Guatemala to the

  17. [Algal blooms of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

    2004-09-01

    Water samples were collected during a red tide event in November 2001, near San Lucas Island (Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica). Superficial temperature was 27 degrees C and water was turbid, with no fetid smell. One sample was treated with negative staining and observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM); another sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Samples had high concentrations of the diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia pungensf pungens (characterized by two rows of poroids in the external channel), and lower concentrations of Skeletonema costatum (chains joined by external microtubules) and Chaetoceros lorenzianus (oval apertures and long chains, having setae with distinctive transverse rows and spines). This is the first time that the first species was described producing red tides in Costa Rica. However, reports about red tides with high concentration of species like P. pungens (variety multiseries) are increasing. These species have been related to the production of domoic acid, a low molecular weight amino acid which in humans can cause amnesic intoxications with seafood. Previously, Costa Rican reports of toxic accidents only referred to seafood contaminated with Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and Gymnodinium catenatum dinoflagellates. The increase in the number of Pseudo-Nitzschia causing harmful algae blooms is of interest for scientists around the world and must be documented. Similarly, some Chaetoceros species have been reported to be harmful to fish. We strongly recommend the establishment of a permanent surveillance program monitoring the presence of these species new at Costa Rican Pacific coast. Since the amnesic toxin is soluble in water and heat-resistant, we want to stress the possibility of having human cases of amnesic intoxication.

  18. Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a small tropical crater lake, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation in lake's phytoplankton is important to understand its general biodiversity. For tropical lakes, it has been hypothesized that they follow a similar pattern as temperate ones, on a much accelerated pace; nevertheless, few case studies have tried to elucidate this. Most studies in Costa Rica have used a monthly sampling scheme and failed in showing the expected changes. In this study, the phytoplankton of the small Barvas's crater lake was followed for more than three years, first with monthly and later with weekly samplings, that covered almost two years. Additional information on temperature and oxygen vertical profiles was obtained on a monthly basis, and surface temperature was measured during weekly samplings around noon. Results showed that in spite of its shallow condition (max. depth: 7m) and low surface temperature (11 to 19 degrees C), the lake stratifies at least for brief periods. The phytoplankton showed both, rapid change periods, and prolonged ones of relative stasis. The plankton composition fluctuated between three main phases, one characterized by the abundance of small sized desmids (Staurastrum paradoxum, Cosmarium asphaerosporum), a second phase dominated by equally small cryptomonads (Chryptochrysis minor, Chroomonas sp.) and a third phase dominated by the green alga Eutetramorus tetrasporus. Although data evidenced that monthly sampling could miss short term events, the temporal variation did not follow the typical dry and rainy seasons of the region, or any particular annual pattern. Year to year variation was high. As this small lake is located at the summit of Barva Volcano and receives the influence from both the Caribbean and the Pacific weather, seasonality at the lake is not clearly defined as in the rest of the country and short term variations in the local weather might have a stronger effect than broad seasonal trends. The occurrence of this short term changes in the phytoplankton of small tropical lakes in

  19. Sustainability appraisal of water governance regimes: the case of Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kuzdas, Christopher; Wiek, Arnim; Warner, Benjamin; Vignola, Raffaele; Morataya, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Sustainability appraisals produce evidence for how well water governance regimes operate and where problems exist. This evidence is particularly relevant for regions that face water scarcity and conflicts. In this study, we present a criteria-based and participatory sustainability appraisal of water governance in a region with such characteristics-the dry tropics of NW Costa Rica. Data collection included 47 interviews and three stakeholder workshops. The appraisal was conducted through a collaborative and iterative process between researchers and stakeholders. Out of the 25 sustainability criteria used, seven posed a significant challenge for the governance regime. We found challenges faced by the governance regime primarily clustered around and were re-enforced by failing coordination related to the use, management, and protection of groundwater resources; and inadequate leadership to identify collective goals and to constructively deliberate alternative ways of governing water with diverse groups. The appraisal yielded some positive impact in the study area, yet we found its application provided only limited strategic information to support broader problem-solving efforts. Insights from this study suggest key starting points for sustainable water governance in the Central American dry tropics, including investing in increasingly influential collective organizations that are already active in water governance; and leveraging policy windows that can be used to build confidence and disperse more governing authority to regional and local governing actors that are in-tune with the challenges faced in the dry tropics. We conclude the article with reflections on how to produce research results that are actionable for sustainable water governance.

  20. Sr, Ca, and C isotope systematic in small tropical catchments, La Selva, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, B. A.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2010-12-01

    Sr, Ca, and C isotopes were analyzed to assess sources and biogeochemical processes affecting surface and groundwater composition of four small catchments located at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. 87Sr/86Sr ratios were employed to quantify inputs from mineral weathering and atmospheric sources. δ13C values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and δ44Ca values provide information on biological processes that affect water chemistry. Sr2+ and Ca2+ concentrations of surface and groundwater show large variations due to intermixture of bedrock groundwater with local groundwater [1]. Low 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggest weathering of volcanic rocks as the primary solute source in bedrock groundwater, while atmospheric and in situ weathering contributions are predominant in local groundwater. Contributions of bedrock groundwater constitute > 60 % in the Salto, Saltito and Arboleda catchments, whereas the Taconazo catchment receives atmospheric inputs of > 95 % in addition to local weathering contributions. Surface water and groundwater wells show δ13C-DOC values between -24 ‰ and -30 ‰ due to transfer of organic carbon from the soil zone. δ44Ca values of dissolved Ca2+ in surface and groundwater are considerably fractionated from the input sources rainwater and bedrock groundwater. Light δ44Ca values are preferentially distributed in stream water and shallow groundwater horizons and contrast with heavy Ca isotopes in deeper groundwater wells. Biological processes including plant uptake and decomposition in combination with cation exchange processes in the soils may explain the fractionation of Ca isotopes. [1]Genereux et al., 2009. Water Resour. Res, 45, W08413, doi:10.1029/2008WR007630

  1. Human-induced geomorphology: Modeling slope failure in Dominical, Costa Rica using Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andrew J.

    Unchecked human development has ravaged the region between Dominical and Uvita, Costa Rica. Much of the development transition has been driven by tourism and further foreign direct investment in residential, service and commercial enterprises. The resulting land-use/land-cover change has removed traditional forest cover in exchange for impervious surfaces, physical structures, and bare ground which is no longer mechanically supported by woody vegetation. Combined with a tropical climate, deeply weathered soils and lithography which are prone to erosion, land cover change has led to an increase in slope failure occurrences. Given the remoteness of the Dominical-Uvita region, its rate of growth and the lack of monitoring, new techniques for monitoring land use and slope failure susceptibility are needed. Two new indices are presented here that employ a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and widely available Landsat imagery to assist in this endeavor. The first index, or Vegetation Influenced Landslide Index (VILI), incorporates slope derived from a DEM and Lu et al.'s (2007) Surface Cover Index to quantify vegetative cover as a means of mechanical stabilization in landslide prone areas. The second index, or Slope Multiplier Index (SMI), uses individual Landsat data bands and basic Landsat band ratios as environmental proxies to replicate soil, vegetative and hydrologic properties. Both models achieve accuracy over 70% and rival results from more complicated published literature. The accuracy of the indices was assessed with the creation of a landslide inventory developed from field observations occurring in December 2007 and November 2008. The creation of these indices represents an efficient and accurate way of determining landslide susceptibility zonation in data poor areas where environmental protection practitioners may be overextended, under-trained or both.

  2. Associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters in Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Soebiyanto, Radina P; Clara, Wilfrido A; Jara, Jorge; Balmaseda, Angel; Lara, Jenny; Lopez Moya, Mariel; Palekar, Rakhee; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K

    2015-11-04

    Seasonal influenza affects a considerable proportion of the global population each year. We assessed the association between subnational influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in three Central America countries, i.e. Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Using virologic data from each country's national influenza centre, rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and air temperature and specific humidity data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System, we applied logistic regression methods for each of the five sub-national locations studied. Influenza activity was represented by the weekly proportion of respiratory specimens that tested positive for influenza. The models were adjusted for the potentially confounding co-circulating respiratory viruses, seasonality and previous weeks' influenza activity. We found that influenza activity was proportionally associated (P<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations [odds ratio (OR) 1.21-1.56 per g/kg], while associations with temperature (OR 0.69-0.81 per °C) and rainfall (OR 1.01-1.06 per mm/day) were location-dependent. Among the meteorological parameters, specific humidity had the highest contribution (~3-15%) to the model in all but one location. As model validation, we estimated influenza activity for periods, in which the data was not used in training the models. The correlation coefficients between the estimates and the observed were ≤0.1 in 2 locations and between 0.6-0.86 in three others. In conclusion, our study revealed a proportional association between influenza activity and specific humidity in selected areas from the three Central America countries.

  3. Soil Carbon and Nutrient Changes Associated with Deforestation for Pasture in Southern Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, Timothy J.; Porder, Stephen; Chaves, Joaquin; Whiteside, Jessica H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the effects of deforestation on soil carbon (C) and nutrient stocks in the premontane landscape near Las Cruces Biological Station in southern Costa Rica, where forests were cleared for pasture in the mid-1960s. We excavated six soil pits to a depth of 1 m in both pasture and primary forest, and found that C stocks were 20 kg C per square meters in both settings. Nevertheless, soil delta C-13 suggests 50 percent of the forest-derived soil C above 40 cm depth has turned over since deforestation. Soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stocks derived from the soil pits were not significantly different between land uses (P = 0.43 and 0.61, respectively). At a larger spatial scale, however, the ubiquity of ruts produced by cattle-induced erosion indicates that there are substantial soil effects of grazing in this steep landscape. Ruts averaged 13 cm deep and covered 45 percent of the landscape, and thus are evidence of the removal of 0.7 Mg C/ ha/yr, and 70, 9 and 40 kg/ha/yr of N, P and potassium (K), respectively. Subsoils in this region are 10 times less C- and N-rich, and 2 times less P- and K-rich than the topsoil. Thus, rapid topsoil loss may lead to a decline in pasture productivity in the coming decades. These data also suggest that the soil C footprint of deforestation in this landscape may be determined by the fate of soil C as it is transported downstream, rather than C turnover in situ.

  4. Importance of Dry-Season Precipitation to the Water Resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guswa, A. J.; Rhodes, A. L.

    2005-12-01

    Monteverde, Costa Rica harbors montane forests that exemplify the delicate balances among climate, hydrology, habitat, and development. Most of the annual precipitation to this region arrives during the wet season, but the importance of orographic precipitation during the dry and transitional seasons should not be underestimated. Changes in regional land-cover and global climate may lead to reduced precipitation and cloud cover and a subsequent decline in endemic species, and a boom in ecotourism has put stress on water resources. A recent attempt to withdraw water from a local stream led to a standoff between conservationists and business developers, and there is a clear need for hydrologic data and understanding in support of policy. Through signals observed in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and streamflow, we seek to understand how precipitation from the drier seasons propagates through the hydrologic cycle. In precipitation, δ18O and δ2H are heaviest during the dry and transitional seasons and light during the rainy season, consistent with the condensation mechanisms and degree of rainout typical of these periods. The signal in d-excess indicates a contribution of recycled water to precipitation in Monteverde from late in the rainy season through the dry season. Attenuated versions of these seasonal signals propagate through to the stream samples and provide a means of determining the importance of dry-season precipitation to water resources for the region. Results from six catchments on the leeward slope indicate that the Brillante Gap in the continental divide exerts strong control on the input of orographic precipitation to the region. Disparities in the temporal signals of precipitation and streamflow isotopes indicate non-linear behavior in the hydrologic processes that move water through these catchments.

  5. Demographic drivers of tree biomass change during secondary succession in northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Danae M A; Chazdon, Robin L

    2015-03-01

    Second-growth tropical forests are an important global carbon sink. As current knowledge on biomass accumulation during secondary succession is heavily based on chronosequence studies, direct estimates of annual rates of biomass accumulation in monitored stands are largely unavailable. We evaluated the contributions of tree diameter increment, recruitment, and mortality to annual tree biomass change during succession for three groups of tree species: second-growth (SG) specialists, generalists, and old-growth (OG) specialists. We monitored six second-growth tropical forests that varied in stand age and two old-growth forests in northeastern Costa Rica. We monitored these over a period of 8 to 16 years. To assess rates of biomass change during secondary succession, we compared standing biomass and biomass dynamics between second-growth forest stages and old-growth forest, and evaluated the effect of stand age on standing biomass and biomass dynamics in second-growth forests. Standing tree biomass increased with stand age during succession, whereas the rate of biomass change decreased. Biomass change was largely driven by tree diameter increment and mortality, with a minor contribution from recruitment. The relative importance of these demographic drivers shifted over succession. Biomass gain due to tree diameter increment decreased with stand age, whereas biomass loss due to mortality increased. In the age range of our second-growth forests, 10-41 years, SG specialists dominated tree biomass in second-growth forests. SG specialists, and to a lesser extent generalists, also dominated stand-level biomass increase due to tree diameter increment, whereas SG specialists largely accounted for decreases in biomass due to mortality. Our results indicate that tree growth is largely driving biomass dynamics early in succession, whereas both growth and mortality are important later in succession. Biomass dynamics are largely accounted for by a few SG specialists and one

  6. Hydrogeological responses to incoming materials at the erosional subduction margin, offshore Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Jun; Harris, Robert N.; Shimizu, Mayuko; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Tsutsumi, Akito; Ikehara, Minoru; Uno, Masaoki; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hamada, Yohei; Namiki, Yuka; Kimura, Gaku

    2015-09-01

    Bulk mineral assemblages of sediments and igneous basement rocks on the incoming Cocos Plate at the Costa Rica subduction zone are examined by X-ray diffraction analyses on core samples. These samples are from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 334 reference Site U1381, ˜ 5 km seaward of the trench. Drilling recovered approximately 100 m of sediment and 70 m of igneous oceanic basement. The sediment includes two lithologic units: hemipelagic clayey mud and siliceous to calcareous pelagic ooze. The hemipelagic unit is composed of clay minerals (˜50 wt.%), quartz (˜5 wt.%), plagioclase (˜5 wt.%), calcite (˜15 wt.%) and ˜30 wt.% of amorphous materials, while the pelagic unit is mostly made up of biogenic amorphous silica (˜50 wt.%) and calcite (˜50 wt.%). The igneous basement rock consists of plagioclase (˜50-60 wt.%), clinopyroxene (˜>25 wt.%), and saponite (˜15-40 wt.%). Saponite is more abundant in pillow basalt than in the massive section, reflecting the variable intensity of alteration. We estimate the total water influx of the sedimentary package is 6.9 m3/yr per m of trench length. Fluid expulsion models indicate that sediment compaction during shallow subduction causes the release of pore water while peak mineral dehydration occurs at temperatures of approximately ˜100°C, 40-30 km landward of the trench. This region is landward of the observed updip extent of seismicity. We posit that in this region the presence of subducting bathymetric relief capped by velocity weakening nannofossil chalk is more important in influencing the updip extent of seismicity than the thermal regime.

  7. Improving hazard communication through collaborative participatory workshops: challenges and opportunities experienced at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for

  8. Soil-atmosphere carbonyl sulfide (COS) exchange in a tropical rainforest at La Selva, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Maseyk, K. S.; Juarez, S.; Lett, C.; Seibt, U. H.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has recently been proposed as a promising tracer for partitioning ecosystem carbon assimilation due to the close analogy between leaf uptake processes of COS and CO2. This emerging framework requires accurate characterization of the source and sink components of COS, including soil fluxes. Here we present the first direct, continuous observations of soil COS fluxes for 4 months at a tropical rainforest, La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Three soil plots with contrasting water content were selected for chamber measurements. Our observations confirmed that soils are principally COS sinks, with daily mean COS fluxes averaged across all chambers ranging from -3 to 0 pmol m-2 s-1. When compared with net ecosystem COS uptake which peaks around -30 pmol m-2 s-1, their contributions should be considered in ecosystem COS balance. We did not find a temperature optimum, but soil COS uptake slightly increased with soil temperature, indicating biotic control on soil COS fluxes. Diurnal cycles of COS fluxes were observed during drying out periods after rain. The diel periodicity of COS fluxes was probably obscured by frequent raining at the site. Diffusional control of soil COS fluxes is shown from increasing soil COS uptake at lower soil water-filled pore space. These confirm that soil COS fluxes are mediated both by soil physical and biological factors. Using a depth-resolved diffusion-reaction model with data-driven enzyme activity parameterization, we simulated the COS fluxes from measured soil environmental variables, consistent with observations. This modeling scheme is useful for separating soil COS fluxes from net ecosystem COS fluxes, which lends support to the emergent COS-based approach of carbon flux partitioning.

  9. A novel Isospora species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from warblers (Passeriformes: Parulidae) of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Shamus P; Yabsley, Michael J; Adams, Henry C; Hernandez, Sonia M

    2014-06-01

    Five of 16 (31%) rufous-capped warblers (Basileuterus rufifrons) and 2 of 5 (40%) ovenbirds ( Seiurus aurocapilla ) sampled from Costa Rica were positive for a novel species of Isospora. Oocysts have a thin, smooth, double-layered, colorless wall and measure 22.3 μm ± 1.6 μm × 24.3 μm ± 1.5 μm (19-25 μm × 21-28 μm) with an average length-width (L/W) ratio of 1.0 (1-1.3). Oocyst residuum and micropyle are absent, but 0-4 spherical to cigar-shaped polar granules (1-2.5 μm) are present. Sporocysts are ovoid and measure 11.8 μm ± 0.9 μm × 16 μm ± 1.7 μm (10-14 μm × 12-19 μm) with an average L/W ratio of 1.6 (1.0-1.9). A knob-like Stieda body continuous with the sporocyst wall and a trapezoidal compartmentalized substieda body are present. Each sporocyst contained 4 sporozoites and a diffuse sporocyst residuum consisting of many variable-sized granules, some as large as 2 μm. This is the second description of an Isospora species in New World warblers (Passeriformes: Parulidae) and the first report of Isospora from both the rufous-capped warbler and ovenbird.

  10. Leaf and fruit essential oil compositions of Pimenta guatemalensis (Myrtaceae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Carlos; Cicció, José F

    2015-03-01

    Pitnenta is a genus of flowering plants in the Myrtaceae family, which has about 15 species, mostly found in the Caribbean region of the Americas. Commonly used for culinary and medicinal purposes, the best known commercial species are allspice, P. dioica (P. officinalis) and bay rum, P. racemosa, but there is little information concerning P. guatemalensis. The aim of the present study was to identify the chemical composition of the leaf and fruit essential oils ofP. guatemalensis. The extraction of essential oils of P. guatemalensis growing wild in Costa Rica was carried out by the hydrodistillation method at atmospheric pressure, using a modified Clevenger type apparatus. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatographyflame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using the retention indices on DB-5 type capillary column. A total of 103 and 63 compounds were identified in the leaf and fruit oils, respectively, corresponding to 96.8% and 86.1% of the total amount of the oils. The leaf oil consisted mainly of eugenol (72.8%), and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (18.2%). Among terpenes the major components were beta-caryophyllene (8.2%) and terpinolene (3.0%). The fruit oil also consisted mainly of eugenol (74.7%) and minor amounts of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes (7.3%), mainly caryophyllene oxide (3.3%). This is the first report of the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from this plant species.

  11. Plate Coupling and Transient Events Detection from Geodetic Measurements in Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; McCaffrey, R.; Wdowinski, S.; Dixon, T.; Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V. M.; Newman, A. V.; Feng, L.

    2011-12-01

    Aseismic tremor and slow slip events (SSE) are known to perturb the stress field at the plate subduction interface. Nicoya Peninsula in northern Costa Rica is located near the Middle America Trench (MAT), where the Cocos plate subducts underneath Caribbean plate. The subducting Cocos plate contains two types of subducting oceanic crust, East Pacific Rise (EPR) in the northern peninsula and Cocos-Nazca Spreading center (CNS) in the southern peninsula. The two crust types differ in subducting speed and orientation, topography, age and heat flow. This unique geological setting provides an opportunity to investigate the kinematics and dynamics of SSE and tremor. In the Nicoya peninsula SSE are found in high b-value regions and occur approximately every 20 months. However, the location and magnitude of SSE are still uncertain due to limited observations. Here we report additional geodetic observations and use a new GPS time-series inversion scheme to investigate simultaneously both SSE and interseismic locking patterns in the study area and their evolution with time. We solve for the steady inter-seismic velocity field and parameters characterizing SSE including slip amount and duration. A preliminary analysis of continuous and campaign GPS data using the time dependent geodetic inversion software TDefnode [McCaffrey 2009] reveals three slow-slipping patches for events in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. Previous inversion analysis of Outerbridge et al. [2010] of the 2007 SSE identified the two of the three patches, a deep on at depth of ~25 km, and a shallower patch at depth of ~7 km. The third patch identified by our inversion at depth of ~15 km is similar in area and location to that reported by Protti et al. [2004] for the 2003 event.

  12. Flood Risk Assessment Using Historical Information For The City of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westen, C. J.; Badilla Coto, E.

    The city of Turrialba is located in the lower part of the Turrialba Basin, at the foot of the steep slopes of the Turrialba Volcano. This situation, combined with the heavy rainfalls common in the Caribbean zone of Costa Rica, makes this city to be frequently affected by flooding of the Colorado River, the Gamboa Stream and some other small watercourses. Also, an intense erosion of the riverbanks occurs along the margins of the Turrialba River. The uncontrolled urban expansion along these river courses has narrowed their channels and their discharge capacity has been drastically reduced. In consequence, the amount of rainfall that is necessary to cause a flood has been decreas- ing during the last decades and several serious floods have occurred, causing a lot of damage. To assess the flood hazard and risk in the study area, a different degree of haz- ard was assigned to each geomorphological unit, based on its slope, drainage pattern, grain size and permeability, and considering the information gathered in the field in relation to the distribution and characteristics of bottlenecks and critical points. From that we obtained that Turrialba City is located on areas with high or medium flood hazard. Through a detailed field survey, a floodwater depth map of the 1996 flood event and an attribute map of the elements at risk (concentrating on buildings) of the study area were made. From this 1996 scenario, other hypothetic events were mod- eled. Vulnerability functions, which relate floodwater depth and damage percentage for all types of elements at risk, were developed. Vulnerability maps for the different events were obtained applying these functions to the different floodwater depth maps. Through the combination of this vulnerability maps with information on hypothetic costs of the elements at risk, damage and posterior risk zonation maps were obtained.

  13. Preliminary results of the CRISP 3D seismic experiment, offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangs, N. L.; McIntosh, K. D.; Silver, E. A.; Ranero, C. R.; Kluesner, J. W.; von Huene, R.; Cavanaugh, S.; Graf, S.; Cameselle, A. L.; Baracco, A. M.; Nuñez, E.

    2011-12-01

    In April and May of 2011, we acquired a new 3D seismic reflection data volume offshore Costa Rica, northwest of the Osa Peninsula. The goal of the survey was to examine the crustal structure and deformation history of this collision zone, and to clearly image the plate-boundary fault from the trench and into the seismogenic zone. These data will also help locate a deep site for riser drilling as part of the CRISP drilling program. The 3D survey covered 55 km across the upper shelf and slope, and into the trench. It extended 11 km along strike for a total survey area of 11 x 55 km. These data were acquired with the R/V Langseth using a 3300 cubic inch source shot every 50 m. We recorded the data on four 6-km-long, 468-channel streamers with 150m separation. We have preliminary results from processing 2D seismic lines extracted from the 3D volume, and from initial 3D volume processing. In the preliminary images we can trace strong seismic reflections from the plate-boundary fault down to 3 s two-way travel time (approx. 5 km depth) below the seafloor and 26 km landward from the trench. The plate-boundary fault reflection amplitudes decrease substantially with depth and are difficult to depict on these preliminary profiles. The upper plate structure shows numerous faults, many extending down to the plate-interface, and intense folding and faulting of the slope cover sequences. Currently these data are being processed by the Spanish oil company, Repsol, and should reveal far more detail with complete 3D processing.

  14. 'Candidatus Rickettsia nicoyana': A novel Rickettsia species isolated from Ornithodoros knoxjonesi in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, Rolando D; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Troyo, Adriana

    2017-02-27

    Rickettsiae are intracellular bacteria commonly associated with hematophagous arthropods. Most of them have been described in hard ticks, but some have been found in soft ticks. Here we report the detection and isolation of a new Rickettsia from Ornithodoros knoxjonesi larvae collected from Balantiopteryx plicata (Emballonuridae) in Nicoya, Costa Rica. Two ticks were processed to detect Rickettsia spp. genes gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA by PCR. Part of the macerate was also inoculated into Vero E6 and C6/36 cell lines, and cells were evaluated by Giménez stain, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and PCR. Both ticks were positive by PCR and rickettsial growth was successful in Vero E6 cells. Amplification and sequencing of near full length rrs, gltA, sca4 genes, and fragments of ompA and ompB showed that the Rickettsia sp. was different from described species. The highest homologies were with 'Candidatus Rickettsia wissemanii' and Rickettsia peacockii: 99.70% (1321/1325) with both sequences for rrs, 99.58% (1172/1177) and 99.76% (1246/1249) for gltA, 99.26% with both sequences (2948/2970 and 2957/2979) for sca4, 98.78% (485/491) and 98.39% (2069/2115) for ompA, and 98.58 (1453/1474) and 98.92% (1459/1475) for ompB; respectively. Bat blood, spleen, liver, and lung samples analyzed for Rickettsia detection were negative. Results demonstrate that the Rickettsia isolated from O. knoxjonesi is probably an undescribed species that belongs to the spotted fever group, for which 'Candidatus Rickettsia nicoyana' is proposed. Considering that B. plicata inhabits areas where contact with humans may occur and that human parasitism by Ornithodoros has been reported in the country, it will be important to continue with the characterization of this species and its pathogenic potential.

  15. Using Social Science to Ensure Sustainable Development Centered on Human Well-being in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, C. A.; Durham, W. H.; Gaffikin, L.

    2012-12-01

    When then president José Figueres Ferrer invited the world to use Costa Rica as a "laboratory for sustainable development" in 1997, the country's fame as a biodiversity mecca was firmly established. Yet despite vast investment, conservation-related interventions in the cantons of Osa and Golfito along the country's southern Pacific coast have been seen as overly conservation-oriented and carried out "with its back to the communities." By ignoring human well-being, these interventions have been unable to overcome the region's vast disparities in access to resources and general state of underdevelopment despite investments of many millions of dollars in recent decades. With the country's third international airport and Central America's largest hydroelectric project proposed for the region, as well as other infrastructure-driven development currently underway, the region is poised to undergo rapid change. This presentation first describes the Osa-Golfito Initiative (INOGO), an interdisciplinary effort facilitated by the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment to development a long term strategic action plan that ensures a development trajectory focused on human and environmental well-being. Whereas a concurrent presentation will focus on biophysical components of INOGO, the focus here is on the often-overlooked contributions of social science for ensuring the region's future sustainability. An anthropological approach is taken to assess the assets and resources of the region's residents, and the obstacles and challenges as they perceive them. This groundwork provides a crucial link between individual and local realities, and the regional and national political economy, and thus provides greater probability of sustainable development occurring with its "face to the communities.";

  16. Spatial variation in basic chemistry of streams draining a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pringle, C.M.; Triska, F.J.; Browder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial variability in selected chemical, physical and biological parameters was examined in waters draining relatively pristine tropical forests spanning elevations from 35 to 2600 meters above sea level in a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope. Waters were sampled within three different vegetative life zones and two transition zones. Water temperatures ranged from 24-25 ??C in streams draining lower elevations (35-250 m) in tropical wet forest, to 10 ??C in a crater lake at 2600 m in montane forest. Ambient phosphorus levels (60-300 ??g SRP L-1; 66-405 ??g TP L-1) were high at sites within six pristine drainages at elevations between 35-350 m, while other undisturbed streams within and above this range in elevation were low (typically <30.0 ??g SRP L-1). High ambient phosphorus levels within a given stream were not diagnostic of riparian swamp forest. Phosphorus levels (but not nitrate) were highly correlated with conductivity, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg and SO4. Results indicate two major stream types: 1) phosphorus-poor streams characterized by low levels of dissolved solids reflecting local weathering processes; and 2) phosphorus-rich streams characterized by relatively high Cl, SO4, Na, Mg, Ca and other dissolved solids, reflecting dissolution of basaltic rock at distant sources and/or input of volcanic brines. Phosphorus-poor streams were located within the entire elevation range, while phosphorus-rich streams were predominately located at the terminus of Pleistocene lava flows at low elevations. Results indicate that deep groundwater inputs, rich in phosphorus and other dissolved solids, surface from basaltic aquifers at breaks in landform along faults and/or where the foothills of the central mountain range merge with the coastal plain. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Oral Human Papillomavirus Among Young Women in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Gonzalez, Paula; Struijk, Linda; Castro, Felipe; Hildesheim, Allan; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Quint, Wim; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; DelVecchio, Corey; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Jimenez, Silvia; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Schiller, John; Solomon, Diane; Wacholder, Sholom; Herrero, Rolando; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Herrero, Rolando; Alfaro, Mario; Bratti, M. Concepción; Cortés, Bernal; Espinoza, Albert; Estrada, Yenory; Guillén, Diego; Jiménez, Silvia E.; Morales, Jorge; Villegas, Luis; Morera, Lidia Ana; Porras, Carolina; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Macklin, Nora; Schiffman, Mark; Schiller, John T.; Sherman, Mark; Solomon, Diane; Wacholder, Sholom; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, José; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Silva, Sandra; Atmella, Ivannia; Ramírez, Margarita; Pinto, Ligia; Kemp, Troy; Eklund, Claire; Hutchinson, Martha; Sidawy, Mary; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Struijk, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) in Latin America. Methods. Women (N = 5838) aged 22–29 in the control and vaccine arms of an HPV-16/18 vaccine trial in Costa Rica had oral, cervical, and anal specimens collected. Samples were tested for alpha mucosal HPV types (SPF10/LiPA25 version 1); a subset of oral samples (n = 500) was tested for cutaneous HPV types in the genera alpha, beta, gamma, mu, and nu. Results. In the control arm (n = 2926), 1.9% of women had an oral alpha mucosal HPV detected, 1.3% had carcinogenic HPV, and 0.4% had HPV-16; similar patterns for non-16/18 HPV types were observed in the vaccine arm. Independent risk factors for any oral alpha mucosal HPV among women in the control arm included marital status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–5.7 for single compared to married/living as married), number of sexual partners (AOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0–6.1 for ≥4 partners compared to 0–1 partners), chronic sinusitis (AOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5–6.7), and cervical HPV infection (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4–4.6). Detection of beta HPV was common (18.6%) and not associated with sexual activity. Conclusions. Unlike cutaneous HPV types, alpha mucosal HPV types were uncommon in the oral region and were predominately associated with sexual behavior. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128661. PMID:24014882

  18. Seepage of methane at Jaco Scar, a slide caused by seamount subduction offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Susan; Rehder, Gregor; Sahling, Heiko; Schleicher, Tina; Linke, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Methane (CH4) concentrations and CH4 stable carbon isotopic composition () were investigated in the water column within Jaco Scar. It is one of several scars formed by massive slides resulting from the subduction of seamounts offshore Costa Rica, a process that can open up structural and stratigraphical pathways for migrating CH4. The release of large amounts of CH4 into the adjacent water column was discovered at the outcropping lowermost sedimentary sequence of the hanging wall in the northwest corner of Jaco Scar, where concentrations reached up to 1,500 nmol L-1. There CH4-rich fluids seeping from the sedimentary sequence stimulate both growth and activity of a dense chemosynthetic community. Additional point sources supplying CH4 at lower concentrations were identified in density layers above and below the main plume from light carbon isotope ratios. The injected CH4 is most likely a mixture of microbial and thermogenic CH4 as suggested by values between -50 and -62 ‰ Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite. This CH4 spreads along isopycnal surfaces throughout the whole area of the scar, and the concentrations decrease due to mixing with ocean water and microbial oxidation. The supply of CH4 appears to be persistent as repeatedly high CH4 concentrations were found within the scar over 6 years. The maximum CH4 concentration and average excess CH4 concentration at Jaco Scar indicate that CH4 seepage from scars might be as significant as seepage from other tectonic structures in the marine realm. Hence, taking into account the global abundance of scars, such structures might constitute a substantial, hitherto unconsidered contribution to natural CH4 sources at the seafloor.

  19. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  20. Groundwater transport of crater-lake brine at Poa´s Volcano, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Rowe, Gary L.; Brantley, Susan L.

    1995-01-01

    Poa´s Volcano is an active stratovolcano in Costa Rica that has a lake in its active crater. The crater lake has high temperatures (50–90 °C), high acidity (pH ≈ 0.0), and a high dissolved-solids content (100 g/kg). The volcano has numerous freshwater springs on its flanks, but a few on the northwestern flank are highly acidic (pH = 1.6–2.5) and have high dissolved-solids concentrations (2–22 g/kg). This study analyzes the regional groundwater system at Poa´s and demonstrates the likelihood that the water discharging from the acidic springs in the Rio Agrio watershed originates at the acidic crater lake. Both heat and solute transport are analyzed on a regional scale through numerical simulations using the HST3D finite-difference model, which solves the coupled equations for fluid flow, heat transport, and solute transport. The code allows fluid viscosity and density to be functions of both temperature and solute concentration. The simulations use estimates for recharge to the mountain and a range of values and various distributions of permeability and porosity. Several sensitivity analyses are performed to test how the uncertainty in many of the model parameters affects the simulation results. These uncertainties yield an estimated range of travel times from the crater lake to the Rio Agrio springs of 1–30 years, which is in close agreement with the results of tritium analyses of the springs. Calculated groundwater fluxes into and out of the crater lake are both about several hundred kg/s. These fluxes must be accounted for in water budgets of the crater lake.

  1. [Characteristics of patients with refractory epilepsy attended in a tertiary referral center in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Castro, A; Henriquez-Varela, F; Lara-Maier, S; Monge-Bonilla, C; Sittenfeld-Appel, M

    2016-07-16

    Introduccion. El 30% de los pacientes con epilepsia presenta convulsiones recurrentes, porcentaje que representa aproximadamente a 15 millones de personas en el mundo y constituye una poblacion escasamente descrita. Objetivo. Caracterizar sociodemografica y clinicamente la poblacion de pacientes diagnosticados con epilepsia refractaria en un hospital terciario de Costa Rica. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizan los registros medicos de los pacientes con epilepsia refractaria valorados en la unidad de epilepsia del Hospital San Juan de Dios de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social desde agosto de 2012 a octubre de 2014. Resultados. Se incluyen los expedientes clinicos de 91 pacientes. La edad media de inicio fue de 13,1 ± 11,1 años. Las crisis secundariamente generalizadas constituyen el tipo predominante (81,3%), la etiologia mas frecuente es la esclerosis mesial temporal (48,3%) y la mayoria de los pacientes presentaba examenes neurologicos normales y valoraciones neuro­psicologicas normales o bajas. Alrededor de la mitad (48,8%) de los pacientes habia sido medicada con un rango de 4-6 farmacos antiepilepticos, y los mas prescritos fueron lamotrigina, carbamacepina, acido valproico y fenitoina. Las principales recomendaciones en estos pacientes fueron: optimizacion de tratamiento, neurocirugia y reingreso. Se observan diferencias entre la edad de inicio y el sexo, la frecuencia de las crisis y el sexo, el tiempo de evolucion de la patologia y la cantidad de tratamientos fallidos, y el tiempo de evolucion de la enfermedad y la ocupacion. Conclusiones. Las caracteristicas sociodemograficas, el manejo de los pacientes, los farmacos antiepilepticos utilizados y las diferencias encontradas son similares a las descritas en otras latitudes.

  2. Seasonal isotope hydrology of a coffee agroforestry watershed in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh Unwala, K.; Boll, J.; Roupsard, O.

    2014-12-01

    Improved information of seasonal variations in watershed hydrology in the tropics can strengthen models and understanding of hydrology of these areas. Seasonality in the tropics produces rainy seasons versus dry seasons, leading to different hydrologic and water quality processes throughout the year. We questioned whether stable isotopes in water can be used to trace the seasonality in this region, despite experiencing a "drier" season, such as in a Tropical Humid location. This study examines the fluctuations of stable isotope compositions (δ18O and δD) in water balance components in a small (<1 km2) coffee agroforestry watershed located in central Costa Rica on the Caribbean side. Samples were collected in precipitation, groundwater, and stream water for more than two years, across seasons and at an hourly frequency during storm events to better characterize spatial and temporal variations of the isotopic composition and of the respective contribution of surface and deeper groundwater to streamflow in the watershed. Isotope composition in precipitation ranged from -18.5 to -0.3‰ (∂18O) and -136.4 to 13.7‰ (∂D), and data indicate that atmospheric moisture cycling plays an important role in this region. A distinct seasonality was observed in monthly-averaged data between enriched dry season events as compared with the rainy season events. Streamflow data indicate that a deep groundwater system contributes significantly to baseflow, although a shallow, spring-driven system also contributes to stream water within the watershed. During storm events, precipitation contributes to stormflow in the short-term, confirming the role of superficial runoff. These results indicate that isotopes are helpful to partition the water balance even in a Tropical Humid situation where the rainfall seasonality is weak.

  3. Territoriality, site fidelity, and survivorship of willow flycatchers wintering in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koronkiewicz, T.J.; Sogge, M.K.; van Riper, Charles; Paxton, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    We studied wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in two seasonal freshwater wetland habitats in northwestern Costa Rica during five boreal winters, to determine habitat occupancy, overwinter and between-year site and territory fidelity, and the degree to which the sexes maintain and defend winter territories. Both males and females used agonistic displays, song, and other vocalizations to maintain and defend mutually exclusive winter territories. Males were generally more abundant than females, but this varied by site and year. There was no significant difference in male and female territory size, nor any indication of sexual habitat segregation. Similarity in morphology and aggressiveness between the sexes may account for the lack of habitat segregation and the ability of females to maintain territories at wintering sites. Each year, 80%-92% of banded flycatchers that were present in midwinter remained at the site until late winter; of these, 86%-100% of individuals maintained the same territories throughout the entire period. We also observed nonterritorial floaters that subsequently established and held winter territories. Between-year site fidelity averaged 68%, and almost all returning birds established territories with boundaries similar to the previous year. Between-year apparent survivorship estimates ranged annually from 54%-72%, with no difference between sites but weak support for higher survivorship of males compared to females. Values for winter site and territory fidelity were generally higher than those reported for other species and for Willow Flycatchers on the breeding grounds; between-year survivorship estimates were similar to those reported for breeding flycatchers. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  4. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  5. Cognitive ability of preschool, primary and secondary school children in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rindermann, Heiner; Stiegmaier, Eva-Maria; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive abilities of children in Costa Rica and Austria were compared using three age groups (N = 385/366). Cognitive ability tests (mental speed, culture reduced/fluid intelligence, literacy/crystallized intelligence) were applied that differed in the extent to which they refer to school-related knowledge. Preschool children (kindergarten, 5-6 years old, N(CR) = 80, N(Au) = 51) were assessed with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), primary school children (4th grade, 9-11 years old, N(CR) = 71, N(Au) = 71) with ZVT (a trail-making test), Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and items from PIRLS-Reading and TIMSS-Mathematics, and secondary school students (15-16 years old, N(CR) = 48, N(Au) = 48) with ZVT, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and items from PISA-Reading and PISA-Mathematics. Additionally, parents and pupils were given questionnaires covering family characteristics and instruction. Average cognitive abilities were higher in Austria (Greenwich-IQ M(CR) = 87 and M(Au) = 99, d(IQ) = 12 points) and differences were smaller in preschool than in secondary school (d(IQ) = 7 vs 20 points). Differences in crystallized intelligence were larger than in fluid intelligence (mental speed: d(IQ) = 12, Raven: d(IQ) = 10, student achievement tests: d(IQ) = 17 IQ points). Differences were larger in comparisons at the level of g-factors. Austrian children were also taller (6.80 cm, d = 1.07 SD), but had lower body mass index (BMI(CR) = 19.35 vs BMI(Au) = 17.59, d = -0.89 SD). Different causal hypotheses explaining these differences are compared.

  6. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young

  7. Crustaceans from a tropical estuarine sand-mud flat, Pacific, Costa Rica, (1984-1988) revisited.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Zamora, José A; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Vargas-Castillo, Rita

    2012-12-01

    The availability of data sets for time periods of more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the description of population oscillations. Using recent taxonomic literature and software we have updated and re-analized the information on crustacean diversity and population fluctuations from a set of cores collected at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (1984-1988). A total of 112 morphological species of macroinvertebrates was found, of which 29 were crustaceans. Taxonomic problems, maily with the peracarids, prevented the identification of a group of species. The abundance patterns of the crab Pinnixa valerii, the ostracod Cyprideis pacifica, and the cumacean Coricuma nicoyensis were analized with the Generalized Additive Models of the free software R. The models evidenced a variety of population oscillations during the sampling period. These oscillations probably included perturbations induced by external factors, like the strong red tide events of 1985. In additon, early on 1984 the populations might have been at an altered state due to the inpact of El Niño 1982-83. Thus, the oscillations observed during the study period departed from the expected seasonality (dry vs rainy) pattern and are thus considered atypical for this tropical estuarine tidal-flat. Crustacean diversity and population peaks were within the range of examples found in worldwide literature. However, abundances of the cumacean C. nicoyensis, an endemic species, are the highest reported for a tropical estuary. Comparative data from tropical tidal flat crustaceans continues to be scarce. Crustaceans (total vs groups) had population changes in response to the deployment of predator exclusion cages during the dry and rainy seasons of 1985. Temporal and spatial patchiness characterized the abundances of P. valeri, C. pacifica and C. nicoyenis.

  8. Upper Paleogene shallow-water events in the Sandino Forearc Basin, Nicaragua-Costa Rica - response to tectonic uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andjic, Goran; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Neogene Sandino Forearc Basin is exposed in the southeastern Nicaraguan Isthmus and in the northwestern corner of Costa Rica. It consists of an elongated, slightly folded belt (160 km long/30 km wide). During Campanian to Oligocene, the predominantly deep-water pelagic, hemipelagic and turbiditic sequences were successively replaced by shelf siliciclastics and carbonates at different steps of the basin evolution. We have made an inventory of Tertiary shallow-water limestones in several areas of Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. They always appear as isolated rock bodies, generally having an unconformable stratigraphic contact with the underlying detrital sequences. The presence of these short-lived carbonate shoals can be attributed to local or regional tectonic uplift in the forearc area. The best-preserved exposure of such a carbonate buildup is located on the small Isla Juanilla (0.15 km2, Junquillal Bay, NW Costa Rica). The whole island is made of reef carbonates, displaying corals in growth position, associated with coralline red algae (Juanilla Formation). Beds rich in Larger Benthic Foraminifera such as Lepidocyclina undosa -favosa group permit to date this reef as late Oligocene. A first uplift event affected the Nicaraguan Isthmus, that rose from deep-water to shelfal settings in the latest Eocene-earliest Oligocene. The upper Oligocene Juanilla Formation formed on an anticline that developed during the early Oligocene, contemporaneously with other folds observed in the offshore Sandino Forearc Basin. During the early Oligocene, a period of global sea-level fall, the folded tectonic high underwent deep erosion. During the late Oligocene, a time of overall stable eustatic sea level, tectonic uplift gave way to moderate subsidence, creating accommodation space for reef growth. A 4th or 5th order (Milankovic-type) glacio-eustatic sea level rise, could also have triggered reef growth, but its preservation implies at least moderate

  9. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease of 51 % in the prevalence of neural tube defects from the pre-fortification period to the post-fortification period. Folic acid fortification via several basic food sources has shown to be a successful public health intervention for Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  10. Theletrum lamothei sp. nov. (Digenea), parasite of Echidna nocturna from Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste, and other digenes of marine fishes from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, G; León-Règagnon, V; Monks, S

    1998-06-01

    A new species of Theletrum is described from the intestine of two palenose morays, Echidna nocturna, collected in Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. The new species differs from the type species, T. fustiforme Linton, 1910 by having a subspherical pars prostatica, a subspherical seminal vesicle extending anteriorly to the anterior border of the acetabulum, by the presence of a poorly developed hermaphroditic sac, and by having a larger body size. We also report eight additional species of digeneans parasitizing marine fishes in several localities along the Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica: Bianium simonei, Didymozoinae (metacercariae), Ectenurus virgulus, Hypocreadium myohelicatum, Lecithochirium microstomum, Pseudolecithaster sp., Stephanostomum casum, and Tergestia laticollis. In addition, we present an updated list of helminth parasites of marine fish from Costa Rica and discuss the importance of including parasites as an integral part of biodiversity inventories.

  11. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae) parental nest visitation in Costa Rica: implications for research and conservation.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Christopher; Bremer, Mark; Dear, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    We studied temporal parental visitation of Scarlet Macaws (Ara macao) to six active nests in the Central Pacific Conservation Region of Costa Rica. Total parental time in the nest decreased significantly as the nestlings aged. Results provide guidelines to scientists for planning invasive activities to nestlings, such as placement of radio collars, or biological sample collection. These activities should be performed close to the end of the nesting period for minimal disturbance of parents and nestlings. Our results also provide information to aid wildlife guards in protecting active nests from poachers when chicks are close to fledging.

  12. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: does farm size affect their abundance?

    PubMed

    Hedström, Ingemar; Denzel, Andrew; Owens, Gareth

    2006-09-01

    The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs nonorganic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test). However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms.

  13. A new species of Cordyligaster Macquart, reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Aj; Wood, D Monty; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligastercapellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C.capellii were reared from Syngamiaflorella (Stoll, 1781) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae), a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of this new species. In addition the authors provide new distribution and host records for C.fuscipennis (Macquart) reared in ACG.

  14. A new species of Cordyligaster Macquart, reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D Monty; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligaster capellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C. capellii were reared from Syngamia florella (Stoll, 1781) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae), a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of this new species. In addition the authors provide new distribution and host records for C. fuscipennis (Macquart) reared in ACG. PMID:25535485

  15. The Seismic source parameters of the 1991 Costa Rica aftershock sequence: Evidence for a transcurrent plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Guangwei; Beck, Susan L.; Wallace, Terry C.

    1993-09-01

    The April 22, 1991, Valle de la Estrella, Costa Rica earthquake (Ms=7.6) was a back-arc thrusting event associated with the underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath Central America. A network of three PASSCAL-type, portable instruments was deployed to monitor the aftershock activity in southern Costa Rica 2 to 6 weeks after the main shock. The waveforms recorded on three-component midperiod seismometers were used to recover source information for 15 small aftershocks (magnitudes between 3.2 and 4.4) with a linear moment tensor inversion method. We conducted several tests to investigate the effects of unknown structure and event mislocation on source parameter recovery. The longer-period waveforms, in general, are less sensitive to the effects of the structural details so that the essential source information can be successfully extracted from the waveform data. The earlier part of the seismic waveforms has proven to be the most important carrier of the source information. A gross crustal model can be used to describe the structure for the source study. The small changes in the waveform character resulting from the mislocation of the events, or inexact Green's functions generated from the oversimplified crustal model, do not prohibit us from the recovery of the source orientation at local distances. In contrast, the determination of the focal depth is subject to uncertainty because of the lack of detailed structural information. Our focal mechanisms are generally in good agreement with P wave first-motion fault plane solutions determined from a local short-period network. The aftershocks show a clear spatial segmentation based on focal mechanism type. Most aftershocks near or southeast of the main shock were thrusting events with focal mechanisms similar to the main shock. In contrast, a cluster of aftershocks northwest of the main shock showed dominantly left-lateral, strike-slip motion on a northeasterly striking nodal plane. This suggests that a diffuse

  16. Training physicians for community-oriented primary care in Latin America: model programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, P A; Mora, F

    1987-01-01

    Under the rubrics of preventive and social medicine, public health, and family and community medicine, medical educators in Latin America have developed programs to train physicians for community-oriented health care (COPC). The historical background for such programs in Latin America is reviewed. Three relevant examples of programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are highlighted, drawing on the author's direct experience with and in these faculties. The paper addresses the relation between these programs and national and regional trends in education and services. PMID:3826469

  17. Sulfur dioxide and particles in quiescent volcanic plumes from Poas, Arenal, and Colima volcanos, Costa Rica and Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of SO2 emission rates and concentrations and of particle distribution, size, shape, and composition were made in quiescent volcanic plumes emitted into the troposphere from Poas and Arenal volcanos, Costa Rica, and Colima volcano, Mexico. SO2 emission rates were 700 +- 180 metric tons per day (t/d) for Poas, 210 +- 30 t/d for Arenal, and 320 +- 50 t/d for Colima. The c