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Sample records for park wyoming montana

  1. Smoke over Montana and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    California was not the only western state affected by fire during the last weekend of July. Parts of Montana and Wyoming were covered by a thick pall of smoke on July 30, 2000. This true-color image was captured by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). It is much easier to distinguish smoke from cloud in the color SeaWiFS imagery than the black and white Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery. However, GOES provides almost continuous coverage (animation of Sequoia National Forest fire) and has thermal infrared bands (Extensive Fires in the Western U.S.) which detect the heat from fires. On Monday July 31, 2000, eight fires covering 105,000 acres were burning in Montana, and three fires covering 12,000 acres were burning in Wyoming. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Smoke over Montana and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    California was not the only western state affected by fire during the last weekend of July. Parts of Montana and Wyoming were covered by a thick pall of smoke on July 30, 2000. This true-color image was captured by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). It is much easier to distinguish smoke from cloud in the color SeaWiFS imagery than the black and white Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery. However, GOES provides almost continuous coverage (animation of Sequoia National Forest fire) and has thermal infrared bands (Extensive Fires in the Western U.S.) which detect the heat from fires. On Monday July 31, 2000, eight fires covering 105,000 acres were burning in Montana, and three fires covering 12,000 acres were burning in Wyoming. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Digital geologic map of Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Wahl, Ronald R.

    1999-01-01

    The geology coverage was developed from the 1972 USGS Geologic Map of Yellowstone National Park. It contains polygons of bedrock formations, dikes, and faults. Errors in the 1972 map were corrected and an area outside the Park boundary on the west and south was added. Attributes attached to each polygon include a formation code, formation name, formation age, and a generalized unit name. Line attributes include water, contacts, and faults. Updated information includes a break down of Tertiary, and Quaternary volcanic rock units.

  4. Bathymetry and Geology of the Floor of Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Lee, G.K.; Webring, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-beam sonar mapping of Yellowstone Lake was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in conjunction with the National Park Service from 1999 to 2002. Yellowstone Lake is the largest high-altitude lake in North America, at an altitude of 2,357 m with a surface area of 341 km2. More than 140 rivers and streams flow into Yellowstone Lake. The Yellowstone River, which enters at the southern end of the lake into the Southeast Arm, dominates the inflow of water and sediment (Shanks and others, 2005). The only outlet from the lake is at Fishing Bridge where the Yellowstone River flows northward discharging 375 to 4,600 cubic feet per second. The multi-beam sonar mapping occurred over a four-year period beginning in 1999 with mapping of the northern basin, continued in 2000 in West Thumb basin, in 2001 in the central basin, and in 2002 in the southern part of the lake including the Flat Mountain, South, and Southeast Arms.

  5. Geologic map of the Ennis 30' x 60' quadrangle, Madison and Gallatin Counties, Montana, and Park County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Williams, Van S.

    2000-01-01

    The Ennis 1:100,000 quadrangle lies within both the Laramide (Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary) foreland province of southwestern Montana and the northeastern margin of the middle to late Tertiary Basin and Range province. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle are Archean high-grade gneiss, and granitic to ultramafic intrusive rocks that are as old as about 3.0 Ga. The gneiss includes a supracrustal assemblage of quartz-feldspar gneiss, amphibolite, quartzite, and biotite schist and gneiss. The basement rocks are overlain by a platform sequence of sedimentary rocks as old as Cambrian Flathead Quartzite and as young as Upper Cretaceous Livingston Group sandstones, shales, and volcanic rocks. The Archean crystalline rocks crop out in the cores of large basement uplifts, most notably the 'Madison-Gravelly arch' that includes parts of the present Tobacco Root Mountains and the Gravelly, Madison, and Gallatin Ranges. These basement uplifts or blocks were thrust westward during the Laramide orogeny over rocks as young as Upper Cretaceous. The thrusts are now exposed in the quadrangle along the western flanks of the Gravelly and Madison Ranges (the Greenhorn thrust and the Hilgard fault system, respectively). Simultaneous with the west-directed thrusting, northwest-striking, northeast-side-up reverse faults formed a parallel set across southwestern Montana; the largest of these is the Spanish Peaks fault, which cuts prominently across the Ennis quadrangle. Beginning in late Eocene time, extensive volcanism of the Absorka Volcanic Supergroup covered large parts of the area; large remnants of the volcanic field remain in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The volcanism was concurrent with, and followed by, middle Tertiary extension. During this time, the axial zone of the 'Madison-Gravelly arch,' a large Laramide uplift, collapsed, forming the Madison Valley, structurally a complex down-to-the-east half graben. Basin deposits as thick as 4,500 m filled the graben

  6. Isostatic gravity map and principal facts for 694 gravity stations in Yellowstone National Park and vicinity, Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carle, S.F.; Glen, J.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Smith, R.B.; Oliver, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents the principal facts for gravity stations compiled for Yellowstone National Park and vicinity. The gravity data were compiled from three sources: Defense Mapping Agency, University of Utah, and U.S. Geological Survey. Part A of the report is a paper copy describing how the compilation was done and presenting the data in tabular format as well as a map; part B is a 5-1/4 inch floppy diskette containing only the data files in ASCII format. Requirements for part B: IBM PC or compatible, DOS v. 2.0 or higher. Files contained on this diskette: DOD.ISO -- File containing the principal facts of the 514 gravity stations obtained from the Defense Mapping Agency. The data are in Plouff format* (see file PFTAB.TEX). UTAH.ISO -- File containing the principal facts of 153 gravity stations obtained from the University of Utah. Data are in Plouff format. USGS.ISO -- File containing the principal facts of 27 gravity stations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in July 1987. Data are in Plouff format. PFTAB.TXT -- File containing explanation of principal fact format. ACC.TXT -- File containing explanation of accuracy codes.

  7. BEARTOOTH PRIMITIVE AREA AND VICINITY, MONTANA AND WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Van Noy, Ronald M.

    1984-01-01

    The Beartooth area comprises about 600 sq mi in the central part of the Beartooth Mountains in South-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming just northeast of Yellowstone National Park. A mineral-resource survey concluded that one area of probable and one of substantiated mineral-resource potential are present in the Beartooth area. Three small mining districts (Red Lodge, Stillwater, and Independence) and one possibly major district (Cooke City) adjoin the Beartooth area but lie almost entirely outside it; the northern part of the Cooke City mining district, around Goose Lake, is within the area. This area has substantiated resource potential for copper, silver, gold, and platinum-group elements. The Red Lodge mining district extends into the eastern part of the area and has a probable chrome resource potential. There is little promise for the discovery of energy resources in the area.

  8. The mosquitoes and chaoborids of Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks with new records and Ochlerotatus nevadensis, a new state record for Montana.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lewis T

    2012-03-01

    The known mosquito fauna of Glacier National Park, Montana, and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, is reported with new records, including a list of the species of Chaoboridae known from both parks. Ochlerotatus nevadensis (= Aedes nevadensis) from Glacier National Park is a new record for the state of Montana.

  9. Geologic map of the Hebgen Lake quadrangle, Beaverhead, Madison, and Gallatin counties, Montana, Park and Teton counties, Wyoming, and Clark and Fremont counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Christiansen, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    The geology of the Hebgen Lake Quadrangle was mapped as part of an Ongoing research effort by the USGS to understand the geologic framework of the area in and around Yellowstone National Park. Prior to 1965 the regional geology was known only from reconnaissance surveys. Two important components of this effort are an evaluation of (1) the seismic risk hazard and (2) the mineral resource potential.

  10. Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently

  11. The fate of geothermal arsenic in the Madison and Missouri Rivers, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Moore, J.N.; Dalby, C.E.; Savka, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Geothermal As from Yellowstone National Park causes high As concentrations (10-370 ??g/L) in the Madison and Missouri Rivers in Montana and Wyoming. Arsenic transport is largely conservative in the upper basin as demonstrated by the near equivalence of dissolved and total-recoverable As concentrations, the constancy of As loads, and consistent ratios of concentrations of As to conservative geothermal tracers. Diurnal cycling of As between aqueous and solid phases in response to pH-induced changes in sorption equilibria causes small variations of about 10-20% in-dissolved As concentrations. HCl-extractable As concentrations in river and lake sediment in the upper basin are variable depending on position relative to the As-rich headwaters and geochemical and physical processes associated with lakes. In the lower Missouri River, large quantities of suspended sediment from tributaries provide sufficient sorption sites for substantial conversion of As from the aqueous phase to the solid phase.

  12. View of north central Wyoming and southern Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A view of approximately 3,600 square miles of north central Wyoming and southern Montana as seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Big Horn River flowing northward crosses between the northwest trending Big Horn Mountains and the Pryor Mountains. Yellowtail Reservoir, in the center of the picture, is impounded by a dam across the Big Horn River. A sharp contrast is clearly evident between the small rectangular crop areas along the Big Horn River (upper right) and the strip farming (yellow) practiced on the rolling hill along the Big Horn River and its tributaries (upper left corner and right edge). The low sun angle enhances the structural features of the mountains as well as the drainage patterns in the adjacent basins. Rock formations appear in this color photograph as they would to the eye from this altitude. The distinctive redbeds can be traced along the fr

  13. Migrant Programs in the Northwestern States -- Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory lists services and resources available to migrant and seasonal farmworkers during their stay in the Northwestern states of Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Prepared for use by agencies working with…

  14. Migrant Programs in the Northwestern States -- Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory lists services and resources available to migrant and seasonal farmworkers during their stay in the Northwestern states of Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Prepared for use by agencies working with…

  15. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Bighorn Basin Providence of Wyoming and Montana.

  16. Where does Strip Tillage Fit in Montana and Wyoming Sugarbeet Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarbeet in Montana and Wyoming is often grown in a two year rotation alternating with spring grains. Normally, a sugarbeet grower will make five or more passes across a field for fertilizer application, disking, plowing or ripping, leveling, mulching and hilling. The high price of diesel fuel is m...

  17. Lynx home range and movements in Montana and Wyoming: Preliminary results [Chapter 11

    Treesearch

    John R. Squires; Tom Laurion

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary telemetry data suggest that lynx in Montana and Wyoming have large home ranges; this result supports the Koehler and Aubry (1994) contention that lynx from southern lynx populations have large spatial-use areas. Annual home ranges of males were larger than females. Straight-line, daily travel distance averaged 2 to 4 km, which is similar to northern...

  18. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  19. Hydrology of Park County, Wyoming, exclusive of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, M.E.; Smalley, M.L.; Mora, K.L.; Stockdale, R.G.; Martin, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The climate of Park County, Wyoming, ranges from desert to alpine tundra. Average annual precipitation ranges from 6 to 40 inches. Ground water is present throughout most of the county, but supplies adequate for stock or domestic use are not readily available in areas of greatest need. The chemical quality of most of the water sampled was of suitable quality for livestock, but most of the water was not suitable for drinking, and the water from bedrock aquifers generally was not suitable for irrigation. Unconsolidated deposits are a principal source of ground water in the county. However, ground water is found in deposits topographically higher than stream level only where surface water has been applied for irrigation; those unconsolidated deposits beneath areas that are not irrigated, such as Polecat Bench, are dry. The conversion of irrigated land to urban development poses problems in some areas because yields of water-supply wells will be adversely affected by reduced recharge. The trend toward urban development also increases the risk of contamination of the ground water by septic tanks, petroleum products, and toxic and hazardous wastes. Perennial streams originate in the mountains and in areas where drainage from irrigated land is adequate to sustain flow. The average annual runoff from streams originating in the mountains is as large as 598 acre-feet per square mile, and the average annual runoff from streams originating in badlands and plains is as low as 14.8 acre-feet per square mile.

  20. Depositional history of Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K.

    1986-08-01

    The Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana records the northeasternmost extent of the widespread and rapid Griesbachian transgression onto the Wyoming shelf. Depositional patterns document a progressive change from sparsely fossiliferous, inner-shelf marine conditions in the southwest and west to restricted, marginal-marine environments to the north and east. Characteristic lithologies include greenish-gray calcareous or dolomitic mudstone and siltstone, very thin to thick beds of gypsum, and thin-bedded, commonly laminated dolomite. A formation thickness of approximately 20 m persists throughout most of the basin but diminishes abruptly near the northern and eastern limits of deposition. The Dinwoody is disconformable on the Ervay Member of the Permian Park City Formation except in the northeasternmost part of the basin, where it locally overlies the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone. Considering the significant time interval involved, physical evidence at the Permian-Triassic boundary is generally limited to an abrupt lithologic change from light-colored shallow marine or intertidal Permian dolomite to greenish-gray Dinwoody siltstone. The Dinwoody grades vertically as well as laterally to the east and north into red beds of the Lower Triassic Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group. The Early Triassic depositional environment in the present-day Bighorn basin was hostile. A sparse molluscan fauna was observed at only one of the 20 sections studied, and no conodonts were recovered from Dinwoody carbonates. Significant amounts of gypsum within the Dinwoody suggest periodic high evaporation from hypersaline waters on a low-energy shallow shelf during intervals of reduced terrigenous sediment supply from the north and east. However, sufficient organic material was present to create reducing conditions, as evidenced by greenish rock color and abundant pyrite.

  1. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  2. Hydrogen Futures Park at the University of Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R Paul

    2010-11-18

    The Hydrogen Futures Park at the University of Montana, was conceived and presented as a premier, paradigm-shifting plan to foster the creation of a sustainable, platinum, LEED-certified college campus providing technical, safety and across the curriculum energy education and training.

  3. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  4. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  5. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  6. Stratigraphy and geologic history of the Montana group and equivalent rocks, Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, James R.; Cobban, William Aubrey

    1973-01-01

    During Late Cretaceous time a broad north-trending epicontinental sea covered much of the western interior of North America and extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. The sea was bounded on the west by a narrow, unstable, and constantly rising cordillera which extended from Central America to Alaska and which separated the sea from Pacific oceanic waters. The east margin of the sea was bounded by the low-lying stable platform of the central part of the United States.Rocks of the type Montana Group in Montana and equivalent rocks in adjacent States, which consist of eastward-pointing wedges of shallow-water marine and nonmarine strata that enclose westward-pointing wedges of fine-grained marine strata, were deposited in and marginal to this sea. These rocks range in age from middle Santonian to early Maestrichtian and represent a time span of about 14 million years. Twenty-nine distinctive ammonite zones, each with a time span of about half a million years, characterize the marine strata.Persistent beds of bentonite in the transgressive part of the Claggett and Bearpaw Shales of Montana and equivalent rocks elsewhere represent periods of explosive volcanism and perhaps concurrent subsidence along the west shore in the vicinity of the Elkhorn Mountains and the Deer Creek volcanic fields in Montana. Seaward retreat of st randlines, marked by deposition of the Telegraph Creek, Eagle, Judith River, and Fox Hills Formations in Montana and the Mesaverde Formation in Wyoming, may be attributed to uplift in near-coastal areas and to an increase in volcaniclastic rocks delivered to the sea.Rates of transgression and regression determined for the Montana Group in central Montana reveal that the strandline movement was more rapid during times of transgression. The regression of the Telegraph Creek and Eagle strandlines averaged about 50 miles per million years compared with a rate of about 95 miles per million years for the advance of the strand-line during

  7. National uranium resource evaluation: Sheridan Quadrangle, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Damp, J N; Jennings, M D

    1982-04-01

    The Sheridan Quadrangle of north-central Wyoming was evaluated for uranium favorability according to specific criteria of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Procedures consisted of geologic and radiometric surveys; rock, water, and sediment sampling; studying well logs; and reviewing the literature. Five favorable environments were identified. These include portions of Eocene Wasatch and Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Powder River Basin and Lower Cretaceous Pryor sandstones of the Bighorn Basin. Unfavorable environments include all Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Permian, Triassic, and Middle Jurassic rocks; the Cretaceous Thermopolis, Mowry, Cody, Meeteetse, and Bearpaw Formations; the Upper Jurassic Sundance and Morrison, the Cretaceous Frontier, Meseverde, Lance, and the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Willwood Formations of the Bighorn Basin; the Wasatch Formation of the Powder River Basin, excluding two favorable areas and all Oligocene and Miocene rocks. Remaining rocks are unevaluated.

  8. North Fork well, Shoshone National Forest, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A summary of the draft environmental impact statement for a proposed exploratory oil drilling operation in Shoshone National Forest in Wyoming describes the drilling equipment and support facilities required for the operation. Marathon Oil Company's purpose is to test the gas and oil potential of underlying geologic structures. Although Marathon plans a reclamation and revegetation program, there would be erosion during the operation. Noise from the drilling and helicopter activity would disrupt wildlife and vacationers in nearby Yellowstone Park. Confrontations with the grizzly bear population would increase. The legal mandate for the assessment was the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920.

  9. Data for floods of May 1978 in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Carlson, D.D.; Craig, G.S.; Hull, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Severe flooding in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana in May 1978 is described by tables of data, graphs, and photographs. Flood peaks were determined at 162 sites in the flooded area. At most of the sites, peak discharges were determined from existing stage-discharge relationship curves, and at 30 of the sites indirect flow measurements were made. At 19 sites, the May 1978 peak discharge exceeded the previous peak of record and also exceeded the computed 100-year frequency flood. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Political mobilization, venue change, and the coal bed methane conflict in Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, R.J.

    2005-03-31

    The emerging conflict over coal bed methane (CBM) exploration and development in the mountain west offers a classic example of what Baumgartner and Jones call a 'wave of criticism.' The cozy subgovernments that have dominated energy exploration and development in the mountain states are now under attack and are struggling to maintain their autonomy. Energy exploration, which was once perceived to have only positive consequences, is now the focus of an intense debate that has managed to unite previously warring factions. This article utilizes a comparative assessment of CBM politics in Montana and Wyoming to explain the connection between changing popular and elite perceptions of the issue, institutional change, and policy change.

  11. Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and selected related conditions of six reservations in Montana and Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Acton, K; Rogers, B; Campbell, G; Johnson, C; Gohdes, D

    1993-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of diabetes and related complications in Plains Indians. The medical records of individuals with diagnosed diabetes seen in IHS facilities before 1 January 1987 were reviewed. Records were obtained from primary care clinics and hospitals accessible to the following six reservation communities in Montana and Wyoming: Blackfeet, Crow, Fort Belknap, Fort Peck, Northern Cheyenne, and Wind River. Medical records were reviewed to ascertain accuracy of diagnosis and associated complications. Age-adjusted prevalence rate of diagnosed diabetes was 119/1000 adults > or = 15 yr of age. Diabetes rates in Plains Indians are higher than rates described for the general U.S. population.

  12. Dating of Archean basement in northeastern Wyoming and southern Montana.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.

    1981-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole-rock and U-Pb zircon ages of granite and gneiss cores from three deep drill holes extend known occurrences of Archean rocks in the subsurface of NE Wyoming and S Montanta. Rb-Sr and K- Ar mineral ages are discordant and reflect early or middle Proterozoic disturbance. Highly altered rocks occur in a thin zone immediately below the sub-Cambrian unconformity. Samples from a few metres deeper in the basement are much fresher but show the effects of this alteration in filled fractures and thin adjacent alteration haloes. Whole-rock Rb-Sr systems have retaioned a fair degree of integrity in spite of increased susceptibility to modification because of the disturbed mineral systems. Interaction of the rocks with water a few metres below the sub-Cambrian unconformity probably occurred for only a relatively short time. Fractures filled rapidly with secondary minerals such as chlorite, anhydrite, and carbonate to maintain a relatively impermeable crystalline basement in which the silicates and their contained isotopic systems were preserved.- Author

  13. Geospatial data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinney, Scott A.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide geospatial data for various layers and themes in a Geographic Information System (GIS) format for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. In 2015, as part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of coal resources and reserves within the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This report is supplemental to USGS Professional Paper 1809 and contains GIS data that can be used to view digital layers or themes, including the Tertiary limit of the Powder River Basin boundary, locations of drill holes, clinker, mined coal, land use and technical restrictions, geology, mineral estate ownership, coal thickness, depth to the top of the coal bed (overburden), and coal reliability categories. Larger scale maps may be viewed using the GIS data provided in this report supplemental to the page-size maps provided in USGS Professional Paper 1809. Additionally, these GIS data can be exported to other digital applications as needed by the user. The database used for this report contains a total of 29,928 drill holes, of which 21,393 are in the public domain. The public domain database is linked to the geodatabase in this report so that the user can access the drill-hole data through GIS applications. Results of this report are available at the USGS Energy Resources Program Web site,http://energy.usgs.gov/RegionalStudies/PowderRiverBasin.aspx.

  14. Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from late Proterozoic mafic dikes and sills, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlan, Stephen S.; Geissman, John William; Snee, Lawrence W.

    1997-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar results from mafic dikes and sills in northwestern Wyoming and western Montana yield similar virtual geomagnetic poles and isotopic dates. In combination with paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from elsewhere in the western Cordillera, these data provide evidence for a regional mafic magnetic event at 780 to 770 Ma that affected a large area of western North America.

  15. The ancient environment of the Beartooth Butte Formation (Devonian) in Wyoming and Montana: combining paleontological inquiry with federal management needs

    Treesearch

    Anthony R. Fiorillo

    2000-01-01

    The Beartooth Butte Formation is found in many mountain ranges throughout central Montana and northern Wyoming. This study combines a variety of geologic data to provide a clearer understanding of the fossil fauna and environmental setting of this rock unit. Results show not all exposures of this unit are fossil-bearing and where present, faunal...

  16. Urban and community forests of the Mountain region: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population...

  17. Slylab (SL)-3 View - North Central Wyoming (WY) - Southern Montana (MT)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    S73-35081 (July-September 1973) --- A view of approximately 3,600 square miles of north central Wyoming and southern Montana is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch Earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Big Horn River following northward crosses between the northwest trending Big Horn Mountains and the Pryor Mountains. Yellowtail Reservoir, named after a former chief of the Crow Indian tribe in the center of the picture is impounded by a dam across the small rectangular crop area along the Big Horn River (upper right) and the strip farming (yellow) practiced on the rolling hill along the Big Horn River and its tributaries (upper left corner and right edge). The low sun angle enhances the structural features of the mountains as well as the drainage patterns in the adjacent basins. Rock formation appears in this color photograph as they would to the eye from this altitude. The distinctive redbeds can be traced along the front of the Pryor Mountains and indicate the folding that occurred during mountain building. EREP investigators, Dr. Houston of the University of Wyoming and Dr. Hoppin of the University of Iowa, will analyze the photograph and use the results in geological mapping and mineral resource studies. Lowell, Wyoming (lower left corner) and Hardin, Montana (upper right corner) can be recognized. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. (Alternate number SL3-86-337) Photo credit: NASA

  18. Enigmatic uppermost Permian-lowermost Triassic stratigraphic relations in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K. )

    1991-06-01

    Eighteen measured sections in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana provide the basis for an analysis of Permian-Triassic stratigraphic relations. This boundary is well defined to the south where gray calcareous siltstones of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody disconformably overlie the Upper Permian Ervay Member of the Park City Formation with little physical evidence of a significant hiatus. The Dinwoody is gradationally overlain by red beds of the Red Peak Formation. The Dinwoody this to zero near the state line. Northward, the erathem boundary is enigmatic because fossils are absent and there is no evidence of an unconformity. Poor and discontinuous exposures contribute to the problem. Up to 20 m of Permian or Triassic rocks or both overlie the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in the westernmost surface exposures on the eastern flank of the Bighorn basin with physical evidence of an unconformity. East of the exposed Tensleep, Ervay-like carbonates are overlain by about 15 m of Dinwoody-like siltstones interbedded with red beds and thin dolomitic limestone. In both areas, they are overlain by the Red Peak Formation. Thin carbonates within the Dinwoody are silty, coarse algal laminates with associated peloidal micrite. Carbonates north of the Dinwoody termination and above probably Ervay are peloidal algal laminates with fenestral fabric and sparse coated shell fragments with pisoids. These rocks may be Dinwoody equivalents or they may be of younger Permian age than the Ervay. Regardless, revision of stratigraphic nomenclature in this area may bed required.

  19. Burial History, Thermal Maturity, and Oil and Gas Generation History of Source Rocks in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for seven key source-rock units at eight well locations throughout the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Also modeled was the timing of cracking to gas of Phosphoria Formation-sourced oil in the Permian Park City Formation reservoirs at two well locations. Within the basin boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon; it is thought that the Phosphoria oil produced from Park City and other reservoirs migrated from the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. Other petroleum source rocks include the Cretaceous Thermopolis Shale, Mowry Shale, Frontier Formation, Cody Shale, Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the Bighorn Basin (Emblem Bench, Red Point/Husky, and Sellers Draw), three at intermediate depths (Amoco BN 1, Santa Fe Tatman, and McCulloch Peak), and two at relatively shallow locations (Dobie Creek and Doctor Ditch). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep central part of the basin and decreases to the south, east, and north toward the basin margins. The Thermopolis and Mowry Shales are predominantly gas-prone source rocks, containing a mix of Type-III and Type-II kerogens. The Frontier, Cody, Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Fort Union Formations are gas-prone source rocks containing Type-III kerogen. Modeling results indicate that in the deepest areas, (1) the onset of petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from early Paleocene through early Eocene time, (2) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred during Eocene time, and (3) onset of gas generation from the Fort Union Formation occurred during early Eocene time and peak generation occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Only in the deepest part of the basin did the oil generated from the Thermopolis and

  20. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  1. Drill hole data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.

    2013-01-01

    This report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming is part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project. Essential to that project was the creation of a comprehensive drill hole database that was used for coal bed correlation and for coal resource and reserve assessments in the PRB. This drill hole database was assembled using data from the USGS National Coal Resources Data System, several other Federal and State agencies, and selected mining companies. Additionally, USGS personnel manually entered lithologic picks into the database from geophysical logs of coalbed methane, oil, and gas wells. Of the 29,928 drill holes processed, records of 21,393 are in the public domain and are included in this report. The database contains location information, lithology, and coal bed names for each drill hole.

  2. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  3. Debris flows in Glacier National Park, Montana: geomorphology and hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Forrest D.; Schmid, Ginger L.

    2003-09-01

    Debris flows are one of the many active slope-forming processes within Glacier National Park, Montana. Most debris flow landforms exhibit classic morphology with a distinct failure scarp, incised channel, channel levees, and toe deposits that often develop a lobate form. The Precambrian metasediments that dominate Glacier National Park's geology weather into angular clasts that range in size from platy gravels to boulders. Classic debris flows occur in areas where the topographic expression provides a debris source from cliff faces and an accumulation of regolith, often in the form of talus slopes. Many of these debris flows have long runout zones and can travel many hundreds of meters. Often they cross hiking trails or roads, including the main east-west highway, Going-to-the-Sun Road. Debris flows impacting the road have resulted in several near fatalities, and hikers have been forced to cross active debris flows to reach safe ground. The magnitude of debris flows varies between high magnitude channel incising events and low magnitude channel filling and/or reworking events. The frequency of debris flow events is irregular and appears to be controlled by the hydrology of triggering storms and antecedent moisture conditions, not by the debris supply. As a result, debris flow magnitude is not a function of frequency, but is more closely related to the characteristics of antecedent conditions and individual storms.

  4. Database for the Quaternary and Pliocene Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana (Database for Professional Paper 729-G)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Richard D.; Ramsey, David W.; Christiansen, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The superlative hot springs, geysers, and fumarole fields of Yellowstone National Park are vivid reminders of a recent volcanic past. Volcanism on an immense scale largely shaped the unique landscape of central and western Yellowstone Park, and intimately related tectonism and seismicity continue even now. Furthermore, the volcanism that gave rise to Yellowstone's hydrothermal displays was only part of a long history of late Cenozoic eruptions in southern and eastern Idaho, northwestern Wyoming, and southwestern Montana. The late Cenozoic volcanism of Yellowstone National Park, although long believed to have occurred in late Tertiary time, is now known to have been of latest Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The eruptions formed a complex plateau of voluminous rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and lavas, but basaltic lavas too have erupted intermittently around the margins of the rhyolite plateau. Volcanism almost certainly will recur in the Yellowstone National Park region. This digital release contains all the information used to produce the geologic maps published as plates in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 729-G (Christiansen, 2001). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains files to view or print the geologic maps and main report text from Professional Paper 729-G.

  5. Measured and Estimated Sodium-Adsorption Ratios for Tongue River and its Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.; Nimick, David A.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Stacy M.; Lambing, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tongue River drains an area of about 5,400 square miles and flows northward from its headwaters in the Bighorn National Forest of northeastern Wyoming to join the Yellowstone River at Miles City, Montana. Water from the Tongue River and its tributaries is extensively used for irrigation in both Wyoming and Montana. The Tongue River watershed contains vast coal deposits that are extracted at several surface mines. In some areas of the watershed, the coal beds also contain methane gas (coal-bed methane or natural gas), which has become the focus of intense exploration and development. Production of coal-bed methane requires the pumping of large volumes of ground water from the coal beds to reduce water pressure within the formation and release the stored gas. Water from the coal beds typically is high in sodium and low in calcium and magnesium, resulting in a high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR). Disposal of ground water with high sodium concentrations into the Tongue River has the potential to increase salinity and SAR of water in the river, and potentially reduce the quality of water for irrigation purposes. This report documents SAR values measured in water samples collected at 12 monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed and presents regression relations between specific conductance (SC) and SAR at each site for the years 2004-06. SAR in water samples was determined from laboratory-measured concentrations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. The results of regression analysis indicated that SC and SAR were significantly related (p-values < 0.05) at most sites. The regression relations developed for most monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed were used with continuous SC data to estimate daily SAR during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation seasons and to estimate 2006 provisional SAR values, which were displayed on the Web in real-time. Water samples were collected and analyzed from seven sites on the main stem of the Tongue River located at: (1) Monarch

  6. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  7. Flood estimates for ungaged streams in Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of 100-year discharges were made at 59 sites in Glacier National Park and 21 sites in Yellowstone National Park to assist the National Park Services in quantifying stream inflow and outflow in the Parks. The estimates were made using regression equations previously developed for Montana. The resulting 100-year discharges are listed in tables; the discharges ranged from 260 to 53,200 cu ft/s in Glacier National Park and from 110 to 27,900 cu ft/s in Yellowstone National Park. (USGS)

  8. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming compose the 392,764-square-mile area of Segment 8, which is in the north-central part of the continental United States. The area varies topographically from the high rugged mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and Wyoming to the gently undulating surface of the Central Lowland in eastern North Dakota and South Dakota (fig. 1). The Black Hills in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming interrupt the uniformity of the intervening Great Plains. Segment 8 spans the Continental Divide, which is the drainage divide that separates streams that generally flow westward from those that generally flow eastward. The area of Segment 8 is drained by the following major rivers or river systems: the Green River drains southward to join the Colorado River, which ultimately discharges to the Gulf of California; the Clark Fork and the Kootenai Rivers drain generally westward by way of the Columbia River to discharge to the Pacific Ocean; the Missouri River system and the North Platte River drain eastward and southeastward to the Mississippi River, which discharges to the Gulf of Mexico; and the Red River of the North and the Souris River drain northward through Lake Winnipeg to ultimately discharge to Hudson Bay in Canada. These rivers and their tributaries are an important source of water for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. Much of the surface water has long been appropriated for agricultural use, primarily irrigation, and for compliance with downstream water pacts. Reservoirs store some of the surface water for flood control, irrigation, power generation, and recreational purposes. Surface water is not always available when and where it is needed, and ground water is the only other source of supply. Ground water is obtained primarily from wells completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist mostly of sand and gravel, and from wells

  9. Kriging analysis of mean annual precipitation, Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Skrivan, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Kriging is a statistical estimation technique for regionalized variables which exhibit an autocorrelation structure. Such structure can be described by a semi-variogram of the observed data. The kriging estimate at any point is a weighted average of the data, where the weights are determined using the semi-variogram and an assumed drift, or lack of drift, in the data. Block, or areal, estimates can also be calculated. The kriging algorithm, based on unbiased and minimum-variance estimates, involves a linear system of equations to calculate the weights. Kriging variances can then be used to give confidence intervals of the resulting estimates. Mean annual precipitation in the Powder River basin, Montana and Wyoming, is an important variable when considering restoration of coal-strip-mining lands of the region. Two kriging analyses involving data at 60 stations were made--one assuming no drift in precipitation, and one a partial quadratic drift simulating orographic effects. Contour maps of estimates of mean annual precipitation were similar for both analyses, as were the corresponding contours of kriging variances. Block estimates of mean annual precipitation were made for two subbasins. Runoff estimates were 1-2 percent of the kriged block estimates. (USGS)

  10. Hydrology of area 50, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, Marlin E.; Wilson, James F.; ,

    1983-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 50 includes all of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana and the upstream parts of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche River Basins - a total of 20,676 sq mi. The area has abundant coal (81.2 million tons mined in 1982), but scarce water. The information in the report is intended to describe the hydrology of the ' general area ' of any proposed mine. The report represents a summary of results of the water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, carried out in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. Each of more than 50 topics is discussed in a brief text that is accompanied by maps, graphs, and other illustrations. Primary topics in the report are: physiography, economic development, surface-water data networks, surface water quantity and quality, and groundwater. The report also contains an extensive description of sources of additional information. (USGS)

  11. Basin analysis studies of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) sedimentary rocks of the Powder River basin represent nearly half of Phanerozoic time, yet they remain virtually unexplored in the subsurface. Rocks of the same age in the Big Horn and Williston basins and in the Central Montana trough have produced much oil and gas, as have the overlying Pennsylvanian strata of the Powder River basin. A synthesis of published stratigraphic information, together with a regional analysis of sedimentary sequences, has been undertaken to evaluate the economic potential of the lower Paleozoic formations. The lack of an economic impetus to study these rocks has hampered the development of precise depositional models for these sequences. Furthermore, the depths of prospective beds, as well as long-standing misconceptions about the regional stratigraphy, have also served to restrain exploration. Stratigraphic studies have documented a succession of marine transgressions and regressions on the flanks of a highland in southeastern Wyoming. The highland persisted as a subdued geographic feature through most of early Paleozoic time, until it rose at the end of the Mississippian. Erosion during the Late Silurian and Devonian removed much of the depositional record in the area, but onlap can be demonstrated with relative certainty for Ordovician and Mississippian rocks. The repetition of sedimentologic features indicates persistent geologic controls in the region and suggests that these paleoenvironments might provide good targets for exploration.

  12. Stability of highwalls in surface coal mines, western Powder Ridge Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.; Smith, William K.; Savage, William Z.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results from the first part of a two-part investigation of the stability of highwalls in open-pit coal mines in the Fort Union Formation of the western Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana indicate that these highwalls are subject to time-dependent deformation. Field investigations and laboratory physical-properties tests of coal and overburden rocks suggest that several factors influence highwall stability. Some of these factors are rebound of overconsolidated rocks, desiccation, water, orientation and spacing of fractures, and strength and deformation properties. Factors of safety for a typical highwall in the study area (calculated by the finite-element method) may be less than 1.0 when open fractures are present and the highwall has degraded. Although it is concluded that most open-pit mines in the Fort Union Formation within the study area have generally stable highwalls, these highwalls do deteriorate and become progressively less stable. Because of this, postmining failures are common and could be critical if mining were delayed and then resumed after a period of several months. The second part of the investigation will utilize field measurements of rock-mass properties and instrumentation of actively mined highwalls to obtain data for comparison with the results of the initial investigation. Because the height of highwalls will increase as the more shallow coal is exhausted, these data will also be used to predict the behavior of slopes higher than those presently found in the western Powder River Basin.

  13. Ecological assessment of streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005–06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring.The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report.The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River

  14. Structural development of high-temperature mylonites in the Archean Wyoming province, northwestern Madison Range, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Mogk, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Crooked Creek mylonite, in the northwestern Madison Range, southwestern Montana, is defined by several curved lenses of high non-coaxial strain exposed over a 7-km-wide, northeast-trending strip. The country rocks, part of the Archean Wyoming province, are dominantly trondhjemitic to granitic orthogneiss with subordinate amphibolite, quartzite, aluminous gneiss, and sills of metabasite (mafic granulite). Data presented here support an interpretation that the mylonite formed during a period of rapid, heterogeneous strain at near-peak metamorphic conditions during an early deformational event (D1) caused by northwest–southeast-directed transpression. The mylonite has a well-developed L-S tectonite fabric and a fine-grained, recrystallized (granoblastic) texture. The strong linear fabric, interpreted as the stretching direction, is defined by elongate compositional “fish,” fold axes, aligned elongate minerals, and mullion axes. The margins of the mylonitic zones are concordant with and grade into regions of unmylonitized gneiss. A second deformational event (D2) has folded the mylonite surface to produce meter- to kilometer-scale, tight-to-isoclinal, gently plunging folds in both the mylonite and country rock, and represents a northwest–southeast shortening event. Planar or linear fabrics associated with D2 are remarkably absent. A third regional deformational event (D3) produced open, kilometer-scale folds generally with gently north-plunging fold axes. Thermobarometric measurements presented here indicate that metamorphic conditions during D1 were the same in both the mylonite and the country gneiss, reaching upper amphibolite- to lower granulite-facies conditions: 700 ± 50° C and 8.5 ± 0.5 kb. Previous geochronological studies of mylonitic and cross-cutting rocks in the Jerome Rock Lake area, east of the Crooked Creek mylonite, bracket the timing of this high-grade metamorphism and mylonitization between 2.78 and 2.56 Ga, nearly a billion years

  15. Petrology of Tullock Member, Fort Union Formation, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for early Paleocene uplift of Bighorn Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.L.; Hansley, P.L. )

    1989-09-01

    New petrologic data collected from sandstones in the Paleocene Tullock Member of the Fort Union Formation above the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Powder River basin (PRB) and from the lowermost Paleocene in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming and Montana, compel reevaluation of the timing of the bighorn uplift, formerly thought to be middle Paleocene. The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary is identified by regionally valid palynological and trace element geochemical criteria. Basin-wide outcrop and subsurface studies of the Tullock Member indicate deposition on a low-gradient alluvial plain extending toward the retreating Cannonball sea. Eastward-flowing, low-sinuosity paleostreams containing small, sandy, stable channels characterized the fluvial systems.

  16. Database for the geologic map of Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abendini, Atosa A.; Robinson, Joel E.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick; White, D. E.; Beeson, Melvin H.; Truesdell, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    This dataset contains contacts, geologic units, and map boundaries from Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1371, "The Geologic map of upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone, National Park, Wyoming". This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for ongoing studies of hydrothermal processes.

  17. Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; Frost, Thomas P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2016-08-19

    Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and accompanying data releases are the products of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The assessment was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of some 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The need for this assessment arose from the decision by the Secretary of the Interior to pursue the protection of large tracts of contiguous habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. One component of the Department of the Interior plan to protect the habitat areas includes withdrawing selected lands from future exploration and development of mineral and energy resources, including copper, gold, silver, rare earth elements, and other commodities used in the U.S. economy. The assessment evaluates the potential for locatable minerals such as gold, copper, and lithium and describes the nature and occurrence of leaseable and salable minerals for seven Sagebrush Focal Areas and additional lands in Nevada (“Nevada additions”) delineated by BLM. Supporting data are available in a series of USGS data releases describing mineral occurrences (the USGS Mineral Deposit Database or “USMIN”), oil and gas production and well status, previous mineral-resource assessments that covered parts of the areas studied, and a compilation of mineral-use cases based on data provided by BLM, as well as results of the locatable mineral-resource assessment in a geographic information system. The present assessment of mineral-resource potential will contribute to a better understanding of the economic and environmental trade-offs that would result from closing approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands to mineral entry.

  18. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny, a period of crustal instability and compressional tectonics that began in latest Cretaceous time and ended in the Eocene. The basin is nearly 180 mi long, 100 mi wide, and encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The basin is bounded on the northeast by the Pryor Mountains, on the east by the Bighorn Mountains, and on the south by the Owl Creek Mountains). The north boundary includes a zone of faulting and folding referred to as the Nye-Bowler lineament. The northwest and west margins are formed by the Beartooth Mountains and Absaroka Range, respectively. Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary. In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs in the deeper parts of the basin. It has been suggested by numerous authors that various Cretaceous marine shales are the principal source rock for these accumulations. Numerous studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Rocky Mountain region have led to the general conclusion that these rocks have generated or are capable of generating oil and (or) gas. In recent years, advances in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation have resulted in increased exploration and completion of wells in Cretaceous marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were previously thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters controlling hydrocarbon production from these shale reservoirs include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for selected Upper Cretaceous marine

  19. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming...

  20. Dating the onset of Miocene crustal extension in southwest Montana, northwest Wyoming, and adjacent Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Barnosky, A.D. . Dept. of Integrative Biology); Schmidt, V.A.; Zheng, Jiangyun . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences); Nichols, R. )

    1993-04-01

    For at least three decades a regional unconformity of middle Miocene age -- dubbed the Mid-Tertiary Unconformity -- has been recognized in the intermontane-basin deposits of adjacent WY, MT, and ID. However, constraining the age of the erosional event solely by radiometric means has proven difficult because datable tephras generally are scarce (except locally) and too fine-grained. On the other hand, biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic studies have yielded results that bracket the unconformity between 17 and 18 ma in Jackson Hole and just north of Yellowstone Park (Burbank and Barnosky, 1990). Whether the unconformity is time-transgressive from east to west remains an open question and is being addressed by biochronologic and magnetostratigraphic studies of a particularly complete stratigraphic sequence near Leadore, Idaho. Preliminary indications are that this part of the Idaho-Montana border was a depositional basin throughout most of the Miocene, covered with a large fresh-water lake during parts of the Arikareean (ca. 29--20 Ma) and saline lakes during parts of the Hemingfordian (ca. 20--16.8 Ma). Then sometime near the transition between Hemingfordian and Barstovian (ca. 16.8 to 15.0 Ma), just after the local development of the Mid-Tertiary Unconformity, local uplift increased the influx of clastic sediments, including debris flows, into the basin. Hence in general character the sedimentation patterns (but not the sediment types) along the Idaho-Montana border are identical to those in the eastern most Rockies at similar latitudes, both areas indicating that extensional block faulting and uplift started near the Hemingfordian-Barstovian boundary.

  1. Survey of glaciers in the northern Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming; Size response to climatic fluctuations 1950-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Chatelain, E.E.

    1997-09-01

    An aerial survey of Northern Rocky Mountain glaciers in Montana and Wyoming was conducted in late summer of 1996. The Flathead, Swan, Mission, and Beartooth Mountains of Montana were covered, as well as the Teton and Wind River Ranges of Wyoming. Present extent of glaciers in this study were compared to limits on recent USGS 15 and 7.5 topographic maps, and also from selected personal photos. Large cirque and hanging glaciers of the Flathead and Wind River Ranges did not display significant decrease in size or change in terminus position. Cirque glaciers in the Swan, Mission, Beartooth and Teton Ranges were markedly smaller in size; with separation of the ice body, growth of the terminus lake, or cover of the ice terminus with rockfalls. A study of annual snowfall, snowdepths, precipitation, and mean temperatures for selected stations in the Northern Rocky Mountains indicates no extreme variations in temperature or precipitation between 1950-1996, but several years of low snowfall and warmer temperatures in the 1980`s appear to have been sufficient to diminish many of the smaller cirque glaciers, many to the point of extinction. The disappearance of small cirque glaciers may indicate a greater sensitivity to overall climatic warming than the more dramatic fluctuations of larger glaciers in the same region.

  2. Survey of free-ranging elk from Wyoming and Montana for selected pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rhyan, J C; Aune, K; Ewalt, D R; Marquardt, J; Mertins, J W; Payeur, J B; Saari, D A; Schladweiler, P; Sheehan, E J; Worley, D

    1997-04-01

    From December 1991 through January 1995, a disease survey was conducted on herds of free-ranging, hunter-killed elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from three areas in proximity to Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming (USA), after tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis was discovered in a captive herd of elk in the area. Complete or partial sets of specimens from 289 elk collected between December 1991 and January 1993 were examined histologically; no mycobacterial lesions were observed. Lesions of tuberculosis were not detected in tonsils or lymph nodes of the head from an additional 99 hunter-killed, adult elk from one area (area 2) collected in January 1995. Neither M. bovis nor M. paratuberculosis were isolated from any of the specimens cultured. Antibodies to Brucella abortus were detected in serum samples from 0%, 1%, and 1% of elk from three areas sampled (areas 1, 2 and 3), respectively. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from multiple tissues from one seropositive animal from area 3. Larvae with morphology consistent with Dictyocaulus sp. were found in 12%, 14%, and 0% of fecal specimens tested from areas 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Pasteurella multocida and Actinomyces pyogenes were isolated from a lung with purulent bronchopneumonia and abscesses.

  3. Facies architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Park City Fm. , Utah and Wyoming: Implications for the Permian sea-level history of Pangea's western continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, M.T. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Carbonates of the Park City Fm. were particularly sensitive to changes in sea-level and climate and record progressively lower third-order sea-level highstands. These facies were deposited as transgressive, highstand, and initial lowstand systems tracts. Prior to deposition of the Park City Fm. eolian and shallow marine clastic sediments covered the Utah/Wyoming continental margin. A late Leonaridan third order sea-level highstand permitted progradation of a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform over the shelf. A subsequent third order sea-level lowstand exposed the eastern portion of the shelf forming a platformal unconformity and the base of the second depositional sequence. Carbonate conglomerates were deposited along the shelf margin and upper slope and clastic sediments once again were deposited on the shelf. During initial transgression bottom water anoxia and high surface productivity, induced by meridional upwelling, prevented benthic carbonate production. A condensed section consisting of reworked and phosphatized sands, pelletal and nodular phosphorite, and organic-rich shales was deposited. With continued transgression and the re-initiation of normal marine circulation carbonate production resumed and a second cycle of carbonate platform progradation ensued atop the Utah/Wyoming shelf. During the next third order sea-level lowstand the third sequence boundary was created as the platform was exposed to subaerial erosion. Carbonate conglomerates were once again deposited as a lowstand wedge and clastic sediments prograded across the shelf. Subsequent transgression caused the onlap of restricted basinal and high productivity facies in Wyoming and southwestern Montana producing a marine flooding surface and condensed section. Further transgression re-initiated carbonate production over the Utah/Wyoming shelf but Utah facies indicate shallow water, restricted marine conditions.

  4. Water resources of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Edward Riley

    1974-01-01

    The study described in this report is an appraisal of water resources in Grand Teton National Park where hydrologic data are needed for planning water supplies for public use. Water is used in the park for public-water supplies at National Park Service facilities, for commercial and domestic use at guest ranches and private residences, and for irrigation. Public-water supplies in the park utilize both surface and ground water. Some of the surface-water sources are in areas of heavy use by park visitors. Public-health requirements are that only ground water, if adequate in quantity and quality, should be used for public-water supplies in such areas.

  5. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Bighorn Basin Province, which encompasses about 6.7 million acres in north-central Wyoming and southern Montana. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, petroleum generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined two total petroleum systems: (1) Phosphoria, and (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite. Within these two systems, eight assessment units (AU) were defined, and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within each AU.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal zones in Wyoming, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.; Ellis, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, 1 Gt (1.1 billion st) of coal was produced in the United States. Of this total, 37% was produced in Wyoming, Montana and North Dakota. Coals of Tertiary age from these states typically have low ash contents. Most of these coals have sulfur contents that are in compliance with Clean Air Act standards and most have low concentrations of the trace elements that are of environmental concern. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment for these states includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic and geochemical studies and resource calculations for major Tertiary coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Greater Green River, Hanna and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 595 Gt (655 billion st). Results of the study are available in a USGS Professional Paper and a USGS Open-File Report, both in CD-ROM format.

  7. Map showing contours on top of the upper Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 4,926 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  8. Map showing structure contours on the top of the upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 2,429 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  9. Revised Subsurface Stratigraphic Framework of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Described in this report is an updated subsurface stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This framework is graphically presented in 17 intersecting west-east and north-south cross sections across the basin. Also included are: (1) the dataset and all associated digital files and (2) digital files for all figures and table 1 suitable for large-format printing. The purpose of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report is to provide rapid dissemination and accessibility of the stratigraphic cross sections and related digital data to USGS customers, especially the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), to facilitate their modeling of the hydrostratigraphy of the PRB. This report contains a brief summary of the coal-bed correlations and database, and is part of a larger ongoing study that will be available in the near future.

  10. Holocene changes in a park-forest vegetation mosaic in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, E.A. )

    1994-06-01

    The modern mod-elevation vegetation of the Rocky Mountains is a mosaic of conifer forests and open parks dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), grasses, and other herbs. It is not known how this pattern originated or how sensitive the balance between forest and park is to disturbance. Using pollen from sediments of five small ponds in Fish Creek Park, WY (elev. 2700 m), I reconstructed the last 8000 yrs of changes in the park-forest mosaic in an are about 16 km[sup 2]. Surface samples collected from 52 ponds in the Fish Creek Park area and from forest and park sites in Wyoming and Colorado indicate that park and forest pollen assemblages can be distinguished using multivariate statistical methods and conifer:herb pollen ratios. Fossil pollen from the five sediment cores shows that the distribution of the two vegetation types on the landscape has changed through the Holocene, and that the changes in vegetation are gradual. Past changes from park to forest have apparently occurred much more slowly than changes from forest to park, suggesting that areas subjected to recent clearcutting may remain unforested for centuries.

  11. Northwest corner of Wyoming

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    SL4-138-3846 (February 1974) --- A near vertical view of the snow-covered northwest corner of Wyoming as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewman used a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera to take this picture. A small portion of Montana and Idaho is seen in this photograph also. The dark area is Yellowstone National Park. The largest body of water is Yellowstone Lake. The Absaroka Range is immediately east and northeast of Yellowstone Lake. The elongated range in the eastern part of the picture is the Big Horn Mountain range. The Wind River Range is at bottom center. The Grand Teton National Park area is almost straight south of Yellowstone Lake. Approximately 30 per cent of the state of Wyoming can be seen in this photograph. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Preliminary analysis for trends in selected water-quality characteristics, Powder River, Montana and Wyoming, water years 1952-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Selected water-quality data from two streamflow-gaging stations on the Powder River, Montana and Wyoming, were statistically analyzed for trends using the seasonal Kendall test. Data for water years 1952-63 and 1975-85 from the Powder River near Locate, Montana, and water years 1967-68 and 1976-85 from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, were analyzed. Data for the earlier period near Locate were discharge-weighted monthly mean values, whereas data for the late period near Locate and at Sussex were from periodic samples. For data from water years 1952-63 near Locate, increasing trends were detected in sodium and sodium-adsorption ratio; no trends were detected in specific conductance, hardness, non-carbonate hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, or sulfate. For data from water years 1975-85 near Locate, increasing trends were detected in specific conductance, sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, and chloride; no trends were detected in hardness, noncarbonate hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, or sulfate. At Sussex (water years 1967-68 and 1976-85), increasing trends were detected in sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, and chloride, and a decreasing trend was detected in sulfate. No trends were detected in specific conductance, alkalinity, or dissolved solids. When the 1967-68 data were deleted and the analysis repeated for the 1976-85 data, only sodium-adsorption ratio displayed a significant (increasing) trend. Because the study was exploratory, causes and effects were not considered. The results might have been affected by sample size, number of seasons, heterogeneity, significance level, serial correlation, and data adjustment for changes in discharge. (USGS)

  13. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Development of energy-related resources in the northern Great Plains of the US will require large quantities of ground water. Because Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming are semiarid, the primary local sources of nonappropriated water are the deep bedrock aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. The US Geological Survey undertook a 4-year interdisciplinary study that has culminated in a digital-simulation model of the regional flow system and incorporates the results of geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic studies. Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age form at least five artesian aquifers that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The aquifers extend for more than 600 mi to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in Manitoba. In general, the direction of flow in each aquifer is east to northeast, but flow is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of brine (200,000-350,000 mg/l), halite beds, geologic structures, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Fracture systems and lineaments transverse the entire area and act either as conduits or as barriers to ground-water flow, depending on their hydrogeologic and geochemical history. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale with low permeability, by halite beds, and by stratigraphic traps or low-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. However, interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments and fractures. Interaquifer leakage may be a major consideration in determining the quality of water produced from wells.

  14. Depositional and thermal history of Lower Triassic rocks in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.; Kraemer, B.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-two stratigraphic sections in Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho provide the framework for a conodont biostratigraphic and carbonate sedimentologic analysis of Lower Triassic marine rocks. From oldest to youngest, these units are the Dinwoody, Woodside (Red Peak to the east), and Thaynes Formations. The Dinwoody disconformably overlies Upper Permian rocks with little or no physical evidence of a 1 to 6-m.y. hiatus. The initial Triassic transgression was extensive and geologically instantaneous across the study area, and it resulted in deposition of interbedded calcareous mudstone, siltstone, and limestone. The Dinwoody varies in thickness from zero on the northeast to greater than 270 m in the southwest. Maximum thicknesses of Woodside red beds and Thaynes carbonates and siltstones are 244 and 400 m, respectively. Post-Triassic erosion progressively truncated the Thaynes, Woodside, and Dinwoody from north to south across the region. The western margin of the Triassic seaway in the study area is obscured by erosion, structural complexities, igneous activity, and younger sedimentary deposits. The sparse and scattered exposures that remain provide an intriguing mosaic of depositional environments that range from shallow marine to basinal and represent most of Early Triassic time. Lower Triassic rocks produce gas in the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt, and similar potential may exist in Montana. Conodonts recovered from surface exposures are thermally unaltered except in close proximity to intrusive bodies and within the Medicine Lodge thrust system. This establishes that subsurface units in much of the study area are within the temperature regime for dry gas generation.

  15. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  16. Algal and Water-Quality Data for the Yellowstone River and Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Streams of the Yellowstone River Basin in Montana and Wyoming were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Algal communities were sampled in 1999 in conjunction with other ecological sampling and in 2000 during synoptic sampling. Water-quality measurements related to the algal sampling included light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Sites were sampled on the main-stem Yellowstone River, major tributaries such as the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and the Bighorn River, and selected minor tributaries. Some of the data collected, such as the phytoplankton chlorophyll-a data, were referenced or summarized in previous U.S. Geological Survey reports but were not previously published in tabular form, and therefore are presented in this report, prepared in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Data presented in this report include chlorophyll-a concentrations in phytoplankton and periphyton samples, as well as light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen production data from 1999-2000.

  17. Holocene and latest Pleistocene glacial chronology, Glacier National Park, Montana.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Moraines of two different age groups have been identified; the subdued, vegetated moraines of the older group have been found at 25 sites, mainly in the central part of the Lewis Range. These older moraines are in places overlain by the Mazama ash; they date from 10 000 BP or earlier. Moraines of the younger group, consisting of fresh bouldery rubble, are common throughout Glacier Park. Tree- ring analyses indicate that some of these younger moraines were deposited by advances that culminated during the mid-19th century. At that time there were more than 150 glaciers in Glacier Park. -from Author

  18. Grizzly bear habitat research in Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinka, C.J.; Kendall, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Grizzly bear habitat research began in 1967 and is continuing in Glacier National Park, MT. Direct observations and fecal analysis revealed a relatively definable pattern of habitat use by the bears. Habitat data were subsequently used to develop management models and explore the relationships between grizzlies and park visitors. Current research strategy is based on the concept that humans are an integral components of grizzly bear habitat. A geographic information system is being developed to assist in the application of habitat data. In addition, the behavioral response of grizzlies to annual changes in food production is being studied. Management that addresses bears, humans, and their habitat as a system is proposed.

  19. Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to

  20. HYDROTHERMAL MINERALOGY OF RESEARCH DRILL HOLE Y-3, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

    1984-01-01

    The approximate paragenetic sequence of hydrothermal minerals in the Y-3 U. S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, is: hydrothermal chalcedony, hematite, pyrite, quartz, clay minerals (smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite), calcite, chlorite, fluorite, pyrite, quartz, zeolite minerals (analcime, dachiardite, laumontite, stilbite, and yugawaralite), and clay minerals (smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite). A few hydrothermal minerals that were identified in drill core Y-3 (lepidolite, aegirine, pectolite, and truscottite) are rarely found in modern geothermal areas. The alteration minerals occur primarily as vug and fracture fillings that were deposited from cooling thermal water. Refs.

  1. Comparison of macroinvertebrate community structure between two riffle-based sampling protocols in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Zumberge, Jeremy R.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates were collected side-by-side from riffles at 12 stream sites in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana during 2000-2001, following protocols established by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Samples from riffles were collected following NAWQA protocols, using a sampler with 425-micron net mesh-opening size from a total area of 1.25 m2 per sample in multiple riffles. Samples also were collected following EMAP protocols, using a sampler with 500-micron net mesh-opening size from a total area of 0.72 m2 per sample in multiple riffles. The taxonomic identification and enumeration of the samples followed procedures established for each program. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure was compared between the data sets using individual metrics, a multimetric index, and multivariate analysis. Comparisons between the macroinvertebrate community structures were made after sequentially adjusting both data sets for: (1) ambiguous taxa, (2) taxonomic inconsistencies, and (3) differences in laboratory subsampling. After removal of ambiguous taxa, pair-wise differences in total taxa richness and Ephemeroptera taxa richness were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Differences between the data sets generally were not significant for richness of other taxa, tolerant taxa, semi-voltine taxa, functional feeding groups, diversity, and dominance. Sample scores calculated using the Wyoming Stream Integrity Index were not significantly different between the two data sets. After reconciling both data sets for taxonomic inconsistencies, total taxa richness and Ephemeroptera taxa richness remained significantly different between the data sets. After adjusting the data for differences in laboratory subsampling, the differences in taxa richness were no longer significant. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients and non

  2. Element concentrations in bed sediment of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Zelt, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical data for bed sediment were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. The primary data set consisted of about 13,000 samples collected during 1974-79 for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Data were available for 50 elements, although not all samples were analyzed for all elements. Element concentrations varied spatially and were associated with geologic settings or ecoregions. Factor analysis indicated three groups of associated elements: factor 1 elements were strongly correlated with basaltic rocks, factor 2 elements were strongly correlated with granitic rocks, and factor 3 elements were strongly correlated with carbonate rocks. Scores for factor 1 were highest for bed-sediment samples associated with volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age in the Absaroka volcanic field and crystalline rocks of Precambrian age in the Beartooth Mountains. Scores for factor 2 were highest for samples associated with volcanic rocks of Quaternary age on the Yellowstone Plateau, crystalline rocks of Precambrian age, and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age in the Wyoming Basin ecoregion. Scores for factor 3 were highest in samples associated with sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age and volcanic rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Descriptive statistics are presented to serve as a baseline for element concentrations in bed sediment associated with eight geologic settings or ecoregions in the study unit. Some of the concentrations of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in bed-sediment samples from areas of crystalline rocks in the Beartooth Mountains and other formations in the western part of the study unit exceeded sediment-quality assessment values associated with toxic effects to aquatic life.

  3. Phosphorus in hydrothermal waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, R.E.; Thompson, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Ninety-seven hot-spring and geyser samples (field acidified to pH<1.4 with HCl or HNO3) from Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., were analyzed for PO4-P using reduced molybdenum-blue and the selective arsenate reducing agent, metabisulfite-thiosulfate. The PO4-P concentrations ranged from below detection limit (~1-73 micrograms per liter). Twenty-five springs had PO4-P concentrations exceeding 6.8 μg/L; seven spring samples exceeded 20 μg/L. Elevated PO4-P contents were invariably associated with mixed springs, as evidenced by diluted chloride concentrations and, commonly, subboiling temperatures, low pH's, and elevated calcium concentrations. Alkaline high-chloride (>400 milligrams per liter) hydrothermal waters from Upper and Norris Geyser Basins had PO4-P concentrations below 2 μg/L and represent the low end of the range of PO4-P contents in natural waters.

  4. Thermal infrared survey of Sunlight Basin, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Vice, D.H.; Crowley, J.P.; Vice, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermal infrared surveys were flown over the Sunlight mining region and Sulphur Camp area of the Sunlight Basin to substantiate whether reported fumaroles are indicative of contemporary geothermal activity in the area. Thermal infrared imagery shows areas of warm ground along and warm water discharge into Sunlight Creek and Sulphur Lake. Sulphur deposits are found on north- and south-facing hill slopes associated with a second warm ground anomaly adjacent to Gas Creek. Warming is also manifested in the thermal characteristics of vegetation, and several fumaroles are identifiable. Aeromagnetic data show a 200 gamma low at Sulphur Camp which cannot be explained topographically. Major northeast-trending lineaments provide potential conduits for thermal fluids from the magma plume in Yellowstone National Park, 50 km (30 mi) to the southwest. The floor of the Yellowstone caldera is topographically higher and could provide the necessary hydraulic head to move the fluids outward. Other geothermal resources may exhibit the same characteristics. This example suggests that geothermal resources may occur at considerable distances from a heat source.

  5. Development of a local meteoric water line for southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Lyn; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Hall, L. Flint; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Green, Jaromy R.

    2005-01-01

    Linear-regression analysis was applied to stable hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) isotope data in 72 snow-core and precipitation samples collected during 1999-2001 to determine the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) for southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and south-central Montana. On the basis of (1) residuals from the regression model, (2) comparison of study-area deuterium-excess (d-excess) values with the global range of d-excess values, and (3) outlier analysis by means of Chauvenet's Criterion, values of four samples were excluded from final regression analysis of the dataset. Regression results for the 68 remaining samples yielded a LMWL defined by the equation ?H = 7.95 18O + 8.09 (r? = 0.98). This equation will be useful as a reference point for future studies in this area that use stable isotopes of H and O to determine sources of ground-water recharge, to determine water-mineral exchange, to evaluate surface-water and groundwater interaction, and to analyze many other geochemical and hydrologic problems.

  6. Hydrogeology and simulation of water flow in strata above Bearpaw Shale and equivalents of eastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Levings, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Powder River, Bull Mountains, and Williston basins of Montana and Wyoming were investigated to understand the geohydrology and subsurface water flow. Rocks were separated into: Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer (layer 1), upper Hell Creek confining layer (layer 2), Tullock aquifer (layer 3), Lebo confining layer (layer 4), and Tongue River aquifer (layer 5). Aquifer transmissivities were estimated from ratios of sand and shale and adjusted for kinematic viscosity and compaction. Vertical hydraulic conductance per unit area between layers was estimated. Potentiometric surface maps were drawn from limited data. A three-dimensional finite-difference model was used for simulation. Five stages of simulation decreased and standard error of estimate for hydraulic head from 135 to 110 feet for 739 observation nodes. The resulting mean transmissivities for layers 1-5 were 443, 191, 374, 217, and 721 sq ft/d. The corresponding mean vertical hydraulic conductances per unit area between the layers were simulated; they ranged from 0.000140 to 0.0000150. Mean annual recharge across the study area was about 0.26 percent of average annual precipitation. Large volumes of interlayer flow indicate the vertical flow may be significant. (USGS)

  7. Preliminary report on coal resources of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Margaret S.; Gunther, Gregory L.; Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, Allen M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Roberts, Steven B.; Taber, Thomas T.; Bader, Lisa R.; Schuenemeyer, John H.

    1998-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project by the U.S. Geological Survey is designed to assess US coal with the greatest potential for development in the next 20 to 30 years. Coal in the Wyodak-Anderson (WA) coal zone in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana is plentiful, clean, and compliant with EPA emissions standards. This coal is considered to be very desirable for development for use in electric power generation. The purpose of this NCRA study was to compile all available data relating to the Wyodak- Anderson coal, correlate the beds that make up the WA coal zone, create digital files pertaining to the study area and the WA coal, and produce a variety of reports on various aspects of the assessed coal unit. This report contains preliminary calculations of coal resources for the WA coal zone and is one of many products of the NCRA study. Coal resource calculations in this report were produced using both public and confidential data from many sources. The data was manipulated using a variety of commercially available software programs and several custom programs. A general description of the steps involved in producing the resource calculations is described in this report.

  8. Large, Wetland-associated mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of glacier national park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, R.L.; Hossack, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    We describe species richness and habitat associations of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) collected during amphibian surveys of 355 water bodies in Glacier National Park (NP), Montana, in 20062008. We collected 9 taxa (in 7 genera) of mayflies that were identifiable to species. Callibaetis jerrugineus hageni was collected most frequently, followed by Siphlonurus occidentalis, S. phyllis, Ameletus celer, A. similior, Parameletus columbiae, Ephemerella dorothea infrequens, Baetis bicaudatus, and Leptophlebia cupida. Siphlonurus phyllis had not been reported in the western United States prior to our surveys, and P. columbiae is a species of concern in the region. The identifications of 4 additional taxa were uncertain due to the poor condition of specimens found at only one site (Centroptilum sp. and Paraleptophlebia sp.) or because nymphal specimens could not be confidently identified (Cinygma sp. and Cinygmula sp.). Species richness of mayflies in wetlands seems low compared to that in streams and lakes in Glacier National Park. We found the most species of mayflies in beaver ponds, where we detected some species not commonly associated with lentic water bodies. Our survey was the first extensive survey of wetland invertebrates in Glacier NP and only the second that we are aware of in western Montana.

  9. Vitrinite reflectance data for Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 square miles in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected from Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin to better characterize the thermal maturity and petroleum potential of these rocks. Ninety-eight samples from Lower Cretaceous and lowermost Upper Cretaceous strata were collected from well cuttings from wells stored at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Core Research Center in Lakewood, Colorado.

  10. Availability of selected meteorological data in computer-based files of the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Brenda L.; Cary, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Meteorological data were located, acquired, and stored from selected stations in Montana and North Dakota coal regions and adjacent areas including South Dakota and Wyoming. Data that were acquired have potential use in small watershed modeling studies. Emphasis was placed on acquiring data that was collected during the period 1970 to the present (1984). A map shows the location and type of stations selected. A narration summarizing conventions used in acquiring and storing the meteorological data is provided along with the various retrieval options available. Individual station descriptions are followed by tables listing the meteorological variables collected, period of obtained record, percentage of data recovery, and the instruments used and their description. (USGS)

  11. Chronostratigraphic cross section of Cretaceous formations in western Montana, western Wyoming, eastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, and northwestern New Mexico, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E. Allen; McKinney, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    In this transect for time-stratigraphic units of the Cretaceous, lateral changes in lithologies, regional differences in thicknesses, and the abundance of associated disconformities possibly reflect local and regional tectonic events. Examples of evidence of those events follow: (1) Disconformities and the absence of strata of lowest Cretaceous age in western Montana, western Wyoming, and northern Utah indicate significant tectonism and erosion probably during the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous; ( 2) stages of Upper Cretaceous deposition in the transect display major lateral changes in thickness, which probably reflect regional and local tectonism.

  12. Maps showing formation temperatures and configurations of the tops of the Minnelusa Formation and the Madison Limestone, Powder River basin, Wyoming, Montana, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, W.J.; Kilty, K.T.; Knottek, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    This report is part of a study to describe the hydrologic framework needed to evaluate the water resources of the Paleozoic age aquifers in the Northern Great Plains coal region (fig 1). Preliminary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota have indicated that these aquifers might provide significant percentage of the water requirements for coal development. Data in this report are needed to help evaluate the potential of the Paleozoic age aquifers as a source for water supplies. The results will also be used to provide information for the orderly development of the aquifers. 

  13. Western energy related overhead monitoring project. Phase 2: Summary. [Campbell County, Wyoming and coal strip mines in Montana and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Assistance by NASA to EPA in the establishment and maintenance of a fully operational energy-related monitoring system included: (1) regional analysis applications based on LANDSAT and auxiliary data; (2) development of techniques for using aircraft MSS data to rapidly monitor site specific surface coal mine activities; and (3) registration of aircraft MSS data to a map base. The coal strip mines used in the site specific task were in Campbell County, Wyoming; Big Horn County, Montana; and the Navajo mine in San Juan County, New Mexico. The procedures and software used to accomplish these tasks are described.

  14. Governance Challenges in Joint Inter-Jurisdictional Management: The Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, Elk Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Susan G.; Vernon, Marian E.

    2015-08-01

    The controversial elk reduction program (elk hunt) in Grand Teton National Park, WY, has been a source of conflict since it was legislated in 1950. The hunt is jointly managed by the National Park Service and the Wyoming Game and Fish Department. This forced organizational partnership and the conflicting mandates of these two agencies have led to persistent conflict that seems irresolvable under the current decision-making process. To better understand the decision-making process and participant perspectives, we reviewed management documents, technical literature, and newspaper articles, and interviewed 35 key participants in this case. We used these data to analyze and appraise the adequacy of the decision-making process for the park elk hunt and to ask whether it reflects the common interest. We found deficiencies in all functions of the decision-making process. Neither the decisions made nor the process itself include diverse perspectives, nor do they attend to valid and appropriate participant concerns. Agency officials focus their attention on technical rather than procedural concerns, which largely obfuscates the underlying tension in the joint inter-jurisdictional management arrangement and ultimately contributes to the hunt's annual implementation to the detriment of the common interest. We offer specific yet widely applicable recommendations to better approximate an inclusive and democratic decision-making process that serves the community's common interests.

  15. Governance Challenges in Joint Inter-Jurisdictional Management: The Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, Elk Case.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan G; Vernon, Marian E

    2015-08-01

    The controversial elk reduction program (elk hunt) in Grand Teton National Park, WY, has been a source of conflict since it was legislated in 1950. The hunt is jointly managed by the National Park Service and the Wyoming Game and Fish Department. This forced organizational partnership and the conflicting mandates of these two agencies have led to persistent conflict that seems irresolvable under the current decision-making process. To better understand the decision-making process and participant perspectives, we reviewed management documents, technical literature, and newspaper articles, and interviewed 35 key participants in this case. We used these data to analyze and appraise the adequacy of the decision-making process for the park elk hunt and to ask whether it reflects the common interest. We found deficiencies in all functions of the decision-making process. Neither the decisions made nor the process itself include diverse perspectives, nor do they attend to valid and appropriate participant concerns. Agency officials focus their attention on technical rather than procedural concerns, which largely obfuscates the underlying tension in the joint inter-jurisdictional management arrangement and ultimately contributes to the hunt's annual implementation to the detriment of the common interest. We offer specific yet widely applicable recommendations to better approximate an inclusive and democratic decision-making process that serves the community's common interests.

  16. Low-Temperature Thermochronology of Laramide Ranges in Montana and Wyoming Provides Information on Exhumation and Tectonics Associated with Flat-Slab Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenta, M.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Timing of exhumation of Laramide basement uplifts can be used as a proxy for tectonic processes associated with thick-skinned deformation resulting from flat-slab subduction. Despite its significance, the timing and pattern of Laramide deformation remains poorly constrained in Montana. Thermochronological data from Wyoming indicate exhumation of Laramide ranges during the late Cretaceous and Paleogene. Whereas a few data exist for the Bearthooth Range in Montana; the exhumation history of most of the Montana ranges remains unexplored preventing testing of current tectonic models. We report apatite fission track thermochronologic (AFT) data from modern river sands derived from Laramide ranges, bedrock basement samples, and synorogenic conglomerate clasts to determine the regional exhumation history of the Beartooth, Gravelly, Tobacco Root, Ruby, the Highland Mountains, and the Wind River Range. AFT permits reconstruction of thermal histories and rates of erosion of the upper few kilometers of the crust. In particular detrital AFT of river sands provides information on regional exhumation of the drainage area. AFT detrital ages derived from the southern end of the Beartooth Range are dominated by a 60-80 Ma signal, consistent with ages reported for bedrock basement samples in the Beartooth Range. A Cenozoic synorogenic conglomerate clast was obtained from the Highland Mountains, AFT results show a 69.56 +/- 5.45 Ma cooling age. In the Wind River Range, Wyoming AFT data from a Cenozoic synorogenic conglomerate clast from the Wind River Formation indicates a 59.32 +/- 4.83 Ma cooling age. This age is consistent with AFT ages from Gannett Peak indicating rapid cooling at ~60 Ma and ~50 Ma (Fan and Carrapa, 2014). Overall, samples from the easternmost ranges, the Beartooth and Bighorn, clearly preserve a Cretaceous signal; samples from Wind River Range and the rest of southwest Montana mainly record a Cenozoic signal. This suggests deeper and younger exhumation to the

  17. Assessment of the Mowry Shale and Niobrara Formation as Continuous Hydrocarbon Systems, Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Cook, Troy A.

    2008-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) oil and gas assessment of the Powder River Basin , Wyoming and Montana, identified the Upper Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Niobrara Formation as the primary hydrocarbon sources for Cretaceous conventional and unconventional reservoirs. Cumulative Mowry-sourced petroleum production is about 1.2 BBO (billion barrels of oil) and 2.2 TCFG (trillion cubic feet of gas) and cumulative Niobrara-sourced oil production is about 520 MMBO (million barrels of oil) and 0.95 TCFG. Burial history modeling indicated that hydrocarbon generation for both formations started at about 0.60 percent Ro at depths of about 8,000 ft. At maximum depths, Ro for the Mowry is about 1.2 to 1.3 percent and about 0.80 percent for the Niobrara. The Mowry and Niobrara continuous reservoirs were assessed using a cell-based methodology that utilized production data. The size of each cell was based on geologic controls and potential drainage areas in analog fields. Current and historical production data were used to determine the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) distribution for untested cells. Only production data from unconventional fractured shale reservoirs with vertical wells were used. For the Mowry, the minimum, median, and maximum total recovery volumes per cell for untested cells are (1) 0.002, 0.25, and 0.35 MMBO, respectively; and for the Niobrara (2) 0.002, 0.028, and 0.5 MMBO. Sweet spots were identified by lineaments and faults, which are believed to be areas having the greatest petroleum potential; an upper limit of 8,000 ft depth was defined by overpressuring caused by hydrocarbon generation. Mean estimates of technically recoverable undiscovered continuous resource for the Mowry are 198 MMBO, 198 BCF (billion cubic feet of gas), and 11.9 MMBNGL (million barrels of natural gas liquid), and those for the Niobrara are 227 MMBO, 227 BCFG, and 13.6 MMBNGL.

  18. Lower Cody Shale (Niobrara equivalent) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: thickness, distribution, and source rock potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The lower shaly member of the Cody Shale in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana is Coniacian to Santonian in age and is equivalent to the upper part of the Carlile Shale and basal part of the Niobrara Formation in the Powder River Basin to the east. The lower Cody ranges in thickness from 700 to 1,200 feet and underlies much of the central part of the basin. It is composed of gray to black shale, calcareous shale, bentonite, and minor amounts of siltstone and sandstone. Sixty-six samples, collected from well cuttings, from the lower Cody Shale were analyzed using Rock-Eval and total organic carbon analysis to determine the source rock potential. Total organic carbon content averages 2.28 weight percent for the Carlile equivalent interval and reaches a maximum of nearly 5 weight percent. The Niobrara equivalent interval averages about 1.5 weight percent and reaches a maximum of over 3 weight percent, indicating that both intervals are good to excellent source rocks. S2 values from pyrolysis analysis also indicate that both intervals have a good to excellent source rock potential. Plots of hydrogen index versus oxygen index, hydrogen index versus Tmax, and S2/S3 ratios indicate that organic matter contains both Type II and Type III kerogen capable of generating oil and gas. Maps showing the distribution of kerogen types and organic richness for the lower shaly member of the Cody Shale show that it is more organic-rich and more oil-prone in the eastern and southeastern parts of the basin. Thermal maturity based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro) ranges from 0.60–0.80 percent Ro around the margins of the basin, increasing to greater than 2.0 percent Ro in the deepest part of the basin, indicates that the lower Cody is mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation.

  19. Adapting to climate change at Glacier National Park, Montana, USA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagre, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of climate change on mountain watersheds has been studied at Glacier National Park, Montana since 1991. Despite a 14% increase in annual precipitation, glaciers have receded, snow packs have diminished, and late season stream discharge has declined. Snow melts one month earlier in the spring, leading to earlier hydrologic peaks and tree invasions of subalpine meadows. This has been largely driven by annual temperature increases that are 2-3 times greater than the global average for the past century. How do scientists and park managers adapt? Although stopping the glaciers from disappearing is not a management option, park staff have embarked on an aggressive education and interpretation effort to use melting glaciers as the segue into dialog about climate change. Media such as podcasts, handouts, posters, visitor center displays and roadside signage complement interpretive ranger-led talks about climate change and incorporate the latest glacial data from ongoing research. With few historic data on most animal populations, Glacier Park staff and other scientists are unable to assess the impacts of climate change to resources that the public cares about. They have recently initiated alpine wildlife monitoring programs to track populations of potentially climate-sensitive organisms such as the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Recognizing that climate change increases the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, design specifications for reconstruction of an alpine highway were adjusted to include larger culverts and hardened rock walls. Species that are dependent on cold water will be at risk as glaciers and snowfields disappear but managers cannot control these processes. However, they are proactively reducing other stressors to sensitive native fish species by removing exotic, introduced species that are competitors. In addition to these adaptation measures, Glacier Park has implemented shuttles, fleet conversions and enhanced building

  20. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Gillette Quadrangle, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, H.W. Jr.; Robinson, K.; Stanton, M.R.; Geer, K.A.

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources of the Gillette 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Wyoming, and a very small part of South Dakota, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface information. Most of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature were searched for and many were found, sampled, and described. Some reported occurrences, however, were never located. As time permitted, ground radiometric surveys were made over areas showing Hydrochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) or aerial radiometric anomalies. In general, ground radiometric surveys did not confirm either HSSR or aerial radiometric anomalies in the Powder River Basin portion of the quadrangle. Surface and subsurface studies outlined three areas favorable for uranium deposits. These areas are limited to certain rock units and depositional environments. The eastern- most area consists of the Lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara Group which contains marine, marginal-marine, and fluvial paleoenvironments. The second favorable area occurs to the west and up-section in the Upper Cretaceous marginal-marine Fox Hills Sandstone and the overlying fluvial Lance Formation. The third and westernmost favorable area is a small area of the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Unfavorable areas include areas underlain by Tertiary rocks, with the exception of the small area of the Wasatch Formation mentioned above; all Mesozoic rocks above the Lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara Group and below the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Lance Formation. All Paleozoic and older rocks and Tertiary intrusives are considered unfavorable.

  1. The Quaternary and Pliocene Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    This region of Yellowstone National Park has been the active focus of one of the Earth's largest magmatic systems for more than 2 million years. The resulting volcanism has been characterized by the eruption of voluminous rhyolites and subordinate basalts but virtually no lavas of intermediate composition. The magmatic system at depth remains active and drives the massive hydrothermal circulation for which the park is widely known. Studies of the volcanic field using geologic mapping and petrology have defined three major cycles of rhyolitic volcanism, each climaxed by the eruption of a rhyolitic ash-flow sheet having a volume of hundreds of thousands of cubic kilometers. The field also has been analyzed in terms of its magmatic and tectonic evolution, including its regional relation to the Snake River plain and to basin-range tectonic extension.

  2. Cartographic modeling of snow avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Bian, Ling; Butler, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) techniques were applied to the study of snow-avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana. Aerial photointerpretation and field surveys confirmed the location of 121 avalanche paths within the selected study area. Spatial and nonspatial information on each path were integrated using the ARC/INFO GIS. Lithologic, structural, hydrographic, topographic, and land-cover impacts on path location were analyzed. All path frequencies within variable classes were normalized by the area of class occurrence relative to the total area of the study area and were added to the morphometric information contained within INFO tables. The normalized values for each GIS coverage were used to cartographically model, by means of composite factor weightings, avalanche path locations.

  3. Cartographic modeling of snow avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Bian, Ling; Butler, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) techniques were applied to the study of snow-avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana. Aerial photointerpretation and field surveys confirmed the location of 121 avalanche paths within the selected study area. Spatial and nonspatial information on each path were integrated using the ARC/INFO GIS. Lithologic, structural, hydrographic, topographic, and land-cover impacts on path location were analyzed. All path frequencies within variable classes were normalized by the area of class occurrence relative to the total area of the study area and were added to the morphometric information contained within INFO tables. The normalized values for each GIS coverage were used to cartographically model, by means of composite factor weightings, avalanche path locations.

  4. Paleotectonic implications of arkose beds in Park Shale (Middle Cambrian), Bridger Range, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, J.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-08-01

    The Cambrian System in the Bridger Range of south-central Montana is part of a 450 to 500-m (1475 to 1640-ft) thick transgressive-regressive sequence of fine-grained clastic and carbonate rocks. In south-central Montana, the Park Shale is 50 m (165 ft) of green, micaceous shale with interbedded siltstone at the base and intercalated limestone at the top. However, in the northern Bridger Range, the lower 30 m (100 ft) is a prominent interval of interbedded arkosic sandstone and micaceous shale. These arkosic sandstone beds are localized in the northern Bridger Range and are unknown in the southern Bridgers and in Cambrian outcrops of surrounding areas. The occurrence of Park sandstone beds that contain orthoclase and plagioclase grains and pebbles of quartzofeldspathic gneiss requires 1) the presence of a localized island of Precambrian crystalline rock, an erosional remnant that must have risen at least 200 m (650 ft) above the surrounding Cambrian/Precambrian erosion surface and was exposed above the depositional interface through most of the Middle Cambrian, or 2) an island of Precambrian crystalline rock that was exposed by late Middle Cambrian reactivation of zones of Precambrian structural weakness. The most spatially and lithologically feasible tectonic feature along which late Middle Cambrian movement might have produced an island or series of islands is the Willow Creek-Jefferson Canyon fault zone, along which significant movement occurred during deposition of the LaHood Formation (Precambrian Y); the fault zone structurally divides the northern and southern parts of the Bridger Range, and later Paleozoic movement has been documented along this zone.

  5. Grebull sandstone pool (Lower Cretaceous) on Elk Basin thrust-fold complex, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    The Elk Basin field in the northern Bighorn basin is a giant structural trap with cumulative production surpassing 500 million bbl, principally from a Paleozoic common pool. Abundant well data and seismic information have been used in a stratigraphic and structural study focusing on the Greybull (Lower Cretaceous) gas pool and on deeper formations along this structural complex. These data support an interpretation of the Elk Basin field as a thrust-fold complex, underlain by a listric thrust fault zone which probably emanates from Precambrian basement at an angle of 45/sup 0/ or less. The fault steepens upward and dies out in steeply dipping Mesozoic clastics that are attenuated and cut by extensional faults at the surface. The little known Greybull Sandstone pool at Elk Basin field, which is now used for gas storage, was discovered in 1920, and contained estimated primary recoverable reserves of 54 bcf of gas at an average depth of about 2500 ft (760 m). The Greybull lies stratigraphically between the Dakota and Morrison Formations, and is composed of two distinct sandstone units, called A and B at the North Clark's Fork field in southern Montana. The lower B unit at Elk Basin is a fluvial river-channel deposit which ranges up to 150 ft (45 m) in thickness and nearly 2 mi (3 km) in width. The upper A unit is a series of shoreline sandstone deposits oriented northwest-southeast. Individual, porous A sandstone bodies range from a few feet to more than 20 ft (6 m) in thickness at Elk Basin. These two Greybull Sandstone units are part of a common gas pool covering about 2000 acres (800 ha.) of the crestal closure of the Elk Basin anticline. Seismic modeling indicates that Greybull Sandstone channels over 60 ft (18 m) thick may be detected by reflection character changes in CDP seismic data.

  6. Subsurface cross section of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Powder River basin is one of the most actively explored Rocky Mountain basins for hydrocarbons, yet the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) rocks of this interval remain little studied. As a part of a program studying the evolution of sedimentary basins, approximately 3200 km of cross section, based on more than 50 combined geophysical and lithologic logs, have been constructed covering an area of about 200,000 km/sup 2/. The present-day basin is a Cenozoic structural feature located between the stable interior of the North American craton and the Cordilleran orogenic belt. At various times during the early Paleozoic, the basin area was not distinguishable from either the stable craton, the Williston basin, the Central Montana trough, or the Cordilleran miogeocline. Both deposition and preservation in the basin have been greatly influenced by the relative uplift of the Transcontinental arch. Shows of oil and dead oil in well cuttings confirm that hydrocarbons have migrated through at least parts of the basin's lower Paleozoic carbonate section. These rocks may have been conduits for long-distance migration of hydrocarbons as early as Late Cretaceous, based on (1) the probable timing of thermal maturation of hydrocarbon-source rocks within the basin area and to the west, (2) the timing of Laramide structural events, (3) the discontinuous nature of the reservoirs in the overlying, highly productive Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation, and (4) the under-pressuring observed in some Minnelusa oil fields. Vertical migration into the overlying reservoirs could have been through deep fractures within the basin, represented by major lineament systems. Moreover, the lower Paleozoic rocks themselves may also be hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  7. Assessment of potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the Powder River and Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Feldman, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency aquatic task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. Ecological assessments, made from 2005–08 under the direction of the task group, indicated biological condition of the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the middle reaches of the Powder was lower than in the upper or lower reaches. On the basis of the 2005–08 results, sampling of the macroinvertebrate and algae communities was conducted at 18 sites on the mainstem Powder River and 6 sites on the mainstem Tongue River in 2010. Sampling-site locations were selected on a paired approach, with sites located upstream and downstream of discharge points and tributaries associated with coalbed natural gas development. Differences in biological condition among site pairs were evaluated graphically and statistically using multiple lines of evidence that included macroinvertebrate and algal community metrics (such as taxa richness, relative abundance, functional feeding groups, and tolerance) and output from observed/expected (O/E) macroinvertebrate models from Wyoming and Montana. Multiple lines of evidence indicated a decline in biological condition in the middle reaches of the Powder River, potentially indicating cumulative effects from coalbed natural gas discharges within one or more reaches between Flying E Creek and Wild Horse Creek in Wyoming. The maximum concentrations of alkalinity in the Powder River also occurred in the middle reaches. Biological condition in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River was variable, with declines between some site pairs, such as upstream and downstream of Dry Fork and Willow Creek, and increases at others, such as upstream and downstream of Beaver Creek. Biological condition at site pairs on the Tongue River showed an increase in one case

  8. Water resources of Teton County, Wyoming, exclusive of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, B.T.; Miller, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water data were collected and analyzed to describe the water resources of that part of Teton County, Wyoming located south of Yellowstone National Park. Wells and springs inventoried in the Teton County study area most commonly were completed in or issued from Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and Tertiary, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic rocks. The largest measured, reported, or estimated discharges were from Quaternary uncon- solidated deposits (3,000 gallons per minute), the Bacon Ridge Sandstone of Cretaceous age (800 gallons per minute), and the Madison Limestone of Mississippian age (800 gallons per minute). Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples from Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and Tertiary, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic rocks ranged from 80 to 1,060 milligrams per liter. A time-domain electromagnetic survey of Jackson Hole indicated that the depth of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits ranged from about 380 feet in the northern part of Antelope Flats to about 2,400 feet near the Potholes area in Grand Teton National Park. A streamflow gain-and-loss study indicated that the ground-water discharge to the Snake River between gaging stations near Moran and south of the Flat Creek confluence, near Jackson, was 395 cubic feet per second. Water level contours generated from 137 water-level measurements and 118 stream altitudes indicated that water in Quaternary unconsolidated deposits flows southwest in the general direction of the Snake River.

  9. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  10. Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah: Chapter E in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Anna B.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Yager, Douglas B.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming and Bear River Watershed, Wyoming and Utah, SFAs.

  11. The boron isotope systematics of the Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming) hydrothermal system: A reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Sturchio, N.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Boron concentrations and isotope compositions have been measured in fourteen hot spring waters, two drill hole waters, an unaltered rhyolite flow, and hydrothermally altered rhyolite from the geothermal system in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The samples are representative of the major thermal areas within the park and span the range of fluid types. For the fluids, the B concentrations range from 0.043-2.69 mM/kg, and the {delta}{sup 11}B values range from {minus}9.3 to +4.4{per thousand}. There is no relationship between the dissolved B concentrations or isotope compositions with the concentration of any major element (other than Cl) or physical property. Each basin is characterized by a restricted range in B/Cl ratios and {delta}{sup 11}B values. Hot spring waters from the Norris Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, Calcite Springs, and Clearwater have {delta}{sup 11}B values close to that of unaltered rhyolite ({minus}5.2{per thousand}) and are interpreted to have derived their B from this source. Waters from Mammoth Hot Springs, Sheepeater, and Rainbow Springs have lower {delta}{sup 11}B values close to {minus}8{per thousand}. These lower values may reflect leaching of B from sedimentary rocks outside the Yellowstone caldera, but they are similar to the {delta}{sup 11}B value of hydrothermally altered rhyolite ({minus}9.7{per thousand}). Hence, the light boron isotope compositions recorded in these hot spring waters may reflect leaching of previously deposited hydrothermal minerals. Cooler springs along the Yellowstone River just outside the park boundary have lower B concentrations and higher {delta}{sup 11}B values that may reflect mixing with shallow meteoric water.

  12. The boron isotope systematics of the Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming) hydrothermal system: A reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M. R.; Sturchio, N. C.

    1990-10-01

    Boron concentrations and isotope compositions have been measured in fourteen hot spring waters, two drill hole waters, an unaltered rhyolite flow, and hydrothermally altered rhyolite from the geothermal system in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The samples are representative of the major thermal areas within the park and span the range of fluid types. For the fluids, the B concentrations range from 0.043-2.69 mM/kg, and the δ11B values range from -9.3 to +4.4%.. There is no relationship between the dissolved B concentrations or isotope compositions with the concentration of any major element (other than Cl) or physical property. Each basin is characterized by a restricted range in B/Cl ratios and δ11B values. Hot spring waters from the Morris Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, Calcite Springs, and Clearwater have δ11B values close to that of unaltered rhyolite (-5.2%.) and are interpreted to have derived their B from this source. Waters from Mammoth Hot Springs, Sheepeater, and Rainbow Springs have lower δ11B values close to -8%.. These lower values may reflect leaching of B from sedimentary rocks outside the Yellowstone caldera, but they are similar to the δ11B value of hydrothermally altered rhyolite (-9.7%.). Hence, the light boron isotope compositions recorded in these hot spring waters may reflect leaching of previously deposited hydrothermal minerals. Cooler springs along the Yellowstone River just outside the park boundary have lower B concentrations and higher δ11B values that may reflect mixing with shallow meteoric water.

  13. After a century-Revised Paleogene coal stratigraphy, correlation, and deposition, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Kinney, Scott A.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Dietz coal zone in Montana, over the Wyodak coal zone in Wyoming. Correlation in a circular track of the Wyodak coal zone in the southern part of the basin also demonstrates overlapping with lower coal zones. Recognition of this stratigraphic relationship has led to revision of the correlations and nomenclature of coal beds because of inconsistency within these zones as well as those below and above them, which have long been subjects of controversy. Also, it significantly changes the traditional coal bed-to-bed correlations, and estimates of coal and coalbed methane resources of these coal zones due to thinning and pinching out of beds. More notably, thickness isopach, orientation, and distribution of the merged Wyodak coal bodies in the south-southeast part of the basin suggest that differential movement of lineament zones active during the Cretaceous was not a major influence on coal accumulation during the Paleocene. Improved knowledge of alluvial depositional environments as influenced by external and internal paleotectonic conditions within the Powder River Basin permits more accurate correlation, mapping, and resource estimation of the Fort Union and Wasatch coal beds. The result is a better understanding of the sedimentology of the basin infill deposits in relation to peat bog accumulation.

  14. Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.

    1962-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier

  15. New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana (fig. 1). Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary (Fox and Dolton, 1989, 1996a, b; De Bruin, 1993). In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs (Johnson and Finn, 1998; Johnson and others, 1999). The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey's assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Bighorn Basin. These new data supplement previously published data by Nuccio and Finn (1998), and Yin (1997), and lead to a better understanding and characterization of the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks. Eighty-nine samples of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (fig. 2) were collected and analyzed - 15 samples were from outcrops around the margins of the basin and 74 samples were well cuttings (fig. 1). Forty-one of the samples were shale, two were carbonaceous shale, and the remainder from coal. All samples were analyzed by vitrinite reflectance to determine levels of thermal maturation. Preparation of samples for reflectance analysis required (1) crushing the larger pieces into 0.25-to 1-mm pieces, (2) casting the pieces with epoxy in pre-cut and drilled plugs, and (3) curing the samples overnight. Subsequently, a four-step grinding and polishing process was implemented that included sanding with progressively finer sandpaper (60 and 600 grit) followed with a two-step polishing process (0.3 and 0.05 micron). Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined at 500 X magnification using plane-polarized incident white light and a 546-nm monochromatic filter in immersion oil. For samples containing

  16. Glacial and Quaternary geology of the northern Yellowstone area, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This field guide focuses on the glacial geology and paleoecology beginning in the Paradise Valley and progressing southward into northern Yellowstone National Park. During the last (Pinedale) glaciation, the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier flowed out of Yellowstone Park and down the Yellowstone River Valley into the Paradise Valley. The field trip will traverse the following Pinedale glacial sequence: (1) deposition of the Eightmile terminal moraines and outwash 16.5 ± 1.4 10Be ka in the Paradise Valley; (2) glacial recession of ~8 km and deposition of the Chico moraines and outwash 16.1 ± 1.7 10Be ka; (3) glacial recession of 45 km to near the northern Yellowstone boundary and moraine deposition during the Deckard Flats readjustment 14.2 ± 1.2 10Be ka; and (4) glacial recession of ~37 km and deposition of the Junction Butte moraines 15.2 ± 1.3 10Be ka (this age is a little too old based on the stratigraphic sequence). Yellowstone's northern range of sagebrush-grasslands and bison, elk, wolf, and bear inhabitants is founded on glacial moraines, sub-glacial till, and outwash deposited during the last glaciation. Floods released from glacially dammed lakes and a landslide-dammed lake punctuate this record. The glacial geologic reconstruction was evaluated by calculation of basal shear stress, and yielded the following values for flow pattern in plan view: strongly converging—1.21 ± 0.12 bars (n = 15); nearly uniform—1.04 ± 0.16 bars (n = 11); and strongly diverging—0.84 ± 0.14 bars (n = 16). Reconstructed mass balance yielded accumulation and ablation each of ~3 km3/yr, with glacial movement near the equilibrium line altitude dominated by basal sliding. Pollen and charcoal records from three lakes in northern Yellowstone provide information on the postglacial vegetation and fire history. Following glacial retreat, sparsely vegetated landscapes were colonized first by spruce parkland and then by closed subalpine forests. Regional fire activity

  17. Water quality of two streams near Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, following the 1988 Clover-Mist wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerla, P.J.; Galloway, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1988, wildfire burned over 50% of the Jones Creek watershed near Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. Crow Creek, an adjacent watershed, was unburned. Water quality data collected from 1989-1993 may show the fire's effect on weathering and nutrient transport. Jones Creek had 25-75% larger concentration of dissolved solids than Crow Creek during the sampling period. Both streams revealed molar ratios consistent with the stoichiometry of andesine and pyroxene hydrolysis in the trachyandesites that underlie the basins. During 1989, nitrate transported from the unburned Crow Creek basin peaked at 2 mmol ha-1 s-1. This was twice as much as Jones Creek, possibly indicating a source from ash fallout. By 1992 these rates diminished to 0.1 mmol ha-1 s-1 in Crow Creek and increased to 1.8 mmol ha-1 s-1 in Jones Creek, suggesting later nitrate mobilization in the burned watershed. Phosphorus transported from Jones Creek basin averaged 0.011 mmol ha-1 s-1 during summer 1989, but fell to 0.004 mg ha-1 s-1 in subsequent years.In 1988, wildfire burned over 50% of the Jones Creek watershed near Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. Crow Creek, an adjacent watershed, was unburned. Water quality data collected from 1989-1993 may show the fire's effect on weathering and nutrient transport. Jones Creek had 25-75% larger concentrations of dissolved solids than Crow Creek during the sampling period. Both streams revealed molar ratios consistent with the stoichiometry of andesine and pyroxene hydrolysis in the trachyandesites that underlie the basins. During 1989, nitrate transported from the unburned Crow Creek basin peaked at 2 mmol ha-1 s-1. This was twice as much as Jones Creek, possibly indicating a source from ash fallout. By 1992 these rates diminished to 0.1 mmol ha-1 s-1 in Crow Creek and increased to 1.8 mmol ha-1 s-1 in Jones Creek, suggesting later nitrate mobilization in the burned watershed. Phosphorus transported from Jones Creek basin averaged 0.011 mmol ha-1 s-1 during summer 1989, but

  18. Stromatolites of the Belt Series in Glacier National Park and Vicinity, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezak, Richard

    1957-01-01

    Eight zones of Precambrian stromatolites that are useful for local correlation are recognized in the Belt series of the Glacier National Park region, Montana. The zones vary in composition, thickness, and areal extent. Some are widespread and extend into neighboring regions, and others occur only in small areas. Their names are taken from the dominant species that occurs in each zone. The zones are, from youngest to oldest - Conophyton zone 2 Missoula group Collenia symmetrica zone 2 Collenia undosa zone 2 Collenia multiflabella zone Piegan group Conophyton zone 1 Collenia symmetrica zone 1 Collenia undosa zone 1 Ravalli group Collenia frequens zone Only the Conophyton zones have been mapped in the park area. The present study uses a classification based upon the three criteria of (1) mode of growth, (2) gross form of the colony, and (3) nature and orientation of the laminae. The scheme of classification also seems applicable to Paleozoic and later stromatolites. Possibly a consistent pattern of form-genera and form-species may be developed. Four form-genera and seven form-species are recognized in the Belt series of the park region. These are Cryptozoon occidentale Dawson, Collenia undosa Walcott, C. frequens Walcott, C. symmetrica Fenton and Fenton, Newlandia sp., and Conophyton inclinatum n. sp. It is realized that these structures should not be classified according to biological nomenclature. However, biological names are here applied to the structures until a suitable system of classification can be devised. Comparisons of the stromatolites of the Belt series with modern stromatolites on Andros Island, Bahama Islands, and Pleistocene stromatolites from Lake Lahonton, Nev., reveal similarities in structure that appear to be significant as to physical mode of origin.

  19. Outcrops, Fossils, Geophysical Logs, and Tectonic Interpretations of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation and Contiguous Strata in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Tillman, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    In the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana, the Frontier Formation of early Late Cretaceous age consists of siliciclastic, bentonitic, and carbonaceous beds that were deposited in marine, brackish-water, and continental environments. Most lithologic units are laterally discontinuous. The Frontier Formation conformably overlies the Mowry Shale and is conformably overlain by the Cody Shale. Molluscan fossils collected from outcrops of these formations and listed in this report are mainly of marine origin and of Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian ages. The lower and thicker part of the Frontier in the Bighorn Basin is of Cenomanian age and laterally equivalent to the Belle Fourche Member of the Frontier in central Wyoming. Near the west edge of the basin, these basal strata are disconformably overlain by middle Turonian beds that are the age equivalent of the Emigrant Gap Member of the Frontier in central Wyoming. The middle Turonian beds are disconformably overlain by lower Coniacian strata. Cenomanian strata along the south and east margins of the basin are disconformably overlain by upper Turonian beds in the upper part of the Frontier, as well as in the lower part of the Cody; these are, in turn, conformably overlain by lower Coniacian strata. Thicknesses and ages of Cenomanian strata in the Bighorn Basin and adjoining regions are evidence of regional differential erosion and the presence of an uplift during the early Turonian centered in northwestern Wyoming, west of the basin, probably associated with a eustatic event. The truncated Cenomanian strata were buried by lower middle Turonian beds during a marine transgression and possibly during regional subsidence and a eustatic rise. An uplift in the late middle Turonian, centered in north-central Wyoming and possibly associated with a eustatic fall, caused the erosion of lower middle Turonian beds in southern and eastern areas of the basin as well as in an adjoining region of north

  20. Provenance of the Tullock Member of the Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: evidence for early Paleocene Laramide uplift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansley, P.L.; Brown, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrologic and provenance study indicates that Laramide uplifts to the west and south of the Powder River Basin (PRB) were emergent and shedding detritus by early Paleocene time. This conclusion is based largely on the presence of abundant first-cycle carbonate clasts in the northwestern PRB, and metamorphic and igneous clasts and labile heavy-mineral grains in the Tullock throughout the basin. The proximity and composition of the north end of the Bighorn uplift strongly suggest that it was the source for carbonate, igneous, and metamorphic rock fragments in northwestern Tullock outcrops. The conclusions are supported by recent fission-track, palynological, and sedimentological studies that indicate that Laramide-style foreland deformation in southwestern Montana began in late Cenomanian to Turonian time and migrated through central Wyoming to the Colorado Front Range by late Maastrichtian time. -from Authors

  1. Isopach map of the interval from surface elevation to the top of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Minnelusa Formation and equivalents, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 1,480 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  2. Map showing contours on the top of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Minnelusa Formation and equivalents, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 1,480 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  3. Decadal-scale climate drivers for glacial dynamics in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pederson, G.T.; Fagre, D.B.; Gray, S.T.; Graumlich, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Little Ice Age (14th-19th centuries A.D.) glacial maxima and 20th century retreat have been well documented in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. However, the influence of regional and Pacific Basin driven climate variability on these events is poorly understood. We use tree-ring reconstructions of North Pacific surface temperature anomalies and summer drought as proxies for winter glacial accumulation and summer ablation, respectively, over the past three centuries. These records show that the 1850's glacial maximum was likely produced by ???70 yrs of cool/wet summers coupled with high snowpack. Post 1850, glacial retreat coincides with an extended period (>50 yr) of summer drought and low snowpack culminating in the exceptional events of 1917 to 1941 when retreat rates for some glaciers exceeded 100 m/yr. This research highlights potential local and ocean-based drivers of glacial dynamics, and difficulties in separating the effects of global climate change from regional expressions of decadal-scale climate variability. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Ecological Succession in the Pleistocene in Glacier National Park, Montana, in Relation to Current Successional Stages in the Western Mountains of the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnfield, Edwin A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the succession of ecological and geological structures as exhibited at Glacier National Park, Montana. Topics discussed include glaciers, the geological history of Glacier National Park, glaciation of the Rocky Mountains, paleoecology, the vegetational history of the Northwestern United States, and glaciation and the modern vegetation.…

  5. Ecological Succession in the Pleistocene in Glacier National Park, Montana, in Relation to Current Successional Stages in the Western Mountains of the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnfield, Edwin A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the succession of ecological and geological structures as exhibited at Glacier National Park, Montana. Topics discussed include glaciers, the geological history of Glacier National Park, glaciation of the Rocky Mountains, paleoecology, the vegetational history of the Northwestern United States, and glaciation and the modern vegetation.…

  6. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

    1997-01-01

    From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (< 3 months old) had antibodies against CPV. Presence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) was associated with the age of the coyote, with 88%, 54%, 23%, and 0% prevalence among adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Prevalence of CDV antibodies declined over time from 100% in 1989 to 33% in 1992. The prevalence of canine infectious hepatitis (ICH) virus antibodies was 97%, 82%, 54%, and 33%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. The percentage of coyotes with ICH virus antibodies also declined over time from a high of 100% in 1989 to 31% in 1992, and 42% in 1993. Prevalence of antibodies against Yersinia pestis was 86%, 33%, 80%, and 7%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively, and changed over time from 57% in 1991 to 0% in 1993. The prevalence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis was 21%, 17%, 10%, and 20%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. No coyotes had serologic evidence of exposure to brucellosis, either Brucella abortus or Brucella canis. No coyotes were seropositive to Leptospira interrogans (serovars canicola, hardjo, and icterohemorrhagiae). Prevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans serovar pomona was 7%, 0%, 0%, and 9%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Antibodies against L. interrogans serovar grippotyphosa were present in 17% of adults and 0% of yearlings, old pups, and young pups. Many infectious canine pathogens (CPV, CDV, ICH virus) are prevalent in coyotes in Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months

  7. Evaluation of the rhenium-osmium geochronometer in the Phosphoria petroleum system, Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, Paul G.; Selby, David

    2013-10-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronometry is applied to crude oils derived from the Permian Phosphoria Formation of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana to determine whether the radiogenic age reflects the timing of petroleum generation, timing of migration, age of the source rock, or the timing of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The oils selected for this study are interpreted to be derived from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Phosphoria Formation based on oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations utilizing bulk properties, elemental composition, δ13C and δ34S values, and biomarker distributions. The δ34S values of the oils range from -6.2‰ to +5.7‰, with oils heavier than -2‰ interpreted to be indicative of TSR. The Re and Os isotope data of the Phosphoria oils plot in two general trends: (1) the main trend (n = 15 oils) yielding a Triassic age (239 ± 43 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 0.85 ± 0.42 and a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 1596, and (2) the Torchlight trend (n = 4 oils) yielding a Miocene age (9.24 ± 0.39 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 1.88 ± 0.01 and a MSWD of 0.05. The scatter (high MSWD) in the main-trend regression is due, in part, to TSR in reservoirs along the eastern margin of the basin. Excluding oils that have experienced TSR, the regression is significantly improved, yielding an age of 211 ± 21 Ma with a MSWD of 148. This revised age is consistent with some studies that have proposed Late Triassic as the beginning of Phosphoria oil generation and migration, and does not seem to reflect the source rock age (Permian) or the timing of re-migration (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) associated with the Laramide orogeny. The low precision of the revised regression (±21 Ma) is not unexpected for this oil family given the long duration of generation from a large geographic area of mature Phosphoria source rock, and the possible range in the initial 187Os/188Os

  8. Evaluation of the rhenium-osmium geochronometer in the Phosphoria petroleum system, Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.; Selby, David

    2013-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronometry is applied to crude oils derived from the Permian Phosphoria Formation of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana to determine whether the radiogenic age reflects the timing of petroleum generation, timing of migration, age of the source rock, or the timing of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The oils selected for this study are interpreted to be derived from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Phosphoria Formation based on oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations utilizing bulk properties, elemental composition, δ13C and δ34S values, and biomarker distributions. The δ34S values of the oils range from -6.2‰ to +5.7‰, with oils heavier than -2‰ interpreted to be indicative of TSR. The Re and Os isotope data of the Phosphoria oils plot in two general trends: (1) the main trend (n = 15 oils) yielding a Triassic age (239 ± 43 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 0.85 ± 0.42 and a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 1596, and (2) the Torchlight trend (n = 4 oils) yielding a Miocene age (9.24 ± 0.39 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 1.88 ± 0.01 and a MSWD of 0.05. The scatter (high MSWD) in the main-trend regression is due, in part, to TSR in reservoirs along the eastern margin of the basin. Excluding oils that have experienced TSR, the regression is significantly improved, yielding an age of 211 ± 21 Ma with a MSWD of 148. This revised age is consistent with some studies that have proposed Late Triassic as the beginning of Phosphoria oil generation and migration, and does not seem to reflect the source rock age (Permian) or the timing of re-migration (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) associated with the Laramide orogeny. The low precision of the revised regression (±21 Ma) is not unexpected for this oil family given the long duration of generation from a large geographic area of mature Phosphoria source rock, and the possible range in the initial 187Os/188Os

  9. Metal concentrations and sources in the Miller Creek watershed, Park County, Montana, August 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleasby, Thomas E.; Nimick, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Miller Creek is a tributary of Soda Butte Creek in south-central Montana near the northeast corner of Yellowstone National Park. Surface-water and streambed-sediment samples were collected from streams and seeps throughout the Miller Creek watershed during low-flow conditions on August 28-31, 2000, to characterize metal concentrations and identify possible sources contributing metal to Miller Creek. Most water in Miller Creek appears to be unaffected by mining disturbances or natural weathering of mineralized rocks, although such effects are common elsewhere in the New World Mining District. Values for pH were near neutral to basic. Total-recoverable copper, lead, and zinc concentrations were low, relative to State of Montana water-quality standards, with many concentrations less than the analytical minimum reporting levels. Metal concentrations in Miller Creek during this study ranged from 1 to 6 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total-recoverable copper, <1 to 5 ?g/L for total-recoverable lead, and <1 to 26 ?g/L for total-recoverable zinc. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in all samples from Miller Creek were less than the chronic aquatic-life criteria, except for one total-recoverable lead value (5 ?g/L) just downstream from the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Leachable lead and zinc concentrations in streambed-sediment samples collected during this study were highest at the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Leachable concentrations at this site were about 20 times greater for lead and 11 times greater for zinc than concentrations in the streambed-sediment sample collected from Miller Creek upstream from this inflow. However, these elevated concentrations had little effect on the leachable metal concentrations in the streambed-sediment sample collected downstream from the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Metal loading to Miller Creek during this low-flow study was relatively small. Three small left-bank inflows having elevated copper concentrations entered Miller

  10. Source-to-sink study of erosion at Grinnell Glacier, Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, C. A.; MacGregor, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Cirques have been used as proxies for past climatic conditions, yet the detailed physical processes that act to form cirques remain poorly understood. In July 2005, we continued a field study at Grinnell Glacier in Montana to examine the relevant glacial and geomorphic processes driving cirque development. As in July 2004, we installed a grid of nine velocity poles to measure ice motion using differential GPS, and several temperature sensors and snow stakes to monitor snow and ice melt across Grinnell Glacier. We supplemented these data with time-series of 15-minute measurements of snow and ice melt recorded by an ultrasonic ranging sensor. Air temperature and snowmelt correlate well, with diurnal fluctuations in melt corresponding to diurnal temperature fluctuations. The ultrasonic sensor recorded an average melt rate of snow over the 24-day period of observation of 3.5 cm d-1 (water equivalent), with average daily rates as high as 6 cm d-1. Melt rates declined as snowmelt revealed debris-covered ice below. These observations suggest that debris-cover may play an important role in insolating Grinnell Glacier from summer melt, particularly in coming decades as debris concentrations are expected to rise. Average velocity near the center of the glacier, where ice thickness was ~44 meters, was ~5 cm d-1 during this time. Our measurements span the period of earthquake activity that occurred in Montana July 25-27. Iceberg calving was associated with the ground shaking. Downstream from Grinnell Glacier, we collected 5 lake cores to document sedimentation rates in Swiftcurrent and Josephine Lakes, source areas for erosion in the drainage basin, and environmental change due to forest fires and changes in vegetation. Two cores from Swiftcurrent Lake and one core from Lake Josephine are >5 m in length, providing us one of the first high-resolution lake records in Glacier National Park. While the core analysis remains a work-in-progress, preliminary work indicates that the

  11. Evaluation of bison (Bison bison) semen from Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA, bulls for Brucella abortus shedding.

    PubMed

    Frey, Rebecca K; Clarke, P Ryan; McCollum, Matt P; Nol, Pauline; Johnson, Kammy R; Thompson, Brent D; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Rhyan, Jack C

    2013-07-01

    To determine if bison (Bison bison) bulls from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Montana, USA, shed an infective dose of Brucella abortus in semen, 50 YNP bulls were captured on public lands in Montana during the winter and early spring (April-May) of 2010 and 2011. The bulls were immobilized, and blood and semen samples were collected for serology and Brucella culture. Thirty-five bulls (70%) were antibody-positive, and B. abortus was cultured from semen in three (9%) of the 35 antibody-positive or suspect bulls, though not at concentrations considered an infective dose. Eight bulls (six antibody-positive, two negative) had palpable lesions of the testes, epididymides, or seminal vesicles consistent with B. abortus infection. Breeding soundness exams and semen analysis suggested that antibody-positive bulls were more likely to have nonviable ejaculate (8/35; 23%) than bulls without detectable antibody (2/15; 13%).

  12. Phosphate rock in the Three Forks-Yellowstone Park region, Montana: Chapter G in Contributions to economic geology (short papers and preliminary reports), 1927: Part I - Metals and nonmetals except fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condit, D. Dale; Finch, E.H.; Pardee, J.T.

    1927-01-01

    The region described is about 7,000 square miles in area. It includes most of Gallatin and Madison Counties, in Montana, and some contiguous parts of Idaho and Wyoming. Within it are several broad fertile valleys and a number of prominent mountain ranges. A considerable part is underlain by a bed of phosphate rock which occurs in the Phosphoria formation, of Permian age, and is elevated to the surface of the mountainous area. In most of the middle and southwestern parts of the region this deposit is about 2 feet thick; locally it is 3 feet or more. Outcrops of beds in which the deposit is more than 6 inches thick aggregate more than 200 miles in length. Toward the northeast the deposit thins out, and its limit in that direction is represented fairly accurately by a line drawn from Yellowstone Park northwestward through Salesville to Willow Creek, on Jefferson Kiver. Its thicker parts contain 45 to 65 per cent of tricalcium phosphate.In this region the phosphate deposit is thinner and of poorer quality than in the adjoining parts of Montana on the west and northwest, where it is commonly 4 feet thick and contains 65 to 70 per cent of tricalcium phosphate. In southeastern Idaho the deposit is still thicker and richer.

  13. Radium isotope geochemistry of thermal waters, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sturchio, N.C.; Bohlke, J.K.; Markun, F.J. )

    1993-03-01

    Radium isotope activities ([sup 226]Ra, [sup 228]Ra, and [sup 224]Ra), chemical compositions, and sulfur isotope ratios in sulfate were determined for water samples from thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Activities of [sup 226]Ra in these waters range from <0.2 to 37.9 dpm/kg. Activity ratios of [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra range from 0.26 to 14.2, and those of [sup 224]Ra/[sup 228]Ra range from 0.73 to 3.1. Radium concentrations are inversely correlated with aquifer equilibration temperatures (estimated from dissolved silica concentrations), while [Ra/Ba][sub aq] and [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra activity ratios depend upon U/Ba and Th/U ratios in aquifer rocks. Major controls on Ra concentration in Yellowstone thermal waters are inferred to be (1) barite saturation (at Norris Geyser Basin, Mammoth Hot Springs, and other northern areas) and (2) zeolite-water ion exchange (at Upper Geyser Basin). The data are consistent with a model in which (1) radium and barium are supplied to water by bulk dissolution of aquifer rock, and (2) chemical equilibration of water with rock is rapid relative to the 1602 year half-life of [sup 226]Ra. The [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra activity ratios of the waters may in some cases reflect surface enrichments of [sup 232]Th and/or may indicate that [alpha]-recoil input of [sup 228]Ra is rapid relative to water-rock chemical equilibration. Activity ratios of [sup 224]Ra/[sup 228]Ra indicate a nearly ubiquitous [sup 224]Ra excess that generally increases with decreasing pH. Near-surface ([le]100 m) thermal water flow velocities at Mammoth Hot Springs are estimated from [sup 224]Ra/[sup 228]Ra variation to be [ge]1 m h[sup [minus]1]. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-3, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

    1985-01-01

    Y-3, a U.S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, reached a depth of 156.7 m. The recovered drill core consists of 42.2 m of surficial (mostly glacial) sediments and two rhyolite flows (Nez Perce Creek flow and an older, unnamed rhyolite flow) of the Central Plateau Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite. Hydrothermal alteration is fairly extensive in most of the drill core. The surficial deposits are largely cemented by silica and zeolite minerals; and the two rhyolite flows are, in part, bleached by thermal water that deposited numerous hydrothermal minerals in cavities and fractures. Hydrothermal minerals containing sodium as a dominant cation (analcime, clinoptilolite, mordenite, Na-smectite, and aegirine) are more abundant than calcium-bearing minerals (calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, and pectolite) in the sedimentary section of the drill core. In the volcanic section of drill core Y-3, calcium-rich minerals (dachiardite, laumontite, yugawaralite, calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, pectolite, and truscottite) are predominant over sodium-bearing minerals (aegirine, mordenite, and Na-smectite). Hydrothermal minerals that contain significant amounts of potassium (alunite and lepidolite in the sediments and illitesmectite in the rhyolite flows) are found in the two drill-core intervals. Drill core y:.3 also contains hydrothermal silica minerals (opal, [3-cristobalite, chalcedony, and quartz), other clay minerals (allophane, halloysite, kaolinite, and chlorite), gypsum, pyrite, and hematite. The dominance of calcium-bearing hydrothermal minerals in the lower rhyolitic section of the y:.3 drill core appears to be due to loss of calcium, along with potassium, during adiabatic cooling of an ascending boiling water.

  15. Broadband Seismic Observations of Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, A.; Hurwitz, S.; Johnson, H. E., III; Manga, M.; Gomez, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    Geysers are natural phenomena that episodically erupt water and steam. Geophysical observations at geysers are analyzed to shed light on subsurface multi-phase mass and heat exchange processes and geometries controlling geyser eruptions, which are still are not completely understood. Lone Star Geyser (LSG) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA erupts every ~3 hours, with brief episodes (~5-10 min) of water and steam fountaining (preplays) leading up to the main eruption (~28 min), and the discharge evolves from a water-dominated phase to a steam-dominated phase as the main eruption proceeds in time. We describe observations from multiple seismometers deployed around LSG as part of a comprehensive geophysical survey conducted in April 2014. 3-component seismograms were continuously recorded at 250 samples per second by 6 Nanometrics Trillium 120 P/PA broadband seismometers (lower corner frequency at 120 seconds) and Taurus dataloggers at distances ~10 to 25 m from the geyser cone for a period of 3 days. We identify distinct episodes of hydrothermal tremor associated with preplay events and main eruptions. We find that the dominant tremor frequencies during main eruptions are consistently higher (> 10.0 Hz) than those during preplays (> 1.0 Hz) indicating slightly different source locations or processes controlling the two phenomena. Unlike seismic observations at the Old Faithful Geyser, we also observe subtle harmonic tremor and spectral gliding in the frequency range ~1.0-8.0 Hz towards the end of both main eruption and preplay tremor episodes. We interpret long-period pulses on horizontal components of the seismometers located close to the geyser and synchronous with preplays, as pseudo-tilts resulting from deformation of the sinter terrace. We also compare the evolution of hydrothermal tremor in time with synchronous changes in temperature, acoustic emission and discharge for interpretation of the possible tremor source processes.

  16. Radium isotope geochemistry of thermal waters, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Bohlke, J. K.; Markun, F. J.

    1993-03-01

    Radium isotope activities ( 226Ra, 228Ra, and 224Ra), chemical compositions, and sulfur isotope ratios in sulfate were determined for water samples from thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Activities of 226Ra in these waters range from <0.2 to 37.9 dpm/kg. Activity ratios of 228Ra /226Ra range from 0.26 to 14.2, and those of 224Ra /228Ra range from 0.73 to 3.1. Radium concentrations are inversely correlated with aquifer equilibration temperatures (estimated from dissolved silica concentrations), while[ Ra/Ba] aq and 228Ra /226Ra activity ratios depend upon U/Ba and Th/U ratios in aquifer rocks. Major controls on Ra concentration in Yellowstone thermal waters are inferred to be (1) barite saturation (at Morris Geyser Basin, Mammoth Hot Springs, and other northern areas) and (2) zeolitewater ion exchange (at Upper Geyser Basin). The data are consistent with a model in which (1) radium and barium are supplied to water by bulk dissolution of aquifer rock, and (2) chemical equilibration of water with rock is rapid relative to the 1602 year half-life of 226Ra. The 228Ra /226Ra activity ratios of the waters may in some cases reflect surface enrichments of 232Th and/or may indicate that α-recoil input of 228Ra is rapid relative to water-rock chemical equilibration. Activity ratios of 224Ra /228Ra indicate a nearly ubiquitous 224Ra excess that generally increases with decreasing pH. Near-surface (≤100 m) thermal water flow velocities at Mammoth Hot Springs are estimated from 224Ra /228Ra variation to be ≥ 1 m h -1.

  17. Spatial variation in total element concentration in soil within the Northern Great Plains coal region, and regional soil chemistry in Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Tidball, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    PART A: To objectively determine the changes in chemical character of an area subjected to mining and reclamation, prior information is needed. This study represents a broadscale inventory of total chemical composition of the surficial materials of the Northern Great Plains coal region (western North and South Dakota, eastern Montana, and northeastern Wyoming); data are given for 41 elements in A and C soil horizons. An unbalanced, nested, analysis-of-variance design was used to quantify variation in total content of elements between glaciated and unglaciated terrains, for four increasingly smaller geographic scales, and to quantify variation due to sample preparation and analysis. From this statistical study, reliable maps on a regional basis (>100 km) were prepared for C, K, and Rb in A and C soil horizons; for N a, Si, Th, D, and Zn in A-horizon soil; and for As, Ca, Ge, and Mg in C-horizon soil. The distribution of variance components for the remaining 29 elements did not permit the construction of reliable maps. Therefore, a baseline value for each of these elements is given as a measure of the total element concentration in the soils of the Northern Great Plains coal region. The baseline is expressed as the 95-percent range in concentration to be expected in samples of natural soils. PART B: A reconnaissance study of total concentrations of 38 elements in samples of soils (0-40 cm deep, composite) from the Bighorn and Wind River Basins of Montana and Wyoming indicates that the geographic variation for most elements occurs locally (5 km or less). However, in the Bighorn Basin, Zn exhibits significant regional variation (between geologic units); and in the Wind River Basin, AI, Cr, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, U, and V exhibit similar variation. For the remaining elements, the lack of regional variation suggests that a single summary statistic can be used to estimate a baseline value that reflects the range in concentration to be expected in samples of soils in each basin

  18. Avalanche ecology and large magnitude avalanche events: Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.

    2010-01-01

    Large magnitude snow avalanches play an important role ecologically in terms of wildlife habitat, vegetation diversity, and sediment transport within a watershed. Ecological effects from these infrequent avalanches can last for decades. Understanding the frequency of such large magnitude avalanches is also critical to avalanche forecasting for the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). In January 2009, a large magnitude avalanche cycle occurred in and around Glacier National Park, Montana. The study site is the Little Granite avalanche path located along the GTSR. The study is designed to quantify change in vegetative cover immediately after a large magnitude event and document ecological response over a multi-year period. GPS field mapping was completed to determine the redefined perimeter of the avalanche path. Vegetation was inventoried using modified U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots, cross sections were taken from over 100 dead trees throughout the avalanche path, and an avalanche chronology was developed. Initial results indicate that the perimeter of this path was expanded by 30%. The avalanche travelled approximately 1200 vertical meters and 3 linear kilometers. Stands of large conifers as old as 150 years were decimated by the avalanche, causing a shift in dominant vegetation types in many parts of the avalanche path. Woody debris is a major ground cover up to 3 m in depth on lower portions of the avalanche path and will likely affect tree regrowth. Monitoring and measuring the post-avalanche vegetation recovery of this particular avalanche path provides a unique dataset for determining the ecological role of avalanches in mountain landscapes.

  19. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Fire History of the Swiftcurrent Lake basin, eastern Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutvirt, J. C.; MacGregor, K. R.; Riihimaki, C. A.; Myrbo, A.

    2010-12-01

    High altitude alpine landscapes of the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains are geomorphically dynamic and sensitive to climate change. Understanding the timing and magnitude of past changes in temperature, aridity, and other factors such as seasonality and storminess are key in constraining natural climate variability in these sensitive environments. Fire frequency can provide strong insight into past climate regimes, with increased periodicity and/or intensity of fires reflecting episodes of warming and/or aridity. Lacustrine climate records in the Rockies are most abundant either further south of northern Montana at lower elevations, or in the Canadian Rockies further north. Here we examine a ˜12,900 year long lake sediment record from the northeastern basin of Swiftcurrent Lake in eastern Glacier National Park, MT to document fire frequency as a proxy for aridity in the region. Swiftcurrent Lake is fed mainly by melt from Grinnell Glacier, and thus reflects glacial, geomorphic, and climatic processes throughout the Holocene. Existing data, such as mineralogy, percent organic carbon, C/N, and grain size will be paired with the fire frequency record over the Holocene and latest Pleistocene to develop a comprehensive environmental history of the Swiftcurrent Lake Basin and greater Grinnell Glacier Valley. A clear understanding of fire history in the basin is important for future fire management decisions in Glacier National Park. Charcoal particles were tallied at contiguous 0.5 cm intervals over the first half meter of the core, and at 1 cm intervals over the remaining ~6.0 m, then converted to charcoal abundance and accumulation rates. Based age controls from radiocarbon analyses and ash fingerprinting the sampling interval represents between 5 and 20 years. A core collected in July 2010 will be analyzed for lead-210, providing additional age control for the past few centuries. Preliminary results show low charcoal counts overall with some clear peaks. High charcoal

  20. Forest conditions in the Absaroka division of the Yellowstone Forest Reserve, Montana, and the Livingston and Big Timber quadrangles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiberg, J.B.

    1904-01-01

    The southern boundary of the area discussed is west from the point where the eastern boundary of the reserve intersects the Montana- Wyoming line to the southeast corner of township 9 north, range 14 east; thence along the northern boundary line of the Yellowstone National Park to the point where said boundary line of the park intersects the range line between ranges 9 and 10 east, principal meridian. The total area, as above delineated, includes 1,334,400 acres. 

  1. Geology of Glacier National Park and the Flathead Region, Northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Clyde P.

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes available data on two adjacent and partly overlapping regions in northwestern Montana. The first of these is Glacier National Park plus small areas east and west of the park. The second is here called, for convenience, the Flathead region; it embraces the mountains from the southern tip of Glacier Park to latitude 48 deg north and between the Great Plains on the east and Flathead Valley on the west. The fieldwork under the direction of the writer was done in 1948, 1949, 1950, and 1951, with some work in 1952 and 1953. The two regions together include parts of the Swan, Flathead, Livingstone, and Lewis Ranges. They are drained largely by branches of the Flathead River. On the east and north, however, they are penetrated by tributaries of the Missouri River and in addition by streams that flow into Canada. Roads and highways reach the borders of the regions; but there are few roads in the regions and only two highways cross them. The principal economic value of the assemblage of mountains described in the present report is as a collecting ground for snow to furnish the water used in the surrounding lowlands and as a scenic and wildlife recreation area. A few metallic deposits and lignitic coal beds are known, but these have not proved to be important and cannot, as far as can now be judged, be expected to become so. No oil except minor seeps has yet been found, and most parts of the two regions covered do not appear geologically favorable to the presence of oil in commercial quantities. The high, Hungry Horse Dam on which construction was in progress during the fieldwork now floods part of the Flathead region and will greatly influence the future of that region. The rocks range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The thickest units belong to the Belt series of Precambrian age, and special attention was paid to them. As a result, it is clear that at least the upper part of the series shows marked lateral changes within short distances. This fact

  2. Anatomy of siliceous hot springs: examples from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidry, Sean A.; Chafetz, Henry S.

    2003-03-01

    Numerous siliceous hot spring systems in the Norris and Lower Geyser Basins of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, provide insights into spring geometries, depositional facies, and lithofacies associated with modern hot springs. Analyses of active (Cistern Spring, Octopus Spring, Deerbone Spring, and Spindle Geyser) and inactive (Pork Chop Geyser) siliceous hot springs have facilitated the construction of a facies model for siliceous hot spring deposits at Yellowstone. Yellowstone's siliceous springs tend to group into four broad morphological categories: siliceous spires and cones, domal mounds, terraced mounds, and ponds. Siliceous spires/cones are subconical accumulations up to 5-7 m high and about 2 m in diameter, and are common deposits in Yellowstone Lake. Domal mounds are characterized by siliceous precipitates with a broad lens or shield geometry (2-3 m in vertical relief), discharge channels, and an areal accumulation of approximately 150 m 2. In contrast, terraced mounds have a stair-step morphology, a substantial pool (˜8-10 m in diameter), "shrubby" precipitates, and occupy areas of ˜2000 m 2. Siliceous ponds are variable in size, have little outflow, and exhibit low amounts of silica precipitation. Of these morphological varieties, domal mounds and terraced mounds are thought to have the best long-term preservation potential. The four spring morphotypes are composed of up to eight cumulative hot spring depositional facies: (1) vent (>95 °C), (2) proximal vent (<95 °C), (3) pool (˜80-90 °C), (4) pool margin (˜80 °C), (5) pool eddy (<80 °C), (6) discharge channel/flowpath (<80 °C to ambient), (7) debris apron (variable temperatures), and (8) geyser (variable temperatures). This facies model based on numerous springs facilitates our ability to interpret ancient hot spring deposits and to infer depositional conditions. Precipitation of siliceous sinter is the result of abiotic and biotic processes. Abiotic precipitational processes are dominant

  3. Age and composition of Archean crystalline rocks from the southern Madison Range, Montana. Implications for crustal evolution in the Wyoming craton

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.A.; Shuster, R.D. ); Wooden, J.L. ); Erslev, E.A. ); Bowes, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    The southern Madison Range of southwestern Montana contains two distinct Precambrian lithologic assemblages: (1) a complex of tonalitic to granitic gneisses that has been thrust over (2) a medium-grade metasupracrustal sequence dominated by pelitic schist. Crystallization ages for the protolith of a granodioritic gneiss that intruded the metasupracrustal sequence ([approximately]2.6 Ga)-along with an intercalated meta-andesite ([approximately]2.7 Ga) confirm the sequence as Archean. Chemical (major and trace element), isotopic (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb), and geochronologic (U-Pb zircon) data for selected components of the gneiss complex indicate two groups of gneisses: an older, tonalitic to trondhjemitic group ([approximately]3.3 Ga) and a younger, mostly granitic group ([approximately]2.7 Ga). Both groups of gneisses exhibit the radiogenic Pb and nonradiogenic Nd isotopic signature characteristic of Middle and Late Archean rocks from throughout the Wyoming province. The older gneisses, in particular, appear to be compositionally, isotopically, and chronologically comparable to other Middle Archean gneisses from the northern part of the province (for example, Beartooth Mountains). The Late Archean gneisses, however, exhibit some distinct differences relative to their temporal counterparts, including (1) trace-element patterns that are more suggestive of crustal melts than subduction activity and (2) higher initial Sr isotopic ratios that suggest more involvement of older crust in their petrogenesis. These comparisons suggest that the juxtaposition of Late Archean terranes in the northern Wyoming province was the result, at least in part, of intracratonic processes. 41 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. 2.69-2.68 Ga granulite facies metamorphism in the Wyoming Craton revealed by Sm-Nd garnet geochronology and trace element zoning, eastern Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, V.; Dragovic, B.; Caddick, M. J.; Baxter, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Beartooth Mountains in Montana and Wyoming, USA, form an extensive exposure of Archean rocks of the Wyoming Craton and are dominantly comprised of a ~2.8 Ga granitoid batholith known as the Long Lake Magmatic Complex (LLMC). Contained within the LLMC are numerous m- to km-scale enclaves of metasedimentary granulites. P-T pseudosection modeling indicates that these granulites reached peak pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of 800 °C, 7-8 kbar. This has previously been interpreted to result from contact heating with the LLMC. However, substantial field evidence from multiple localities suggests that the texturally dominant phase of HT metamorphism in the metasediments postdates LLMC emplacement. Further, Sm-Nd garnet (grt) dates from the metasediments are in the range ~2.69-2.68 Ga ('bulk' dates incorporating crystal cores and rims), ~100 Myrs younger than LLMC emplacement (based on U-Pb zircon ages, 1). Trace element zoning in grt suggests that these dates record the age of granulite facies metamorphism. Euhedral high-Ca overgrowths in Grt from a residual pelite are coincident with a high Eu spike, interpreted to result from plagioclase breakdown during partial melting. These overgrowths are also coincident with high Sm and Nd annuli, and we thus interpret the bulk grt date (2689±4 Ma) to record timing of the late stages of grt growth during migmatisation near peak T. Coupled with major element zoning, retention of Sm and Nd zoning in euhedral grt from the leucosome of another sample suggest that its bulk date (2681±1 Ma) also represents peritectic grt growth rather than subsequent diffusion. Grt from a lithology that did not experience melting records a date of 2686±1 Ma. Together, these ages indicate that granulite facies metamorphism persisted in the area for at least ~3 Myrs (inner bounds of the 2σ dates), ~100 Myrs after batholith emplacement. Limited evidence for this later event in the plutonic rocks is consistent with their experiencing little

  5. Timing of wet snow avalanche activity: An analysis from Glacier National Park, Montana, USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Wet snow avalanches pose a problem for annual spring road opening operations along the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. A suite of meteorological metrics and snow observations has been used to forecast for wet slab and glide avalanche activity. However, the timing of spring wet slab and glide avalanches is a difficult process to forecast and requires new capabilities. For the 2011 and 2012 spring seasons we tested a previously developed classification tree model which had been trained on data from 2003-2010. For 2011, this model yielded a 91% predictive rate for avalanche days. For 2012, the model failed to capture any of the avalanche days observed. We then investigated these misclassified avalanche days in the 2012 season by comparing them to the misclassified days from the original dataset from which the model was trained. Results showed no significant difference in air temperature variables between this year and the original training data set for these misclassified days. This indicates that 2012 was characterized by avalanche days most similar to those that the model struggled with in the original training data. The original classification tree model showed air temperature to be a significant variable in wet avalanche activity which implies that subsequent movement of meltwater through the snowpack is also important. To further understand the timing of water flow we installed two lysimeters in fall 2011 before snow accumulation. Water flow showed a moderate correlation with air temperature later in the season and no synchronous pattern associated with wet slab and glide avalanche activity. We also characterized snowpack structure as the snowpack transitioned from a dry to a wet snowpack throughout the spring. This helped to assess potential failure layers of wet snow avalanches and the timing of avalanches compared to water moving through the snowpack. These tools (classification tree model and lysimeter data), combined with

  6. Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survivorship and habitat studies in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and surrounding lands, Wyoming and Montana, 2000–2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Singer, Francis J.; Grams, Kayla A.; Roelle, James E.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1850s, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were numerous and distributed throughout the Bighorn and Pryor Mountains of Montana and Wyoming. After European settlement, bighorn sheep populations declined, and local extinctions occurred in much of their historic range in the western United States. The current bighorn sheep population of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA) is the product of several reintroductions into BICA and surrounding lands. Following a release in 1973 and growth rates near maximum potential of 19.8% per year, the population grew to an estimated peak population of about 211 animals in 1993 and 1994 (Kissell and others, 1996). Recent counts indicate the bighorn sheep population has declined. Kissell and others (1996) reported that the population began to decline rapidly in 1995 and 1996. He noted low ewe:lamb ratios during the decline phase. Bighorn sheep numbers declined to the lowest minimum viable population size of 100 animals recommended by several bighorn sheep experts (Bailey, 1990; Berger, 1990; Smith and others, 1991). National Park Service (NPS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) managers were concerned about the decline and requested a study of its causes. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey- Biological Resources Division (USGS-BRD) received funding to start a 3-year study of survivorship, condition, and population growth rate of the BICA bighorn sheep population.Several possibilities exist for the bighorn sheep decline. The herd may have experienced a rapid population expansion, followed by a decline to stability at a lower long-term carrying capacity. This pattern of apparently overshooting carrying capacity following an initial release has been reported for a number of ungulates (Caughley, 1976). Disease may have caused the decline; predation and/or competition with wild horses (Equus caballus) may also have been factors. A spatial model of wild horse carrying capacity (Coughenour, 1999) was developed to assist managers

  7. Geochemical provenance of anomalous metal concentrations in stream sediments in the Ashton 1:250,000 quadrangle, Idaho/Montana/Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Stream-sediment samples from 1500 sites in the Ashton, Idaho/Montana/Wyoming 1:250,000 quadrangle were analyzed for 45 elements. Almost all samples containing anomalous concentrations (exceeding one standard deviation above the mean value of any element) were derived from drainage basins underlain by Quaternary rhyolite, Tertiary andesite or Precambrian gneiss and schist. Aluminum, barium, calcium, cobalt, iron, nickel, magnesium, scandium, sodium, strontium, and vanadium have no andesite provenance. Most anomalous manganese, europium, hafnium, and zirconium values were derived from Precambrian rocks. All other anomalous elemental concentrations are related to Quaternary rhyolite. This study demonstrates that multielemental stream-sediment analyses can be used to infer the provenance of stream sediments. Such data are available for many parts of the country as a result of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. This study suggests that stream-sediment samples collected in the Rocky Mountains can be used either as pathfinders or as direct indicators to select targets for mineral exploration for a host of metals.

  8. Maps showing formation temperatures and configurations of the tops of the Minnelusa Formation and the Madison Limestone, Powder River basin, Wyoming, Montana, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, William J.; Kilty, Kevin Thomas; Knottek, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    This report is part of a study to describe the hydrogeologic framework needed to evaluate the water resources of the Paleozoic age aquifers in the Northern Great Plains coal region. Preliminary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota have indicated that these aquifers might provide a significant percentage of the water requirements for coal development. Geologic and water-temperature data for the Minnelusa Formation of Permian and Pennsylvanian age and for the Madison Limestone (Group where it is subdivided) of Mississippian and locally late Devonian age , and their equivalents, were compiled and interpreted. Maps were produced showing the altitude and ground-water temperatures of the top of these formations. The altitude (configuration) maps show the depth and position of the formations throughout the area. Temperature maps can be used to calculate changes in the viscosity of water caused by large temperature differences. The viscosity differences will be useful in adjusting calculated transmissivity aquifer values (the rate at which water can be transmitted through an aquifer). (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Plan of study for the northern Great Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinwiddie, George A.

    1979-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains, an area of about 250,000 square miles in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming, is underlain by an accumulation of sediments eroded from the Black Hills and from mountains to the west. Principal aquifers are areally extensive beds of sandstone within these sedimentary rocks, some at great depths. Anticipated future water needs dictate that available ground-water supplies be evaluated for management of this natural resource. The U.S. Geological Survey has started (1978) a 4-year study of the Northern Great Plains aquifer system. The objective of this study is to define availability and quality of ground water and to predict the effects of using this resource. To achieve this objective, the ground-water system will be described in terms of spatial distribution, hydraulics, geology, and geochemistry. Once described, the ground-water system will be simulated by mathematical models that will be used to define responses of the system to various management alternatives and assumed development patterns. This initial report describes the framework for the study. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Use of geophysical logs in recognizing depositional environments in the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Powder River area, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.; Toth, J.C.; Moore, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental conditions under which rocks in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation were deposited in the Powder River area, Wyoming and Montana, can be determined using geophysical logs with some limitations. It is widely recognized that gamma ray and density logs are useful in identifying thickness and stratigraphic position of coal beds. In addition, gamma ray and electrical resistivity logs can be used to infer conditions of transportation and deposition of sandstones, siltstones, and other rock types. In particular, intensity responses of the gamma ray and resistance logs provide a clue to variations of grain size such as fining-upward and coarsening-upward characteristics of fluvial channel and crevasse splay deposits, respectively. These signatures in the geophysical logs are readily observed for some beds; for other beds however, the depositional conditions are difficult to determine because the beds do not produce clear-cut log-response patterns. Thus,. analysis of the environments of deposition of detrital rocks in drill holes can be made more accurate by a study of stratigraphically equivalent intervals in outcrops near drill-hole sites.

  11. Plan of study of the hydrology of the Madison Limestone and associated rocks in Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    A major part of the United States ' coal reserves is in the Fort Union coal region of the Northern Great Plains. Large-scale development of these reserves would place a heavy demand on the area 's limited water resources. Surface water is poorly distributed in time and space. Its use for coal development in parts of the area would require storage reservoirs and distribution systems, whereas in the rest of the area surface water is fully appropriated and its use would deprive present users of their supply. Preliminary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota indicate that the Madison Limestone and associated rocks might provide a significant percentage of the total water requirements for coal development. This report briefly summarized the present knowledge of the geohydrology of the Madison and associated rocks, identifies the need for additional data, and outlines a 5-year plan for a comprehensive study of the hydrology of these rocks. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Older Hydrothermal Activity along the Northern Yellowstone Caldera Margin at Sulphur Creek, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manion, J. L.; Larson, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Tuff of Sulphur Creek (480 ka) is well exposed in the Seven Mile Hole area of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The rhyolitic tuff erupted after the collapse of the Yellowstone Caldera (640 ka) and hosts more than 350 vertical meters of hydrothermal alteration. Two epithermal alteration assemblages with different mineral associations have been identified in the area: an illite-silica-pyrite phase and a kaolinite-alunite-silica-pyrite phase. Kaolinite and opal occur along the canyon rim, montmorillonite and other smectites are found at intermediate depths, and illite and sulfides (pyrite) are found deepest in the section. Our work on the north side of the Sevenmile Hole altered area has found a complex system of veining. The veins are concentrated in the eastern portion of the canyon and are less frequent to the west. Brecciated cross-cutting veins ranging from 2 to 30cm wide are found at the base of the canyon. Moving vertically up the canyons walls, the veining style becomes less complex. These veins are about 1 to 1.5cm wide and are not brecciated, occurring less frequently than the brecciated veins. The canyon walls and the canyon rim mainly contain millimeter-scale cross-cutting silica veinlets. These stockwork-like veinlets are the most abundant fracture filling that we find throughout the canyon walls. Veins at the base of the system, found in the stream bed, contain abundant sulfides (mainly pyrite). Sulfides are present in three forms: disseminated in a silica matrix, as massive pyrite in healed fractures, and encrusting clays and silica. The latter is the least common. Disseminated and massive sulfides are typically associated with the matrix in the brecciated veins. Breccias include angular clasts of altered tuff with argillized feldspar phenocrysts and fragments of earlier vein-filling opal. Sulfides are most abundant in the bottom of the canyon and in the western part of the field area. Hydrothermal

  13. Infection with Colorado tick fever virus among humans and ticks in a national park and forest, Wyoming, 2010.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Aimee L; Thorp, Emily; Van Houten, Clayton; Lanciotti, Robert S; Panella, Nicolas; Cadwell, Betsy L; Murphy, Tracy; Staples, J Erin

    2014-09-01

    Colorado tick fever (CTF) is an underreported tick-borne viral disease occurring in the western United States. CTF illness includes fever, headache, and severe myalgia lasting for weeks. Wyoming has one of the highest CTF incidence rates with approximately 30% of infected persons reporting tick exposure in a Wyoming National Park or Forest before symptom onset. We assessed CTF virus infections among humans and Dermacentor andersoni ticks in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) and Bridger-Teton National Forest (BTNF). In June of 2010, 526 eligible employees were approached to participate in a baseline and 3-month follow-up serosurvey and risk behavior survey. Seropositivity was defined as antibody titers against CTF virus ≥10, as measured by the plaque reduction neutralization test. Ticks were collected at 27 sites within GRTE/BTNF and tested by RT-PCR for the CTF virus. A total of 126 (24%) employees participated in the baseline and follow-up study visits. Three (2%) employees were seropositive for CTF virus infection at baseline. During the study, 47 (37%) participants found unattached ticks on themselves, and 12 (10%) found attached ticks; however, no participants seroconverted against CTF virus. Walking through sagebrush (p=0.04) and spending time at ≥7000 feet elevation (p<0.01) were significantly associated with tick exposure. Ninety-nine percent (174/176) of ticks were D. andersoni, and all were found at ≥7000 feet elevation in sagebrush areas; 37 (21%) ticks tested positive for CTF virus and were found at 10 (38%) of 26 sites sampled. Although no GRTE or BTNF employees were infected with CTF virus during the study period, high rates of infected ticks were identified in areas with sagebrush at ≥7000 feet. CTF education and personal protection measures against tick exposure should be targeted to visitors and employees traveling to the high-risk environs identified in this study.

  14. 76 FR 68503 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park... the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY... availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone...

  15. Geologic Map of the Sedan Quadangle, Gallatin and Park Counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skipp, Betty; Lageson, D.R.; McMannis, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This quadrangle lies 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of Bozeman, Mont., in southwestern Montana. Metamorphic, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks of Precambrian to Tertiary age are exposed in the Bridger Range and southwestern margin of the Crazy Mountains Basin in a crustal cross section and a structural triangle zone. Surface geology records Precambrian extension, Late Paleocene east-vergent contraction, including backthrusts, and Holocene basin-range extension.

  16. Preliminary study of subsurface wastewater movement in and near Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, through October 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Edward Riley

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Teton County, Wyoming and the National Park Service to determine the effects on nearby lakes and streams of percolating wastewater effluent at three sites in and near Grand Teton National Park. Observation wells were drilled at two of the sites, and water samples were collected from the wells. Sites were established on selected streams to collect water samples and to measure streamflow. Sufficient data have not been collected at this time to determine in detail the baseline quality of water in the selected streams or the rate, direction, and velocity of movement of percolating effluents. However, theoretical concepts and data collected to date suggest that effluent percolating near Colter Bay Village is most likely moving westward and southwestward toward Swan Lake and Colter Bay. Effluent percolating near Moose is most likely moving southeastward and southward toward the Snake River. Effluents near Flagg Ranch and Huckleberry Hot Springs probably discharge into the Snake River and Polecat Creek, but the amounts are small. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Provenance of the Tullock member of the Fort Union formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for early Paleocene Laramide uplift

    SciTech Connect

    Hansley, P.L.; Brown, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    A petrologic and provenance study of the lower Paleocene Tullock Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) indicates that Laramide uplifts to the west and south of the PRB were emergent and shedding detritus by early Paleocene time. This conclusion is based largely on the presence of abundant first-cycle carbonate clasts in the northwestern PRB and metamorphic and igneous clasts and labile heavy-mineral grains in the Tullock throughout the basin. The proximity and composition of the north end of the Bighorn uplift strongly suggest that is was the source for carbonate, igneous, and metamorphic rock fragments in northwestern Tullock outcrops. Lack of conglomeratic material in northwestern outcrops, however, indicates that the Bighorn uplift was not yet well developed and perhaps the Pryor Mountains uplift farther to the west was contributing some detritus. In the southern PRB, abundant labile heavy minerals and igneous rock fragments in the Tullock indicate that other uplifts to the west and south (i.e. Granite Mountains, Washakie, Owl Creek, and Laramie uplifts) had also started to rise by early Paleocene time. Paleocurrent directions show that Tullock streams flowed generally east-northeast across a gently sloping alluvial plain toward the retreating Cannonball sea, suggesting that the Black Hills were not yet emergent and, as a result, the basin had not fully developed. Our conclusions are supported by recent fission-track, palynological, and sedimentological studies that indicate that Laramide-style forland deformation in southwestern Montana began in late Cenomanian to Turonian time and migrated through central Wyoming to the Colorado Front Range by late Maastrichtian time. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tab.

  18. Distribution of boreal toad populations in relation to estimated UV-B dose in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Diamond, S.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    A recent increase in ultraviolet B radiation is one hypothesis advanced to explain suspected or documented declines of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas Baird and Girard, 1852) across much of the western USA, where some experiments have shown ambient UV-B can reduce embryo survival. We examined B. boreas occupancy relative to daily UV-B dose at 172 potential breeding sites in Glacier National Park, Montana, to assess whether UV-B limits the distribution of toads. Dose estimates were based on ground-level UV-B data and the effects of elevation, local topographic and vegetative features, and attenuation in the water column. We also examined temporal trends in surface UV-B and spring snowpack to determine whether populations are likely to have experienced increased UV-B exposure in recent decades. We found no support for the hypothesis that UV-B limits the distribution of populations in the park, even when we analyzed high-elevation ponds separately. Instead, toads were more likely to breed in water bodies with higher estimated UV-B doses. The lack of a detectable trend in surface UV-B since 1979, combined with earlier snow melt in the region and increasing forest density at high elevations, suggests B. boreas embryos and larvae likely have not experienced increased UV-B.

  19. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE

  20. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  1. Thin-skinned shortening geometries of the South Fork fault: Bighorn basin, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Clarey, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a new interpretation of the South Fork fault in light of thin-skinned thrust theory. Cross sections and seismic data are presented which indicate that the South Fork fault is an allochthonous salient which was emplaced in the Bighorn basin during the early to middle Eocene. All observed structural geometries can be interpreted as developing under a compressional regime, similar to the Wyoming-Utah-Idaho thrust belt. Faults either follow bedding-plane surfaces, cut up section in the direction of tectonic transport or form backthrusts. A single decollement within the Jurassic Gypsum Spring Formation appears to dominate. Tectonic transport was approximately southeast, parallel to tear faults in the allochthonous plate.

  2. Assessment of Historical Water-Quality Data for National Park Units in the Rocky Mountain Network, Colorado and Montana, through 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes historical water-quality data for six National Park units that compose the Rocky Mountain Network. The park units in Colorado are Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, and Rocky Mountain National Park; and in Montana, they are Glacier National Park, Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, and Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. This study was conducted in cooperation with the Inventory and Monitoring Program of the National Park Service to aid in the design of an effective and efficient water-quality monitoring plan for each park. Data were retrieved from a number of sources for the period of record through 2004 and compiled into a relational database. Descriptions of the environmental setting of each park and an overview of the park's water resources are presented. Statistical summaries of water-quality constituents are presented and compared to aquatic-life and drinking-water standards. Spatial, seasonal, and temporal patterns in constituent concentrations also are described and suggestions for future water-quality monitoring are provided.

  3. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  4. Ultramafic xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana, USA: Evidence for multiple metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Wyoming craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downes, H.; Macdonald, R.; Upton, B.G.J.; Cox, K.G.; Bodinier, J.-L.; Mason, P.R.D.; James, D.; Hill, P.G.; Hearn, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths in Eocene minettes of the Bearpaw Mountains volcanic field (Montana, USA), derived from the lower lithosphere of the Wyoming craton, can be divided based on textural criteria into tectonite and cumulate groups. The tectonites consist of strongly depleted spinel lherzolites, harzbugites and dunites. Although their mineralogical compositions are generally similar to those of spinel peridotites in off-craton settings, some contain pyroxenes and spinels that have unusually low Al2O3 contents more akin to those found in cratonic spinel peridotites. Furthermore, the tectonite peridotites have whole-rock major element compositions that tend to be significantly more depleted than non-cratonic mantle spinel peridotites (high MgO, low CaO, Al2O3 and TiO2) and resemble those of cratonic mantle. These compositions could have been generated by up to 30% partial melting of an undepleted mantle source. Petrographic evidence suggests that the mantle beneath the Wyoming craton was re-enriched in three ways: (1) by silicate melts that formed mica websterite and clinopyroxenite veins; (2) by growth of phlogopite from K-rich hydrous fluids; (3) by interaction with aqueous fluids to form orthopyroxene porphyroblasts and orthopyroxenite veins. In contrast to their depleted major element compositions, the tectonite peridotites are mostly light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched and show enrichment in fluid-mobile elements such as Cs, Rb, U and Pb on mantle-normalized diagrams. Lack of enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf) suggests that the tectonite peridotites have been metasomatized by a subduction-related fluid. Clinopyroxenes from the tectonite peridotites have distinct U-shaped REE patterns with strong LREE enrichment. They have 143Nd/144Nd values that range from 0??5121 (close to the host minette values) to 0??5107, similar to those of xenoliths from the nearby Highwood Mountains. Foliated mica websterites also have low 143Nd

  5. Comparative metagenomic analysis of soil microbes along treads and risers of periglacial ground in Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, M. K.; Apple, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    The mean annual temperature for Glacier National Park and the surrounding regions has increased 1.33 degrees Celsius since 1900, 1.8 times the global mean increase. Periglacial features created by receding glaciers have created obstacles for endemic native species in Glacier to overcome. In an RM-CESU-funded study at Glacier National Park, a team of researchers from Montana Tech discovered differences in plant species distributions at the edges of snowfields and in periglacial patterned ground. The data from this study showed that on the sloping, green risers of solifluction terraces—periglacial features created by the freeze-thaw cycles of receding glaciers and snowfields at Siyeh Pass, Glacier—just 2% of plant species recorded were considered range-limited and endemic to the region. The team found four rare arctic-alpine species in the flat, rocky tread regions of the terraces, which often face much harsher wind and snow conditions, while only one rare arctic-alpine species was found on the green risers. Soil microbes are known to be important regulators of plant productivity, specifically in nutrient-poor ecosystems with a high abundance of vegetation that relies on symbionts to acquire nutrients. In alpine environments, where weather is harsh and the growing season short, certain species of plants rely on microbial symbionts to mobilize phosphorus and nitrogen within the root system. Research has suggested density of plant populations is linked to soil nutrient availability. In the summer and fall of 2016, comparative metagenomics analysis of soil microbial communities along treads and risers of periglacial ground (moving from the edge of the snowfield out) will be performed. This data will be compared to plant surveys performed in the summers 2014 and 2016 measuring rare alpine plant species dispersal and abundance in order to draw conclusions about how soil microbe distribution affects rare alpine plant species growth and success.

  6. Wastewater movement near four treatment and disposal sites in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the effects on nearby streams and lakes of treated wastewater effluents that percolate from sewage lagoons at four sites in Yellowstone National Park. A network of observation wells has been established near the sites, and water level and water quality data were collected from 1974 through 1982. Groundwater mounds occur under the lagoons as percolation of effluents occurs. The percolating effluents mix with groundwater and form plumes of water that contain chemical constituents from the effluents. These plumes move down the hydraulic gradient toward groundwater discharge areas. The directions of movement of percolating effluents have been determined by analyzing water samples from wells near the lagoons for specific conductance, chloride concentration, and nitrite plus nitrate concentration. Other constituents and properties also were determined. The percolating effluents are diluted by groundwater and have no discernible effects on the quality of water in the nearby streams and lakes. (USGS)

  7. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana) in the Swiss National Park

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Christof

    2016-01-01

    A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana) located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years) correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions. PMID:26930294

  8. Geomorphic and climatic change over the past 12,900 yr at Swiftcurrent Lake, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Kelly R.; Riihimaki, Catherine A.; Myrbo, Amy; Shapley, Mark D.; Jankowski, Krista

    2011-01-01

    Glaciated alpine landscapes are sensitive to changes in climate. Shifts in temperature and precipitation can cause significant changes to glacier size and terminus position, the production and delivery of organic mass, and in the hydrologic energy related to the transport of water and sediment through proglacial environments. A sediment core representing a 12,900-yr record collected from Swiftcurrent Lake, located on the eastern side of Glacier National Park, Montana, was analyzed to assess variability in Holocene and latest Pleistocene environment. The spectral signature of total organic carbon content (%TOC) since ~ 7.6 ka matches that of solar forcing over 70-500 yr timescales. Periodic inputs of dolomite to the lake reflect an increased footprint of Grinnell Glacier, and occur during periods when sediment sinks are reduced, glacial erosion is increased, and hydrologic energy is increased. Grain size, carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios, and %TOC broadly define the termination of the Younger Dryas chronozone at Swiftcurrent Lake, as well as major Holocene climate transitions. Variability in core parameters is linked to other records of temperature and aridity in the northern Rocky Mountains over the late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  9. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana) in the Swiss National Park.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Christof

    2016-01-01

    A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana) located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years) correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions.

  10. Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

  11. Diet segregation in American bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA).

    PubMed

    Berini, John L; Badgley, Catherine

    2017-07-14

    Body size is a major factor in the nutritional ecology of ruminant mammals. Females, due to their smaller size and smaller rumen, have more rapid food-passage times than males and thereby require higher quality forage. Males are more efficient at converting high-fiber forage into usable energy and thus, are more concerned with quantity. American bison are sexually dimorphic and sexually segregate for the majority of their adult lives, and in Yellowstone National Park, they occur in two distinct subpopulations within the Northern and Central ranges. We used fecal nitrogen and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen from American bison to investigate sex-specific differences in diet composition, diet quality, and dietary breadth between the mating season and a time period spanning multiple years, and compared diet indicators for these different time periods between the Northern and Central ranges. During mating season, diet composition of male and female American bison differed significantly; females had higher quality diets, and males had greater dietary breadth. Over the multi-year period, females had higher quality diets and males, greater dietary breadth. Diet segregation for bison in the Central Range was more pronounced during the mating season than for the multi-year period and females had higher quality diets than males. Finally, diet segregation in the Northern Range was more pronounced during the multi-year period than during the mating season, and males had greater dietary breadth. Female bison in Yellowstone National Park have higher quality diets than males, whereas males ingest a greater diversity of plants or plants parts, and bison from different ranges exhibited more pronounced diet segregation during different times. Collectively, our results suggest that diet segregation in bison of Yellowstone National Park is associated with sex-specific differences in nutritional demands. Altogether, our results highlight the importance of accounting for spatial

  12. Preliminary study of wastewater movement in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, October 1976 through September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Edward Riley

    1979-01-01

    Studies were made from October 1976 through September 1977 to determine the effects on lakes and streams of wastewater effluents that percolate from sewage lagoons at four sites in Yellowstone National Park. Ground-water mounds have built up under the lagoons as percolation of effluents occurred. Percolating effluents mix with ground water and move down the hydraulic gradient in a direction generally perpendicular to the water-level contours. Maps showing chloride and sulfate concentrations, specific conductance of water in wells, and water-level contours indicate the most likely areas and directions of movement of percolating effluents. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, E.S.; King, S.; Tomberlin, J.K.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Barkay, T.; Geesey, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH ??? 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg +), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l -1) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g-1 dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg + in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg+ enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg+ was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg+ biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg+ to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; King, Susan; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Krabbenhoft, David P; Barkay, Tamar; Geesey, Gill G

    2009-04-01

    Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH approximately 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg(+)), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l(-1)) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g(-1) dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg(+) in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg(+) enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg(+) was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg(+) biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg(+) to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP.

  15. Preliminary study of wastewater movement in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, July 1975 through September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Edward Riley

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service to determine the effects on nearby lakes and streams of wastewater effluents that percolate from sewage lagoons at four sites in Yellowstone National Park. A network of observation wells has been established near the sites, and data have been collected from the wells and from nearby streams. Ground-water mounds have built up under the lagoons as percolation of effluents occurred. Percolating effluents mix with ground water and form plumes of ground water that contain chemical constituents for the effluents. Each plume tends to move down the hydraulic gradient in a direction generally perpendicular to the water-level contours. Water-level contours and most likely areas of movement of the plumes are shown on maps. Tests using rhodamine WT dye and dissolved solids as tracers suggested that chemical constituents in the plumes travel at different velocities as a result of dispersion and adsorlption. Chemical constituents from effluent percolating from the Old Faithful lagoons probably discharge into nearby Iron Spring Creek. Constituents from lagoons at the other three sites studied probably have not reached nearby streams or lakes. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests.

  17. Precambrian and Mesozoic plate margins: Montana, Idaho and Wyoming with field guides for the 8th international conference on basement tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.E.; Berg, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Two field trips held in conjunction with the 8th International Conference on Basement Tectonics are the raison d'etre for this volume, which would perhaps otherwise seem an eclectic association. The unifying theme is an investigation of the nature of plate margins in time and space, consonant with the main theme of the conference, Characterization and Comparison of Precambrian Through Mesozoic Continental Margins. Papers presented at the conference will be published in a separate volume by the International Basement Tectonics Association, Inc. The first field trip is at least a preliminary attempt at an overview of the Precambrian (predominantly Archean) crystalline basement of southwestern Montana. A number of interesting investigations have been focused on this region in recent years. Thus, papers in the first part of this volume take the reader from the Stillwater Complex across the Beartooth Plateau, to the northern borders of Yellowstone National Park on to the southern Madison Range, and finally to some of the western-most (probable) Archean exposures in the Highland Mountains south of Butte. Moving considerably forward on the geologic time scale, the other broad topic dealt with in a second field trip and complementary articles is a relatively recent collisional terrane in central Idaho and eastern Oregon. Examined are portions of the Idaho batholith and its enigmatic and fascinating marginal rocks, and to the west, the heart of the suture zone itself in the Wallowa-Seven Devils terrane with its group of exotic intrusive, metavolcanic, and metasedimentary rocks. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  18. Vp/Vs ratios in the Yellowstone National Park region, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chatterjee, S.N.; Pitt, A.M.; Iyer, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we study the variation of Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratio (??) in the Yellowstone National Park region, using earthquakes which were well recorded by a local seismic network. We find that the average Vp/Vs value within the geothermally active Yellowstone caldera is about 7% lower than in the area outside the caldera. Within the caldera itself there may be a further 2-7% reduction of Vp/Vs in the hydrothermally active Norris Geyser Basin, the Upper and Lower Geyser Basins, and the Yellowstone Lake and Mud Volcano regions. After considering various possible causes for Vp/Vs changes, such as geologic and structural differences, thermal effects, partial melting, and hydrothermal activity, we conclude that the most plausible explanation for the observed Vp/Vs reduction is the presence of hot-water at temperatures and pore-pressures near the water steam transition in the caldera geothermal reservoirs. ?? 1985.

  19. Formation of multilayered photosynthetic biofilms in an alkaline thermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Boomer, Sarah M; Noll, Katherine L; Geesey, Gill G; Dutton, Bryan E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, glass rods suspended at the air-water interface in the runoff channel of Fairy Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, WY, were used as a substratum to promote the development of biofilms that resembled multilayered mat communities in the splash zone at the geyser's source. This approach enabled the establishment of the temporal relationship between the appearance of Cyanobacteria, which ultimately formed the outer green layer, and the development of a red underlayer containing Roseiflexus-like Chloroflexi. This is the first study to define time-dependent successional events involved in the development of differently colored layers within microbial mats associated with many thermal features in Yellowstone National Park. Initial (1-month) biofilms were localized below the air-water interface (60 to 70 degrees C), and the majority of retrieved bacterial sequence types were similar to Synechococcus and Thermus isolates. Biofilms then shifted, becoming established at and above the air-water interface after 3 months. During winter sampling (6 to 8 months), distinct reddish orange microcolonies were observed, consistent with the appearance of Roseiflexus-like sequences and bacteriochlorophyll a pigment signatures. Additionally, populations of Cyanobacteria diversified to include both unicellular and filamentous cell and sequence types. Distinct green and red layers were observed at 13 months. Planctomycetes-like sequences were also retrieved in high abundance from final biofilm layers and winter samples. Finally, biomass associated with geyser vent water contained Roseiflexus-like sequence types, in addition to other high-abundance sequence types retrieved from biofilm samples, supporting the idea that geothermal water serves as an inoculum for these habitats.

  20. The Interface Between Snowfields and Treeline at Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Ricketts, M. K.; Carlson, L. G.; Ouellet, N.

    2014-12-01

    Snowfields at Glacier National Park will likely retreat or disappear with climate change. GNP contains numerous snowfields previously designated as permanent, although this designation is no longer accurate. The edge of a snowfield moves inward while melting in summer and provides a water-rich microhabitat for alpine plants capable of growing in this harsh environment. We hypothesize that the species distribution of alpine plants will change with the retreat or disappearance of snowfields. Small, herbaceous plants live at the edges of snowfields, but trees and drought-tolerant, xeromorphic cushion plants may eventually inhabit the current snowfield edges. We established permanent, geospatially referenced transects and plots in 2012-14 at the lateral and leading edges of snowfields at Siyeh, Logan, and Piegan Passes, at Preston Park, and the Mt. Clements moraine (the outer, downslope boundary of a vast snowfield). We used the Raunkiaer scheme to classify snowfield and proximal plants according to functional traits, the position of overwintering buds, and overall morphology. We characterized leaf morphology; developed height-frequency profiles; determined soil composition; and sieved soil to examine the seed bank. The majority of the current snowfield edge plants are protohemicryptophytes, which means their buds overwinter at or just below the ground surface, or geophytes, which means their buds overwinter farther beneath the ground. Cushion plants were found farther from the snowfields while relatively thin-leaved (and likely less drought tolerant) plants were found near the snowfield's edge. Krummholz subalpine fir grows on the cliffs above the Mt. Clements snowfield, on the Mt. Clements moraine (15-20m from the snowfield) and 20-25m from the Piegan Pass snowfield. Krummholz whitebark pine grow within 50m of the snowfield at Piegan Pass. Non-krummnolz subalpine fir trees grow within 10m of the Preston Park snowfield's upper edge. Trees were not found within 50m of

  1. Map showing earthquake epicenters (1964-81) in Yellowstone National Park and vicinity, Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The seismicity displayed on these maps occurred over a 17 year period and was recorded at a variety of seismograph stations, which has resulted in much variation in the reliability and completness of the data set. The earthquake epicenter data are presented on 2 maps. Symbols on map 1 identify events by year of occurrence with the symbol size indicating the magnitude range. Symbols on map 2 indicate the reliability of the earthquake epicenters. Variations in the level of seismicity and strain release with time are shown (Fig. 1), as well as earthquake focal-depth cross sections and representative earthquake focal mechanisms (Fig.2).

  2. Water chemistry and electrical conductivity database for rivers in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clor, Laura E.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Huebner, Mark A.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Heasler, Henry P.; Mahony, Dan L.; Maloney, Tim; Evans, William C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to quantify relations between solute concentrations (especially chloride) and electrical conductivity for several rivers in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), by using automated samplers and conductivity meters. Norton and Friedman (1985) found that chloride concentrations and electrical conductivity have a good correlation in the Falls, Snake, Madison, and Yellowstone Rivers. However, their results are based on limited sampling and hydrologic conditions and their relation with other solutes was not determined. Once the correlations are established, conductivity measurements can then be used as a proxy for chloride concentrations, thereby enabling continuous heat-flow estimation on a much finer timescale and at lower cost than is currently possible with direct sampling. This publication serves as a repository for all data collected during the course of the study from May 2010 through July 2011, but it does not include correlations between solutes and conductivity or recommendations for quantification of chloride through continuous electrical conductivity measurements. This will be the object of a future document.

  3. Invasion of subalpine meadows by lodgepole pine in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubos, B.; Romme, W.H. )

    1993-11-01

    Many of the dry and mesic subalpine meadows in Yellowstone National Park are bordered by bands of small lodgepole pine trees. The authors asked whether these stands of small trees represent a directional process of meadow invasion, or alternatively, (1) small patches of postfire succession or; (2) more-or-less stable populations of trees having small stature because of adverse site conditions. Transect studies revealed that the bands of small trees were consistently younger than adjacent forest stands of obvious fire origin, that they lacked any evidence of fire, and that the trees were progressively younger as they approached the meadow. Soils under the young trees generally were more similar to meadow soils than to coniferous forest soils. The authors concluded, therefore, that meadow invasion has been occurring as a directional process since at least the mid- to late 1800s. Frequency of tree establishment in two dry meadows was positively correlated with mean June temperature and total summer precipitation (R[sup 2] = 0.49, P<0.0001, multiple stepwise regression). Thus, the major cause of tree invasion into dry meadows appears to be a regional climatic trend towards warmer and wetter growing seasons since the end of the Little Ice Age. Tree establishment in two mesic meadows was more weakly and inconsistently correlated with weather variables. Thus, the mechanism of invasion of mesic meadows may involve interactions of episodic seed crops and microhabitat changes at the forest border, as well as regional climatic variability. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Hydrothermal changes related to earthquake activity at Mud Volcano, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, A.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1982-04-10

    The Mud Volcano hydrothermal area in Yellowstone National Park is near the intersection of a 20-km-long zone of northeast trending normal faults with the eastern resurgent dome within the 600,000-year-odd Yellowstone caldera. Recent crustal uplift along the northeast trending axis of the caldera is at a maximum (700 mm since 1923) near the Mud Volcano area. From 1973 through April 1978, less than 10 earthquakes (largest M 2.4) were located within 3 km of the Mud Volcano area. In May 1978, earthquakes began occurring beneath the hydrothermal area at depths of 1 to 5 km. The seismic activity continued until the end of November with intense swarms (100 events per hour) occurring on October 23 and November 7. The largest event (M 3.1) occured on November 14 and at least 8 events were M 2.5 or larger. In December 1978, heat flux in the Mud Volcano hydrothermal features began increasing along a 2-km-long northeast trending zone. Existing mud cauldrons became more active, new mud cauldrons and fumeroles were formed, and vegetation (primarily lodgepole pine) was killed by increased soil temperature. The increase in heat flux continued through July 1979 then gradually declined, reaching the early 1978 level by June 1980. The spatial and temporal association of earthquakes and increased hydrothermal activity at Mud Volcano suggests that the seismic activity expanded preexisting fracture systems, premitting increased fluid flow from depths of several kilometers.

  5. Geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.E.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. The dominant quartz sand is hydrothermally cemented by chalcedony and is extremely hard, thereby justifying the term hydrothermal quartzite. The fundamental water type in Norris Basin is nearly neutral in pH and high in Cl and SiO/sub 2/. Another common type of water in Norris Basin is high in SO/sub 4/ and moderately high in Cl, with Cl/SO/sub 4/ ratios differing considerably. This study provides no new conclusive data on an old problem, the source or sources of rare dissolved constitutents. An important part of this paper consists of examples of numerous changes in behavior and chemical composition of most springs and geysers, to extents not known elsewhere in the park and perhaps in the world. Hydrothermal mineralogy in core samples from three research holes drilled entirely in Lava Creek Tuff to a maximum depth of -331.6 m permits an interpretation of the hydrothermal alteration history. A model for large, long-lived, volcanic-hydrothermal activity is also suggested, involving all of the crust and upper mantle and using much recent geophysical data bearing on crust-mantle interrelations.

  6. Holocene beaver damming, fluvial geomorphology, and climate in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Lyman; Meyer, Grant

    2009-05-01

    We use beaver-pond deposits and geomorphic characteristics of small streams to assess long-term effects of beavers and climate change on Holocene fluvial activity in northern Yellowstone National Park. Although beaver damming has been considered a viable mechanism for major aggradation of mountain stream valleys, this has not been previously tested with stratigraphic and geochronologic data. Thirty-nine radiocarbon ages on beaver-pond deposits fall primarily within the last 4000 yr, but gaps in dated beaver occupation from ~ 2200-1800 and 950-750 cal yr BP correspond with severe droughts that likely caused low to ephemeral discharges in smaller streams, as in modern severe drought. Maximum channel gradient for reaches with Holocene beaver-pond deposits decreases with increasing basin area, implying that stream power limits beaver damming and pond sediment preservation. In northern Yellowstone, the patchy distribution and cumulative thickness of mostly < 2 m of beaver-pond deposits indicate that net aggradation forced by beaver damming is small, but beaver-enhanced aggradation in some glacial scour depressions is greater. Although 20th-century beaver loss and dam abandonment caused significant local channel incision, most downcutting along alluvial reaches of the study streams is unrelated to beaver dam abandonment or predates historic beaver extirpation.

  7. Long-term limnological data from the larger lakes of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theriot, E.C.; Fritz, S.C.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term limnological data from the four largest lakes in Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone, Lewis, Shoshone, Heart) are used to characterize their limnology and patterns of temporal and spatial variability. Heart Lake has distinctively high concentrations of dissolved materials, apparently reflecting high thermal inputs. Shoshone and Lewis lakes have the highest total SiO2 concentrations (averaging over 23.5 mg L-1), apparently as a result of the rhyolitic drainage basins. Within Yellowstone Lake spatial variability is low and ephemeral for most measured variables, except that the Southeast Arm has lower average Na concentrations. Seasonal variation is evident for Secchi transparency, pH, and total-SiO2 and probably reflects seasonal changes in phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Total dissolved solids (TDS) and total-SiO2 generally show a gradual decline from the mid-1970s through mid-1980s, followed by a sharp increase. Ratios of Kjeldahl-N to total-PO4 (KN:TP) suggest that the lakes, especially Shoshone, are often nitrogen limited. Kjeldahl-N is positively correlated with winter precipitation, but TP and total-SiO2 are counterintuitively negatively correlated with precipitation. We speculate that increased winter precipitation, rather than watershed fires, increases N-loading which, in turn, leads to increased demand for TP and total SiO2.

  8. Potential water-quality effects of coal-bed methane production water discharged along the upper Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsey, Stacy M.; Nimick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Water quality in the upper Tongue River from Monarch, Wyoming, downstream to just upstream from the Tongue River Reservoir in Montana potentially could be affected by discharge of coal-bed methane (CBM) production water (hereinafter referred to as CBM discharge). CBM discharge typically contains high concentrations of sodium and other ions that could increase dissolved-solids (salt) concentrations, specific conductance (SC), and sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR) in the river. Increased inputs of sodium and other ions have the potential to alter the river's suitability for agricultural irrigation and aquatic ecosystems. Data from two large tributaries, Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek, indicate that these tributaries were large contributors to the increase in SC and SAR in the Tongue River. However, water-quality data were not available for most of the smaller inflows, such as small tributaries, irrigation-return flows, and CBM discharges. Thus, effects of these inflows on the water quality of the Tongue River were not well documented. Effects of these small inflows might be subtle and difficult to determine without more extensive data collection to describe spatial patterns. Therefore, synoptic water-quality sampling trips were conducted in September 2005 and April 2006 to provide a spatially detailed profile of the downstream changes in water quality in this reach of the Tongue River. The purpose of this report is to describe these downstream changes in water quality and to estimate the potential water-quality effects of CBM discharge in the upper Tongue River. Specific conductance of the Tongue River through the study reach increased from 420 to 625 microsiemens per centimeter (.μS/cm; or 49 percent) in the downstream direction in September 2005 and from 373 to 543 .μS/cm (46 percent) in April 2006. Large increases (12 to 24 percent) were measured immediately downstream from Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek during both sampling trips. Increases attributed to

  9. Water-quality characteristics of quaternary unconsolidated-deposit aquifers and lower tertiary aquifers of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Norris, Jody R.; Gamper, Merry E.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Yellowstone River Basin National Water Quality Assessment study, ground-water samples were collected from Quaternary unconsolidated-deposit and lower Tertiary aquifers in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana from 1999 to 2001. Samples from 54 wells were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides, pesticide compounds, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate current water-quality conditions in both aquifers. Water-quality samples indicated that waters generally were suitable for most uses, and that natural conditions, rather than the effects of human activities, were more likely to limit uses of the waters. Waters in both types of aquifers generally were highly mineralized, and total dissolved-solids concentrations frequently exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Because of generally high mineralization, waters from nearly one-half of the samples from Quaternary aquifers and more than one-half of the samples from lower Tertiary aquifers were not classified as fresh (dissolved-solids concentration were not less than 1,000 mg/L). The anions sulfate, fluoride, and chloride were measured in some ground-water samples at concentrations greater than SMCLs. Most waters from the Quaternary aquifers were classified as very hard (hardness greater than 180 mg/L), but hardness varied much more in waters from the lower Tertiary aquifers and ranged from soft (less than 60 mg/L) to very hard (greater than 180 mg/L). Major-ion chemistry varied with dissolved-solids concentrations. In both types of aquifers, the predominant anion changes from bicarbonate to sulfate with increasing dissolved-solids concentrations. Samples from Quaternary aquifers with fresh waters generally were calcium-bicarbonate, calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, and calcium-sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate type waters, whereas

  10. Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-2, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, K.E.; Beeson, M.H.

    1981-05-01

    Y-2, a US Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, was drilled to a depth of 157.4 meters. The hole penetrated interbedded siliceous sinter and travertine to 10.2 m, glacial sediments of the Pinedale Glaciation interlayered with pumiceous tuff from 10.2 to 31.7 m, and rhyolitic lavas of the Elephant Back flow of the Central Plateau Member and the Mallard Lake Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite from 31.7 to 157.4 m. Hydrothermal alteration is pervasive in most of the nearly continuous drill core. Rhyolitic glass has been extensively altered to clay and zeolite minerals (intermediate heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite, montmorillonite, mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite, and illite) in addition to quartz and adularia. Numerous veins, vugs, and fractures in the core contain these and other minerals: silica minerals (opal, ..beta..-cristobalite, ..cap alpha..-cristobalite, and chalcedony), zeolites (analcime, wairakite, dachiardite, laumontite, and yugawaralite), carbonates (calcite and siderite), clay (kaolinite and chlorite), oxides (hematite, goethite, manganite, cryptomelane, pyrolusite, and groutite), and sulfides (pyrhotite and pyrite) along with minor aegirine, fluorite, truscottite, and portlandite. Interbedded travertine and siliceous sinter in the upper part of the drill core indicate that two distinct types of thermal water are responsible for precipitation of the surficial deposits, and further that the water regime has alternated between the two thermal waters more than once since the end of the Pinedale Glaciation (approx. 10,000 years B.P.). Alternation of zones of calcium-rich and sodium- and potassium-rich hydrothermal minerals also suggests that the calcium-rich and sodium- and potassium-rich hydrothermal minerals also suggests that the water chemistry in this drill hole varies with depth.

  11. Selective concentration of cesium in analcime during hydrothermal alteration, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Thompson, J.M.; Mays, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical studies of fresh and hydrothermally altered rhyolitic material in Upper and Lower Geyser Basins, Yellowstone National Park, show that all the altered rocks are enriched in Cs and that Cs is selectively concentrated in analcime. The Cs content of unaltered rhyolite lava flows, including those from which the altered sediments are derived, ranges from 2.5 to 7.6 ppm. The Cs content of analcime-bearing altered sedimentary rocks is as high as 3000 ppm, and in clinoptilolite-bearing altered sedimentary rocks Cs content is as high as 180 ppm. Altered rhyolite lava flows which were initially vitrophyres, now contain up to 250 ppm Cs, and those which were crystallized prior to hydrothermal alteration contain up to 14 ppm. Mineral concentrates of analcime contain as much as 4700 ppm Cs. The Cs must have been incorporated into the analcime structure during crystallization, rather than by later cation substitution, because analcime does not readily exchange Cs. The Cs Cl of the fluids circulating through the hydrothermal system varies, suggesting that Cs is not always a conservative ion and that Cs is lost from upflowing thermal waters due to water-rock interaction resulting in crystallization of Cs-bearing analcime. The source of Cs for Cs enrichment of the altered rocks is from leaching of rhyolitic rocks underlying the geyser basins, and from the top of the silicic magma chamber that underlies the area. Analcime is an important natural Cs sink, and the high Cs concentrations reported here may prove to be an important indicator of the environment of analcime crystallization. ?? 1983.

  12. Arsenic and antimony in geothermal waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Robert E.; Thompson, John M.

    1984-12-01

    A total of 268 thermal spring samples were analyzed for total soluble As using reduced molybdenum-blue; 27 of these samples were also analyzed for total Sb using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. At Yellowstone the Cl/As atomic ratio is nearly constant among neutral-alkaline springs with Cl > 100 mg L -1, and within restricted geographic areas, indicating no differential effects of adiabatic vs. conductive cooling on arsenic. The Cl/As ratio increases with silica and decreases with decreasing Cl/ΣCO 3; the latter relationship is best exemplified for springs along the extensively sampled SE-NW trend within the Lone Star-Upper-Midway Basin region. The relationship between Cl/As and Cl/ΣCO 3 at Yellowstone suggests a possible rock leaching rather than magmatic origin for much of the Park's total As flux. Condensed vapor springs are low in both As and Cl. Very high Cl/As ratios ( > 1000) are associated exclusively with highly diluted (Cl < 100 mg L -1) mixed springs in the Norris and Shoshone Basins and in the Upper White Creek and Firehole Lake areas of Lower Basin. The high ratios are associated with acidity and/or oxygen and iron; they indicate precipitation of As following massive dilution of the Asbearing high-Cl parent water. Yellowstone Sb ranged from 0.009 at Mammoth to 0.166 mg L -1 at Joseph's Coat Spring. Within basins, the Cl/Sb ratio increases as the Cl/ΣCO 3 ratio decreases, in marked contrast to As. Mixed springs also have elevated Cl/Sb ratios. WHITE (1967) and WEISSBERG (1969) previously reported stibnite (Sb 2S 3), but not orpiment (As 2S 3), precipitating in the near surface zone of alkaline geothermal systems.

  13. Arsenic and antimony in geothermal waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, R.E.; Thompson, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 268 thermal spring samples were analyzed for total soluble As using reduced molybdenum-blue; 27 of these samples were also analyzed for total Sb using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. At Yellowstone the Cl As atomic ratio is nearly constant among neutral-alkaline springs with Cl > 100 mg L-1, and within restricted geographic areas, indicating no differential effects of adiabatic vs. conductive cooling on arsenic. The Cl As ratio increases with silica and decreases with decreasing Cl ??CO3; the latter relationship is best exemplified for springs along the extensively sampled SE-NW trend within the Lone Star-Upper-Midway Basin region. The relationship between Cl As and Cl ??CO3 at Yellowstone suggests a possible rock leaching rather than magmatic origin for much of the Park's total As flux. Condensed vapor springs are low in both As and Cl. Very high Cl As ratios ( > 1000) are associated exclusively with highly diluted (Cl < 100 mg L-1) mixed springs in the Norris and Shoshone Basins and in the Upper White Creek and Firehole Lake areas of Lower Basin. The high ratios are associated with acidity and/or oxygen and iron; they indicate precipitation of As following massive dilution of the Asbearing high-Cl parent water. Yellowstone Sb ranged from 0.009 at Mammoth to 0.166 mg L-1 at Joseph's Coat Spring. Within basins, the Cl Sb ratio increases as the Cl ??CO3 ratio decreases, in marked contrast to As. Mixed springs also have elevated Cl Sb ratios. White (1967) and Weissberg (1969) previously reported stibnite (Sb2S3), but not orpiment (As2S3), precipitating in the near surface zone of alkaline geothermal systems. ?? 1984.

  14. Biological nitrogen fixation in acidic high-temperature geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Lange, Rachel K; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W

    2011-08-01

    The near ubiquitous distribution of nifH genes in sediments sampled from 14 high-temperature (48.0-89.0°C) and acidic (pH 1.90-5.02) geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park suggested a role for the biological reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia (NH(3)) (e.g. nitrogen fixation or diazotrophy) in these environments. nifH genes from these environments formed three unique phylotypes that were distantly related to acidiphilic, mesophilic diazotrophs. Acetylene reduction assays and (15) N(2) tracer studies in microcosms containing sediments sampled from acidic and high-temperature environments where nifH genes were detected confirmed the potential for biological N(2) reduction in these environments. Rates of acetylene reduction by sediment-associated populations were positively correlated with the concentration of NH(4)(+), suggesting a potential relationship between NH(4)(+) consumption and N(2) fixation activity. Amendment of microcosms with NH(4)(+) resulted in increased lag times in acetylene reduction assays. Manipulation of incubation temperature and pH in acetylene reduction assays indicated that diazotrophic populations are specifically adapted to local conditions. Incubation of sediments in the presence of a N(2) headspace yielded a highly enriched culture containing a single nifH phylotype. This phylotype was detected in all 14 geothermal spring sediments examined and its abundance ranged from ≈ 780 to ≈ 6800 copies (g dry weight sediment)(-1), suggesting that this organism may contribute N to the ecosystems. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrate thermoacidiphilic N(2) fixation in the natural environment and extend the upper temperature for biological N(2) fixation in terrestrial systems.

  15. Effects of 2003 wildfires on stream chemistry in Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in stream chemistry were studied for 4 years following large wildfires that burned in Glacier National Park during the summer of 2003. Burned and unburned drainages were monitored from December 2003 through August 2007 for streamflow, major constituents, nutrients, and suspended sediment following the fires. Stream-water nitrate concentrations showed the greatest response to fire, increasing up to tenfold above those in the unburned drainage just prior to the first post-fire snowmelt season. Concentrations in winter base flow remained elevated during the entire study period, whereas concentrations during the growing season returned to background levels after two snowmelt seasons. Annual export of total nitrogen from the burned drainage ranged from 1·53 to 3·23 kg ha−1 yr−1 compared with 1·01 to 1·39 kg ha−1 yr−1 from the unburned drainage and exceeded atmospheric inputs for the first two post-fire water years. Fire appeared to have minimal long-term effects on other nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and major constituents with the exception of sulfate and chloride, which showed increased concentrations for 2 years following the fire. There was little evidence that fire affected suspended-sediment concentrations in the burned drainage. Sediment yields in subalpine streams may be less affected by fire than in lower elevation streams because of the slow release rate of water during spring snowmelt.

  16. Ground water east of Jackson Lake Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGreevy, Laurence J.; Gordon, Ellis D.

    1964-01-01

    The project area, which lies east of and adjacent to Jackson Lake is on the downthrown eastern block of the Teton fault, a normal fault that trends northward along the west edge of Jackson Lake. Rocks of pre-Cretaceous age are deeply buried beneath this area. Sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous age and sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Tertiary age, which have an aggregate thickness of about 30,000 feet, are exposed in the northern and eastern parts of the area. Along most of the east side of Jackson Lake, unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits of Quaternary age overlie the rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The unconsolidated deposits were penetrated by test drilling to a depth of 206 feet, but the maximum thickness is probably much greater. Test wells were drilled in five localities to evaluate the deposits of Quaternary age as possible sources of ground water for National Park Service facilities. In the Pilgrim Creek valley, test wells were capable of yielding 200 gpm (gallons per minute); properly constructed production wells could obtain much greater yields. Test wells at Lizard Point and Jackson Lake Campgrounds yielded more than 100 gpm, and a test well near the confluence of the Buffalo Fork and Snake rivers yielded 30 gpm. A test hole drilled in the NW1/4 sec. 36, T. 46 N., R. 115 W., was dry at 200 feet. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age are the most promising source of additional ground water. Because of the extreme range in grain size and sorting, these deposits vary greatly in permeability. Their saturated thickness ranges from 0 to more than 130 feet and changes seasonally; variations of as much as 36 feet were measured (1961-62) in the Pilgrim Creek valley. In most localities where deposits of Quaternary age are ,present, small to moderate ground-water supplies can be developed; larger ground-water supplies can be developed in parts of the Pilgrim Creek valley. One well taps the Bivouac Formation of Late Pliocene or Pleistocene age

  17. Geology and Thermal History of Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1978-01-01

    Mammoth Hot Springs, located about 8 km inside the north entrance to Yellowstone National Park, consists of nearly 100 hot springs scattered over a score of steplike travertine terraces. The travertine deposits range in age from late Pleistocene to the present. Sporadic records of hot-spring activity suggest that most of the current major springs have been intermittently active since at least 1871. Water moving along the Norris-Mammoth fault zone is heated by partly molten magma and enriched in calcium and bicarbonate. Upon reaching Mammoth this thermal water (temperature about 73?C) moves up through the old terrace deposits along preexisting vertical linear planes of weakness. As the water reaches the surface, pressure is released, carbon dioxide escapes as a gas, and bicarbonate in the water is partitioned into more carbon dioxide and carbonate; the carbonate then combines with calcium to precipitate calcium carbonate, forming travertine. The travertine usually precipitates rapidly from solution and is lightweight and porous; however, dense travertine, such as is found in core from the 113-m research drill hole Y-10 located on one of the upper terraces, forms beneath the surface by deposition in the pore spaces of older deposits. The terraces abound with unusual hot-spring deposits such as terracettes, cones, and fissure ridges. Semicircular ledges (ranging in width from about 0.3 m to as much as 2.5 m), called terracettes, formed by deposition of travertine around slowly rising pools. Complex steplike arrangements of terracettes have developed along runoff channels of some hot springs. A few hot springs have deposited cone-shaped mounds, most of which reach heights of 1-2 m before becoming dormant. However, one long-inactive cone named Liberty Cap attained a height of about 14 m. Fissure ridges are linear mounds of travertine deposited from numerous hot-spring vents along a medial fracture zone. The ridges range in height from about 1 to 6 m and in length from a

  18. Modeling and measuring snow for assessing climate change impacts in Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Selkowitz, David J.; Reardon, Blase; Holzer, Karen; Mckeon, Lisa L.

    2002-01-01

    A 12-year program of global change research at Glacier National Park by the U.S. Geological Survey and numerous collaborators has made progress in quantifying the role of snow as a driver of mountain ecosystem processes. Spatially extensive snow surveys during the annual accumulation/ablation cycle covered two mountain watersheds and approximately 1,000 km2 . Over 7,000 snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements have been made through spring 2002. These augment two SNOTEL sites, 9 NRCS snow courses, and approximately 150 snow pit analyses. Snow data were used to establish spatially-explicit interannual variability in snowpack SWE. East of the Continental Divide, snowpack SWE was lower but also less variable than west of the Divide. Analysis of snowpacks suggest downward trends in SWE, a reduction in snow cover duration, and earlier melt-out dates during the past 52 years. Concurrently, high elevation forests and treelines have responded with increased growth. However, the 80 year record of snow from 3 NRCS snow courses reflects a strong influence from the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, resulting in 20-30 year phases of greater or lesser mean SWE. Coupled with the fine-resolution spatial snow data from the two watersheds, the ecological consequences of changes in snowpack can be empirically assessed at a habitat patch scale. This will be required because snow distribution models have had varied success in simulating snowpack accumulation/ablation dynamics in these mountain watersheds, ranging from R2=0.38 for individual south-facing forested snow survey routes to R2=0.95 when aggregated to the watershed scale. Key ecological responses to snowpack changes occur below the watershed scale, such as snow-mediated expansion of forest into subalpine meadows, making continued spatially-explicit snow surveys a necessity. 

  19. An elevational gradient in snowpack chemical loading at Glacier National Park, Montana: implications for ecosystem processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel; Tonnessen, Kathy; Morris, Kristi; Ingersoll, George; McKeon, Lisa; Holzer, Karen

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation and melting of mountain snowpacks are major drivers of ecosystem processes in the Rocky Mountains. These include the influence of snow water equivalent (SWE) timing and amount of release on soil moisture for annual tree growth, and alpine stream discharge and temperature that control aquatic biota life histories. Snowfall also brings with it atmospheric deposition. Snowpacks will hold as much as 8 months of atmospheric deposition for release into mountain ecosystems during the spring melt. These pulses of chemicals influence soil microbiota and biogeochemical processes affecting mountain vegetation growth. Increased atmospheric nitrogen inputs recently have been documented in remote parts of Colorado's mountain systems but no baseline data exist for the Northern Rockies. We examined patterns of SWE and snow chemistry in an elevational gradient stretching from west to east over the continental divide in Glacier National Park in March 1999 and 2000. Sites ranged from 1080m to 2192m at Swiftcurrent Pass. At each site, two vertically-integrated columns of snow were sampled from snowpits up to 600cm deep and analyzed for major cations and anions. Minor differences in snow chemistry, on a volumetric basis, existed over the elvational gradient. Snowpack chemical loading estimates were calculated for NH4, SO4 and NO3 and closely followed elevational increases in SWE. NO3 (in microequivalents/square meter) ranged from 1,000 ueq/m2 at low elevation sites to 8,000+ ueq/m2 for high elevation sites. Western slopes received greater amounts of SWE and chemical loads for all tested compounds.

  20. Natural avalanches and transportation: A case study from Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reardon, B.A.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Steiner, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, two natural avalanches (destructive class 3) derailed a freight train in John F. Stevens Canyon, on the southern boundary of Glacier National Park. The railroad tracks were closed for 29 hours due to cleanup and lingering avalanche hazard, backing up 112km of trains and shutting down Amtrak’s passenger service. The incident marked the fourth time in three winters that natural avalanches have disrupted transportation in the canyon, which is also the route of U.S. Highway 2. It was the latest in a 94-year history of accidents that includes three fatalities and the destruction of a major highway bridge. Despite that history and the presence of over 40 avalanche paths in the 16km canyon, mitigation is limited to nine railroad snow sheds and occasional highway closures. This case study examines natural avalanche cycles of the past 28 winters using data from field observations, a Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) SNOTEL station, and data collected since 2001 at a high-elevation weather station. The avalanches occurred when storms with sustained snowfall buried a persistent near-surface faceted layer and/or were followed by rain-on-snow or dramatic warming (as much as 21oC in 30 minutes). Natural avalanche activity peaked when temperatures clustered near freezing (mean of -1.5oC at 1800m elev.). Avalanches initiated through rapid loading, rain falling on new snow, and/ or temperature-related changes in the mechanical properties of slabs. Lastly, the case study describes how recent incidents have prompted a unique partnership of land management agencies, private corporations and non-profit organizations to develop an avalanche mitigation program for the transportation corridor.

  1. The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin, normally shortened to Norris Basin, is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. An east-west fault zone terminates the Gallatin Range at its southern end and extends from Hebgen Lake, west of the park, to Norris Basin. No local evidence exists at the surface in Norris Basin for the two oldest Yellowstone volcanic caldera cycles (~2.0 and 1.3 m.y.B.P.). The third and youngest cycle formed the Yellowstone caldera, which erupted the 600,000-year-old Lava Creek Tuff. No evidence is preserved of hydrothermal activity near Norris Basin during the first 300,000.years after the caldera collapse. Glaciation probably removed most of the early evidence, but erratics of hot-spring sinter that had been converted diagenetically to extremely hard, resistant chalcedonic sinter are present as cobbles in and on some moraines and till from the last two glacial stages, here correlated with the early and late stages of the Pinedale glaciation <150,000 years B.P.). Indirect evidence for the oldest hydrothermal system at Norris Basin indicates an age probably older than both stages of Pinedale glaciation. Stream deposits consisting mainly of rounded quartz phenocrysts of the Lava Creek Tuff were subaerial, perhaps in part windblown and redeposited by streams. A few small rounded pebbles are interpreted as chalcedonic sinter of a still older cycle. None of these are precisely dated but are unlikely to be more than 150,000 to 200,000 years old. ...Most studies of active hydrothermal areas have noted chemical differences in fluids and alteration products but have given little attention to differences and models to explain evolution in types. This report, in contrast, emphasizes the kinds of changes in vents and their changing chemical types of waters and then

  2. Grinnell and Sperry Glaciers, Glacier National Park, Montana: A record of vanishing ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Arthur

    1980-01-01

    Grinnell and Sperry Glaciers, in Glacier National Park, Mont., have both shrunk considerably since their discovery in 1887 and 1895, respectively. This shrinkage, a reflection of climatic conditions, is evident when photographs taken at the time of discovery are compared with later photographs. Annual precipitation and terminus-recession measurements, together with detailed systematic topographic mapping since 1900, clearly record the changes in the character and size of these glaciers. Grinnell Glacier decreased in area from 530 acres in 1900 to 315 acres in 1960 and to 298 acres in 1966. Between 1937 and 1969 the terminus receded nearly 1,200 feet. Periodic profile measurements indicate that in 1969 the surface over the main part of the glacier was 25-30 feet lower than in 1950. Observations from 1947 to 1969 indicate annual northeastward movement ranging from 32 to 52 feet and generally averaging 35-45 feet. The annual runoff at the glacier is estimated to be 150 inches, of which approximately 6 inches represents reduction in glacier volume. The average annual runoff at a gaging station on Grinnell Creek 1.5 miles downvalley from the glacier for the 20-year period, 1949-69, was 100 inches. The average annual precipitation over the glacier was probably 120-150 inches. Sperry Glacier occupied 800 acres in 1901; by 1960 it covered only 287 acres, much of its upper part having disappeared from the enclosing cirque. From 1938 to 1969 certain segments of the terminus receded more than 1,000 feet. Profile measurements dating from 1949 indicate a lowering of the glacier surface below an altitude of 7,500 feet, but a fairly constant or slightly increased elevation of the surface above an altitude of 7,500 feet. Along one segment of the 1969 terminus the ice had been more than 100 feet thick in 1950. According to observations during 1949-69, average annual downslope movement was less than 15 feet per year in the central part of the glacier and slightly more rapid toward

  3. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  4. Water-Quality Assessment of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming-Water Quality of Fixed Sites, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Kirk A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Wright, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    water type in the basin are reflective of the diverse geologic terrain in the Yellowstone River Basin. The water type of Soda Butte Creek and the Tongue River was calcium bicarbonate. These two sites are in forested and mountainous areas where igneous rocks and Paleozoic-era and Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks are the dominant geologic groups. The water type of the Little Powder River was sodium sulfate. The Little Powder River originates in the plains, and geology of the basin is nearly homogenous with Tertiary-period sedimentary rocks. Water type of the Yellowstone River changed from a mixed-cation bicarbonate type upstream to a mixed-cation sulfate type downstream. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from fairly dilute in Soda Butte Creek, which had a median concentration of 118 milligrams per liter, to concentrated in the Little Powder River, which had a median concentration of 2,840 milligrams per liter. Nutrient concentrations generally were small and reflect the relatively undeveloped conditions in the basin; however, some correlations were made with anthropogenic factors. Median dissolved-nitrate concentrations in all samples from the fixed sites ranged from 0.04 milligram per liter to 0.54 milligram per liter. Flow-weighted mean dissolved-nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with increasing agricultural land use and rangeland on alluvial deposits upstream from the sites and negatively correlated with increasing forested land. Ammonia concentrations generally were largest in samples collected from the Yellowstone River at Corwin Springs, Montana, which is downstream from Yellowstone National Park and receives discharge from geothermal waters that are high in ammonia. Median total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 0.18 milligram per liter. Median total-phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended goal of 0.10 milligram per liter for preventing nuisance plant growth for samples collec

  5. Water-quality characteristics and trend analyses for the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins, Wyoming and Montana, for selected periods, water years 1991 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is an area of ongoing coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development. Waters produced during CBNG development are managed with a variety of techniques, including surface impoundments and discharges into stream drainages. The interaction of CBNG-produced waters with the atmosphere and the semiarid soils of the Powder River structural basin can affect water chemistry in several ways. Specific conductance and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of CBNG-produced waters that are discharged to streams have been of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the use of the water for irrigation. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted since 2001 at main-stem and tributary sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins in response to concerns about CBNG effects. A study was conducted to summarize characteristics of stream-water quality for water years 2001–10 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2010) and examine trends in specific conductance, SAR, and primary constituents that contribute to specific conductance and SAR for changes through time (water years 1991–2010) that may have occurred as a result of CBNG development. Specific conductance and SAR are the focus characteristics of this report. Dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium, which are primary contributors to specific conductance and SAR, as well as dissolved alkalinity, chloride, and sulfate, which are other primary contributors to specific conductance, also are described. Stream-water quality in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins was variable during water years 2001–10, in part because of variations in streamflow. In general, annual runoff was less than average during water years 2001–06 and near or above average during water years 2007–10. Stream water of the Tongue River had the smallest specific conductance values, sodium adsorption ratios

  6. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  7. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis.

  8. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts.

  9. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  10. Heavy element radionuclides (Pu, Np, U) and {sup 137}Cs in soils collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and other sites in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, T.M.; Rivera, W. Jr.; Kelley, J.M.; Bond, L.A.; Liszewski, M.J.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1998-10-01

    The isotopic composition of Pu in soils on and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been determined in order to apportion the sources of the Pu into those derived from stratospheric fallout, regional fallout from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and facilities on the INEEL site. Soils collected offsite in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming were collected to further characterize NTS fallout in the region. In addition, measurements of {sup 237}Np and {sup 137}Cs were used to further identify the source of the Pu from airborne emissions at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) or fugitive releases from the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). There is convincing evidence from this study that {sup 241}Am, in excess of that expected from weapons-grade Pu, constituted a part of the buried waste at the SDA that has subsequently been released to the environment. Measurements of {sup 236}U in waters from the Snake River Plain aquifer and a soil core near the ICPP suggest that this radionuclide may be a unique interrogator of airborne releases from the ICPP. Neptunium-237 and {sup 238}Pu activities in INEEL soils suggest that airborne releases of Pu from the ICPP, over its operating history, may have recently been overestimated.

  11. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

  12. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Chapter A in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, Jacob A.; Buursink, Mark L.; Craddock, William H.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rocks within the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana and focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included here will be employed, as specified in the methodology of earlier work, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Wells sharing the same well borehole are treated as a single penetration. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data, a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

  13. Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling in the upper Snake River Basin. Routine sampling of the Snake River was conducted during water years 1998-2002 to monitor the water quality of the Snake River through time. A synoptic study during 2002 was conducted to supplement the routine Snake River sampling and establish baseline water-quality conditions of five of its eastern tributaries?Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek. Samples from the Snake River and the five tributaries were collected at 12 sites and analyzed for field measurements, major ions and dissolved solids, nutrients, selected trace metals, pesticides, and suspended sediment. In addition, the eastern tributaries were sampled for fecal-indicator bacteria by the National Park Service during the synoptic study. Major-ion chemistry of the Snake River varies between an upstream site above Jackson Lake near the northern boundary of Grand Teton National Park and a downstream site near the southern boundary of the Park, in part owing to the inputs from the eastern tributaries. Water type of the Snake River changes from sodium bicarbonate at the upstream site to calcium bicarbonate at the downstream site. The water type of the five eastern tributaries is calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved solids in samples collected from the Snake River were significantly higher at the upstream site (p-value<0.001), where concentrations in 43 samples ranged from 62 to 240 milligrams per liter, compared to the downstream site where concentrations in 33 samples ranged from 77 to 141 milligrams per liter. Major-ion chemistry of Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek generally did not change substantially between the upstream sites near the National Park Service boundary with the National

  14. Heat flow studies in Wyoming: 1979 to 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Decker, E.R.; Buelow, K.L.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-05-01

    Heat flow values and updated maps of flux in Wyoming, northern Colorado, and southern Montana are presented. It is concluded that most of the heat flow values in the Wyoming Basin-Southern Rocky Mountains region in Southern Wyoming are low or normal, excluding the Saratoga Valley; that the regional flux in the Owl Creek Mountains area is above normal; and that the Meadow Creek Basin area is in a zone of high flux. (MJF)

  15. Modeling spatial accessibility to parks: a national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parks provide ideal open spaces for leisure-time physical activity and important venues to promote physical activity. The spatial configuration of parks, the number of parks and their spatial distribution across neighborhood areas or local regions, represents the basic park access potential for their residential populations. A new measure of spatial access to parks, population-weighted distance (PWD) to parks, combines the advantages of current park access approaches and incorporates the information processing theory and probability access surface model to more accurately quantify residential population's potential spatial access to parks. Results The PWD was constructed at the basic level of US census geography - blocks - using US park and population data. This new measure of population park accessibility was aggregated to census tract, county, state and national levels. On average, US residential populations are expected to travel 6.7 miles to access their local neighborhood parks. There are significant differences in the PWD to local parks among states. The District of Columbia and Connecticut have the best access to local neighborhood parks with PWD of 0.6 miles and 1.8 miles, respectively. Alaska, Montana, and Wyoming have the largest PWDs of 62.0, 37.4, and 32.8 miles, respectively. Rural states in the western and Midwestern US have lower neighborhood park access, while urban states have relatively higher park access. Conclusions The PWD to parks provides a consistent platform for evaluating spatial equity of park access and linking with population health outcomes. It could be an informative evaluation tool for health professionals and policy makers. This new method could be applied to quantify geographic accessibility of other types of services or destinations, such as food, alcohol, and tobacco outlets. PMID:21554690

  16. Hydrogeology of the Old Faithful area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and its relevance to natural resources and infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Foley, Duncan; Fournier, Robert O.; Heasler, Henry P.; Hinckley, Bern; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    There are many documented examples at YNP and elsewhere where human infrastructure and natural thermal features have negatively affected each other. Unless action is taken, human conflicts with the Old Faithful hydrothermal system are likely to increase over the coming years. This is partly because of the increase in park visitation over the past decades, but also because the interval between eruptions of Old Faithful has increased, lengthening the time spent (and services needed) for each visitor at Old Faithful. To avoid an increase in visitor impacts, the National Park Service should consider 2 alternate strategies to accommodate people, vehicles, and services in the Upper Geyser Basin, such as shuttle services from staging (parking and dining) areas with little or no recent hydrothermal activity. We further suggest that YNP consider a zone system to guide maintenance and development of infrastructure in the immediate Old Faithful area. A “red” zone includes hydrothermally active land where new development is discouraged and existing infrastructure is modified with great care. An outer “green” zone represents areas where cooler temperatures and less hydrothermal flow are thought to exist, and where development and maintenance could proceed as occurs elsewhere in the park. An intermediate “yellow” zone would require preliminary assessment of subsurface temperatures and gas concentrations to assess suitability for infrastructure development. The panel recommends that YNP management follow the lead of the National Park System Advisory Board Science Committee (2012) by applying the “precautionary principle” when making decisions regarding the interaction of hydrothermal phenomena and park infrastructure in the Old Faithful area and other thermal areas within YNP.

  17. Water-quality investigation near the Chico and Hunters geothermal lease-application areas, Park and Sweet Grass Counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Shields, Ronald R.; Midtlyng, Norman A.

    1978-01-01

    Water quality in and adjacent to geothermal lease-application areas in Montana near Chico and Hunters Hot Springs was investigated during two surveys in October 1976 and April 1977. The data were needed to evaluate the effects of proposed geothermal exploration and development on the Yellowstone River and its tributaries. Water from the two hot springs, the Yellowstone River, and its tributaries that drain the proposed lease areas are generally suitable for drinking, except for excessive concentrations of fluoride and hydrogen sulfide in waters from Hunters Hot Springs. The water from Chico Hot Springs is suitable for irrigation, but the water from Hunters Hot Springs presents a very high sodium and medium salinity hazard and is generally unsatisfactory for irrigation. The effect of the thermal waters on streamflow and chemical discharge of the Yellowstone River during the surveys was negligible. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Quantification of metal loading in Fisher Creek by tracer injection and synoptic sampling, Park County, Montana, August 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Nimick, David A.; Gerner, Linda J.; Runkel, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Acid mine drainage from abandoned and inactive mines affects the water quality of the upper reaches of Fisher Creek, Montana. A sodium chloride tracer was added to the stream for 29.5 hours to provide a hydrologic context for synoptic sampling of metal chemistry in the stream and its inflows. The detailed profile of stream discharge obtained from the sampling helped to indicate those areas of Fisher Creek where most of the metal loading occurred. Inflows to the stream can be divided between visible surface inflows, which were sampled, and subsurface inflows, which were not sampled, but the effects of both types of inflows on the stream load were quantified. Substantial loads were attributed to both sources. These results indicate that treatment of large visible inflows, particularly the Glengary adit, could still leave metal concentrations in Fisher Creek at levels that may adversely affect aquatic life.

  19. Using GIS and Google Earth for the creation of the Going-to-the-Sun Road Avalanche Atlas, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Dundas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Snow avalanche paths are key geomorphologic features in Glacier National Park, Montana, and an important component of mountain ecosystems: they are isolated within a larger ecosystem, they are continuously disturbed, and they contain unique physical characteristics (Malanson and Butler, 1984). Avalanches impact subalpine forest structure and function, as well as overall biodiversity (Bebi et al., 2009). Because avalanches are dynamic phenomena, avalanche path geometry and spatial extent depend upon climatic regimes. The USGS/GNP Avalanche Program formally began in 2003 as an avalanche forecasting program for the spring opening of the ever-popular Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR), which crosses through 37 identified avalanche paths. Avalanche safety and forecasting is a necessary part of the GTSR spring opening procedures. An avalanche atlas detailing topographic parameters and oblique photographs was completed for the GTSR corridor in response to a request from GNP personnel for planning and resource management. Using ArcMap 9.2 GIS software, polygons were created for every avalanche path affecting the GTSR using aerial imagery, field-based observations, and GPS measurements of sub-meter accuracy. Spatial attributes for each path were derived within the GIS. Resulting products include an avalanche atlas book for operational use, a geoPDF of the atlas, and a Google Earth flyover illustrating each path and associated photographs. The avalanche atlas aids park management in worker safety, infrastructure planning, and natural resource protection by identifying avalanche path patterns and location. The atlas was created for operational and planning purposes and is also used as a foundation for research such as avalanche ecology projects and avalanche path runout modeling.

  20. Development of a spatial analysis method using ground-based repeat photography to detect changes in the alpine treeline ecotone, Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roush, W.; Munroe, J.S.; Fagre, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Repeat photography is a powerful tool for detection of landscape change over decadal timescales. Here a novel method is presented that applies spatial analysis software to digital photo-pairs, allowing vegetation change to be categorized and quantified. This method is applied to 12 sites within the alpine treeline ecotone of Glacier National Park, Montana, and is used to examine vegetation changes over timescales ranging from 71 to 93 years. Tree cover at the treeline ecotone increased in 10 out of the 12 photo-pairs (mean increase of 60%). Establishment occurred at all sites, infilling occurred at 11 sites. To demonstrate the utility of this method, patterns of tree establishment at treeline are described and the possible causes of changes within the treeline ecotone are discussed. Local factors undoubtedly affect the magnitude and type of the observed changes, however the ubiquity of the increase in tree cover implies a common forcing mechanism. Mean minimum summer temperatures have increased by 1.5??C over the past century and, coupled with variations in the amount of early spring snow water equivalent, likely account for much of the increase in tree cover at the treeline ecotone. Lastly, shortcomings of this method are presented along with possible solutions and areas for future research. ?? 2007 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  1. Topography and vegetation as predictors of snow water equivalent across the alpine treeline ecotone at Lee Ridge, Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geddes, C.A.; Brown, D.G.; Fagre, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    We derived and implemented two spatial models of May snow water equivalent (SWE) at Lee Ridge in Glacier National Park, Montana. We used the models to test the hypothesis that vegetation structure is a control on snow redistribution at the alpine treeline ecotone (ATE). The statistical models were derived using stepwise and "best" subsets regression techniques. The first model was derived from field measurements of SWE, topography, and vegetation taken at 27 sample points. The second model was derived using GIS-based measures of topography and vegetation. Both the field- (R² = 0.93) and GIS-based models (R² = 0.69) of May SWE included the following variables: site type (based on vegetation), elevation, maximum slope, and general slope aspect. Site type was identified as the most important predictor of SWE in both models, accounting for 74.0% and 29.5% of the variation, respectively. The GIS-based model was applied to create a predictive map of SWE across Lee Ridge, predicting little snow accumulation on the top of the ridge where vegetation is scarce. The GIS model failed in large depressions, including ephemeral stream channels. The models supported the hypothesis that upright vegetation has a positive effect on accumulation of SWE above and beyond the effects of topography. Vegetation, therefore, creates a positive feedback in which it modifies its, environment and could affect the ability of additional vegetation to become established.

  2. Description, distribution, and paleoclimatic significance of relict periglacial features east of Waterton-Glacier parks, Alberta and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, E.T. . Geography Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Periglacial wedges, involutions, patterned ground and soil wedges are locally preserved in pre-Wisconsinan outwash/alluvium and till on a series of erosion surfaces east of the Lewis Range mountain front and in Wisconsinan outwash near Cutbank, Montana. Ice-wedge casts, observed at six sites within 8 km of the Wisconsinan Laurentide glacier boundary, are 80 to 400 cm wide at the top and 95 to 240 cm deep. Host gravels are commonly foliated against wedge margins. Formation of these wedges required development of perennially frozen ground and mean annual temperatures at least 10 degrees C below those of today (5 degrees C). Soil wedges and tongues, 40 to 70 cm wide at the top and up to 55 cm deep, are developed in loess overlying the outwash/alluvial gravels, and in till and lacustrine deposits. They also occur at five sites within 8 km of the Wisconsinan Laurentide glacier boundary. Involutions and predominantly vertically-oriented gravels occur at eight more widely distributed sites without ice-wedge casts. Strongly weathered, 2+ m thick, pre-Illinoian paleosols, also preserved locally on the erosion surfaces, are truncated and/or completely stripped in the areas most affected by cryoturbation. Hence, most of the periglacial features postdate the paleosols. Stratigraphic and geomorphic relations suggest that the periglacial features formed during at least three glacial/periglacial episodes, probably including the Wisconsinan, Illinoian, and a pre-Illinoian glaciation.

  3. Fossil zooplankton and the historical status of westslope cutthroat trout in a headwater lake of Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verschuren, D.; Marnell, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Surviving pure-strain populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in headwater lakes of Glacier National Park could play an important role in the managed recovery of regional cutthroat trout fisheries. However, uncertainty exists about whether native trout could have naturally invaded several park lakes where they now occur. This study used paleolimnological techniques to address the question of whether the population of native trout in Avalanche Lake is indigenous or became established through an undocumented introduction. The validity of using fossil diapause eggs (ephippia) of the fish-sensitive cladocerans Daphnia spp. as indicators for the historical presence of zooplanktivorous fish was tested with a survey of live zooplankton and corresponding surface-sediment fossil assemblages in eight Glacier Park lakes with or without trout. Analysis of a sediment core from Avalanche Lake dated by lead radioisotopes, historical wildfires, and a flood allowed reconstruction of zooplankton dynamics from about 1700 A.D. to the present. Fossil Daphnia ephippia were rare or absent in Avalanche Lake sediments deposited before 1910, suggesting intense zooplanktivory due to sustained presence of an indigenous population of native cutthroat trout. Fossil evidence for larger Daphnia populations in the 1930s and early 1940s revealed a temporary disturbance of the lake's normal food web interactions during which zooplanktivory was significantly reduced. This disturbance may have resulted from a collapse of the native trout population caused indirectly by failed attempts between 1915 and 1943 to stock Avalanche Lake with Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarki bouvieri.

  4. Riparian plant community structure in a managed hydrological regime. University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mellman-Brown, Sabine; Roberts, Dave; Pugesek, Bruce H.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrology of the Snake River in Grand Teton National Park is partly determined by releases from Jackson Lake Dam. The dam was first built in 1908 and became part of the National Park system when GTNP was expanded to include most of Jackson Hole. Completion of the present structure of Jackson Lake Dam occurred in 1917 and resulted in an increase above the natural level of Jackson Lake of 11.9 m. The Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) manages the dam and sets discharge schedules, primarily to meet agricultural needs, and to a lesser extent the needs of recreational river use. Major changes to the hydrological regime of the Snake River include lower than natural peak releases, decrease in frequency of extreme flood events , and unusually high flows from July to September. In addition , peak releases prior to 1957 were not synchronized with spring runoff but shifted to July or early August. Changes in inundation frequencies of floodplains , inundation duration and timing of peak flows have profound effects on the extent and composition of the riparian zone.

  5. Chemical analyses of hot springs, pools, geysers, and surface waters from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and vicinity, 1974-1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Jenne, Everett A.; Vivit, Davison V.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents all analytical determinations for samples collected from Yellowstone National Park and vicinity during 1974 and 1975. Water temperature, pH, Eh, and dissolved O2 were determined on-site. Total alkalinity and F were determined on the day of sample collection. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was used to determine concentrations of Li, Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry was used to determine concentrations of Fe(II), Fe(III), As(III), and As(V). Direct-current plasma-optical-emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of B, Ba, Cd, Cs, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, and Zn. Two samples collected from Yellowstone Park in June 1974 were used as reference samples for testing the plasma analytical method. Results of these tests demonstrate acceptable precision for all detectable elements. Charge imbalance calculations revealed a small number of samples that may have been subject to measurement errors in pH or alkalinity. These data represent some of the most complete analyses of Yellowstone waters available.

  6. Chemical indicators of subsurface temperature applied to hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1970-01-01

    Under favorable conditions the chemistry of hot springs may give reliable indications of subsurface temperatures and circulation patterns. These chemical indicators can be classified by the type of process involved: {A table is presented}. All these indicators have certain limitations. The silica geothermometer gives results independent of the local mineral suite and gas partial pressures, but may be affected by dilution. Alkali ratios are strongly affected by the local mineral suite and the formation of complex ions. Carbonate-chloride ratios are strongly affected by subsurface PCO2. The relative concentration of volatiles can be very misleading in high-pressure liquid systems. In Yellowstone National Park most thermal waters issue from hot, shallow aquifers with pressures in excess of hydrostatic by 2 to 6 bars and with large flows (the flow of hot spring water from the Park is greater than 4000 liters per second). These conditions should be ideal for the use of chemical indicators to estimate aquifer temperatures. In five drill holes aquifer temperatures were within 2??C of that predicted from the silica content of nearby hot springs; the temperature level off at a lower value than predicted in only one hole, and in four other holes drilling was terminated before the predicted aquifer temperature was reached. The temperature-Na/K ratio relationship does not follow any published experimental or empirical curve for water-feldspar or water-clay reactions. We suspect that ion exchange reactions involving zeolites in the Yellowstone rocks result in higher Na/K ratios at given temperatures than result from feldspar or clay reactions. Comparison of SiO2 and Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) suggest that because of higher subsurface PCO2 in Upper Geyser Basin a given Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) ratio there means a higher temperature than in Lower Geyser Basin. No correlation was found in Yellowstone Park between the subsurface regions of highest temperature and the relative concentration of volatile

  7. Environmental Conditions Constrain the Distribution and Diversity of Archaeal merA in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Boyd, E.; Crane, S.; Lu-Irving, P.; Krabbenhoft, D.; King, S.; Dighton, J.; Geesey, G.; Barkay, T.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and phylogeny of extant protein-encoding genes recovered from geochemically diverse environments can provide insight into the physical and chemical parameters that led to the origin and which constrained the evolution of a functional process. Mercuric reductase (MerA) plays an integral role in mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry by catalyzing the transformation of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Putative merA sequences were amplified from DNA extracts of microbial communities associated with mats and sulfur precipitates from physicochemically diverse Hg-containing springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, using four PCR primer sets that were designed to capture the known diversity of merA. The recovery of novel and deeply rooted MerA lineages from these habitats supports previous evidence that indicates merA originated in a thermophilic environment. Generalized linear models indicate that the distribution of putative archaeal merA lineages was constrained by a combination of pH, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved total mercury and sulfide. The models failed to identify statistically well supported trends for the distribution of putative bacterial merA lineages as a function of these or other measured environmental variables, suggesting that these lineages were either influenced by environmental parameters not considered in the present study, or the bacterial primer sets were designed to target too broad of a class of genes which may have responded differently to environmental stimuli. The widespread occurrence of merA in the geothermal environments implies a prominent role for Hg detoxification in these environments. Moreover, the differences in the distribution of the merA genes amplified with the four merA primer sets suggests that the organisms putatively engaged in this activity have evolved to occupy different ecological niches within the geothermal gradient. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Environmental conditions constrain the distribution and diversity of archaeal merA in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Boyd, Eric; Crane, Sharron; Lu-Irving, Patricia; Krabbenhoft, David; King, Susan; Dighton, John; Geesey, Gill; Barkay, Tamar

    2011-11-01

    The distribution and phylogeny of extant protein-encoding genes recovered from geochemically diverse environments can provide insight into the physical and chemical parameters that led to the origin and which constrained the evolution of a functional process. Mercuric reductase (MerA) plays an integral role in mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry by catalyzing the transformation of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Putative merA sequences were amplified from DNA extracts of microbial communities associated with mats and sulfur precipitates from physicochemically diverse Hg-containing springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, using four PCR primer sets that were designed to capture the known diversity of merA. The recovery of novel and deeply rooted MerA lineages from these habitats supports previous evidence that indicates merA originated in a thermophilic environment. Generalized linear models indicate that the distribution of putative archaeal merA lineages was constrained by a combination of pH, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved total mercury and sulfide. The models failed to identify statistically well supported trends for the distribution of putative bacterial merA lineages as a function of these or other measured environmental variables, suggesting that these lineages were either influenced by environmental parameters not considered in the present study, or the bacterial primer sets were designed to target too broad of a class of genes which may have responded differently to environmental stimuli. The widespread occurrence of merA in the geothermal environments implies a prominent role for Hg detoxification in these environments. Moreover, the differences in the distribution of the merA genes amplified with the four merA primer sets suggests that the organisms putatively engaged in this activity have evolved to occupy different ecological niches within the geothermal gradient.

  9. Rare earth element geochemistry of acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride geothermal systems from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, A.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Kemp, A.J.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride waters and the associated sinters and volcanic rocks from the Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, geothermal system. REE concentrations in the volcanic rocks range from 222 to 347 ppm: their chondrite-normalised REE patterns are typical of upper continental crust, with LREE > HREE and negative Eu anomalies. Total REE concentrations in the fluids range from 3 to 1133 nmol kg{sup -1} ({ge}162 ppm), and {Sigma}REE concentrations in sinter are {ge}181 ppm. REE abundances and patterns in drill core material from YNP indicate some REE mobility. Relative to the host rocks the REE patterns of the fluids are variably depleted in HREEs and LREEs, and usually have a pronounced positive Eu anomaly. This decoupling of Eu from the REE suite suggests that (1) Eu has been preferentially removed either from the host rock glass or from the host rock minerals, or (2) the waters are from a high temperature or reducing environment where Eu{sup 2+} is more soluble than the trivalent REEs. Since the latter is inconsistent with production of acid-sulphate springs in a low temperature, oxidising near-surface environment, we suggest that the positive Eu anomalies in the fluids result from preferential dissolution of a Eu-rich phase in the host rock. Spatial and temporal variations in major element chemistry and pH of the springs sampled from Norris Geyser Basin and Crater Hills accompany variations in REE concentrations and patterns of individual geothermal springs. These are possibly related to changes in subsurface plumbing, which results in variations in mixing and dilution of the geothermal fluids and may have lead to changes in the extent and nature of REE complexing. 37 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Flores, R.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36??million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ??DH2O and ??18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ??DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na-HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1??mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15??mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120??m) is a mixed Ca-Mg-Na-SO4-HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation-reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270-3310??mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15??mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between ??DCH4 (- 283 to - 328 per mil) and ??DH2O (- 121 to - 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of ??DH2O and ??18OH2O (- 16 to - 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  11. Chemical and stable isotopic composition of water and gas in the Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for water/rock interaction and the biogenic origin of coalbed natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Cynthia A.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36 million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, δDH2O and δ18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and δDCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na–HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1 mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15 mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120 m) is a mixed Ca–Mg–Na–SO4–HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation–reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270–3310 mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15 mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between δDCH4 (− 283 to − 328 per mil) and δDH2O (− 121 to − 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of δDH2O and δ18OH2O (− 16 to − 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  12. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  13. Characterizing wet slab and glide slab avalanche occurrence along the Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Reardon, Blase

    2010-01-01

    Wet slab and glide slab snow avalanches are dangerous and yet can be particularly difficult to predict. Both wet slab and glide slab avalanches are thought to depend upon free water moving through the snowpack but are driven by different processes. In Glacier National Park, Montana, both types of avalanches can occur in the same year and affect the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). Both wet slab and glide slab avalanches along the GTSR from 2003-2010 are investigated. Meteorological data from two high-elevation weather stations and one SNOTEL site are used in conjunction with an avalanche database and snowpit profiles. These data were used to characterize years when only glide slab avalanches occurred and those years when both glide slab and wet slab avalanches occurred. Results of 168 glide slab and 57 wet slab avalanches along the GTSR suggest both types of avalanche occurrence depend on sustained warming periods with intense solar radiation (or rain on snow) to produce free water in the snowpack. Differences in temperature and net radiation metrics between wet slab and glide slab avalanches emerge as one moves from one day to seven days prior to avalanche occurrence. On average, a more rapid warming precedes wet slab avalanche occurrence. Glide slab and wet slab avalanches require a similar amount of net radiation. Wet slab avalanches do not occur every year, while glide slab avalanches occur annually. These results aim to enhance understanding of the required meteorological conditions for wet slab and glide slab avalanches and aid in improved wet snow avalanche forecasting.

  14. Spatial reconstructions and comparisons of historic snow avalanche frequency and extent using tree rings in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reardon, B.A.; Pederson, G.T.; Caruso, C.J.; Fagre, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Natural snow avalanches have periodically damaged infrastructure and disrupted railroad and highway traffic at the southwestern corner of Glacier National Park, Montana. The 94-year history of these disruptions constitutes an uncommon record of natural avalanches spanning over nine decades and presents a unique opportunity to examine how natural avalanche frequency and minimum extent have varied over time due to climatic or biophysical changes. This study compared the historic record of natural avalanches in one avalanche path with tree-ring evidence of avalanches from 109 cross sections and increment cores collected in the same path. Results from combined historic and tree-ring records yielded 27 avalanche years in the 1910-2003 chronology, with the historic record alone underestimating avalanche years by half. Mean return period was 3.2 years. Interpolated maps allowed for more spatially precise estimates of return periods throughout the runout zone than previous studies. The maps show return periods increase rapidly downslope from 2.3 to 25 years. Avalanche years were associated with positive Snow Water Equivalent anomalies at a nearby snow course. Minimum avalanche extent was highly variable but not associated with snowpack anomalies. Most avalanche years coincided with years in which the mean January-February Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 3.4 indices were neutral. The findings suggest that changes in Pacific climate patterns that influence snowfall could also alter the frequency of natural snow avalanches and could thus change disturbance patterns in the montane forests of the canyon. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  15. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  16. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  17. Geologic applications of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River, Wyoming; Cubeza Prieta, Arizona, and Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the Powder River Basin, Wyo., narrow geologic units having thermal inertias which contrast with their surroundings can be discriminated in optimal images. A few subtle thermal inertia anomalies coincide with areas of helium leakage believed to be associated with deep oil and gas concentrations. The most important results involved delineation of tectonic framework elements some of which were not previously recognized. Thermal and thermal inertia images also permit mapping of geomorphic textural domains. A thermal lineament appears to reveal a basement discontinuity which involves the Homestake Mine in the Black Hill, a zone of Tertiary igneous activity and facies control in oil producing horizons. Applications of these data to the Cabeza Prieta, Ariz., area illustrate their potential for igneous rock type discrimination. Extension to Yellowstone National Park resulted in the detection of additional structural information but surface hydrothermal features could not be distinguished with any confidence. A thermal inertia mapping algorithm, a fast and accurate image registration technique, and an efficient topographic slope and elevation correction method were developed.

  18. Effects of Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River and its floodplain, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Richard A.; Mills, John D.; Wrazien, David R.; Bassett, Beau; Splinter, Dale K.

    2005-10-01

    In 1906, the Bureau of Reclamation created Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River in what later became Grand Teton National Park. The geomorphic, hydrologic and vegetation adjustments downstream of the dam have yet to be documented. After a larger reservoir was completed further downstream in 1957, the reservoir release schedule from Jackson Lake Dam was changed in a manner that lowered the magnitude and frequency of floods. The stability of the Snake River exhibited a complex response to the change in flow regime. Close to major tributaries, the Snake River increased in total sinuosity and rates of lateral channel migration. Away from the influence of tributaries, the river experienced fewer avulsions and a decrease in sinuosity. Vegetation maps were constructed from 1945 and 1989 aerial photography and field surveys. Using these data, we determined how vegetation is directly related to the number of years since each portion of the floodplain was last occupied by the channel. The vegetation has changed from a flood-pulse dominated mosaic to a more terrestrial-like pattern of succession. Changes in the Snake River and its floodplain have direct implications on bald eagle habitat, moose habitat, fish habitat, safety of rafting and canoeing, and biodiversity at the community and species levels.

  19. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives of...

  20. Distribution of Hydrothermal Mineral Assemblages in the Sevenmile Hole Area, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A.; Larson, P.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pauley, B.; Manion, J.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.

    2007-12-01

    Incision of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River in Yellowstone National Park has exposed approximately 350 vertical meters of hydrothermally altered rhyolites. This older alteration formed in the shallow portion of a hydrothermal system that was most likely similar to the modern Yellowstone hydrothermal environment. Hydrothermal fluid circulation is related to the ongoing rhyolitic magmatism that produced the Yellowstone caldera at 640 ka. The rhyolitic magmatism and hydrothermal system are shallow expressions of deeper mantle- derived basalts. The older alteration is well exposed in the Sevenmile Hole area, near the northeastern margin of the caldera. Here, the alteration protolith is the high silica, low-18O, rhyolitic Tuff of Sulfur Creek. The tuff erupted at about 480 ka after resurgent doming associated with the third cycle collapse of the Yellowstone caldera. The tuff is a rheomorphically deformed densely welded agglutinate fallout ash that was deposited along the caldera wall. It contains phenocrysts of quartz, sodic plagioclase, and potassium feldspar. The tuff is exposed from the rim of the canyon, which is very close to the pre-alteration paleosurface, to the river bottom where it is covered by detrital sediments and actively forming hot spring deposits. Rocks exposed within the field area are pervasively hydrothermally altered. Mineral phases in approximately 90 samples were determined in the field using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyser (PIMA). Subsequently, more precise mineral determinations were made using standard petrographic and powder XRD techniques. The alteration mineralogy consists of variable assemblages that include zones of kaolinite + opal; kaolinite + alunite with local dickite and typically high opal and/or quartz concentrations; highly silicified zones containing illite with or without smectite; and weakly silicified zones containing mostly illite. Minor (less than 1 percent) fine-grained disseminated pyrite is ubiquitous. The

  1. Paleolimnological records of nitrogen deposition in shallow, high-elevation lakes of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Otu, Megan K.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Baron, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic sources has been altering ecosystem function in lakes of the Rocky Mountains, other regions of western North America, and the Arctic over recent decades. The response of biota in shallow lakes to atmospheric deposition of Nr, however, has not been considered. Benthic algae are dominant in shallow, high-elevation lakes and are less sensitive to nutrient inputs than planktonic algae. Because the benthos is typically more nutrient rich than the water column, shallow lakes are not expected to show evidence of anthropogenic Nr. In this study, we assessed sedimentary evidence for regional Nr deposition, sediment chronology, and the nature of algal community response in five shallow, high-elevation lakes in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE). Over 140 diatom taxa were identified from the sediments, with a relatively high species richness of taxa characteristic of oligotrophic conditions. The diatom assemblages were dominated by benthic taxa, especially motile taxa. The GRTE lakes demonstrate assemblage-wide shifts in diatoms, including 1) synchronous and significant assemblage changes centered on ~1960 AD; 2) pre-1960 assemblages differed significantly from post-1960 assemblages; 3) pre-1960 diatom assemblages fluctuated randomly, whereas post- 1960 assemblages showed directional change; 4) changes in δ15N signatures were correlated with diatom community composition. These results demonstrate recent changes in shallow high18 elevation lakes that are most correlated with anthropogenic Nr. It is also possible, however, that the combined effect of Nr deposition and warming is accelerating species shifts in benthic diatoms. While uncertainties remain about the potential synergy of Nr deposition and warming, this study adds shallow lakes to the growing list of impacted high-elevation localities in western North America.

  2. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Guernsey, Debra S

    2006-07-01

    The foraging and feeding ecology of gray wolves is an essential component to understanding the role that top carnivores play in shaping the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), predation studies on a highly visible, reintroduced population of wolves are increasing our understanding of this aspect of wolf ecology. Wolves in YNP feed primarily on elk, despite the presence of other ungulate species. Patterns of prey selection and kill rates in winter have varied seasonally each year from 1995 to 2004 and changed in recent years as the wolf population has become established. Wolves select elk based on their vulnerability as a result of age, sex, and season and therefore kill primarily calves, old cows, and bulls that have been weakened by winter. Summer scat analysis reveals an increased variety in diet compared with observed winter diets, including other ungulate species, rodents, and vegetation. Wolves in YNP hunt in packs and, upon a successful kill, share in the evisceration and consumption of highly nutritious organs first, followed by major muscle tissue, and eventually bone and hide. Wolves are adapted to a feast-or-famine foraging pattern, and YNP packs typically kill and consume an elk every 2-3 d. However, wolves in YNP have gone without fresh meat for several weeks by scavenging off old carcasses that consist mostly of bone and hide. As patterns of wolf density, prey density, weather, and vulnerability of prey change, in comparison with the conditions of the study period described here, we predict that there will also be significant changes in wolf predation patterns and feeding behavior.

  3. Organic compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediment from streams in the Yellowstone River basin, Montana and Wyoming, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Boughton, Gregory K.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive water-quality investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin began in 1997, under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Twenty-four sampling sites were selected for sampling of fish tissue and bed sediment during 1998. Organic compounds analyzed included organochlorine insecticides and their metabolites and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples, and semivolatile organic compounds from bed-sediment samples. A broad suite of trace elements was analyzed from both fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples, and a special study related to mercury also was conducted. Of the 12 organochlorine insecticides and metabolites detected in the fish-tissue samples, the most compounds per site were detected in samples from integrator sites which represent a mixture of land uses. The presence of DDT, and its metabolites DDD and DDE, in fish collected in the Yellowstone Park area likely reflects long-term residual effects from historical DDT-spraying programs for spruce budworm. Dieldrin, chlordane, and other organic compounds also were detected in the fish-tissue samples. The compound p, p'-DDE was detected at 71 percent of the sampling sites, more than any other compound. The concentrations of total DDT in fish samples were low, however, compared to concentrations from historical data from the study area, other NAWQA studies in the Rocky Mountains, and national baseline concentrations. Only 2 of the 27 organochlorine insecticides and metabolites and total PCBs analyzed in bed sediment were detected. Given that 12 of the compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples, fish appeared to be more sensitive indicators of contamination than bed sediment.Concentrations of some trace elements in fish and bed sediment were higher at sites in mineralized areas than at other sites. Concentrations of selenium in fish tissue from some sites were above background levels. Concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead in

  4. Forecasting for natural avalanches during spring opening of Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reardon, Blase; Lundy, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The annual spring opening of the Going-to-the-Sun Road in Glacier National Park presents a unique avalanche forecasting challenge. The highway traverses dozens of avalanche paths mid-track in a 23-kilometer section that crosses the Continental Divide. Workers removing seasonal snow and avalanche debris are exposed to paths that can produce avalanches of destructive class 4. The starting zones for most slide paths are within proposed Wilderness, and explosive testing or control are not currently used. Spring weather along the Divide is highly variable; rain-on-snow events are common, storms can bring several feet of new snow as late as June, and temperature swings can be dramatic. Natural avalanches - dry and wet slab, dry and wet loose, and glide avalanches - present a wide range of hazards and forecasting issues. This paper summarizes the forecasting program instituted in 2002 for the annual snow removal operations. It focuses on tools and techniques for forecasting natural wet snow avalanches by incorporating two case studies, including a widespread climax wet slab cycle in 2003. We examine weather and snowpack conditions conducive to wet snow avalanches, indicators for instability, and suggest a conceptual model for wet snow stability in a northern intermountain snow climate.

  5. A half century of change in alpine treeline patterns at Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, F.L.; Fagre, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Using sequential aerial photography, we identified changes in the spatial distribution of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) habitat at the alpine treeline ecotone. Six 40-ha study sites in the McDonald Creek drainage of Glacier National Park contained subalpine fir forests that graded into alpine tundra. Over a 46-yr period, altitudinal changes in the location of alpine treeline ecotone were not observed. However, over this 46-yr period the area of krummholz, patch-forest, and continuous canopy forest increased by 3.4%, and tree density increased within existing patches of krummholz and patch-forest. Change in subalpine fir vegetation patterns within 100 m of trails was also compared to areas without trails. Within 100 m of trails, the number of small, discrete krummholz stands increased compared to areas without trails, but there was no significant change in total krummholz area. We used historical terrestrial photography to expand the period (to 70 yr) considered. This photography supported the conclusions that a more abrupt ecotone transition developed from forest to tundra at alpine treeline, that tree density within forested areas increased, and that krummholz became fragmented along trails. This local assessment of fine-grained change in the alpine treeline ecotone provides a comparative base for looking at ecotone change in other mountain regions throughout the world.

  6. Trace elements in glacial meltwater at Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming: Contributions from atmospheric deposition and other sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, G. T.; Fernandez, D. P.; Tingey, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers are a reservoir of mercury and other trace elements that have accumulated in the ice from atmospheric deposition during the industrial era. As glaciers continue to melt at an alarming rate, potentially toxic metals are released from the ice to the environment. In order to evaluate the impact of glacier melt on water quality in high elevation catchments in Grand Teton National Park, we sampled transects along the Teton and Middle Teton glaciers and proglacial streams during early-July and mid-August 2013. The glaciers were snow-covered during July, and thus water samples were primarily melt of snowpack from the previous winter. During August, the glacier ice was exposed across the ablation zone. The contrasting sample sets from July and August allowed for a comparison of water chemistry of snowmelt and glacier melt, respectively. The Teton Glacier transect included ten sample sites: four samples of surface drainage on the glacier, three near the terminal moraine, and three in Glacier Gulch stream. The Middle Teton transect included thirteen sample sites: one above the glacier, four of surface drainage on the glacier, two near the terminal moraine, two at the moraine of adjacent Teepe Glacier, and four in Garnet Canyon stream. All water samples were analyzed for total and methyl mercury, a suite of trace elements (including U, Sr, and Mn), solutes, and stable water isotopes (δ2H and δ18O). A subset of samples were analyzed for tritium to differentiate recent snowmelt from older ice melt. Preliminary results indicate that snowmelt and glacier melt were a significant source of total mercury, with little additional inputs downstream of the glaciers. Methyl mercury concentrations increased downstream of the glaciers, possibly indicating that mercury from the glaciers undergoes methylation in the proglacial streams. Other trace elements were found in low concentrations in melt water, but increased substantially downstream of the glaciers likely due to water

  7. High resolution tree-ring based spatial reconstructions of snow avalanche activity in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pederson, Gregory T.; Reardon, Blase; Caruso, C.J.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Effective design of avalanche hazard mitigation measures requires long-term records of natural avalanche frequency and extent. Such records are also vital for determining whether natural avalanche frequency and extent vary over time due to climatic or biophysical changes. Where historic records are lacking, an accepted substitute is a chronology developed from tree-ring responses to avalanche-induced damage. This study evaluates a method for using tree-ring chronologies to provide spatially explicit differentiations of avalanche frequency and temporally explicit records of avalanche extent that are often lacking. The study area - part of John F. Stevens Canyon on the southern border of Glacier National Park – is within a heavily used railroad and highway corridor with two dozen active avalanche paths. Using a spatially geo-referenced network of avalanche-damaged trees (n=109) from a single path, we reconstructed a 96-year tree-ring based chronology of avalanche extent and frequency. Comparison of the chronology with historic records revealed that trees recorded all known events as well as the same number of previously unidentified events. Kriging methods provided spatially explicit estimates of avalanche return periods. Estimated return periods for the entire avalanche path averaged 3.2 years. Within this path, return intervals ranged from ~2.3 yrs in the lower track, to ~9-11 yrs and ~12 to >25 yrs in the runout zone, where the railroad and highway are located. For avalanche professionals, engineers, and transportation managers this technique proves a powerful tool in landscape risk assessment and decision making.

  8. Sensitivity of alpine and subalpine lakes to acidification from atmospheric deposition in Grand Teton National Park and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Williams, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    The sensitivity of 400 lakes in Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks to acidification from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur was estimated based on statistical relations between acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics to aid in the design of a long-term monitoring plan for Outstanding Natural Resource Waters. Acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations that were measured at 52 lakes in Grand Teton and 23 lakes in Yellowstone during synoptic surveys were used to calibrate the statistical models. Three acid-neutralizing capacity concentration bins (bins) were selected that are within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria of sensitive to acidification; less than 50 microequivalents per liter (?eq/L) (0-50), less than 100 ?eq/L (0-100), and less than 200 ?eq/L (0-200). The development of discrete bins enables resource managers to have the ability to change criteria based on the focus of their study. Basin-characteristic information was derived from Geographic Information System data sets. The explanatory variables that were considered included bedrock type, basin slope, basin aspect, basin elevation, lake area, basin area, inorganic nitrogen deposition, sulfate deposition, hydrogen ion deposition, basin precipitation, soil type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed and applied to lake basins greater than 1 hectare in Grand Teton (n = 106) and Yellowstone (n = 294). A higher percentage of lakes in Grand Teton than in Yellowstone were predicted to be sensitive to atmospheric deposition in all three bins. For Grand Teton, 7 percent of lakes had a greater than 60-percent probability of having acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations in the 0-50 bin, 36 percent of lakes had a greater than 60-percent probability of having acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations in the 0-100 bin, and 59 percent of lakes had a greater than 60-percent probability of having acid-neutralizing capacity

  9. Water-Chemistry Data for Selected Springs, Geysers, and Streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.

    2008-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 157 samples collected from numerous hot springs, their overflow drainages, and Lemonade Creek in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2003-2005. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from ten areas of YNP including Terrace and Beryl Springs in the Gibbon Canyon area, Norris Geyser Basin, the West Nymph Creek thermal area, the area near Nymph Lake, Hazle Lake, and Frying Pan Spring, Lower Geyser Basin, Washburn Hot Springs, Mammoth Hot Springs, Potts Hot Spring Basin, the Sulphur Caldron area, and Lemonade Creek near the Solfatara Trail. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, and sulfur redox distribution in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved onsite. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh (redox potential relative to the Standard Hydrogen Electrode), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured onsite at the time of sampling. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally minutes to hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved-iron and ferrous-iron concentrations often were measured onsite in the mobile laboratory vehicle. Concentrations of dissolved

  10. Water-Chemistry Data for Selected Springs, Geysers, and Streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Sturtevant, Sabin A.

    2002-01-01

    Sixty-seven water analyses are reported for samples collected from 44 hot springs and their overflow drainages and two ambient-temperature acid streams in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 1990-2000. Thirty-seven analyses are reported for 1999, 18 for June of 2000, and 12 for September of 2000. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on microbially mediated sulfur oxidation in stream water, arsenic and sulfur redox speciation in hot springs, and chemical changes in overflow drainages that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. Most samples were collected from sources in the Norris Geyser Basin. Two ambient-temperature acidic stream systems, Alluvium and Columbine Creeks and their tributaries in Brimstone Basin, were studied in detail. Analyses were performed at or near the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory truck, or later in a USGS laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether or not it could be preserved effectively. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), and dissolved H2S were determined on-site at the time of sampling. Alkalinity, acidity, and F were determined within a few days of sample collection by titration with acid, titration with base, and ion-selective electrode or ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Concentrations of S2O3 and SxO6 were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by IC. Concentrations of Br, Cl, NH4, NO2, NO3, SO4, Fe(II), and Fe(total) were determined within a few days of sample collection. Densities were determined later in the USGS laboratory. Concentrations of Li and K were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As(total), B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Trace concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Sb were

  11. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; McMleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 104 samples collected from numerous thermal and non-thermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2006-2008. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from 10 areas of YNP including Apollinaris Spring and Nymphy Creek along the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Crater Hills, the Geyser Springs Group, Nez Perce Creek, Rabbit Creek, the Mud Volcano area, and Washburn Hot Springs. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur redox species in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved on-site. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, emf (electromotive force or electrical potential), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured on-site at the time of sampling. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide was measured a few to several hours after sample collection by ion-specific electrode on samples preserved on-site. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally a few to several hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved iron and ferrous iron concentrations often were measured on-site in the

  12. Glacial and Geomorphic History of Grinnell Glacier Valley, Glacier National Park, Montana: Evidence From Geochemistry and Mass-balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Wirth, K. R.; MacGregor, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary deposits in proglacial lakes provide high-resolution records of past climate and landscape processes. However, few studies have used geochemical evidence to understand the evolution of bedrock sources of proglacial lake sediments, and therefore the geomorphic and glaciologic history of a valley. Sediment cores collected from Lake Josephine, eastern Glacier National Park, were analyzed to assess the geochemical variability during the past 16,000 years. These sediments were likely solely derived from the Proterozoic Belt Supergroup and mafic sills, comprising five lithologic end-members (quartzite, shale, limestone, dolostone, and basalt) that occur at different elevations in the enclosed Grinnell Glacier valley. Bedrock near the top of the valley (1975-2580 m elevation) consists of quartzite, shale, limestone, and dolostone intruded by basaltic sills, whereas exposures at lower elevations (1490-1975 m) are composed of shale and quartzite. Major and trace element analyses of 55 samples from the 13-meter composite core indicate that lake sediments are enriched in CaO (5.39-10.93 wt. %) near the base (late Pleistocene) and become more enriched in Al2O3 (9.87-14.54 wt. %) near the top (Holocene), consistent with previous work (e.g., Schactman et al., 2015). Mass-balance calculations indicate that Pleistocene sediments in the core can be modeled as mostly shale (20-44 %), quartzite (8-15 %), and dolostone (40-58 %), with minor limestone (0-6 %) and basalt (2.08-5.47 %); the later three lithologies are exposed near the headwall region of the valley. In contrast, Holocene sediments are modeled as mixtures of shale (55-78 %), quartzite (9-22 %), and dolostone (6-27 %); these sediments cannot be modeled successfully when limestone or basalt are included as potential end-members. The modeled decreasing proportion of valley headwall lithologies in younger sediments suggests reduced sediment production and/or transport from the glacier to the Lake Josephine from the

  13. The rare earth element geochemistry of acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride geothermal systems from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Anita J.; Palmer, Martin R.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Kemp, Anthony J.

    1997-02-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride waters and the associated sinters and volcanic rocks from the Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, geothermal system. REE concentrations in the volcanic rocks range from 222 to 347 ppm; their chondite-normalised REE patterns are typical of upper continental crust, with LREE > HREE and negative Eu anomalies. Total REE concentrations in the fluids range from 3 to 1133 nmol kg -1 (≥ 162 ppm), and ΣREE concentrations in sinter are ≥ 181 ppm. REE abundances and patterns in drill core material from YNP indicate some REE mobility. Normalisation of REE concentrations in altered Lava Creek Tuff (LCT) from Y-12 drill core to REE concentrations in fresh LCT indicate that the REE overall have been depleted with the exception of Eu, which has been decoupled from the REE series and concentrated in the altered rocks. Relative to the host rocks the REE patterns of the fluids are variably depleted in HREEs and LREEs, and usually have a pronounced positive Eu anomaly. This decoupling of Eu from the REE suite suggests that (1) Eu has been preferentially removed either from the host rock glass or from the host rock minerals, or (2) the waters are from a high temperature or reducing environment where Eu 2+ is more soluble than the trivalent REEs. Since the latter is inconsistent with production of acid-sulphate springs in a low temperature, oxidising near-surface environment, we suggest that the positive Eu anomalies in the fluids result from preferential dissolution of a Eu-rich phase in the host rock. Spatial and temporal variations in major element chemistry and pH of the springs sampled from Norris Geyser Basin and Crater Hills accompany variations in REE concentrations and patterns of individual geothermal springs. These are possibly related to changes in subsurface plumbing, which results in variations in

  14. Arsenic and fluoride in the upper madison river system: Firehole and gibbon rivers and their tributaries, yellowstone national park, wyoming, and southeast montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 21 water samples from the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which combine to form the Madison River, gave arsenic and fluoride values above the Environmental Protection Agency Interim Primary Drinking Water maximum contaminant levels (0.05 mg/l arsenic and 2.0 mg/l fluoride). On 18 October, 1975, during a period of moderate flow (16,600 l/s), the Madison River at West Yellowstone contained 0.23 mg/l arsenic and 6.2 mg/l fluoride. Below Hebgen Lake the Madison River during periods of high flow (56,000 liter/s at West Yellowstone and 708,000 liter/s below Hebgen Lake) would contain 0.05 mg/l arsenic at both stations and 1.5 and 4.0 mg/l fluoride at West Yellowstone and below Hebgen Lake, respectively. The strong correlations of arsenic and fluoride with other chemical constituents of the river water at the sampling sites demonstrate the conservative nature of each element after it reaches the Madison River system. Calculations indicate that water from three sampling sites is above saturation with respect to fluorite. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal

  16. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  17. A Geophysical Study in Grand Teton National Park and Vicinity, Teton County, Wyoming: With Sections on Stratigraphy and Structure and Precambrian Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John Charles; Tibbetts, Benton L.; Bonini, William E.; Lavin, Peter M.; Love, J.D.; Reed, John C.

    1968-01-01

    An integrated geophysical study - comprising gravity, seismic refraction, and aeromagnetic surveys - was made of a 4,600-km2 area in Grand Teton National Park and vicinity, Wyoming, for the purpose of obtaining a better understanding of the structural relationships in the region. The Teton range is largely comprised of Precambrian crystalline rocks and layered metasedimentary gneiss, but it also includes granitic gneiss, hornblende-plagioclase gneiss, granodiorite, and pegmatite and diabase dikes. Elsewhere, the sedimentary section is thick. The presence of each system except Silurian provides a chronological history of most structures. Uplift of the Teton-Gros Ventre area began in the Late Cretaceous; most of the uplift occurred after middle Eocene time. Additional uplift of the Teton Range and downfaulting of Jackson Hole began in the late Pliocene and continues to the present. Bouguer anomalies range from -185 mgal over Precambrian rocks of the Teton Range to -240 mgal over low-density Tertiary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Jackson Hole. The Teton fault (at the west edge of Jackson Hole), as shown by steep gravity gradients and seismic-refraction data, trends north-northeast away from the front of the Teton Range in the area of Jackson Lake. The Teton fault either is shallowly inclined in the Jenny Lake area, or it consists of a series of fault steps in the fault zone; it is approximately vertical in the Arizona Creek area. Seismic-refraction data can be fitted well by a three-layer gravity model with velocities of 2.45 km per sec for the Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks above the Cloverly Formation, 3.9 km per sec for the lower Mesozoic rocks, and 6.1 km per sec for the Paleozoic (limestone and dolomite) and Precambrian rocks. Gravity models computed along two seismic profiles are in good agreement (sigma=+- 2 mgal) if density contrasts with the assumed 2.67 g per cm2 Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks are assumed to be -0.35 and -0.10 g per cm2 for the 2

  18. Workforce: Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    From 2002 to 2012, the economy in Wyoming and the nation will continue generating jobs for workers at all levels of education and training, but there will be an increasing demand for employees with at least some postsecondary education, preferably a bachelor's degree. Nationwide, during a decade that will witness large numbers of baby boomers…

  19. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments when

  20. 76 FR 28065 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena... repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT, that meets the... Territory, between 1884 and 1886. In 1892, Allen loaned it to the Montana Historical Society....

  1. 75 FR 58430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT AGENCY: National... human remains and an associated funerary object in the possession of the University of Montana, Missoula... determinations in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Montana...

  2. Montana Wildfires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Montana Wildfires     View larger image ... in the early summer of 2012 has been on the destructive wildfires in Colorado, as of July 3, 2012, dozens of major wildfires were burning across the western United States, including six in ...

  3. 77 FR 74873 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Museum of the Rockies at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Rockies at Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; and University of Wyoming, Department of Anthropology... Anthropology, have completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe... Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, telephone (406) 243-5525. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  4. Suspended-sediment concentration and pool sedimentation data for the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, September 2000 through October 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Peter R.; Zelt, Ronald B.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents data on streamflow, suspended-sediment concentration, geomorphic measurements of pools, and particle-size distribution of surficial bed material, collected along a 5-mile reach of the Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park. The study was done in cooperation with the National Park Service. The Park Service was concerned about the potential effects that road reconstruction would have on water quality. A streamflow-gaging station and two automatic pumping samplers were installed in September 2000 to collect suspended-sediment samples. The gage and samplers were operated seasonally from March through September 2001. The geomorphic survey of pools and sampling of bed material occurred during October 2000.

  5. Trends in major-ion constituents and properties for selected sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds, Montana and Wyoming, based on data collected during water years 1980-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Sando, Thomas R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Lorenz, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information relating to flow-adjusted temporal trends in major-ion constituents and properties for 16 sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds based on data collected during 1980–2010. In association with this primary purpose, the report presents background information on major-ion characteristics (including specific conductance, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium, alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids) of the sampling sites and coal-bed methane (CBM) produced water (groundwater pumped from coal seams) in the site watersheds, trend analysis methods, streamflow conditions, and factors that affect trend results. The Tongue and Powder River watersheds overlie the Powder River structural basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. Limited extraction of coal-bed methane (CBM) from the PRB began in the early 1990’s, and increased dramatically during the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. CBM-extraction activities produce discharges of water with high concentrations of dissolved solids (particularly sodium and bicarbonate ions) relative to most stream water in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds. Water-quality of CBM produced water is of concern because of potential effects of sodium on agricultural soils and potential effects of bicarbonate on aquatic biota. Two parametric trend-analysis methods were used in this study: the time-series model (TSM) and ordinary least squares regression (OLS) on time, streamflow, and season. The TSM was used to analyze trends for 11 of the 16 study sites. For five sites, data requirements of the TSM were not met and OLS was used to analyze trends. Two primary 10-year trend-analysis periods were selected. Trend-analysis period 1 (water years 1986–95; hereinafter referred to as period 1) was selected to represent variability in major-ion concentrations in the Tongue and Powder River

  6. Workforce: Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Employment in Montana (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 17 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding over 96,000 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 554,456 to 651,135. The rate of growth is higher than the 15 percent increase projected for the nation as a whole. Growth will occur…

  7. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  8. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  9. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  10. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  11. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  12. Geology and mineralization of the Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W.D.; Edwards, B.R.; Graff, P.J.; ,

    1991-01-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.

  13. Assessment of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in selected surface water of the National Park Service Northern Colorado Plateau Network, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, from 1972 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Juliane B.; Thoma, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrients are a nationally recognized concern for water quality of streams, rivers, groundwater, and water bodies. Nutrient impairment is documented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a primary cause of degradation in lakes and reservoirs, and nutrients are related to organic enrichment and oxygen depletion, which is an important cause of degradation in streams. Recently (2011), an effort to develop State-based numeric nutrient criteria has resulted in renewed emphasis on nutrients in surface water throughout the Nation. In response to this renewed emphasis and to investigate nutrient water quality for Northern Colorado Plateau Network streams, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, assessed total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration data for 93 sites in or near 14 National Park units for the time period 1972 through 2007.

  14. Wyoming Strategic Plan, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Wyoming's colleges offer much more than academic and occupational technical degrees and certificates. In 2000, 27,703 Wyoming citizens, age 25 years and older, did not have a high school diploma. For this 12.14% of Wyoming's population, the Adult Basic Education (ABE) program at each of the colleges is designed to equip these adults with the…

  15. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa M.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  16. Yellowstone River and Wyoming as seen from STS-58

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-30

    STS058-085-091 (18 Oct-1 Nov 1993) --- Yellowstone Lake and the surrounding Plateau are centered in this scene of northwestern Wyoming, and adjacent Idaho and Montana. The view extends across the Absaroka Range to Billings, on the Yellowstone River at the upper right edge of the photograph. Jackson Lake, Jackson Hole (valley) and the Grand Tetons extend from the Yellowstone Plateau toward the camera.

  17. Linear features determined from Landsat imagery in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    This map is one of a series of linear-features maps compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey's Northern Great Plains Regional Aquifer System Analysis (U.S. Geological Survey, 1979).  This map shows the linear features that were recognized in Wyoming.  Other maps in the series cover South Dakota (Cooley, 1983a), Montana (Cooley, 1983b), and North Dakota (Cooley, 1983c).

  18. A magma reservoir prior to a Yellowstone supereruption: Constraints from the Mount Jackson Rhyolite and the Island Park dome series (Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troch, Juliana; Ellis, Ben S.; Guillong, Marcel; Mark, Darren F.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Bachmann, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    The Yellowstone volcanic field is one of the largest and best-studied centers of rhyolitic volcanism on Earth. The Mount Jackson rhyolite (MJR) and the Island Park dome (IPD) series represent a less extensively studied collection of rhyolitic lavas which were erupted in the 600,000 years following the second caldera-forming eruption of Yellowstone, the 280 km3 Mesa Falls Tuff (MFT, ~1.29 Ma). We present here an approach of detailed major and trace element compositional analyses of bulk and mineral chemistry coupled with high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar-dating to examine the evolution within the magmatic system that culminated in Yellowstone's last 'super' eruption, the 1,000 km3 Lava Creek Tuff (~0.64 Ma). The studied lavas are high-silica rhyolites and contain sanidine (~15o), quartz (~10o) and minor plagioclase, plus variable amounts of mafic minerals (

  19. Montana Logging Utilization, 2002

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Michael T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    A study of logging utilization in Montana during 2002 provided logging and product utilization data for sawlog and veneer log harvests in Montana. Results of the study indicate a shift toward greater utilization of smaller diameter material, as 78 percent of the harvested volume in Montana during 2002 came from trees less than 17 inches diameter at breast height. The...

  20. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druschel, G.K.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstorm, D.K.; Ball, J.W.; Xu, Y.; Cohn, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad??? AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad??? AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Division of Geochemistry of the American Chemical Society 2003.

  1. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Druschel, Greg K; Schoonen, Martin AA; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Ball, James W; Xu, Yong; Cohn, Corey A

    2003-01-01

    A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site 1C analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

  2. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Formation and decomposition of thiosulfate and polythionate in Cinder Pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Cinder Pool is an acid-sulfate-chloride boiling spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. The pool is unique in that its surface is partially covered with mm-size, black, hollow sulfur spherules, while a layer of molten sulfur resides at the bottom of the pool (18 m depth). The sulfur speciation in the pool was determined on four different days over a period of two years. Samples were taken to evaluate changes with depth and to evaluate the importance of the sulfur spherules on sulfur redox chemistry. All analyses were conducted on site using a combination of ion chromatography and colorimetric techniques. Dissolved sulfide (H2S), thiosulfate (S2O32−), polythionates (SxO62−), and sulfate were detected. The polythionate concentration was highly variable in time and space. The highest concentrations were found in surficial samples taken from among the sulfur spherules. With depth, the polythionate concentrations dropped off. The maximum observed polythionate concentration was 8 μM. Thiosulfate was rather uniformly distributed throughout the pool and concentrations ranged from 35 to 45 μM. Total dissolved sulfide concentrations varied with time, concentrations ranged from 16 to 48 μM. Sulfate was relatively constant, with concentrations ranging from 1150 to 1300 μM. The sulfur speciation of Cinder Pool is unique in that the thiosulfate and polythionate concentrations are significantly higher than for any other acid-sulfate spring yet sampled in Yellowstone National Park. Complementary laboratory experiments show that thiosulfate is the intermediate sulfoxyanion formed from sulfur hydrolysis under conditions similar to those found in Cinder Pool and that polythionates are formed via the oxidation of thiosulfate by dissolved oxygen. This last reaction is catalyzed by pyrite that occurs as a minor constituent in the sulfur spherules floating on the pool's surface. Polythionate decomposition proceeds via two pathways: (1) a reaction with H2S

  3. 77 FR 43612 - Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW179184, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW179184, Wyoming... from Legacy Energy, Inc., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW179184 for land in Park County, Wyoming... terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management, Julie L. Weaver, Chief...

  4. Naturalized salmonid populations occur in the presence of elevated trace element concentrations and temperatures in the firehole river, yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, J.N.; Hubert, W.A.; Woodward, D.F.; Farag, A.M.; Meyer, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects of geothermally influenced waters on the distribution of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brown trout, Salmo trutta, in the Firehole River and its tributaries in Yellowstone National Park (WY, USA) from June 1997 to June 1998. Geothermal features in the Firehole River basin elevate mineral content and temperature in portions of the river and its tributaries. We found concentrations of boron and arsenic to be elevated in geothermally influenced areas compared with upstream sites. Boron concentrations occasionally exceeded 1,000 ??g/L, a proposed limit for the protection of aquatic organisms. Arsenic concentrations occasionally exceeded 190 ??g/L, the chronic ambient water quality criterion. Temperatures in geothermally influenced sites ranged up to 30??C and were consistently 5 to 10??C higher than upstream sites unaffected by geothermal inputs. Rainbow trout occurred at sites with elevated concentrations of boron, arsenic, and other trace elements and elevated water temperatures. Rainbow trout inhabited and spawned at sites with the most elevated trace element concentrations and temperatures; however, brown trout were absent from these sites. Water temperature may be the major factor determining brown trout distributions, but we cannot exclude the possibility that brown trout are more sensitive than rainbow trout to boron, arsenic, or other trace elements. Further investigations are needed to determine species-specific tolerances of boron, arsenic, and other trace elements among salmonids.

  5. Use of dye tracing to determine ground-water movement to Mammoth Crystal Springs, Sylvan Pass area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Susong, David D.

    2006-01-01

    At the request of and in cooperation with the Geology Program at Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation of the Sylvan Pass area in June 2005 to determine the relation between surface water and ground-water flow to Mammoth Crystal Springs. Results of a dye-tracing investigation indicate that streamflow lost into talus deposits on Sylvan Pass enters the ground-water system and moves to the southeast to discharge at Mammoth Crystal Springs. Ground-water travel times to the springs from a distance of 1.45 miles and a vertical relief of 500 feet were less than 1 day, indicating apparent rates of movement of at least 8,000 feet per day, values that are similar to those in karst aquifers. Peak dye concentrations were reached about 2 days after dye injection, and transit time of most of the dye mass through the system was about 3 weeks. High permeability and rapid travel times within this aquifer also are indicated by the large variation in springflow in response to snowmelt runoff and precipitation, and by the high concentration of suspended sediment (turbidity) in the water discharging into the spring-fed lake.

  6. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA: I. Low-flow discharge and major solute chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Holloway, JoAnn M.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is an important natural resource and habitat for fisheries and wildlife. However, the Gibbon River differs from most other mountain rivers because its chemistry is affected by several geothermal sources including Norris Geyser Basin, Chocolate Pots, Gibbon Geyser Basin, Beryl Spring, and Terrace Spring. Norris Geyser Basin is one of the most dynamic geothermal areas in YNP, and the water discharging from Norris is much more acidic (pH 3) than other geothermal basins in the upper-Madison drainage (Gibbon and Firehole Rivers). Water samples and discharge data were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006. Surface inflows from Norris Geyser Basin were sampled to identify point sources and to quantify solute loading to the Gibbon River. The source and fate of the major solutes (Ca, Mg, Na, K, SiO2, Cl, F, HCO3, SO4, NO3, and NH4) in the Gibbon River were determined in this study and these results may provide an important link in understanding the health of the ecosystem and the behavior of many trace solutes. Norris Geyser Basin is the primary source of Na, K, Cl, SO4, and N loads (35–58%) in the Gibbon River. The largest source of HCO3 and F is in the lower Gibbon River reach. Most of the Ca and Mg originate in the Gibbon River upstream from Norris Geyser Basin. All the major solutes behave conservatively except for NH4, which decreased substantially downstream from Gibbon Geyser Basin, and SiO2, small amounts of which precipitated on mixing of thermal drainage with the river. As much as 9–14% of the river discharge at the gage is from thermal flows during this period.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure and Soil Characteristics of Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta) and Adjacent Stands of Old Growth Mixed Conifer in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Robert B.; Parker, V. Thomas; Cullings, Kenneth W.; Sun, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Forest development patterns following disturbance are known to influence the physical and chemical attributes of soils at different points in time. Changes in soil resources are thought to have a corresponding effect on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure. We used molecular methods to compare below-ground ECM species richness, composition, and abundance between adjacent stands of homogenous lodgepole pine and old growth mixed conifer in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). In each stand-type we collected soil cores to both identify mycorrhizae and assess soil chemistry. Although no statistical difference was observed in the mean number of ECM root tips per core between stand types, the total number of species identified (85 versus 35) and the mean number of species per core (8.8 +/- 0.6 versus 2.5 +/- 0.3) were significantly higher in lodgepole pine. Differences between the actual and estimated species richness levels indicated that these forest types support a high number of ECM species and that undersampling was severe. Species compositions were widely disparate between stands where only four species were shared out of a total of 116. Soil analysis also revealed that mixed conifer was significantly lower in pH, but higher in organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, and ammonium when compared to lodgepole pine stands. Species richness per core was correlated with these chemical data, however, analysis of covariance indicated that stand type was the only statistically significant factor in the observed difference in species richness. Our data suggest that ECM fungal richness increases as homogenous lodgepole pine stands grow and mature, but declines after Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir colonize. Despite difficulties linking species composition with soil chemistry, there are a variety of physical and chemical factors that could be influencing ECM community structure. Future field experiments are necessary to test some of the mechanisms potentially operating

  8. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. I. Low-flow discharge and major solute chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Holloway, JoAnn M.

    2010-06-01

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is an important natural resource and habitat for fisheries and wildlife. However, the Gibbon River differs from most other mountain rivers because its chemistry is affected by several geothermal sources including Norris Geyser Basin, Chocolate Pots, Gibbon Geyser Basin, Beryl Spring, and Terrace Spring. Norris Geyser Basin is one of the most dynamic geothermal areas in YNP, and the water discharging from Norris is much more acidic (pH 3) than other geothermal basins in the upper-Madison drainage (Gibbon and Firehole Rivers). Water samples and discharge data were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006. Surface inflows from Norris Geyser Basin were sampled to identify point sources and to quantify solute loading to the Gibbon River. The source and fate of the major solutes (Ca, Mg, Na, K, SiO 2, Cl, F, HCO 3, SO 4, NO 3, and NH 4) in the Gibbon River were determined in this study and these results may provide an important link in understanding the health of the ecosystem and the behavior of many trace solutes. Norris Geyser Basin is the primary source of Na, K, Cl, SO 4, and N loads (35-58%) in the Gibbon River. The largest source of HCO 3 and F is in the lower Gibbon River reach. Most of the Ca and Mg originate in the Gibbon River upstream from Norris Geyser Basin. All the major solutes behave conservatively except for NH 4, which decreased substantially downstream from Gibbon Geyser Basin, and SiO 2, small amounts of which precipitated on mixing of thermal drainage with the river. As much as 9-14% of the river discharge at the gage is from thermal flows during this period.

  9. Lake core record of Grinnell Glacier dynamics during the latest Pleistocene deglaciation and the Younger Dryas, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachtman, Nathan S.; MacGregor, Kelly R.; Myrbo, Amy; Hencir, Nora Rose; Riihimaki, Catherine A.; Thole, Jeffrey T.; Bradtmiller, Louisa I.

    2015-07-01

    Few records in the alpine landscape of western North America document the geomorphic and glaciologic response to climate change during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. While moraines can provide snapshots of glacier extent, high-resolution records of environmental response to the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas cooling, and subsequent warming into the stable Holocene are rare. We describe the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene using a ~ 17,000-yr sediment record from Swiftcurrent Lake in eastern Glacier National Park, MT, with a focus on the period from ~ 17 to 11 ka. Total organic and inorganic carbon, grain size, and carbon/nitrogen data provide evidence for glacial retreat from the late Pleistocene into the Holocene, with the exception of a well-constrained advance during the Younger Dryas from 12.75 to 11.5 ka. Increased detrital carbonate concentration in Swiftcurrent Lake sediment reflects enhanced glacial erosion and sediment transport, likely a result of a more proximal ice terminus position and a reduction in the number of alpine lakes acting as sediment sinks in the valley.

  10. Water-Chemistry and On-Site Sulfur-Speciation Data for Selected Springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; Nordstrom, Kirk D.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Schoonen, Martin A.A.; Xu, Yong

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-eight water analyses are reported for samples collected from 19 hot springs and their overflow drainages and one ambient-temperature acid stream in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 1996-98. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations on microbially mediated sulfur oxidation in stream waters and sulfur redox speciation in hot springs in YNP and chemical changes in overflow drainages that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. The research on sulfur redox speciation in hot springs is a collaboration with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Northern Arizona University, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One ambient-temperature acidic stream system, Alluvium Creek and its tributaries in Brimstone Basin, was studied in detail. Analyses were performed adjacent to the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory truck, or later in a USGS laboratory, depending on stability and preservability of the constituent. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), and dissolved H2S were determined on-site at the time of sampling. Alkalinity and F were determined within a few days of sample collection by titration and by ion-selective electrode, respectively. Concentrations of S2O3 and SxO6 were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by ion chromatography (IC). Concentrations of Cl, SO4, and Br were determined by IC within a few days of sample collection. Concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(total) were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry within a few days of sample collection. Densities were determined later in the USGS laboratory. Concentrations of Li, Na, and K were determined by flame atomic absorption (Li) and emission (Na, K) spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As(total), B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Trace

  11. Using Continuous Monitoring of Ambient CO2 and H2S to Assess Toxic Gas Hazards in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.; Lowenstern, J.; Heasler, H.; Eagan, S.

    2007-12-01

    The mysterious death of five bison in the Norris Geyser Basin area of Yellowstone in 2004 was apparently due to an increase in the output of CO2 or H2S, coupled with unusually cold, still weather. This event of nature may support a long-held claim of geochemists: near-surface changes in pressure, temperature, hydrologic flow, ground permeability, and wind conditions can reasonably be expected to produce attendant variability in the output and ambient concentration of gases emitted from hydrothermal areas. Monitoring these changes at the surface provides a window to processes occurring below, and a continuous assessment of gas hazards for frequently visited places like Norris. To characterize subsurface processes and identify hazards, we developed a transportable monitoring system to measure ambient gas concentrations and meteorological parameters. The solar-powered system uses industrial grade sensors for CO2 and H2S gas, along with sensors for wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, and ambient temperature. In order to reduce power use and prolong sensor life, every 10-minutes the gas sensors are powered on and allowed to stabilize, and the average values for the gas and met sensors are then recorded. The system can be configured for on-site data logging or radio telemetry. During the first year of operation in a thermal area adjacent to where the bison died, the system recorded diurnal variations. Although CO2 build-up was observed at night during cool windless conditions, ambient concentrations of CO2 and H2S remained below hazardous levels. Encouraged by the robust performance of the sensors, a second system was built to use as a roving monitor within the park as conditions permit and opportunities arise to track thermal variations. The performance of this system during the first year of operation reinforces the importance of continuous monitoring for processes such as gas-release events. Such occurrences, while evidenced in nature by events like the

  12. Water-chemistry and on-site sulfur-speciation data for selected springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1994-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Cunningham, Kirk M.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Xu, Yong; DeMonge, Jennifer M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-two water analyses are reported for samples collected at 8 hot springs and their overflow drainages, two geysers, and two ambient-temperature acid streams in Yellowstone National Park during 1994-95. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of the initial research investigations on sulfur redox speciation in the hot springs of Yellowstone and to document chemical changes in overflows that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. The sulfur redox speciation research is a collaboration between the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Four hot springs, Ojo Caliente, Azure, Frying Pan, and Angel Terrace, were studied in detail. Analyses were performed adjacent to the sampling site or in an on-site mobile lab truck constructed by the USGS, or later in a USGS laboratory. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, D.O., and dissolved H2S were determined adjacent to the sample source at the time of sampling. Alkalinity and F- were determined on-site on the day of sample collection. Thiosulfate and polythionates were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by ion chromatography (IC). Other major anions (Cl-, SO4 2-, Br-) also were determined on-site by IC within two days of sample collection. Ammonium, Fe(II), and Fe(total) were determined on-site by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry within two days of sample collection. Later in the USGS laboratory, densities were determined. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Li, Na, and K were determined by flame atomic absorption and emission (Na, K) spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Trace concentrations of Al and Mg were determined by Zeeman-corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Three important conclusions from the sampling and analyses are: (1

  13. 75 FR 52014 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Montana, Missoula, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Montana, Missoula, MT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance with the... National Park Service's administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3)....

  14. Geological Characterization, Capacity Estimates and Long-Term Fate of CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers in the Two Elk Energy Park Pilot Test site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, R.; Benson, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Energy Park (North America Power Group) is a commercial-scale demonstration project planned as a series of renewable and other electric power generation, carbon capture, sequestration and related facilities, located in the eastern side of the Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming. The site is located on top of several deep saline aquifers, depleted oil reservoirs, and coal seams. The Powder River basin was identified by NETL and Big Sky partnership as having high potential for CO2 sequestration. The aims of our current study were to identify and describe all porous sections below the proposed site, to estimate the capacity of each unit, and to conduct simulations to better understand the faith of injected CO2 between those different layers. The storage goal of the project is 3 Mt/year for 50 years of operation. The project is supported by the DOE. Detailed geological characterization of the section between the Madison Formation and the Mowry Shale was based on two wells, located ~10 km from the proposed site. Porous sandstone layers were identified in the Minnelusa, Spearfish, Sundance, Morrison, Lakota, and Dakota formations. Average porosity in all of those units is between 8 to 15%. These formations consist of interbedded sandstone and shale, with some anhydrite and dolomite layers in the Minnelusa Formation. Our interest was to examine the ability of these impermeable layers (shale, anhydrite, and dolomite) to act as local seal to the different porous units. Other shale dominant formations also occur in the section (Opeche, Fuson, Skull, and Mowry formations) and will act as major seals to the whole porous section. The complex stratigraphy and relatively low permeability of the rocks at this site appear to preclude identification of a single unit that can be used for CO2 storage. Instead, the most promising option is to inject CO2 into large thickness of sediments, resulting in the injection of a relatively small amount of CO2 into a number of formations

  15. Quantification of metal loads by tracer injection and synoptic sampling in Daisy Creek and the Stillwater River, Park County, Montana, August 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, David A.; Cleasby, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    A metal-loading study using tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling methods was conducted in Daisy Creek and a short reach of the Stillwater River during baseflow in August 1999 to quantify the metal inputs from acid rock drainage in the New World Mining District near Yellowstone National Park and to examine the downstream transport of these metals into the Stillwater River. Loads were calculated for many mainstem and inflow sites by combining streamflow determined using the tracer-injection method with concentrations of major ions and metals that were determined in synoptic water-quality samples. Water quality and aquatic habitat in Daisy Creek have been affected adversely by drainage derived from waste rock and adit discharge at the McLaren Mine as well as from natural weathering of pyrite-rich mineralized rock that comprises and surrounds the ore zones. However, the specific sources and transport pathways are not well understood. Knowledge of the main sources and transport pathways of metals and acid can aid resource managers in planning and conducting effective and cost-efficient remediation activities. The metals cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc occur at concentrations that are sufficiently elevated to be potentially lethal to aquatic life in Daisy Creek and to pose a toxicity risk in part of the Stillwater River. Copper is of most concern in Daisy Creek because it occurs at higher concentrations than the other metals. Acidic surface inflows had dissolved concentrations as high as 20.6 micrograms per liter (?g/L) cadmium, 26,900 ?g/L copper, 76.4 ?g/L lead, and 3,000 ?g/L zinc. These inflows resulted in maximum dissolved concentrations in Daisy Creek of 5.8 ?g/L cadmium, 5,790 ?g/L copper, 3.8 ?g/L lead, and 848 ?g/L zinc. Significant copper loading to Daisy Creek occurred only in the upper half of the stream. Sources included subsurface inflow and right-bank (mined side) surface inflows. Copper loads in left-bank (unmined side) surface inflows were negligible

  16. Geology and Mineral Resources of the North Absaroka Wilderness and Vicinity, Park County, Wyoming, with Sections on Mineralization of the Sunlight Mining Region and Geology and Mineralization of the Cooke City Mining District, and a Section on Aeromagnetic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Willis H.; Prostka, Harold J.; Williams, Frank E.; Elliott, James E.; Peterson, Donald L.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The North Absaroka Wilderness is approximately 560 square miles (1,450 km 2 ) of rugged scenic mountainous terrain that adjoins the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming. The area was studied during 1970, 1971, and 1972 by personnel of the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate its mineral-resource potential as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. This evaluation is based on a search of the literature courthouse and production records, geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey. The North Absaroka Wilderness is underlain almost entirely by andesitic and basaltic volcanic rocks of Eocene age. These volcanics rest on deformed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and, locally, of Mesozoic age that are exposed at places along the northern and eastern edges of the wilderness. Dikes and other igneous intrusive bodies cut both the volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A nearly flat detachment fault, the Heart Mountain fault, and a related steep break-away fault have displaced middle and upper Paleozoic rocks and some of the older part of the volcanic sequence to the southeast. A much greater thickness of volcanic rocks was found to be involved in Heart Mountain faulting than had previously been recognized; however, most of the volcanic rocks and many of the intrusives were emplaced after Heart Mountain faulting. Local folding and high-angle faulting in mid-Eocene time have deformed all but the youngest part of the volcanic sequence in the southeastern part of the wilderness. This deformation is interpreted as the last pulse of Laramide orogeny. The results of this study indicate that the mineral-resource potential of the wilderness is minimal. Bentonite, petroleum, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced in the surrounding region from rocks that underlie the volcanic rocks

  17. Producing biodiesel for the {open_quotes}truck in the park{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J.

    1995-11-01

    One of the principal advantages of Biodiesel is its environmental compatibility. Its biodegradability and reduced toxicity make it an ideal candidate fuel for environmentally sensitive areas. Biodiesel has potential as a fuel for equipment operating in or near waterways, sensitive wildlife habitat and other environmentally sensitive areas. The national park system has a mandate to maintain the environment in the areas they supervise. Use of Biodiesel could be one more tool in achieving that goal. This paper is a progress report of a joint project between the University of Idaho, The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Wyoming Department of Energy, the PNW and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, Chrysler Corporation and the National Park Service to fuel an on-road vehicle for service in Yellowstone National Park. A 5.9L Cummins powered Dodge pickup, supplied by Dodge Truck, is being operated by NPS with fuel produced by the University of Idaho. Tests include regular dynamometer testing, emissions tests, injector coking analysis, oil analysis, detailed operational records and fuel characterization tests according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552.

  18. An animal location-based habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep and wild horses in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Montana, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wockner, Gary; Singer, Francis J.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    epizootic die-off (Singer and others, 2001). Since all bighorn sheep populations are potentially vulnerable to disease epizootics, managing for larger populations of 200–300 animals appears to increase the potential for long-term persistence (Berger, 1990; Singer and others, 2001). Wild horses are not prone to rapid disease die-offs. However, minimum goals for genetic viability in the Pryor Mountain wild horses ( Ne > 50) require that at least 160 animals be present on the range (Singer and others, 2000). Since the Ne > 50 goal is set for the breeding of domestic animals, and since the vagaries of drought, severe winters, predation, and other stochastic events cause stress in wild animals, larger goals for Ne (e.g. Ne > 100) for wild horses are even more desirable (USDI, BLM, 1999; Gross, 2000). Expanding the area of the wild horse range is one option, but the prospects for expanding the range do not appear to be great (L. Coates-Markle, BLM, oral comm.). A second option would be to increase the amount of useable habitat for horses on the existing range. One goal of this modeling effort was to use GIS-based habitat analyses to determine the reason wild horses are not using some areas of the range, and to explore the potential for making some of these areas useable. The National Park Service (NPS) has shown considerable interest in management actions within BICA that will increase the range, useable habitat, and population size of bighorn sheep. There has also been interest expressed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and wild horse advocates to improve the useable habitat for wild horses and to possibly increase the size of the horse range.

  19. Precambrian basement geologic map of Montana; an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; O'Neill, J. M.; Bankey, Viki; Anderson, E.

    2004-01-01

    Newly compiled aeromagnetic anomaly data of Montana, in conjunction with the known geologic framework of basement rocks, have been combined to produce a new interpretive geologic basement map of Montana. Crystalline basement rocks compose the basement, but are exposed only in the cores of mountain ranges in southwestern Montana. Principal features deduced from the map are: (1) A prominent northeast-trending, 200-km-wide zone of spaced negative anomalies, which extends more than 700 km from southwestern Montana's Beaverhead Mountains to the Canadian border and reflects suturing of the Archean Mexican Hat Block against the Archean Wyoming Province along the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Montana Orogen (new name) at about 1.9-1.8 Ga; (2) North-northwest-trending magnetic lows in northeastern Montana, which reflect the 1.9-1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen and truncate the older Trans-Montana Zone; and (3) Subtle northwest- and west-trending negative anomalies in central and western Montana, which represent the northernmost segment of brittle-ductile transcurrent faults of the newly recognized Mesoproterozoic Trans-Rocky Mountain fault system. Structures developed in the Proterozoic provided zones of crustal weakness reactivated during younger Proterozoic and Phanerozoic igneous and tectonic activity. For example, the Trans-Montana Zone guided basement involved thrust faulting in southwestern Montana during the Sevier Orogeny. The Boulder Batholith and associated ore deposits and the linear belt of alkaline intrusions to the northeast were localized along a zone of weakness between the Missouri River suture and the Dillon shear zone of the Trans-Montana Orogen. The northwest-trending faults of Trans-Rocky Mountain system outline depocenters for sedimentary rocks in the Belt Basin. This fault system provided zones of weakness that guided Laramide uplifts during basement crustal shortening. Northwest-trending zones have been locally reactivated during Neogene basin-range extension.

  20. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

  1. Compound-specific stable isotopes of organic compounds from lake sediments track recent environmental changes in an alpine ecosystem, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enders, S.K.; Pagani, M.; Pantoja, S.; Baron, J.S.; Wolfe, A.P.; Pedentchouk, N.; Nunez, L.

    2008-01-01

    Compound-specific nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotope records from sediments of Sky Pond, an alpine lake in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, United States of America), were used to evaluate factors contributing to changes in diatom assemblages and bulk organic nitrogen isotope records identified in lake sediments across Colorado, Wyoming, and southern Montana. Nitrogen isotopic records of purified algal chlorins indicate a substantial shift in nitrogen cycling in the region over the past ???60 yr. Temporal changes in the growth characteristics of algae, captured in carbon isotope records in and around Sky Pond, as well as a -60??? excursion in the hydrogen isotope composition of algal-derived palmitic acid, are coincident with changes in nitrogen cycling. The confluence of these trends is attributed to an increase in biologically available nitrogenous compounds caused by an expansion of anthropogenic influences and temporal changes in catchment hydrology and nutrient delivery associated with meltwater dynamics. ?? 2008, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  2. Einstein in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

  3. Wyoming Snowmelt 2013

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Images from NASA/USGS Landsat satellites show the snow cover in Wyoming's Fremont Lake Basin throughout 2013. NASA scientists have used Landsat data from 1972-2013 to determine that the snow is mel...

  4. Einstein in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

  5. Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  6. Bitter bonanza in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D.

    1980-12-01

    Mineral and energy-related exploration, such as the drilling activity in the Overthrust Belt for petroleum, has made Wyoming a leading energy supplier in the U.S. The energy boom has had many unfortunate effects on the state's environment. Environmental degradation caused by exploration and production in Wyoming includes loss of habitat, poaching of wildlife, water pollution from oil dumping and erosion, and impacts from squatter's camps.

  7. Idaho-Montana Logging

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-16

    Logging operations have left a striking checkerboard pattern in the landscape along the Idaho-Montana border, sandwiched between Clearwater and Bitterroot National Forests as seen in this image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  8. Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    The Wyoming Business Council, representing the state’s interests, is participating in a collaborative evaluation of energy development opportunities with the NGNP Industry Alliance (an industry consortium), the University of Wyoming, and the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory. Three important energy-related goals are being pursued by the State of Wyoming: Ensuring continued reliable and affordable sources of energy for Wyoming’s industries and people Restructuring the coal economy in Wyoming Restructuring the natural gas economy in Wyoming

  9. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  10. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    DOE PAGES

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  11. Precious metals of Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W. Dan; Hausen, Donald M.; Halbe, Douglas N.; Petersen, Erich U.; Tafuri, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Within the State boundaries are numerous gold deposits and anomalies scattered throughout the geological record. Many examples occur in rocks ranging in age from Archean to Tertiary, and in Quaternary to Recent unconsolidated gravels and sands. Yet relatively few of these deposits and anomalies have been explored and only a handful have been drilled. Since much of Wyoming is underlain by an Archean craton similar to the Superior Province of Canada, the eastern and southern African craton, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, one would expect Wyoming to also have significant mineralization.

  12. Identifying priority chronic wasting disease surveillance areas for mule deer in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Gude, Justin; Anderson, N.J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that affects a variety of ungulate species including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). As of 2014, no CWD cases had been reported in free-ranging ungulates in Montana. However, nearby cases in Canada, Wyoming, and the Dakotas indicated that the disease was encroaching on Montana's borders. Mule deer are native and common throughout Montana, and they represent a significant portion of the total hunter-harvested cervids in the state. The arrival of CWD in Montana may have significant ecosystem and socioeconomic impacts as well as potential consequences for wildlife management. We used 18,879 mule deer locations from 892 individual deer collected during 1975–2011 and modeled habitat selection for 7 herds in 5 of the 7 wildlife management regions in Montana. We estimated resource selection functions (RSF) in a Bayesian framework to predict summer and winter habitat preferences for mule deer. We estimated deer abundance from flyover counts for each region, and used the RSF predictions as weights to distribute the deer across the region. We then calculated the distance to the nearest known infected herds. We predicted areas of high risk of CWD infection in mule deer as areas with densities above the median density estimate and within the lowest quartile of distances to known infected herds. We identified these areas, the southeast corner of Montana and the north-central border near Alberta and Saskatchewan, as priority areas for CWD surveillance and management efforts. 

  13. Compilation of Water-Resources Data for Montana, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, P. B.; Berkas, W.R.; White, M.K.; Dodge, K.A.; Bailey, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Water Science Center, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, and Tribal governments, collects a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Montana each water year. This report is a compilation of Montana site-data sheets for the 2006 water year, which consists of records of stage and discharge of streams; water quality of streams and ground water; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels in wells; and precipitation data. Site-data sheets for selected stations in Canada and Wyoming also are included in this report. The data for Montana, along with data from various parts of the Nation, are included in 'Water-Resources Data for the United States, Water Year 2006', which is published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report WDR-US-2006 and is available at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wdr2006. Additional water year 2006 data collected at crest-stage gage and miscellaneous-measurement stations were collected but were not published. These data are stored in files of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center in Helena, Montana, and are available on request.

  14. Wyoming's Forests, 2002

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Thompson; Larry T. DeBlander; Jock A. Blackard

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory information for Wyoming's forest lands. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, number of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, removals, and net change. Most of the tables are organized by forest type, species, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes...

  15. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  16. Wyoming Children's Factbook 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming P.A.R.E.N.T., Laramie.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The first part of the report provides a statistical portrait based on seven indicators of well-being for the year 1994: (1) prenatal care; (2) percent low birth-weight babies; (3) births to teens; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) child death rate; (6) teen…

  17. Wyoming Government, Unit VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

  18. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  19. The Land Is Our Mother. A Summary, Statewide Indian Land Use and Policy Meeting (Crow Agency, Montana, November 14-15, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Summarized in this brief report are proceedings of the Statewide Indian Land Use Policy Meeting, a meeting planned by American Indians in response to their perceptions of constraints on effective management of Indian lands and one which drew 135 people, including representatives from every reservation in Montana and Wyoming. This booklet outlines:…

  20. Life zone investigations in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, Merritt

    1917-01-01

    Wyoming is among the foremost of our States in its wealth of natural scenery, culminating in the grandeur of Yellowstone National Park, one of the wonders of the world. In addition to this distinction it posseses vast open plains and lofty mountains whence flow the headwaters of mighty river systems emptying far away to the west into the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast into the Gulf of Mexico, and to the southwest into the Gulf of California. The various slope exposures of its mountain ranges, the fertility of its intervening valleys or basins, and the aridity of its desert spaces present a study of geographic and vertical distribution of wild life that is in many particulars unique.The study of geographic and vertical distribution of life with the governing factors and attendant problems is valuable as a matter of scientific research and in the attainment of practical knowledge. The Biological Survey has been making detailed investigations of the transcontinental life belts, or zones, of North America for some years, and this work has been carried on with special reference to their practical value. It has become increasingly evident that life zones furnish a fairly accurate index to average climatic conditions and, therefore, are useful as marking the limits of agricultural possibilities, so far as these are dependent upon climate. The knowledge thus gained has been published and made available as the investigations have progressed and the life zones have been mapped.1

  1. Geology of northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Arthur J.

    1919-01-01

    A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results are here included with those of the writer, who during the field seasons of 1915 and 1916 was engaged in an investigation of the lignite resources of the remainder of this region, which extends from a line within 12 miles of the Montana-North Dakota boundary westward about 200 miles.

  2. The Montana experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dundas, T. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development and capabilities of the Montana geodata system are discussed. The system is entirely dependent on the state's central data processing facility which serves all agencies and is therefore restricted to batch mode processing. The computer graphics equipment is briefly described along with its application to state lands and township mapping and the production of water quality interval maps.

  3. Forest resources of Montana

    Treesearch

    S. Blair Hutchinson; Paul D. Kemp

    1952-01-01

    In 1928 Congress passed the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act authorizing a comprehensive survey of the timber supplies in the United States. Responsibility for this survey was assigned to the Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture. The work in Montana has been under the direction of the Northern Rockv Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. This is a...

  4. Montana Cooperative Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    This revised handbook was developed to help teachers and administrators in Montana conduct cooperative education programs. The handbook is organized in 13 sections. In narrative style, the first 11 sections cover the following topics: introduction to cooperative education, advisory committees, related instruction, coordination of activities,…

  5. Forest regions of Montana

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  6. 76 FR 61781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or USFWS), are proposing to remove the gray wolf (Canis lupus) in Wyoming from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. This rule focuses on the Wyoming portion of the Northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) Distinct Population Segment (DPS), except where discussion of the larger Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) or NRM metapopulation (a population that exists as partially isolated sets of subpopulations) is necessary to understand impacts to wolves in Wyoming. The best scientific and commercial data available indicate that wolves in Wyoming are recovered and no longer meet the definition of endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Wyoming's wolf population is stable, threats are addressed, and a post-delisting monitoring and management framework has been developed. However, additional changes to Wyoming State law and Wyoming Game and Fish Commission regulations are necessary for implementation. We expect the State of Wyoming to adopt the necessary statutory and regulatory changes within the next several months. If this proposal is finalized, the gray wolf would be delisted in Wyoming, the nonessential experimental population designation would be removed, and future management for this species, except in National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges, would be conducted by the appropriate State or Tribal wildlife agencies. We seek information, data, and comments from the public about this proposal including the post-delisting monitoring and management framework.

  7. Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

  8. Petrography and petrology of Smoky Butte intrusives, Garfield County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, Robert E.

    1960-01-01

    The Smoky Butte intrusives are located in T. 18 N., R. 36 E. Garfield County, Montana on the extreme eastern edge of the petrographic province of Central Montana. They consist of dikes and plugs arranged in linear, en-echelon pattern with a northeast trend and intrude the Tullock member (Paleocene age) of the Fort Union formation. Extrusive rocks are absent. The rocks are potassium-rich volcanic types showing a disequilibrium mineral assemblage consisting of sanidine, leucite, biotite, olivine, pyroxene, magnetite plus. ilmenite, apatite, calcite, quartz, and a yellowish to dark greenish glassy groundmass. Two chemical analyses of Smoky Butte rocks show high magnesium, potassium, titanium, and phosphorous and low aluminum and sodium content. The two norm calculations show that the rocks are oversaturated with 1.3 and 3.1 per-cent excess silica. Because of the peculiar nature of the Smoky Butte rocks, descriptive names have been applied to them. They are divided into six different types. Three periods of intrusion are proposed for Smoky Butte quarry where three rock types crop out. Other evidence for multiple injection occurs in several multiple dikes. The upper contact of the intrusion is visible on a few plugs and dikes. Smoky Butte rocks show some similarities to the undersaturated potassium-rich rocks of the Highwood and Bearpaw Mountains of Montana, the rocks of the Leucite Hills of Wyoming, and the oversaturated rocks of the West Kimberly District of Australia.

  9. The bats of Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul M.; Choate, Jerry R.

    2000-01-01

    We examined 1280 bats of 12 species submitted to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (WSVL) for ra­bies testing between 1981 and 1992. The most abundant species in the sample was Myotis lucifugus, followed by Epte­sicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noetivagans, M. ciliolabrum, and M. volans. Using the WSVL sample and additional museum specimens, we summarized available records and knowledge for 17 species of bats in Wyoming, Records of the WSVL show that, between 1981 and 1992, 113 bats actually tested positive for rabies. We examined 45 of those rabies­ positive bats; E. fuscus had the highest incidence (60%) in the sample, followed by L. noctivagans (11 %) and L. cinereus (9%).

  10. Wildfire risk to structures: Island Park Sustainable Fire Community

    Treesearch

    LaWen Hollingsworth; Russell Parsons

    2013-01-01

    The Island Park Sustainable Fire Community (IPSFC) project area covers approximately 750,000 acres and includes portions of the Island Park and Ashton Ranger Districts of the Caribou-Targhee National Forest in Idaho and the Hebgen Basin of the Hebgen Lake Ranger District of the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  11. "History, Naturally!" A Teacher's Guide. An Educational Outreach Program for Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    Part of the National Park Service "Parks as Classrooms" heritage education program, this educational outreach curriculum was designed for a wide range of grade levels to use the resources available at Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site (Montana). The curriculum subjects include cultural heritage education and environmental…

  12. Wyoming Community College Commission Annual Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC) serves the system of Wyoming's seven community colleges. Wyoming's seven community colleges provide affordable, accessible and lifelong education. The Wyoming Community College Commission supports the colleges through advocacy, coordination and collaboration. In partnership with the colleges, the…

  13. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  14. Social Organization in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigart, Robert J.

    The four papers in this publication discusses Montana's social structure as it relates to culture, income, urbanism, and communal religious communities. "Montana Social Structure and Culture" includes rural and suburban life styles; the history of rural community organization; rural-small town communities; urban physical conditions;…

  15. Indians in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ., Missoula. Bureau of Business and Economic Research.

    The three papers in this publication discuss American Indians in Montana. "Indian Poverty in Montana: Findings of the 1960 Census" examines data pertaining to the Indians' economic background. Income data, derived from 25 percent of the population, reports income received in 1959 from: (1) wages, salaries, commissions, and tips; (2)…

  16. Longwall in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-05-15

    The article describes development of a longwall operation at Pacific Corp's Jim Bridger mine in Wyoming, USA. The lease acquisition and permitting process began in late 2003 and the longwall operations began on 5 March 2007. The quality is between sub and bituminous coal. The mine is shallow and the surrounding rock is weaker than longwall mines in Colorado or Utah. DBT supplied the longwall system comprising 1.75 m shields, a 1 m wide face conveyor and a DBT EL200 shear with a 1-m web. The mine also operates a highwall unit and two draglines. 4 photos.

  17. 77 FR 49018 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173254, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173254... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW173254 for land in Park County, Wyoming. The... under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management, Julie L. Weaver, Chief, Fluid...

  18. Montana geoenvironmental explorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Greg K.

    2001-01-01

    This report is the result of a multidisciplinary effort to assess relative potential for acidic, metal-rich drainage in the State of Montana; evaluate alternative GIS-based modeling strategies; and provide the statewide digital spatial data produced and compiled for the project. The CD is usable on various computer systems (Windows 95, 98, NT, and 2000; MacOS 7.1 or later; many versions of UNIX and Linux; and OS/2). This report and maps are in PDF format, and the data have been provided in various GIS formats. Software for viewing the report and data is included.

  19. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.A.; Mayerle, Ronald T.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area in Montana identified a small area of substantiated resource potential for a low-grade stratabound copper occurrence along the northwest border of the area. A demonstrated barite (BaSO//4) resource of 45 tons and a demonstrated limestone resource suitable for cement production are present in the southern part of the roadless area. Limestone, silica in quartz veins, and sand and gravel deposits are known in the southern part of the area but similar deposits occur widely outside the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area.

  20. Future fuels from Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-04-15

    To make America less dependent on foreign oil, Montana Governor Brain Schweitzer pushes for investment in synfuel technology. He advocates coal as the 'new fuel' for cars and believes synfuels from coal can bridge the gap between the petroleum economy of the past and the hydrogen economy of the future. He is pushing for a 'Future Fuels' project to form a public-private partnership to build 20 coal conversion, synfuel manufacturing plants. This could contribute to making the USA energy self-sufficient, more quickly than the FutureGen project, he believes.

  1. The effects of wildfire and environmental amenities on property values in northwest Montana, USA

    Treesearch

    Kyle M. Stetler; Tyron J. Venn; David E. Calkin

    2010-01-01

    This study employed the hedonic price framework to examine the effects of 256 wildfires and environmental amenities on home values in northwest Montana between June 1996 and January 2007. The study revealed environmental amenities, including proximity to lakes, national forests, Glacier National Park and golf courses, have large positive effects on property values in...

  2. Smoke over Jackson Hole, Wyoming

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-01

    This anaglyph from the MISR instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft shows the area around Jackson Hole, Wyoming, where the Green Knoll forest fire raged for many days in July, 2001. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  3. GLACIER PRIMITIVE AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, Harry C.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Glacier Primitive Area, Wyoming and an adjoining area to the northeast was made. The study area was mapped geologically, an aeromagnetic survey was made, a geochemical study was done, and known mineralized occurrences and claims were examined. Two localities were found to contain small concentrations of uranium and several samples displayed minor anomalies in base and precious metals. A probable resource potential for lead, molybdenum, arsenic, barium, fluorite, and uranium exists in the area near the Ross Lakes shear zone and a small area of probable uranium resource potential exists around the Dubois claims. The study area, in general, is believed to have little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources.

  4. SAVAGE RUN WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, M.E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral evaluation and related surveys were conducted in the Savage Run Wilderness in Wyoming and results of these studies indicate probable mineral-resource potential in four areas. Gold and (or) silver mineralization in veins associated with faults was found in two areas; all known occurrences inside the wilderness are very small in size. Slightly anomalous values of platinum, palladium, and nickel were recorded from rock-chip and stream- sediment samples from the southeast portion of the wilderness where layered mafic rocks predominate, and a probable resource potential exists for platinum, palladium, and nickel. An area of sheared rocks in the northeastern corner of the wilderness has a probable resource potential for copper. The nature of the geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  5. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  6. NORTH ABSAROKA WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Willis H.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The North Absaroka Wilderness in Wyoming was studied to evaluate the resource potential of the area. The results of geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey indicate that a small area of geologic terrane with probable mineral-resource potential for silver, lead, and zinc is present on the northern edge of the wilderness. Bentonite, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced from surrounding areas; but such deposits, if present in the wilderness, are probably too deeply buried, too small, or too sporadically distributed to be classed as resources. Copper and gold mines and prospects are present on the fringes of the wilderness, but otherwise the area seems to be devoid of concentrations of metallic minerals. No surface evidence of geothermal energy resources was found.

  7. 75 FR 19886 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wyoming; Revisions to the Wyoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wyoming; Revisions to the Wyoming Air Quality Standards and Regulations AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... the State of Wyoming on September 11, 2008. Wyoming has revised its Air Quality Standards and...

  8. 75 FR 19920 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wyoming; Revisions to the Wyoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wyoming; Revisions to the Wyoming Air Quality Standards and Regulations AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...) revisions submitted by the State of Wyoming on September 11, 2008. Wyoming has revised its Air Quality...

  9. Libraries in Wyoming: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/wyoming.html Libraries in Wyoming To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Gillette Campbell County Health Medical Library 501 S. Burma Ave. PO Box 3011 Gillette, WY ...

  10. Microsatellites indicate minimal barriers to mule deer Odocoileus hemionus dispersal across Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John H. Powell,; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Megan D. Higgs,; Michael R. Ebinger,; Vu, Ninh V.; Cross, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the future spread of chronic wasting disease, we conducted a genetic assessment of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus population structure across the state of Montana, USA. Individual based analyses were used to test for population structure in the absence of a priori designations of population membership across the sampling area. Samples from the states of Wyoming, Colorado and Utah were also included in the analysis to provide a geographic context to the levels of population structure observed within Montana. Results showed that mule deer across our entire study region were characterized by weak isolation by distance and a lack of spatial autocorrelation at distances > 10 km. We found evidence for contemporary male bias in dispersal, with female mule deer exhibiting higher mean individual pairwise genetic distance than males. We tested for potential homogenizing effects of past translocations within Montana, but were unable to detect a genetic signature of these events. Our results indicate high levels of connectivity among mule deer populations in Montana and suggest few, if any, detectable barriers to mule deer gene flow or chronic wasting disease transmission.

  11. MADISON ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Lambeth, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Madison Roadless Area in the Madison Range of southwestern Montana was made. The Madison Roadless Area has demonstrated resources of about 93,000 tons of sillimanite rock at the Placer Creek deposit and of about 83,000 tons of asbestos rock at the Karst deposit. The roadless area also has areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential; much of the phosphate is in thin deeply buried beds. An area near the south edge of the roadless area has a probable resource potential for copper and silver. The concentration of uranium-rich stream-sediment samples in the southwest part of the roadless area suggests that a further attempt to identify the source rocks might be justified.

  12. Wyoming: Jackson Hole

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Park and Bridger-Teton National Forest Interagency Fire Management Office announced a high risk for the area. The Green Knoll blaze is ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  13. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  14. Wyoming: Territory to Statehood, Unit VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    Designed for elementary school students, this unit on the Wyoming evolution from territory to statehood provides concepts, activities, stories, resources, and maps. Concepts stress the five national flags which have flown over Wyoming, several other territories Wyoming was a part of, construction of the Union Pacific railroad, problems of the new…

  15. Wyoming Community College Commission Annual Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC) collaborates with Wyoming's seven community colleges to provide educational experiences that strengthen, support and enrich communities and prepare students to successfully meet life's challenges and recognize and profit from opportunities. Wyoming's seven community colleges provide affordable,…

  16. Wyoming Community College Commission Annual Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC) collaborates with Wyoming's seven community colleges to provide educational experiences that strengthen, support and enrich communities and prepare students to successfully meet life's challenges and recognize and profit from opportunities. Wyoming's seven community colleges provide affordable,…

  17. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  18. Seasonal bird traffic between Grand Teton National Park and western Mexico

    Treesearch

    Martin L. Cody

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents data on variations in the breeding densities of birds in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, and evaluates these variations among years, habitats, and as functions of the migratory status of the breeding birds. Breeding opportunities certainly vary with the extremely variable weather conditions in the park year-to-year, and part of the variation in...

  19. Lithospheric Deformation Along the Southern and Western Suture Zones of the Wyoming Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuyen, C.; Porritt, R. W.; O'Driscoll, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton that played an early role in the construction and growth of the North American continent. This region, which encompasses the majority of modern day Wyoming and southern Montana, initially collided with other Archean blocks in the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.8 Ga), creating the Canadian Shield. From 1.8-1.68 Ga, the Yavapai Province crashed into the Wyoming Province, suturing the two together. The accretion of the Yavapai Province gave way to the Cheyenne Belt, a deformational zone that exists along the southern border of the Wyoming Province where earlier studies have found evidence for crustal imbrication and double a Moho. Current deformation within the Wyoming province is due to its interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot, which is currently located in the northwest portion of the region. This study images the LAB along the western and southern borders of the Wyoming Province in order to understand how the region's Archean lithosphere has responded to deformation over time. These results shed light on the inherent strength of Archean cratonic lithosphere in general. We employ two methods for this study: common conversion point (CCP) stacking of S to P receiver functions and teleseismic and ambient Rayleigh wave dispersion. The former is used to image the LAB structure while the latter is used to create a velocity gradient for the region. Results from both of the methods reveal a notably shallower LAB depth to the west of the boundary. The shallower LAB west of the Wyoming Province is interpreted to be a result of lithospheric thinning due to the region's interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot and post-Laramide deformation and extension of the western United States. We interpret the deeper LAB east of the boundary to be evidence for the Wyoming Province's resistance to lithospheric deformation from the hotspot and tectonic processes. CCP images across the Cheyenne Belt also reveal a shallower LAB under the western

  20. A Tall Tale Retold: The Influence of the Photographs of William Henry Jackson upon the Passage of the Yellowstone Park Act of 1872.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossen, Howard

    The photographs of William Henry Jackson taken during the 1871 survey of the Yellowstone region of Wyoming and Montana have often been cited as the first specific group of photographs used for successful persuasion. Many historians credit Jackson's photographs as being the most influential factor in persuading Congress to designate the Yellowstone…

  1. Persistence of aspen regeneration near the National Elk Refuge and Gros Ventre Valley Elk Feedgrounds of Wyoming

    Treesearch

    David T. Barnett; Thomas J. Stohlgren

    2001-01-01

    We investigated aspen (Populus tremuloides) regeneration in the Gros Ventre River Valley, the National Elk Refuge, and a small part of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, to see if elk (Cervus elaphus) browsing was as damaging as previously thought. We conducted a landscape-scale survey to assess aspen regeneration across gradients of wintering elk concentrations using...

  2. 68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 as Sutton's New Grand Theatre, had a seating capacity of 2,175. In its heyday, this theater attracted the most famous acts of vaudville, opera, and theater. The upper stories are built of yellow painted brick, with terra-cotta applied in a stone pattern on the ground floor. The entrance has been modernized with a wall of glass bricks. On the north side of the theater is a four story building which provided a side entrance to the theater and had storefronts, with apartments above. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. Educational Finance Reform in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Robert O.; Basom, Margaret R.

    This paper provides a history and analysis of educational finance in Wyoming. It offers a summary of the funding model that is currently in place and that has been challenged in court--the fourth such challenge in the past 30 years. The article focuses on the current litigation. It discusses the funding formula that was adopted by the state…

  4. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Wyoming have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecore...

  5. Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.

    Because children entering kindergarten come with a variety of preschool and home experiences, and accordingly, with varying levels of school readiness, the Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards have been developed to provide a more consistent definition of school readiness. The goal for the Standards is to provide early childhood educators…

  6. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  7. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  8. Long-distance longitudinal transport of gravel across the Cordilleran thrust belt of Montana and Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecke, Susanne U.; Vandenburg, Colby J.; Blankenau, James J.; M'gonigle, John W.

    2000-05-01

    Two newly identified middle Eocene paleovalleys (≥ 100 km long) preserved on top of the southwest Montana reentrant of the Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt indicate long-lived longitudinal flow across the thrust belt and resolve a long-standing debate about the source of the voluminous quartzite debris in the Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary Divide, Harebell, and Pinyon conglomerates of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Geologic mapping, stratigraphic, provenance, and geochronologic studies revealed that Eocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks in the paleovalleys are as thick as 2 km, onlap preexisting bedrock, and interfinger with well-rounded conglomerate derived from formations exposed only to the west. The middle Eocene paleovalleys are the youngest expression of a major paleoriver system that transported sediment toward the foreland during the Sevier orogeny. An Eocene subcrop map shows that the headwaters of the Eocene paleovalleys coincided with structural culminations in the thrust belt that supplied sediment to the Divide conglomerate of the Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary Beaverhead Group. Ultimately, the Lemhi Pass and Hawley Creek paleovalleys provided several thousand cubic kilometers of quartzite debris to the Pinyon and Harebell conglomerates of northwest Wyoming 200 350 km away, and formed the northwest half of a giant longitudinal drainage system. Sevier contraction, not the rising Idaho batholith, first uplifted vast culminations beneath the headwaters of this river system.

  9. Examples of fire restoration in Glacier National Park

    Treesearch

    Laurie Kurth

    1996-01-01

    Covering just over 1 million acres, Glacier National Park straddles the Continental Divide in northwestern Montana. Diverse vegetation communities include moist western cedar- western hemlock (Thuja plicata - Tsuga heterophylla) old growth forests similar to those of the Pacific Coast, dry western grasslands and prairies, dense...

  10. Photographic reproduction of original construction drawing, ca. 1930: " Wyoming ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic reproduction of original construction drawing, ca. 1930: " Wyoming National Guard Stable, " original drawing in possession of the Wyoming Army National Guard, Cheyenne, Wyoming - Torrington Armory, West of intersection of U.S. Routes 85 & 26, Torrington, Goshen County, WY

  11. Corrections in Montana: A Consultation on Corrections in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Helena.

    The findings and recommendations of a two-day conference on the civil and human rights of inmates of Montana's correctional institutions are contained in this report. The views of private citizens and experts from local, state, and federal organizations are presented in edited form under seven subject headings: existing prison reform legislation,…

  12. 77 FR 49775 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Wisdom and Wise River Ranger Districts; Montana; North and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Allotment Management Plans (NWBH AMP's) project is the updating of eleven domestic livestock grazing management plans. The scope of the project is limited to the specific eleven domestic livestock allotments on... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks (FWP). This project is not a...

  13. National Parks

    Treesearch

    Jill S. Baron; Craig D. Allen; Erica Fleishman; Lance Gunderson; Don McKenzie; Laura Meyerson; Jill Oropeza; Nate Stephenson

    2008-01-01

    Covering about 4% of the United States, the 338,000 km2 of protected areas in the National Park System contain representative landscapes of all of the nation's biomes and ecosystems. The U.S. National Park Service Organic Act established the National Park System in 1916 "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and...

  14. Middle and upper Cambrian platform evolution and paleogeography, northwestern Montana, northern Idaho, and northeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, J.H.; Hayden, L.L.

    1987-08-01

    In western Montana, three Middle and Late Cambrian correlative Grand Cycles commence with inner detrital basal half cycles overlain by middle carbonate half cycles. Each half cycle represents up to one formation with the Park to Pilgrim, shale to carbonate transition, an example of one complete cycle. As with other regions of the Cambrian Cordilleran shelf, cycle components are closely related to paleogeographic position, producing differences that make correlation across depositional belts difficult. However, combined lithologic paleontologic, and cyclic correlations from southwestern Montana to isolated outcrops in northwestern Montana, northern Idaho, and northeastern Washington outline platform evolution and paleogeography. Early Middle Cambrian ramp deposition occurred with non-tectonic highs (Montania) in northwestern Montana and possible distally steepened ramps in northern Idaho. After eastward transgression, upward-shallowing Middle Cambrian carbonates formed algal-peritidal complexes that extended from central Montana to northeastern Washington. These complexes were influenced by clastic influx from central Idaho (Lemhi arch .), but they completely covered Montania and separated an eastern intrashale basin from the outer ramp. During the Late Cambrian, below wave base distal ramp carbonate deposition returned to northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. However, the distal ramp was separated from the intrashelf basin until Early Ordovician by the still existent but less extensive peritidal complexes. The ramp that developed over portions of the three states differed considerably from the cratonic margin in southern British Columbia, described by Aitken in 1966 and 1978, as a stationary accretionary rim on its seaward side persisting from Middle Cambrian to Middle Ordovician time.

  15. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Structurally linear elements in the vicinity of the Rock Springs Uplift, Sweetwater County, Wyoming are reported for the first time. One element trends N 40 deg W near Farson, Wyoming and the other N 65 deg E from Rock Springs. These elements confirm the block-like or mosaic pattern of major structural elements in Wyoming.

  16. Montana Rural Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Ralph, Comp.

    The material in this K-8 curriculum guide is designed to provide classroom professionals in rural Montana schools with some guidance as to when to introduce and develop concepts in each subject area. It is intended to be a guide, not a rule book or complete course of study. For each subject area and for each grade level, topics are coded as I…

  17. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Montana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Montana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  18. Forest habitat types of Montana

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Pfister; Bernard L. Kovalchik; Stephen F. Arno; Richard C. Presby

    1977-01-01

    A land-classification system based upon potential natural vegetation is presented for the forests of Montana. It is based on an intensive 4-year study and reconnaissance sampling of about 1,500 stands. A hierarchical classification of forest sites was developed using the habitat type concept. A total of 9 climax series, 64 habitat types, and 37 additional phases of...

  19. The Montana Agricultural Manpower Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.; Bishop, Douglas

    1976-01-01

    The six-year study utilized a series of surveys to identify: educational needs and occupational opportunities related to agriculture (production, processing, mechanics, and service areas) in Montana, competencies needed by workers employed in various job titles, and groups of identified competencies for inclusion in the State high school…

  20. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  1. Who Will Teach Montana's Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Dori Burns

    Montana is experiencing three types of teacher shortages, each requiring different intervention strategies. These situations include shortages in specific subject areas, most notably in music, special education, and foreign languages, followed closely by guidance and library; many job openings, caused by rapid enrollment growth, a large number of…

  2. The Spatial Characteristics of Three Wyoming Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 7 THE IMPACT OF MINERAL LEASES ON PUBLIC LANDS IN WYOMING 8 COAL LEASING ON PUBLIC LANDS 11 COAL LEASE ANALYSIS 12 A...production of coal are discussed. THE IMPACT OF MINERAL LEASES ON PUBLIC LANDS IN WYOMING One of those methods of land acquisition which has had an impact upon...coal production in Wyoming has been the leasing of public lands . Public land statistics reveal that over 48 percent of all the land acreage of

  3. Field guide to Muddy Formation outcrops, Crook County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this research program are to (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline bamer reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. This report contains the data and analyses collected from outcrop exposures of the Muddy Formation, located in Crook County, Wyoming, 40 miles south of Bell Creek oil field. The outcrop data set contains permeability, porosity, petrographic, grain size and geologic data from 1-inch-diameter core plugs chilled from the outcrop face, as well as geological descriptions and sedimentological interpretations of the outcrop exposures. The outcrop data set provides information about facies characteristics and geometries and the spatial distribution of permeability and porosity on interwell scales. Appendices within this report include a micropaleontological analyses of selected outcrop samples, an annotated bibliography of papers on the Muddy Formation in the Powder River Basin, and over 950 permeability and porosity values measured from 1-inch-diameter core plugs drilled from the outcrop. All data contained in this resort are available in electronic format upon request. The core plugs drilled from the outcrop are available for measurement.

  4. The Montana earthquake of June 27, 1925

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardee, J.T.

    1927-01-01

    The earthquake of June 27, 1925, in Montana caused considerable damage within an area of 600 square miles or more, the center of which is in latitude 46° 5' N. and longitude 111° 20' W., a short distance southeast of Lombard. It was a seismic disturbance of the first order of magnitude, but, owing to the hour at which it occurred and to other fortunate circumstances, no lives were lost and no fires broke out. The shock was startling throughout an area extending 75 miles or more in all directions from the epicenter and was sensible to persons within an area of 310,000 square miles. Within the epicentral area brick buildings suffered severely, rocks fell from cliffs, cracks opened in the ground, and the inhabitants experienced the usual symptoms of illness and emotions of alarm. Isoseismals drawn according to the Rossi-Forel scale show a wide indentation at the south due to a rapid decline of intensity in the volcanic area of Snake River Plain and Yellowstone Park.

  5. Third biennial symposium on surface coal mine reclamation on the Great Plains, Billings, Montana, March 19-21, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Munshower, F.F.; Fisher, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a 1984 symposium which considered regulatory status and change, surface mine planning and impact mitigation, coal development and wildlife, soil and overburden, shrub establishment on reclaimed lands, and the measurement and evaluation of revegetation and reclamation success. Topics covered at the symposium included regulatory reform in Wyoming, surface coal mining hydrology, computer-assisted investigations for assessing surface mining impacts, baseline vegetation data, local government planning, visual simulation, cropland reclamation after stripmining in North Dakota, the future of reclamation planning, wildlife mitigation in Montana, soil and overburden analysis, minesoil restoration and maturity, shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils, potential topsoiling strategies for mined lands, the role of mycorrhizae in mined land diversity, the effects of native hay mulch on soil stabilization, reclamation monitoring, industry's view of reclamation/revegetation, the reclamation of surface mined lands in Wyoming for livestock grazing, and a Federal concept of measuring revegetation success in the West.

  6. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  7. An archean suture zone in the Tobacco Root Mountains? (1984) Evolution of Archean Continental Crust, SW Montana (1985)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Kain, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Lake Plateau area of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana were mapped and geochemically sampled. The allochthonous nature of the Stillwater Complex was interpreted as a Cordilleran-style continental margin. The metamorphic and tectonic history of the Beartooth Mountains was addressed. The Archean geology of the Spanish Peaks area, northern Madison Range was addressed. A voluminous granulite terrain of supracrustal origin was identified, as well as a heretofore unknown Archean batholithic complex. Mapping, petrologic, and geochemical investigations of the Blacktail Mountains, on the western margin of the Wyoming Province, are completed. Mapping at a scale of 1:24000 in the Archean rocks of the Gravelly Range is near completion. This sequence is dominantly of stable-platform origin. Samples were collected for geothermometric/barometric analysis and for U-Pb zircon age dating. The analyses provide the basis for additional geochemical and geochronologic studies. A model for the tectonic and geochemical evolution of the Archean basement of SW Montana is presented.

  8. Wyoming DOE EPSCoR

    SciTech Connect

    Gern, W.A.

    2004-01-15

    All of the research and human resource development projects were systemic in nature with real potential for becoming self sustaining. They concentrated on building permanent structure, such as faculty expertise, research equipment, the SEM Minority Center, and the School of Environment and Natural Resources. It was the intent of the DOE/EPSCoR project to permanently change the way Wyoming does business in energy-related research, human development for science and engineering careers, and in relationships between Wyoming industry, State Government and UW. While there is still much to be done, the DOE/EPSCoR implementation award has been successful in accomplishing that change and enhancing UW's competitiveness associated with coal utilization, electrical energy efficiency, and environmental remediation.

  9. Acid precipitation in southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ahern, J.; Baird, C.

    1983-09-01

    Snowfall, snowpack, and rainfall samples were collected in Laramie, Wyoming and in the Snowy Range west of Laramie from March to June 1981 to determine the occurrence and sources of acid precipitation in southeast Wyoming. Electrodes measured different pH values in the samples; however, fast-response electrodes yielded higher and apparently more accurate pH measurements. The pH values in the Laramie precipitation and snowpack were typically greater than 5.0, but all the Snowy Range snowpack pH values were less than 5.0. The lower pH values in the Snowy Range snowpack were caused by higher concentrations of the acid-forming nitrate and lower concentrations of the neutralizing calcium. Two organic species, formate and acetate, were detected in the Laramie samples, but had no significant influence on the acidity of the samples. 33 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  10. Hydrothermal vents of Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplinski, M.A.; Morgan, P. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems within Yellowstone Lake are located within the Yellowstone caldera in the northeastern and West Thumb sections of the lake. The vent systems lie within areas of extremely high geothermal gradients (< 1,000 C/km) in the lake sediments and occur as clusters of individual vents that expel both hydrothermal fluids and gas. Regions surrounding the vents are colonized by unique, chemotropic biologic communities and suggest that hydrothermal input plays an important role in the nutrient dynamics of the lake's ecosystem. The main concentration of hydrothermal activity occurs in the northeast region of the main lake body in a number of locations including: (1) along the shoreline from the southern edge of Sedge Bay to the inlet of Pelican Creek; (2) the central portion of the partially submerged Mary Bay phreatic explosion crater, within deep (30--50 m) fissures; (3) along the top of a 3 km long, steep-sided ridge that extends from the southern border of Mary Bay, south-southeast into the main lake basin; and (4) east of Stevenson Island along the lower portion of the slope (50--107 m) into the lake basin, within an anastomosing series of north to northwest trending, narrow troughs or fissures. Hydrothermal vents were also located within, and surrounding the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake, with the main concentration occurring the offshore of the West Thumb and Potts Geyser Basin. Hydrothermal vents in Yellowstone Lake occur along fractures that have penetrated the lake sediments or along the tops of ridges and near shore areas. Underneath the lake, rising hydrothermal fluids encounter a semi-permeable cap of lake sediments. Upwardly convecting hydrothermal fluid flow may be diverted by the impermeable lake sediments along the buried, pre-existing topography. These fluids may continue to rise along topography until fractures are encountered, or the lake sediment cover is thinned sufficiently to allow egress of the fluids.

  11. Late Holocene vertical deformation, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, W.W.; Meyer, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Volcano-tectonic deformation has been measured within the Yellowstone caldera using precision leveling techniques. The shorelines represent originally horizontal planes, accumulated deformation of which can be observed as vertical displacement and tilt. Dating of the shorelines allows the calculation of average rates of deformation since and between episodes of shoreline formation. Shoreline elevations projected to perpendiculars to isolines on contemporary uplift correlate well for 12 km across the perpendiculars. Projections to parallels are nearly horizontal for 5 km. 1985 fieldwork will extend this line to 20 km. Both correlations imply that the pattern of contemporary uplift is an accurate model for late Holocene deformation. Maximum late Holocene rates of deformation, as determined form minimum /sup 14/C dates, are 50-75% of contemporary rates. This suggests that late Holocene deformation has 1) been episodic (50-75% of the time), 2) been oscillatory (75-90% up, 10-25% down), or 3) occurred at an increasing rate through time. Tilt and uplift rates are similar, implying little downcutting at the outlet, and rates between shorelines are similar to those since shoreline formation, implying nearly constant average rates of deformation in the past 2500 years. Local deformation has been significant throughout the late Holocene. Episodic deformation in a graben 1 km across has controlled the location of the lake outlet, thus water level. Sharp local warping has deformed some shorelines by 1 mm/yr. These faults may relate to volcanic processes or to the regional tectonic regime.

  12. Microfabrics in Siliceous Hotsprings: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.; Westall, F.

    2001-01-01

    Microfabrics shed light on the mechanisms governing siliceous sinter precipitation, the profound effects of microorganisms, as well as a conventional facies model for siliceous hotsprings. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Microfabrics in Siliceous Hotsprings: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.; Westall, F.

    2001-01-01

    Microfabrics shed light on the mechanisms governing siliceous sinter precipitation, the profound effects of microorganisms, as well as a conventional facies model for siliceous hotsprings. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Wildfire risk to residential structures in the Island Park Sustainable Fire Community: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    Treesearch

    Don Helmbrecht; Julie Gilbertson-Day; Joe H. Scott; LaWen Hollingsworth

    2016-01-01

    The Island Park Sustainable Fire Community (IPSFC) Project is a collaborative working group of citizens, businesses, non-profit organizations, and local, state, and federal government agencies (www.islandparkfirecommunity.com) working to create fire-resilient ecosystems in and around the human communities of West Yellowstone, Montana and Island Park, Idaho....

  15. 78 FR 10512 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 950 Wyoming Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of amendment... regulatory program (the ``Wyoming program'') under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of...

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  17. 40 CFR 81.436 - Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wyoming. 81.436 Section 81.436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.436 Wyoming. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  18. Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

  19. Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

  20. Estimating limiting age for Pleistocene erosional surfaces in central Montana by uranium-series dating of associated travertines.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Lindsey, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of three travertine samples from the southeast side of The Park (central Montana) yield an average uranium-thorium age of 73 000 yr. Another sample from the west side of The Park is 320 000 yr old. These results indicate that travertine deposits may have formed at several intervals. The surface beneath The Park travertine is older than about 320 000 yr. Number 2 pediment gravels that contain travertine downslope from the oldest dated sample may be younger than about 320 000 yr. -Authors

  1. Thermopolis hydrothermal system with an analysis of Hot Springs State Park

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.; King, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thermopolis is the site of Hot Springs State Park, where numerous hot springs produce nearly 3000 gallons per minute (gpm) of 130/sup 0/F (54/sup 0/C) water. The University of Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group has studied a 1700-square-mile area centered roughly on the State Park. Available literature, bottom-hole temperatures from over 400 oil well logs, 62 oil field drill stem tests, the Wyoming State Engineer's water well files, 60 formation water analyses, thermal logs of 19 holes, and field investigations of geology and hydrology form the basis of this report.

  2. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcspadden, W. R.; Stewart, D. H.; Kuwada, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Drilling the first geothermal well in Montana presented many challenges, not only in securing materials and planning strategies for drilling the wildcat well but also in addressing the environmental, legal, and institutional issues raised by the request for permission to explore a resource which lacked legal definition. The Marysville Geothermal Project was to investigate a dry hot rock heat anomaly. The well was drilled to a total depth of 6790 feet and many fractured water bearing zones were encountered below 1800 feet.

  3. ANACONDA-PINTLAR WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Anaconda-Pintlar Wilderness, an area of about 250 sq mi in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Results of this survey indicate that parts of the area have probable and (or) substantiated resource potential for silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, tungsten, tin, gold, and zinc. Based on the nature of the geologic terrain, there is little likelihood of the occurrence of geothermal, coal, oil, or gas resources.

  4. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  5. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  6. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    . After delisting, state Fish and Wildlife Services in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming will be responsible for managing wolves. Each state must submit a wolf management plan to the USFWS which then must be approved before management shifts occur. As of this writing, the process of delisting the wolves in the state of Wyoming is ongoing. However, the reclassification of wolves nationwide was completed on April 1, 2003. Wolves outside of YNP changed in status from endangered to threatened. The wolves classified in the experimental nonessential population did not change in status (USFWS and others, 2004). This classification of experimental nonessential population allows for flexibility in management decisions concerning the wolves (Smith and others, 2004). For example, control actions in the GYA included trapping and radio-collaring four wolves; intensive monitoring; increasing riders on grazing allotments; harassing wolves with rubber bullets, cracker shells, and lights; moving livestock to different pastures; and issuing four shoot on-sight permits. When non-lethal control methods were not effective, wolves were killed in an attempt to prevent further livestock depredations (USFWS and others, 2004; Table 1). At the same time that wolf numbers are rising, human population statistics in the GRTE area are also rising. The population of Teton County, Wyoming in 1990 was just over 11,000 people; today that number has increased to approximately 19,000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2005). park visitation for GRTE has been substantial over the last several years with an average visitation of 2.5 million visitors (NPS, 2004a). Furthermore, land ownership surrounding GRTE and the establishment of grazing rights within park boundaries are problem areas for wolf-human interactions due to livestock depredation. With increasing numbers of visitors, residents, and livestock it is reasonable to assume that conflicts are going to increase also. In 1950, GRTE was expanded to in

  7. Wyoming groundwater-quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of human activities have the potential to contaminate groundwater. In addition, naturally occurring constituents can limit the suitability of groundwater for some uses. The State of Wyoming has established rules and programs to evaluate and protect groundwater quality based on identified uses. The Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network (WGQMN) is a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) and was implemented in 2009 to evaluate the water-quality characteristics of the State's groundwater. Representatives from USGS, WDEQ, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Wyoming Water Development Office, and Wyoming State Engineer's Office formed a steering committee, which meets periodically to evaluate progress and consider modifications to strengthen program objectives. The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe the WGQMN design and objectives, field procedures, and water-quality analyses. USGS groundwater activities in the Greater Green River Basin also are described.

  8. Status report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of both regional coal resources and reserves for an entire coal basin. Extensive CBM and additional oil and gas development, especially in the Gillette coal field, have provided an unprecedented amount of down-hole geological data. Approximately 10,000 new data points have been added to the PRB database since the last assessment (2002) which will provide a more robust evaluation of the single most productive U.S. coal basin. The Gillette coal field assessment, including the mining economic evaluation, is planned for completion by the end of 2006. The geologic portion of the coal assessment work will shift to the northern and northwestern portions of the PRB before the end of 2006 while the Gillette engineering studies are finalized.

  9. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  10. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  11. The copper deposits of the Encampment District, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, A.C.

    1904-01-01

    During the last few years prospecting in the Medicine Bow and Park ranges in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming has proved that copper-bearing minerals occur frequently and are very generally distributed over a wide region in this portion of the Rocky Mountains. This has gradually become known through the discovery of several more or less promising copper deposits and also through the exploitation of a few properties which have produced ore on a commercial scale. The increase in the number of prospectors has kept pace with the increasing interest in the region, until now every part of it has been at least cursorily examined. In spite of this activity and of a considerable amount of development work at several localities, the productive mines in actual operation are few, but the search for valuable deposits continues, and it is to be expected that other mines will eventually be discovered. 

  12. 76 FR 12857 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of amendment... the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana...

  13. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date: 08/06/2012...

  14. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date: 08/02...

  15. An Environmental Education Plan for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John Y.

    The purpose of this dissertation was to develop an environmental education master plan for implementing environmental education programs into the schools of Montana. The process used to develop the plan consisted of the following steps: (1) to examine environmental education plans from other states; (2) to determine what Montana educators felt…

  16. The Montana Small Schools Self-Evaluation Guide, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Small Schools Alliance, Helena.

    The Montana School Accreditation Standards require every Montana school to conduct a self-evaluation at least every 10 years. For some small Montana schools this has been an informal process and often more anecdotal than data driven. Using the Montana Statewide Education Profile as a model, a committee of county superintendents, teachers, and…

  17. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  18. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  19. NORTH ABSAROKA STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the North Absaroka study area in Montana was conducted. The results of this survey indicate that parts of the area are extensively mineralized and that the area has potential for resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, zinc, platinum-group metals, uranium, iron, manganese, chromium, tungsten, and arsenic. Six areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential were identified. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little likelihood for occurrence of oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources.

  20. GALLATIN DIVIDE ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Gallatin Divide Roadless Area in the Gallatin Range of southwestern Montana was made. The area has probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for phosphate rock, but most of the phosphate beds are thin, discontinuous, low grade, and deeply buried. Petrified wood is abundant but is scattered and of poor quality. Oil and gas resources are unlikely because possible productive structures are small and deeply eroded. The roadless area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  1. Restoration of bighorn sheep metapopulations in and near 15 national parks: Conservation of severely fragmented species; Volume II, Synopsis of research findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Francis J.; Gudorf, Michelle A.

    1999-01-01

    The research studies were conducted by scientists from the Biological Resources Division of the USGS (fonnerly NBS) (11 research studies), university-based scientists (Univ. of Wyoming- 2 studies, University of Colorado- 1, Colorado State University- 2, University of California, White Mountain Center- 1, Northern Arizona University - 1, Montana State University - 1) and by state agency veterinarians: Drs. Beth Williams of Wyoming, Mike Miller of Colorado, and Terry Spraker of Colorado State University. Only the highlights of these research studies are presented below. Full research reports are available in Volume III of this series.

  2. Parkes Telescope

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-08

    This image shows the Parkes telescope in Australia, part of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Researchers used the telescope to detect the first population of radio bursts known to originate from beyond our galaxy.

  3. Low-BTU gas in the Rocky Mountain region - Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Tremain, C.M. ); Broadhead, R.E. ); Chidsey, T.C. Jr. ); Doelger, M. ); Morgan, C.D. )

    1993-08-01

    There are over 100 reservoirs in Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah that produce or could produce low-BTU (heating value less than 900 BTU/ft[sup 3]) gas. Reservoirs range in age from Devonian to Cretaceous; reservoir lithologies include both carbonates and sandstones. Frequently, the low-BTU gas (CO[sub 2], N[sub 2], and He) is a byproduct of normal hydrocarbon production. CO[sub 2]-rich gas occurs in southwest to east-central Utah, in the southeastern Paradox basin (Utah and Colorado), in the North Park basin (Colorado), in southeast Colorado and northeast New Mexico, and in the Green River and Wind River basins (Wyoming). Five fields produce nearly pure (98%) CO[sub 2]. The 1990 annual CO[sub 2] production from these fields was North and South McCallum (Colorado), 1.7 bcf; McElmo (Colorado), 205 bcf; Sheep Mountain (Colorado), 70.7 bcf; and Bravo Dome (New Mexico), 119.7 bcf. Big Piney-LaBarge (Wyoming) produced 120 bcf of CO[sub 2] (at a concentration of 65%) in 1990. Most of the CO[sub 2] is used in enhanced oil recovery. Nitrogen-rich gas is found in the southern Green River basin (Utah and Wyoming), east flank of the San Rafael uplift (Utah), northern Paradox basin (Utah), Uncompahgre uplift (Utah and Colorado), Douglas Creek arch (Colorado), Hugoton embayment (Colorado), Las Animas arch (Colorado), Permian basin (New Mexico), and Four Corners platform (New Mexico). Helium is sometimes associated with the nitrogen and in concentrations of up to 8% in New Mexico and Colorado, 2.8% in Utah, and 1% in Wyoming.

  4. 78 FR 13004 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Office, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018... Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street, Casper, Wyoming 82601-1018, (307)...

  5. 76 FR 36040 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Office, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018..., Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street, Casper, Wyoming 82601-1018, (307)...

  6. 78 FR 16204 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street, Casper, Wyoming 82601..., Director, Casper Field Office, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney...

  7. 76 FR 80310 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ..., Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street, Casper, Wyoming 82601-1018. For detailed... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street,...

  8. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  9. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Conductive thermal modeling of Wyoming geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    A summary of techniques used by the Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group in defining low-temperature hydrothermal resource areas is presented. Emphasis is placed on thermal modeling techniques appropriate to Wyoming's geologic setting. Thermal parameters discussed include oil-well bottom hole temperatures, heat flow, thermal conductivity, and measured temperature-depth profiles. Examples of the use of these techniques are from the regional study of the Bighorn Basin and two site specific studies within the Basin.

  11. Shear wave velocity and radial anisotropy beneath the Wyoming craton: craton destruction and lithospheric layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Wyoming craton has evolved under an intriguing geological history with suture zones, accreted margins, flat-slab subduction, orogeny and an encroaching hotspot. Whether and how the cratonic root has been widely destroyed by the series of tectonic events remain controversial. Aiming to address these questions using a craton-wide model, we have analyzed Rayleigh and Love wave data from 75 earthquakes recorded by 103 USArray TA stations in the Wyoming craton. 2-D phase velocity maps are constructed for 18 periods from 20 s to 166 s using the two-plane-wave tomography. The Yellowstone hotspot and the Cheyenne belt are characterized by low velocity anomalies at all periods in both Rayleigh and Love wave models. The northern craton in Montana is broadly fast at periods < 70 s and is relatively slow at longer periods, suggesting a shallower lithosphere. The fast anomaly in Wyoming has a NE-SW trend and extends to more than 200 km in the VSV model. However, such a fast anomaly is largely absent in the Love wave images at long periods. The association of VSV>VSH with this deep fast anomaly indicates mantle downwelling beneath south-central Wyoming. Mantle upwelling likely happens in slow regions at the hotspot, the Cheyenne belt, and the northeastern craton. The overall pattern of velocity anomaly and radial anisotropy suggests that small-scale mantle convection is vigorously acting beneath the Wyoming craton and continuously destructing the cratonic lithosphere. In addition, the average VSV and VSH models show a strong positive radial anisotropy of 5% (VSH>VSV) above 100 km and a weak negative anisotropy (VSV>VSH) below 120 km. Such a significant change in radial anisotropy could contribute to the observed mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD) from receiver functions. Both VSV and VSH reveal a fast lid above 100 km and a large velocity reduction at the depths of 115-190 km, corresponding with a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 150 km. These observations

  12. Destroying a Craton by Plate Subduction, Small-scale Convection, and Mantle Plume: Comparison of the Wyoming Craton and the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Dave, R.

    2016-12-01

    A typical craton has a thick, strong, and neutrally buoyant lithosphere that protects it from being destructed by mantle convection. The Wyoming craton and the North China craton are two rare representatives, where the thick Archean lithosphere has been significantly thinned and partially removed as revealed in seismic tomography models. The Wyoming craton in the west-central US experienced pervasive deformation 80-55 Ma during the Laramide orogeny. It has been subsequently encroached upon by the Yellowstone hotspot since 2.0 Ma. Recent seismic models agree that the northern cratonic root in eastern Montana has been broadly removed while the thick root is still present in Wyoming. Our radial anisotropy model images a VSV>VSH anomaly associated with the deep fast anomaly in central Wyoming, indicating mantle downwelling. Continuous low velocities are observed beneath the Yellowstone hotspot and the Cheyenne belt at the craton's southern margin, suggesting mantle upwelling in the sub-lithosphere mantle. These observations evidence for small-scale mantle convection beneath the south-central Wyoming craton, which probably has been actively eroding the cratonic lithosphere. The small-scale mantle convection is probably also responsible for the observed, localized lithosphere delamination beneath the eastern North China craton. In addition, a plume-like, low-velocity feature is imaged beneath the central block of the North China craton and is suggested as the driving force for destructing the cratonic root. Like the Wyoming craton that was subducted by the Farallon plate during the Laramide orogeny, the North China craton was underlined by the ancient Pacific plate before the root destruction in Late Jurassic. In both cases, the subducted slab helped to hydrate and weaken the cratonic lithosphere above it, initiate local metasomatism and partial melting, and promote small-scale convection. The craton's interaction with a mantle plume could further strengthen the small

  13. POPO AGIE PRIMITIVE AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource appraisal was made of the Popo Agie Primitive Area and some adjoining lands. This scenic mountainous region of the Wind River Range in west-central Wyoming is composed largely of ancient granitic rocks in which virtually no evidence of mineral deposits was found. Deep crustal seismic-reflection profiles obtained across the southern Wind River Range suggest the possibility that young sedimentary rocks, similar to those at the surface along the northeast flank of the range, are present at depth beneath the granite in the Popo Agie primitive Area. If present, such buried sedimentary rocks could be petroleum bearing. Additional seismic and gravity studies would probably add valuable information, but ultimately very expensive, very deep drilling will be necessary to test this possibility.

  14. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    We evaluated Management Questions (Core and Integrated) for each species and community for the Wyoming Basin REA. Core Management Questions address primary management issues, including (1) where is the Conservation Element, and what are its key ecological attributes (characteristics of species and communities that may affect their long-term persistence or viability); (2) what and where are the Change Agents; and (3) how do the Change Agents affect the key ecological attributes? Integrated Management Questions synthesize the Core Management Questions as follows: (1) where are the areas with high landscape-level ecological values; (2) where are the areas with high landscape-level risks; and (3) where are the potential areas for conservation, restoration, and development? The associated maps and key findings for each Management Question are summarized for each Conservation Element in individual chapters. Additional chapters on landscape intactness and an REA synthesis are included.

  15. Groundwater quality of southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Blain, Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for domestic, municipal, stock, and irrigation uses in southeastern Wyoming. Thirty-seven percent of water used in the tri-County area, which includes Laramie, Platte, and Goshen Counties, is from groundwater. Most groundwater use in the tri-County area is withdrawn from three primary aquifer groups: Quaternary-age unconsolidated-deposit aquifers, Tertiary-age units of the High Plains aquifer system, and Upper Cretaceous bedrock aquifers (Lance Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone). Authors include selected physical properties and chemicals found in water samples, describe sources and importance, and report maximum levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They also show concentration ranges for selected physical properties and chemicals in samples collected from the three primary aquifer groups in the tri-County area.

  16. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    We evaluated Management Questions (Core and Integrated) for each species and community for the Wyoming Basin REA. Core Management Questions address primary management issues, including (1) where is the Conservation Element, and what are its key ecological attributes (characteristics of species and communities that may affect their long-term persistence or viability); (2) what and where are the Change Agents; and (3) how do the Change Agents affect the key ecological attributes? Integrated Management Questions synthesize the Core Management Questions as follows: (1) where are the areas with high landscape-level ecological values; (2) where are the areas with high landscape-level risks; and (3) where are the potential areas for conservation, restoration, and development? The associated maps and key findings for each Management Question are summarized for each Conservation Element in individual chapters. Additional chapters on landscape intactness and an REA synthesis are included.

  17. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, 150 East B, Street Room 1018, Casper, Wyoming 82601-7032, (307) 261... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, P.O. Box 11018, Dick Cheney Federal Building, 150 East B Street...

  18. 77 FR 18149 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Field Office, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB..., Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street, Casper, Wyoming 82601-1018, (307)...

  19. 76 FR 64045 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street, Casper, Wyoming 82601..., Director,Casper Field Office, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement,Dick Cheney...

  20. Fate of geothermal mercury from Yellowstone National Park in the Madison and Missouri Rivers, USA.

    PubMed

    Nimick, David A; Caldwell, Rodney R; Skaar, Donald R; Selch, Trevor M

    2013-01-15

    Mercury is a worldwide contaminant derived from natural and anthropogenic sources. River systems play a key role in the transport and fate of Hg because they drain widespread areas affected by aerial Hg deposition, transport Hg away from point sources, and are sites of Hg biogeochemical cycling and bioaccumulation. The Madison and Missouri Rivers provide a natural laboratory for studying the fate and transport of Hg contributed by geothermal discharge in Yellowstone National Park and from the atmosphere for a large drainage basin in Montana and Wyoming, United States of America (USA). Assessing Hg in these rivers also is important because they support fishery-based recreation and irrigated agriculture. During 2002 to 2006, Hg concentrations were measured in water, sediment, and fish from the main stem, 7 tributaries, and 6 lakes. Using these data, the geothermal Hg load to the Madison River and overall fate of Hg along 378 km of the Missouri River system were assessed. Geothermal Hg was the primary source of elevated total Hg concentrations in unfiltered water (6.2-31.2 ng/L), sediment (148-1100 ng/g), and brown and rainbow trout (0.12-1.23 μg total Hg/g wet weight skinless filet) upstream from Hebgen Lake (the uppermost impoundment). Approximately 7.0 kg/y of geothermal Hg was discharged from the park via the Madison River, and an estimated 87% of that load was lost to sedimentation in and volatilization from Hebgen Lake. Consequently, Hg concentrations in water, sediment, and fish from main-stem sites downstream from Hebgen Lake were not elevated and were comparable to concentrations reported for other areas affected solely by atmospheric Hg deposition. Some Hg was sequestered in sediment in the downstream lakes. Bioaccumulation of Hg in fish along the river system was strongly correlated (r(2)=0.76-0.86) with unfiltered total and methyl Hg concentrations in water and total Hg in sediment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Proceedings of the University of Wyoming Trustees Symposium. (Jackson, Wyoming, August 2-5, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Univ., Jackson.

    The 1987 University of Wyoming (UW) Trustees Symposium focused on five major topics. The topics and keynote speakers are as follows: "An Introduction to the University of Wyoming--The Perspective of a Newcomer," (Terry P. Roark); "College: Making the Connections" (Ernest L. Boyer); "A Quality Faculty for the Second…

  2. Reconnaissance for uraniferous rocks in northwestern Colorado, southwestern Wyoming, and northeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beroni, E.P.; McKeown, F.A.

    1952-01-01

    Previous discoveries and studies of radioactive lignites of Tertiary age in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming led the Geological Survey in 1950 to do reconnaissance in the Green River and Uinta Basin of Wyoming and Utah, where similar lignites were believed to be present. Because of the common association of uranium with copper deposits and the presence of such deposits in the Uinta Basin, several areas containing copper-uranium minerals were also examined. No deposits commercially exploitable under present conditions were found. Samples of coal from the Bear River formation at Sage, Wyo., assayed 0.004 to 0.013 percent uranium in the ash; in the old Uteland copper mine in Uinta County, Utah, 0.007 to 0.017 percent uranium; in a freshwater limestone, Duchesne County, Utah, as much as 0.019 percent uranium; and in the Mesaverde formation at the Snow and Bonniebell claims near Jensen, Uintah County, Utah, 0.003 to 0.090 percent uranium. Maps were made and samples were taken at the Skull Creek carnotite deposits in Moffat County, Colo. (0.006 to 0.16 percent uranium); at the Fair-U claims in Routt County, Colo. (0.002 to 0.040 percent uranium); and at the Lucky Strike claims near Kremmling in Grand County, Colo. (0.006 to 0.018 percent uranium).

  3. Proterozoic evolution of the western margin of the Wyoming craton: Implications for the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the northern Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, D.A.; Mueller, P.A.; Mogk, D.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Vogl, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Defining the extent and age of basement provinces west of the exposed western margin of the Archean Wyoming craton has been elusive because of thick sedimentary cover and voluminous Cretaceous-Tertiary magmatism. U-Pb zircon geochronological data from small exposures of pre-Belt supergroup basement along the western side of the Wyoming craton, in southwestern Montana, reveal crystallization ages ranging from ???2.4 to ???1.8 Ga. Rock-forming events in the area as young as ???1.6 Ga are also indicated by isotopic (Nd, Pb, Sr) signatures and xenocrystic zircon populations in Cretaceous-Eocene granitoids. Most of this lithosphere is primitive, gives ages ???1.7-1.86 Ga, and occurs in a zone that extends west to the Neoproterozoic rifted margin of Laurentia. These data suggest that the basement west of the exposed Archean Wyoming craton contains accreted juvenile Paleoproterozoic arc-like terranes, along with a possible mafic underplate of similar age. This area is largely under the Mesoproterozoic Belt basin and intruded by the Idaho batholith. We refer to this Paleoproterozoic crust herein as the Selway terrane. The Selway terrane has been more easily reactivated and much more fertile for magma production and mineralization than the thick lithosphere of the Wyoming craton, and is of prime importance for evaluating Neoproterozoic continental reconstructions. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  4. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  5. 76 FR 30010 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    .... Montana revised its program to clarify ambiguities and improve operational efficiency. DATES: Effective... implications. SMCRA delineates the roles of the Federal and State governments with regard to the regulation...

  6. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  7. Cretaceous rocks from southwestern Montana to southwestern Minnesota, northern Rocky Mountains, and Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Cobban, W.A.; Fox, J.E.; Hammond, R.H.; Nichols, D.J.; Perry, W.J.; Porter, K.W.; Rice, D.D.; Setterholm, D.R.; Shurr, G.W.; Tysdal, R.G.; Haley, J.C.; Campen, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    In Montana, Wyoming, North and South Dakota, and Minnesota, Cretaceous strata are preserved in the asymmetric Western Interior foreland basin. More than 5,200 m (17,000 ft) of Cretaceous strata are present in southwestern Montana, less than 300 m (1,000 ft) in eastern South Dakota. The asymmetry resulted from varying rates of subsidence due to tectonic and sediment loading. The strata consist primarily of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and shale. Conglomerate is locally abundant along the western margin, whereas carbonate is present in most areas of the eastern shelf. Sediment was deposited in both marine and nonmarine environments as the shoreline fluctuated during major tectonic and eustatic cycles.A discussion of Cretaceous strata from southwestern to east-central Montana, the Black Hills, eastern South Dakota, and southwestern Minnesota shows regional stratigraphy and facies relations, sequence, boundaries, and biostratigraphic and radiometric correlations. The thick Cretaceous strata in southwestern Montana typify nonmarine facies of the rapidly subsiding westernmost part of the basin. These strata include more than 3,000 m (10,000 ft) of synorogenic conglomerate of the Upper Cretaceous part of the Beaverhead Group. West of the Madison Range, sequence boundaries bracket the Kootenai (Aptian and Albian), the Blackleaf (Albian and Cenomanian), and the Frontier Formations (Cenomanian and Turonian); sequence boundaries are difficult to recognize because the rocks are dominantly non-marine. Cretaceous strata in east-central Montana (about 1,371 m; 4,500 ft thick) lie at the approximate depositional axis of the basin and are mostly marine terrigenous rocks. Chert-pebble zones in these rocks reflect stratigraphic breaks that may correlate with sequence boundaries to the east and west. Cretaceous rocks of the Black Hills region consist of a predominantly marine clastic sequence averaging approximately 1,524 m (5,000 ft) thick. The Cretaceous System in eastern South

  8. Isotope and chemical compositions of meteoric and thermal waters and snow from the greater Yellowstone National Park region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; White, Lloyd D.

    2002-01-01

    An intensive hydrogeologic investigation, mandated by U.S. Congress and centered on the Norris-Mammoth corridor was conducted by USGS and other scientists during 1988-90 to determine the effects of using thermal water from a private well located in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), especially Mammoth Hot Springs. As part of this investigation, we carried out a detailed study of the isotopic and chemical compositions of meteoric water from cold springs and wells, of thermal water, especially from the Norris-Mammoth corridor and of snow. Additional sampling of meteoric and thermal waters from YNP and surrounding region in northwest Wyoming, southwest Montana and southeast Idaho was carried out in 1991-92 to characterize the distribution of water isotopes in this mountainous region and to determine the origin and possible recharge locations of thermal waters in and adjacent to the Park. The D and 18O values for 40 snow samples range from ?88 to ?178? and ?12.5 to ?23.9?, respectively, and define a well constrained line given by D = 8.2 18O + 14.7 (r2 = 0.99) that is nearly identical to the Global Meteoric Water Line. The D and 18O values of 173 cold water samples range from ?115 to ?153? and ?15.2 to ?20.2?, respectively, and exhibit a similar relationship although with more scatter and with some shift to heavier isotopes, most likely due to evaporation effects. The spatial distribution of cold-water isotopes shows a roughly circular pattern with isotopically lightest waters centered on the mountains and high plateau in the northwest corner of Yellowstone National Park and becoming heavier in all directions. The temperature effect due to altitude is the dominant control on stable water isotopes throughout the region; however, this effect is obscured in narrow 'canyons' and areas of high topographic relief. The effects due to distance (i.e. 'continental') and latitude on water

  9. Tremors from earthquakes and blasting in the Powder River basin of Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.H.; Osterwald, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    We are not aware of any damage to people or to property caused by blasting in the coal surface mines even though thousands of tons of explosives are detonated each year in the basin. The maximum weight of an individual explosive charge and the time interval between blasts are regulated so that any nearby structures will not be damaged or the residents disturbed. Blasting, nevertheless, does produce seismic tremors that can be recorded over 200 kilometers away. In addition, at one mine, some very low order aftershocks were recorded relatively close to the source within 2 hours after blasting.  

  10. Hydrology of area 51, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Mora, K.L.; Lowry, Marlin E.; Rankl, James G.; Wilson, James F.; Lowham, H.W.; Ringen, Bruce H.

    1987-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 51 (in the Rocky Mountain Coal Province) includes all or part of the Shoshone, Bighorn, Greybull, Wind, and Popo Agie River drainage basins - a total of 11,800 sq mi. Area 51 contains more than 18 million tons of strippable bituminous coal and extensive deposits of subbituminous coal, in the arid and semiarid basins. The report represents a summary of results of water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, some of which were conducted in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. More than 30 individual topics are discussed in brief texts that are accompanied by maps, graphs, photographs , and illustrations. Primary topics in the reports are physiography, resources and economy, surface-water quantity and quality, and groundwater. (USGS)

  11. Potential for oil mining at Elk Basin oil field, Wyoming-Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ayler, M.F.; Brechtel, C.

    1987-08-01

    By using the teachings of two US Patents, 4,458,945 and 4,595,239, it is possible to place mine workings below the Frontier sands of the Elk basin field, drill upward safely into the reservoir, and produce by gravity added to any present drive system. The patents describe equipment and a way of drilling upward with all cuttings and fluids flowing into a closed pipeline system for surface discharge. A final casing can be cemented into place and the well completed, again with all production into a closed pipeline. This system would permit field pressure control and maintenance with gravity drainage. Wells could be placed on one-acre spacing or less, thus producing much of the oil normally lost between surface wells. An analysis will be presented of probable mining costs for development of the Elk basin oil field on one-acre spacing. Petroleum engineers will then be able to estimate for themselves which method has the most profit potential and maximum recovery - the present systems or oil recovery by mining.

  12. Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L.

    2009-03-15

    Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

  13. Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The proportional and linear relationship between absolute and relative thermal inertia was theoretically evaluated, and a more accurate expression for thermal inertia was proposed. Radiometric and meteorological data from three stations in the Powder River Basin were acquired, as well as 400 miles of low altitude scanner data between July 25-28.

  14. Rectified images of selected geologic maps in the Northern Rockies Area, Idaho, Montana, Washington, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Jeremy C.; Assmus, Kenneth C.; Causey, J. Douglas; Zientek, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Selected geologic maps covering parts of the Northern Rocky Mountains and adjacent areas were converted to raster images and georeferenced (rectified) for use in a geographic information system (GIS). These rectified images were created for the purpose of visually comparing published geologic maps with other geospatial information. However, they cannot be queried or used for spatial analysis thus limiting their use in a GIS. The 42 georeferenced images included in this report range in scale from 1:250,000 to 1:100,000.Tagged Image Format (TIFF) images of the maps were generated by scanning an original paper map or converting previously published Portable Document Format (PDF) images or Encapsulated Post-Script (EPS) files. To reduce file size and minimize image overlap, the TIFF images were cropped, and then rectified using ArcMap? 8 and converted to MrSID? images. Information in the explanation and cross sections can be viewed in un-rectified images of the original publications that are included with this report. In addition, the text in the map unit description along with the unit name, map label, and a citation are organized in a searchable PDF file.

  15. Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G.K.; Miller, K.A.; Mason, J.P.; Gianakos, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

  16. Structural interpretations based on ERTS-1 imagery, Bighorn Region, Wyoming-Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Structural analysis is being carried out on bands MSS 5 and 7 of scene 1085-17294. Geologic strucutre is primarily revealed in the topographic relief and drainage. Topographic linears are particularly well developed in the bighorn uplift. Many of these occur along known faults and shear zones in the Precambrian core; several have not been previously mapped. These linears, however, do not continue into the younger rocks of the flanks or do so in a much less marked manner than in the core. Linears are far less abundant in the basin or are manifested only in very subtle tonal contrasts and somewhat straight drainage segments. Some of the linears are aligned along trends previously postulated on the basis of surface mapping to be lineaments. The imagery reveals little or no evidence of strike-slip displacements along these lineaments.

  17. Regional tectonic influence on Early Cretaceous depositional patterns in Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.G.; Petta, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Integration of gravity, magnetic, seismic, and subsurface data from the Powder River basin indicates left-lateral wrenching caused principal and secondary shear compression to develop along northwest and east trends, respectively. This well-documented strain fabric caused by Laramide events has affected basin morphology and depositional patterns within the basin since the Early Cretaceous. Regional lineaments mapped at the surface have vertical displacements of tens of feet. These slightly displaced features can be correlated with wrench-related synthetic and antithetic fractures that display miles of subsurface lateral displacement. Results of detailed integrated forward modeling indicate these fractured zones had a significant effect on the distribution of Lower Cretaceous reservoir sands. Case histories from Buck Draw (Dakota Formation) and Bell Creek (Muddy Sandstone) fields illustrate how the consideration of basement tectonic influence is important to the proper evaluation of exploration leads. Proper use of all available data is essential to the reduction of exploratory risk and can aid in planning offset locations.

  18. Water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Clark, Melanie L.; Miller, Kirk A.; Porter, Stephen D.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report also is for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://wy.water.usgs.gov/YELL/index.htm. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report, in addition to reports in this series from other basins, can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  19. Estimated resources on non-leased federal coal, Powder River basin, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trent, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    From V. A. Trent, 1986, USGS Map MF-1887     Maps are generated by combining digital ownership data with geologic resource estimates and other spatial coal data in a geographic information system (GIS). For example, we merged the newly compiled Federal coal ownership files with resource calculations from the 1970's for the Powder River Basin (Trent, 1986). For the first time, we are able to visually display the location of Federally owned coal in each 7.5' quadrangle along with the published coal resource estimates for those areas (fig. 8).

  20. A Report on Traffic Safety and Montana's Children. 1999 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report looks at major problems, available data, and some solutions for Montana's children as passengers in and drivers of vehicles on Montana's roads and highways. The report also presents information about adults' roles and responsibilities for preventing traffic accidents and protecting children. Facts presented in the…

  1. Case Study of a Service-Learning Partnership: Montana Tech and the Montana State Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amtmann, John; Evans, Roberta; Powers, Jack

    2002-01-01

    As a service learning project, Montana Tech students deliver a wellness program for older inmates in Montana State Prison. Outcomes identified in student interviews included improved interpersonal skills (tact, diplomacy, communication, assertiveness) and opportunities to apply knowledge. Students recognized the value of the program for…

  2. Case Study of a Service-Learning Partnership: Montana Tech and the Montana State Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amtmann, John; Evans, Roberta; Powers, Jack

    2002-01-01

    As a service learning project, Montana Tech students deliver a wellness program for older inmates in Montana State Prison. Outcomes identified in student interviews included improved interpersonal skills (tact, diplomacy, communication, assertiveness) and opportunities to apply knowledge. Students recognized the value of the program for…

  3. Montana Institute for Effective Teaching of American Indian Children (Missoula, Montana, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This guide presents 11 American Indian study units developed by Montana teachers. Nine units are intended for intermediate or middle-school grades; two are suitable for prekindergarten through primary grades. The units contain information about various American Indian tribes, but focus on tribes of Montana. Many lessons include writing and…

  4. Montana's Indian Education. A University of Montana School of Journalism Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ., Missoula. School of Journalism.

    Originally presented in newspaper format, this report consists of 13 articles on American Indian education in Montana, written by journalism students at the University of Montana. The articles include: (1) "The Relentless Killing of a Culture" (David Zelio) which discusses the cultural genocide committed at boarding schools with the aim…

  5. A Report on Teen Pregnancy in Montana. 1996/97 Montana Special Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief "Kids Count" report explores the impact of and factors that bear on teen pregnancy in Montana and ways to prevent teen pregnancy. Statistics and summaries are provided in the following areas: (1) live births to women under age 20, 1990-95; (2) Montana's unmarried teen births as compared to neighboring states; (3) number of…

  6. An Analysis of Employee Skills Required by Employers in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Mary; And Others

    A survey of 177 employers of Wyoming vocational education graduates sought to identify skills and competencies the graduates needed. A random sample of 525 businesses both Wyoming-based and foreign (home-based outside of Wyoming) were mailed surveys; 267 survey forms were returned, but only 177 provided data for analysis. Findings indicated that…

  7. Data from selected Almond Formation outcrops -- Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.R.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-12-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline barrier reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana, that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. A report similar to this one presents the Muddy Formation outcrop data and analyses performed in the course of this study (Rawn-Schatzinger, 1993). Two outcrop localities, RG and RH, previously described by Roehler (1988) provided good exposures of the Upper Almond shoreline barrier facies and were studied during 1990--1991. Core from core well No. 2 drilled approximately 0.3 miles downdip of outcrop RG was obtained for study. The results of the core study will be reported in a separate volume. Outcrops RH and RG, located about 2 miles apart were selected for detailed description and drilling of core plugs. One 257-ft-thick section was measured at outcrop RG, and three sections {approximately}145 ft thick located 490 and 655 feet apart were measured at the outcrop RH. Cross-sections of these described profiles were constructed to determine lateral facies continuity and changes. This report contains the data and analyses from the studied outcrops.

  8. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  9. Landsat evaluation of trumpeter swan historical nesting sites in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockrell, Laura Elizabeth

    The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) has historically nested in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Declines in habitat quality may be limiting the growth of the Tri-State Flock. The purpose of this study was to map historical nesting areas for trumpeter swans in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and evaluate Landsat images for changes to habitat. Historical nesting sites were evaluated through image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and compared to field conditions. Swan nesting records were analyzed in comparison to drought index and human visitation rates to determine if these factors may contribute to the decline of trumpeter swans nesting in YNP. Vegetation type and water quality were evaluated at 36 wetlands identified as historical nesting locations. Potamogetonaceae was the largest family represented in plant samples and had the highest frequency of occurrence in samples. There was no significant difference in whether swans were present or absent in wetlands with regards to water quality parameters tested or physical parameters identified. There was an association between certain drought index values and the number of cygnets fledged and the number of territories occupied by swan pairs. I was unsuccessful in using image classification to define pixel characteristics common among historical nesting territories of swans in YNP based on 5 Landsat images from 1975, 1979, 1990, 1999, and 2005. I was also unable to distinguish aquatic plant species composition, emergent and submergent plants, open water versus aquatic vegetation, wetland classification, or swan preference using image classification. No relationship was found in a regression model of NDVI values and swan pair occupancy or number of swans fledged, with the exception of a weak, positive relationship between pair occupancy and positive NDVI values, and a strong, positive relationship between swan fledge rates and positive NDVI values

  10. Heat flow, radioactivity, gravity, and geothermal resources in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, E.R.; Buelow, K.L.

    1981-12-01

    The surface heat flow values in the Sierra Madre-Medicine Bow-Laramie Mountains region are in the range 0.6 to 1.5 HFU. When the heat from local bedrock radioactivity is considered, the reduced flux in these mountains is low to normal (0.6 to 1.2 HFU). These data and the low to normal gradients (10 to 25/sup 0/C/km) in the studied drill holes strongly suggest that the resource potential of the Southern Rockies in Wyoming is low. The geothermal resource potential of the sedimentary basins in Wyoming that border these mountains also appears to be low because preliminary estimates for the flux in these areas are less than or equal to 1.5 HFU and the average gradients in analyzed drill holes are generally less than or equal to 30/sup 0/C/km. In contrast to southern Wyoming, the high surface and reduced heat flows strongly suggest that the Park areas and other parts of the Southern Rockies in northern Colorado are potentially valuable geothermal resource areas. The narrow northerly borders (less than or equal to 50 km) of these positive anomalies suggest that some of the resources could be shallow, as does the evidence for regional igneous and tectonic activity in the late Cenozoic. The small number of combined heat flow and radioactivity stations precludes detailed site-specific evaluations in these regions, but a few generalizations are made.

  11. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: A Science-Management Partnership to Inform Public Land Management under Changing Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Means, R.; Liebmann, B.; Carr, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administers more public land in the U.S. West than any other Federal agency, including over 17.5 million acres of public lands and 40.7 million acres of federal mineral estate in Wyoming. BLM is developing Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs), to support ecoregion-based conservation strategies on public lands and to facilitate planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources, and will feed into a wide range management plans such as Resource Management Plans and National Environmental Policy Act documents. This analysis includes 'change agents' including climate and energy development. BLM Wyoming, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and US Geological Survey (USGS) are partnering to synthesize and create climate science to inform the BLM Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment, a landscape-scale ecological assessment for over 33 million acres in Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. BLM needs to know vulnerabilities to climate of their resources, therefore, a primary focus of the assessment is to project the potential risks and vulnerabilities to the structure and functions of ecological communities posed by changing climate, and the associated management implications. In addition to synthesizing information from various downscaling efforts, NOAA is working to provide BLM with the translational information to provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of different downscaling datasets being used in ecological modeling. Primary among BLM's concerns is which among the global climate models reasonably represent the climate features of Wyoming. Another significant concern arises because ecological modelers have put substantial effort into studies using different downscaled climate datasets; BLM Wyoming is interested in how the ecological modeling results would be expected to be different, given these different climate datasets. For longer range decision making, BLM

  12. Estimated water use in Montana in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.; Johnson, Dave R.

    2004-01-01

    The future health and economic welfare of Montana's population is dependent on a continuing supply of fresh water. Montana's finite water resources are being stressed by increasing water withdrawals and instream-flow requirements. Various water managers in Montana need comprehensive, current, and detailed water-use data to quantify current stresses and estimate and plan for future water needs. This report summarizes selected water-use data for all of Montana's counties and stream basins to help meet those needs. In 2000, the citizens of Montana withdrew and used about 10,749 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water from Montana's streams and aquifers. Withdrawals from surface water were about 10,477 Mgal/d and withdrawals from ground water were about 272 Mgal/d. Agricultural irrigation accounted for about 10,378 Mgal/d or about 96.5 percent of total withdrawals for all uses. Withdrawals for public supply were about 136 Mgal/d, self-supplied domestic withdrawals were about 23 Mgal/d, self-supplied industrial withdrawals were about 61 Mgal/d, withdrawals for thermoelectric power generation were about 110 Mgal/d, and withdrawals for livestock were about 41 Mgal/d. Total consumptive use of water in 2000 was about 2,370 Mgal/d, of which about 2,220 Mgal/d (93.6 percent) was for agricultural irrigation. Instream uses of water included hydroelectric power generation and maintenance of instream flows for conservation of wildlife and aquatic life, and for public recreational purposes. In 2000, about 74,486 Mgal/d was used at hydroelectric plants for generation of about 11,591 gigawatt-hours of electricity. Evaporation from large water bodies, although not a classified water use, accounts for a large loss of water in some parts of the State. Net evaporation from Montana's 60 largest reservoirs and regulated lakes averaged about 891 Mgal/d.

  13. Trona resources in southwest Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, J.R.; Wiig, S.V.; Grundy, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Bedded trona (Na2CO3??NaHCO3??2H2O) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming, constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world. In this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km2 at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling information is available is estimated to be about 135 Gt. Underveloped trona beds in the deeper southern part of the basin may be best developed by solution mining. Additional unevaluated sodium carbonate resources are present in disseminated shortite (Na2CO3??2CaCO3) in strata interbedded with the trona and in shallow sodium carbonate brines in the northeast part of the basin. Estimates of the shortite and brine resources were not made. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  14. Suckers in headwater tributaries, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, D.E.; Compton, R.I.; Hubert, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus) and flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) populations are declining throughout these species' native ranges in the Upper Colorado River Basin. In order to conserve these populations, an understanding of population dynamics is needed. Using age estimates from pectoral fin rays, we describe age and growth of these 2 species in 3 Wyoming stream systems: Muddy Creek, the Little Sandy River, and the Big Sandy River. Within all 3 stream systems, flannelmouth suckers were longer-lived than bluehead suckers, with maximum estimated ages of 16 years in Muddy Creek, 18 years in Little Sandy Creek, and 26 years in the Big Sandy River. Bluehead suckers had maximum estimated ages of 8 years in Muddy Creek, 10 years in Little Sandy Creek, and 18 years in the Big Sandy River. These maximum estimated ages were substantially greater than in other systems where scales have been used to estimate ages. Mean lengths at estimated ages were greater for flannelmouth suckers than for bluehead suckers in all 3 streams and generally less than values published from other systems where scales were used to estimate ages. Our observations of long life spans and slow growth rates among bluehead suckers and flannelmouth suckers were probably associated with our use of fin rays to estimate ages as well as the populations being in headwater tributaries near the northern edges of these species' ranges.

  15. 77 FR 74027 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ..., Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National... availability of the Amended Record of Decision for the Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park,...

  16. 78 FR 45548 - Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA-4127-DR), dated July 10, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Montana resulting from flooding during the period...

  17. 77 FR 50708 - Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA-4074-DR), dated August 2, 2012, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Montana resulting from a wildfire...

  18. 77 FR 49780 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Forest Service Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Columbus, Montana..., September 13, 2012 from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Columbus Fire Hall...

  19. Board of Regents' Montana University System (MUS) Strategic Plan 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana University System, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Montana University System Strategic Plan is the primary planning document of the Board of Regents. The Plan sets forth an agenda for higher education in Montana by delineating the strategic directions, goals, and objectives that guide the Montana University System (MUS). In July 2006, after several years of study, public dialogue, and internal…

  20. 76 FR 37773 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Forest Service Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Stanford, MT. The... the public. This will be the second official meeting of the Central Montana Resource Advisory...

  1. 76 FR 30094 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Forest Service Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Stanford, MT. The... the public. This will be the second official meeting of the Central Montana Resource Advisory...

  2. 76 FR 20624 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Forest Service Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Stanford, Montana... 109 Central Avenue, Stanford, MT. Written comments should be sent to Ron Wiseman, Lewis and Clark...

  3. 76 FR 49433 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Forest Service Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Stanford, Montana... 109 Central Avenue, Stanford, MT. Written comments should be sent to Ron Wiseman, Lewis and Clark...

  4. Montana Library Laws, Rules, and Public Library Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Library, Helena.

    Chapter 1 of this handbook of Montana library laws, rules, and public library standards contains excerpts from the Constitution of Montana, including articles on property tax exemptions, educational goals and duties, and code of ethics. Montana library laws covering the following areas are presented in Chapter 2: publication and updating of the…

  5. Use of dye tracing in water-resources investigations in Wyoming, 1967-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, J.F.; Rankl, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    During 1967-94, the U.S. Geological Survey made numerous applications of dye tracing for water-resources investigations in Wyoming. Many of the dye tests were done in cooperation with other agencies. Results of all applications, including some previously unpublished, are described. A chronology of past applications in Wyoming and a discussion of potential future applications are included. Time-of-travel and dispersion measurements were made in a 113-mile reach of the Wind/Bighorn River below Boysen Dam; a 117-mile reach of the Green River upstream from Fontenelle Reservoir and a 70-mile reach downstream; parts of four tributaries to the Green (East Fork River, 39 miles; Big Sandy River, 112 miles; Horse Creek, 14 miles; and Blacks Fork, 14 miles); a 75-mile reach of the Little Snake River along the Wyoming-Colorado State line; and a 95-mile reach of the North Platte River downstream from Casper. Reaeration measurements were made during one of the time-of-travel measurements in the North Platte River. Sixty-eight dye-dilution measurements of stream discharge were made at 22 different sites. These included 17 measurements for verifying the stage-discharge relations for streamflow-gaging stations on North and South Brush Creeks near Saratoga, and total of 29 discharge measurements at 12 new stations at remote sites on steep, rough mountain streams crossing limestone outcrops in northeastern Wyoming. The largest discharge measured by dye tracing was 2,300 cubic feet per second. In karst terrane, four losing streams-North Fork Powder River, North Fork Crazy Woman Creek, Little Tongue River, and Smith Creek-were dye-tested. In the Middle Popo Agie River, a sinking stream in Sinks Canyon State Park, a dye test verified the connection of the sink (Sinks of Lander Cave) to the rise, where flow in the stream resumes.

  6. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.; Breckenridge, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Wyoming investigation has progressed according to schedule during the Jan. - Feb., 1973 report period. A map of the maximum extent of Pleistocene glaciation was compiled for northwest Wyoming from interpretations of glacial features seen on ERTS-1 imagery. Using isodensitometry as a tool for image enhancement, techniques were developed which allowed accurate delineation of small urban areas and provided distinction of broad classifications within these small urban centers.

  7. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Montana. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Minarik, R.J.; McCulloch, R.B.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. Montana's 1991 nonfuel mineral production value was $590 million, an increase of 3% from that of 1990. Gains in the production value of portland cement, copper, and gold more than offset the decrease in values of molybdenum, platinum-group metals, silver, crushed stone, and zinc. Metallic minerals-copper, gold, iron ore, lead, molybdenum, platinum-group metals, silver, and zinc-accounted for more than 82% of Montana's total nonfuel mineral production value. The State ranked 17th nationally in value compared with 19th in 1990.

  8. The thrust belt in Southwest Montana and east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Edward T.; Lopez, David A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading edge of the Cordilleran fold and thrust in southwest Montana appears to be a continuation of the edge of the Wyoming thrust belt, projected northward beneath the Snake River Plain. Trces of the thrust faults that form the leading edge of the thrust belts are mostly concealed, but stratigraphic and structural evidence suggests that the belt enters Montana near the middle of the Centennial Mountains, continues west along the Red Rock River valley, and swings north into the Highland Mountains near Butte. The thrust belt in southwest Montana and east-central Idaho includes at least two major plates -- the Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates -- each of which contains a distinctive sequence of rocks, different in facies and structural style from those of the cratonic region east of the thrust belt. The thrust plates are characterized by persuasive, open to tight and locally overturned folds, and imbricate thrust faults, structural styles unusual in Phanerozoic cratonic rocks. The basal decollement zones of the plates are composed of intensely sheared, crushed, brecciated, and mylonitized rocks, the decollement at the base of the Medicine Lodge plate is as much as 300 meters thick. The Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates are fringed on the east by a 10- to 50-kilometer-wide zone of tightly folded rocks cut by imbricate thrust fauls, a zone that forms the eastern margin of the thrust belt in southwest Montana. The frontal fold and thrust zone includes rocks that are similar to those of the craton, even though they differ in details of thickness, composition, or stratigraphic sequence. The zone is interpreted to be one of terminal folding and thrusting in cratonic rocks overridden by the major thrust plates from farther west. The cratonic rocks were drape-folded over rising basement blocks that formed a foreland bulge in front of the thrust belt. The basement blocks are bounded by steep faults of Proterozoic ancestry, which also moved as tear

  9. Oil field geothermal waters of Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.

    1983-08-01

    Over 150 million gallons of water a day are brought to the surface in the oil fields of Wyoming. The temperature of this water is nearly always greater than 90/sup 0/F, and ranges as high as 230/sup 0/F. The location, volume, temperature, and present use status of co-produced oil field thermal waters are presented briefly.

  10. 77 FR 34894 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 950 Wyoming Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal. SUMMARY: We, the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), are announcing the...

  11. 77 FR 40796 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 950 Wyoming Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), are removing a disapproval codified in...

  12. Wyoming: Open Range for Library Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maul, Helen Meadors

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of library technology and the need for telecommunications in a state with a lack of population density. Topics include the state library's role; shared library resources and library networks; government information; the Wyoming State Home Page on the World Wide Web; Ariel software; network coordinating; and central…

  13. Paleotectonics of Frontier Formation in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, W.H. III

    1983-08-01

    The most intense and widespread pre-Laramide structural deformation of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in Wyoming is associated with the Wall Creek sandstone of the Frontier Formation. Most of the evidence of structural deformation is found immediately below the regional unconformity at the base of this sandstone. Regionally, an isopach map from the top of the Frontier Formation to the top of the Mowry Formation shows strong and persistent thinning onto a north-trending arch in western Wyoming and thickening into a northwest trending basin in eastern Wyoming. Part of the thinning onto the western arch is caused by progressively deeper erosion of a regional unconformity at the base of the Wall Creek sandstone, and regional onlap of the Wall Creek sandstone above the unconformity. There is also some westward thinning of the lower Frontier interval, however, which is not related to the Wall Creek unconformity. Of the more specific paleostructures discussed, the north-trending anticlines in the vicinity of the Moxa arch in southwestern Wyoming are particularly well developed. An east-west anticline in the Bison basin area appears to have been faulted on the south flank, and a broad arch on the west side of the Powder River basin may have influenced paleocurrents and sandstone depositional trends of the productive First Frontier Sandstone of that area.

  14. Wyoming: The State and Its Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    Wyoming is a state of great natural beauty with only five people per square mile and a unique way of life that deserves to be preserved. The economy, though, is almost totally dependent on energy extraction, an area that has not done well of late. The state's small population makes "boutique" products and services not very profitable,…

  15. Wyoming Community College Commission Agency Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

    This paper reports on outcomes of community college programs monitored by the Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC). The document covers the following WCCC objectives: (1) Study of tuition rates for the community colleges; (2) Negotiation of contracts and provision of financial support for administrative computing system components and…

  16. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

  17. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

  18. Report to Joint Education Committee, Wyoming Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Thomas C.; Lovejoy, William H.

    The Wyoming Community College Commission was established in 1951 as a result of a legislative act to extend the offering of higher education beyond the secondary level in qualified school districts. Seven community colleges were created by the Commission, resulting in a system that presently continues to serve thousands of citizens and their…

  19. Instructional Computing in Wyoming: Status and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob

    The status of instructional computing in Wyoming's public schols as of April 1980 is reported. Specifically the document indicates the nature and extent of computer usage in grades K-12, summarizes teachers' opinions regarding the potential instructional uses of computers in the schools, and presents the recommendations of a select committee of…

  20. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…