Science.gov

Sample records for parkland agroforestry systems

  1. Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean

    2008-11-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ψs) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ψs values. Tree transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in tree transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ψs (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ψs in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per tree per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two species, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these species to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for trees and associated crops.

  2. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  3. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

  4. Agroforestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impacts of agroforestry systems (AFS) on soil management in temperate, subtropical, and tropical biomes support the beneficial, holistic role of tree components in agricultural land-use systems. Compared to annual monocultures, AFS can enhance several soil physical properties improving soil resi...

  5. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  6. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry has received considerable attention from scientists and development practitioners in recent years. It is recognized as a cornerstone of many traditional agricultural systems, as well as a new option for sustainable land management in currently treeless agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry systems are diverse, but most manifestations supply substantial ecosystem services, including marketable tree products, soil fertility, water cycle regulation, wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration. While these benefits have been well documented for many existing systems, projecting the outcomes of introducing new agroforestry systems, or forecasting system performance under changing environmental or climatic conditions, remains a substantial challenge. Due to the various interactions between system components, the multiple benefits produced by trees and crops, and the host of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that shape agroforestry systems, mechanistic models of such systems quickly become very complex. They then require a lot of data for site-specific calibration, which presents a challenge for their use in new environmental and climatic domains, especially in data-scarce environments. For supporting decisions on the scaling up of agroforestry technologies, new projection methods are needed that can capture system complexity to an adequate degree, while taking full account of the fact that data on many system variables will virtually always be highly uncertain. This paper explores what projection methods are needed for supplying decision-makers with useful information on the performance of agroforestry in new places or new climates. Existing methods are discussed in light of these methodological needs. Finally, a participatory approach to performance projection is proposed that captures system dynamics in a holistic manner and makes probabilistic projections about expected system performance. This approach avoids the temptation to take

  7. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  8. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  9. The POIS (Parkland On-Line Information System) Implementation of the IBM Health Care Support/Patient Care System

    PubMed Central

    Mishelevich, David J.; Hudson, Betty G.; Van Slyke, Donald; Mize, Elaine I.; Robinson, Anna L.; Brieden, Helen C.; Atkinson, Jack; Robertson, James

    1980-01-01

    The installation of major components of a comprehensive Hospital Information System (HIS) called POIS, the Parkland On-line Information System, including identified success factors is described for the Dallas County Hospital District (DCHD) known also as the Parkland Memorial Hospital. Installation of the on-line IBM Health Care Support (HCS) Registration and Admissions Packages occurred in 1976 and implementation of the HCS Patient Care System (PCS) began in 1977 which includes on-line support of health care areas such as nursing stations and ancillary areas. The Duke Hospital Information System (DHIS) is marketed as the IBM HCS/Patient Care System (PCS). DCHD was the validation site. POIS has order entry, result reporting and work management components. While most of the patient care components are currently installed for the inpatient service, the Laboratories are being installed for the outpatient and Emergency areas as well. The Clinic Appointment System developed at the University of Michigan is also installed. The HCS family of programs use DL/1 and CICS and were installed in the OS versions, currently running under MVS on an IBM 370/168 Model 3 with 8 megabytes of main memory. ImagesFigure 1-AFigure 1-B

  10. Enhanced biodiversity and pollination in UK agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Varah, Alexa; Jones, Hannah; Smith, Jo; Potts, Simon G

    2013-07-01

    Monoculture farming systems have had serious environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity and pollinator decline. The authors explain how temperate agroforestry systems show potential in being able to deliver multiple environmental benefits.

  11. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: introduction.

    PubMed

    Nair, P K Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    Investments in agroforestry research during the past three decades-albeit modest-have yielded significant gains in understanding the role of trees on farmlands, and the ecological and economic advantages of integrated farming systems. While early research focused mostly on farm or local levels, broader-level ecosystem services of agroforestry systems (AFS) have raised high expectations in recent years. The nine papers included in this special collection deal with three of such environmental benefits of AFS: water-quality enhancement, carbon sequestration, and soil improvement. These benefits are based on the perceived ability of (i) vegetative buffer strips (VBS) to reduce surface transport of agrochemical pollutants, (ii) large volumes of aboveground and belowground biomass of trees to store high amounts of C deeper in the soil profile, and (iii) trees to enhance soil productivity through biological nitrogen fixation, efficient nutrient cycling, and deep capture of nutrients. The papers included have, in general, substantiated these premises and provided new insights. For example, the riparian VBS are reported to increase the reservoir life, in addition to reducing transport of agrochemicals; the variations in C storage in different soil-fraction sizes suggest that microaggregate (250-53 μm) dynamics in the soil could be a good indicator of its C-storage potential; and the use of vector analysis technique is recommended in AFS to avoid consequences of inaccurate and overuse of fertilizers. The papers also identified significant knowledge gaps in these areas. A common theme across all three environmental quality issues covered is that more and varied research datasets across a broad spectrum of conditions need to be generated and integrated with powerful statistical tools to ensure wide applicability of the results. Furthermore, appropriate management practices that are acceptable to the targeted land users and agroforestry practitioners need to be designed to

  12. Determinants of bacterial communities in Canadian agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samiran; Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bissett, Andrew; Richardson, Alan E; Siddique, Tariq; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change is one of the most important factors influencing soil microbial communities, which play a pivotal role in most biogeochemical and ecological processes. Using agroforestry systems as a model, this study examined the effects of land uses and edaphic properties on bacterial communities in three agroforestry types covering a 270 km soil-climate gradient in Alberta, Canada. Our results demonstrate that land-use patterns exert stronger effects on soil bacterial communities than soil zones in these agroforestry systems. Plots with trees in agroforestry systems promoted greater bacterial abundance and to some extent species richness, which was associated with more nutrient-rich soil resources. While Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla and subphyla across land uses, Arthrobacter, Acidobacteria_Gp16, Burkholderia, Rhodanobacter and Rhizobium were the keystone taxa in these agroforestry systems. Soil pH and carbon contents emerged as the major determinants of bacterial community characteristics. We found non-random co-occurrence and modular patterns of soil bacterial communities, and these patterns were controlled by edaphic factors and not their taxonomy. Overall, this study highlights the drivers and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbial communities in agroforestry systems.

  13. A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

  14. Agroforestry systems for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural landscapes are an important component of a biofuel strategy to develop energy independence. Agroforestry systems offer an opportunity to produce both food and biofuel feedstocks from the same land area. Such a strategy could improve numerous ecosystem services more so than either of t...

  15. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  16. [Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

    2014-10-01

    As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time.

  17. [Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

    2014-10-01

    As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time. PMID:25796917

  18. Sap flow measurements of lateral tree roots in agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Lott, J. E.; Khan, A. A. H.; Ong, C. K.; Black, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful extension of agroforestry to areas of the semi-arid tropics where deep reserves of water exist requires that the tree species be complementary to the associated crops in their use of water within the crop rooting zone. However, it is difficult to identify trees suitable for dryland agroforestry because most existing techniques for determining water uptake by roots cannot distinguish between absorption by tree and crop roots. We describe a method for measuring sap flow through lateral roots using constant temperature heat balance gauges, and the application of this method in a study of complementarity of water use in agroforestry systems containing Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. Sap flow gauges were attached to the trunks and roots of Grevillea with minimum disturbance to the soil. Thermal energy emanating from the soil adversely affected the accuracy of sap flow gauges attached to the roots, with the result that the uncorrected values were up to eightfold greater than the true water uptake determined gravimetrically. This overestimation was eliminated by using a calibration method in which nonconducting excised root segments, with sap flow gauges attached, were placed adjacent to the live roots. The power consumption and temperature differentials of the excised roots were used to correct for external sources and internal losses of heat within the paired live root. The fraction of the total sap flow through individual trees supplied by the lateral roots varied greatly between trees of similar canopy size. Excision of all lateral roots, except for one to which a heat balance gauge was attached, did not significantly increase sap flow through the intact root, suggesting that it was functioning at near maximum capacity.

  19. Diagnosis of nutrient imbalances with vector analysis in agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Marney E; Kimaro, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

  1. Parklands Partnership: Education through Reforestation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalia, Josephine A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes New York City's Parklands Partnership Program, in which elementary and secondary students visit natural woodlands areas in their neighborhood, learn about forest ecology, and engage in restoration and reforestation activities that foster a connection between themselves and their local environment. (SV)

  2. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  3. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time. PMID:27276374

  4. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 μm) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 μm). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar

  5. Changing human-ecological relationships and drivers using the Quesungual agroforestry system in western Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of sustainable agricultural production systems in the tropics is challenging in part because the local and external conditions that affect sustainability are constantly in flux. The Quesungual Agroforestry System (QSMAS) was developed in response to these changing conditions. The his...

  6. Status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Varadharajan, Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Soil is a complex and dynamic biological system. Agroforestry systems are considered to be an alternative land use option to help and prevent soil degradation, improve soil fertility, microbial diversity, and organic matter status. An increasing interest has emerged with respect to the importance of microbial diversity in soil habitats. The present study deals with the status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu. Eight soil samples were collected from different fields in agroforestry systems in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Tiruvanamalai, and Erode districts, Tamil Nadu. The number of microorganisms and physico-chemical parameters of soils were quantified. Among different microbial population, the bacterial population was recorded maximum (64%), followed by actinomycetes (23%) and fungi (13%) in different samples screened. It is interesting to note that the microbial population was positively correlated with the physico-chemical properties of different soil samples screened. Total bacterial count had positive correlation with soil organic carbon (C), moisture content, pH, nitrogen (N), and micronutrients such as Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Similarly, the total actinomycete count also showed positive correlations with bulk density, moisture content, pH, C, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). It was also noticed that the soil organic matter, vegetation, and soil nutrients altered the microbial community under agroforestry systems.

  7. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  8. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  9. Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

  10. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  11. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    PubMed

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree

  12. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    PubMed

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree

  13. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  14. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ18O, and δ13C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ18O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ13C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer. PMID:26781071

  15. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  16. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  17. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  18. Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

  19. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  20. Coptis teeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation potential: a case study from northwest Yunnan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji; Long, Chunlin

    2007-06-01

    Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively.

  1. Comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and their productivity in an agroforestry system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.; Reddy, B.G.; Vedavyasa, K.; Ravishankar, H.M.; Venkatesh, R.

    1992-12-31

    Results are presented on the effects of Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica on certain field crops (finger millet, redgram, horsegram and castor) under dryland conditions. Eucalyptus hybrid showed the maximum border effect on field crops, followed by D. sissoo. C. equisetifolia and A. nilotica. The adverse effect of Eucalyptus was chiefly due to depletion of moisture in the upper surface layers of the soil, whereas shade and allelopathic effects were negligible. The reduction in the crop yield due to competition by trees has been compared with wood yield from trees. Over a period of three years it was found that with the exception of Acacia, there was distinct economic gain under an agroforestry system as the loss in agricultural crops due to the effect of trees was compensated for by wood yield. However, this gain varied considerably depending upon the tree species, crop combination and the prevailing market price of the wood and crop. Eucalyptus hybrid produced the highest wood yield at the expense of field crops than any other tree species. Hence it is recommended that, where food production is the main objective, preference should be given to species like Castuarina, D. Sissoo and Acacia, which have minimum border effect on agricultural crops for dryland agroforestry systems.

  2. [Transpiration of Choerospondias axillaris in agro-forestrial system and its affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Huachun; Wang, Mingzhu

    2005-11-01

    Measurement of transpiration is essential to assess plant water use efficiency. Applying Grainer method, this paper measured the sap flow of Choerospondias axillaries in an agro-forestrial system, aimed to evaluate the effects of intercropping and pruning on the diurnal variation of transpiration, and to relate the transpiration rate with climatic factors. The results showed that the diurnal variation of Choerospondias arillaries transpiration rate appeared in parabola, low in the morning and evening, and high at noon. The transpiration rate was closely related to leaf stomatal conductivity and soil water potential, especially the water potential in 100 cm soil depth (R = 0.737). The transpiration rate of Choerospondias axillaries was increased by about 40% approximately 160% in agro-forestrial system through the changes in regional environment and in the deep soil water use by tree. Correlation analysis and multi-factor successive regression analysis indicated that the transpiration was controlled by ray radiation intensity, air temperature and ground temperature, followed by the difference between saturated and actual vapor pressure and the wind speed. A statistical model for calculating the sap flow rate by micrometeorological factors was also provided.

  3. Projecting the long-term biogeochemical impacts of a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolz, K. J.; DeLucia, E. H.; Paul, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Annual, monoculture cropping systems have become the standard agricultural model in the Midwestern US. Unintended consequences of these systems include surface and groundwater pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, loss of biodiversity, and soil erosion. Diverse agroforestry (DA) systems dominated by fruit and nut trees/shrubs have been proposed as an agricultural model for the Midwestern US that can restore ecosystem services while simultaneously providing economically viable and industrially relevant staple food crops. A DA system including six species of fruit and nut crops was established on long-time conventional agricultural land at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2012, with the conventional corn-soybean rotation (CSR) as a control. Initial field measurements of the nitrogen and water cycles during the first two years of transition have indicated a significant decrease in N losses and modification of the seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) pattern. While these early results suggest that the land use transition from CSR to DA can have positive biogeochemical consequences, models must be utilized to make long-term biogeochemical projections in agroforestry systems. Initial field measurements of plant phenology, net N2O flux, nitrate leaching, soil respiration, and soil moisture were used to parameterize the DA system within the DayCENT biogeochemical model as the "savanna" ecosystem type. The model was validated with an independent subset of field measurements and then run to project biogeochemical cycling in the DA system for 25 years past establishment. Model results show that N losses via N2O emission or nitrate leaching reach a minimum within the first 5 years and then maintain this tight cycle into the future. While early ET field measurements revealed similar magnitudes between the DA and CSR systems, modeled ET continued to increase for the DA system throughout the projected time since the trees would continue to grow larger. These modeling

  4. Does parkland influence walking? The relationship between area of parkland and walking trips in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Using two different measures of park area, at three buffer distances, we sought to investigate the ways in which park area and proximity to parks, are related to the frequency of walking (for all purposes) in Australian adults. Little previous research has been conducted in this area, and results of existing research have been mixed. Methods Residents of 50 urban areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia completed a physical activity survey (n = 2305). Respondents reported how often they walked for ≥10 minutes in the previous month. Walking frequency was dichotomised to ‘less than weekly’ (less than 1/week) and ‘at least weekly’ (1/week or more). Using Geographic Information Systems, Euclidean buffers were created around each respondent’s home at three distances: 400metres (m), 800 m and 1200 m. Total area of parkland in each person’s buffer was calculated for the three buffers. Additionally, total area of ‘larger parks’, (park space ≥ park with Australian Rules Football oval (17,862 m2)), was calculated for each set of buffers. Area of park was categorised into tertiles for area of all parks, and area of larger parks (the lowest tertile was used as the reference category). Multilevel logistic regression, with individuals nested within areas, was used to estimate the effect of area of parkland on walking frequency. Results No statistically significant associations were found between walking frequency and park area (total and large parks) within 400 m of respondent’s homes. For total park area within 800 m, the odds of walking at least weekly were lower for those in the mid (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.91) and highest (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.95) tertile of park area compared to those living in areas with the least amount of park area. Similar results were observed for total park area in the 1200 m buffers. When only larger parks were investigated, again more frequent walking was less likely when respondents had access to a greater

  5. Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

  6. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance.

  7. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance. PMID:16261277

  8. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  9. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  10. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  11. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  12. The Role of Soil Biological Function in Regulating Agroecosystem Services and Sustainability in the Quesungual Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonte, S.; Pauli, N.; Rousseau, L.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Barrios, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Quesungual agroforestry system from western Honduras has been increasingly promoted as a promising alternative to traditional slash-and-burn agriculture in tropical dry forest regions of the Americas. Improved residue management and the lack of burning in this system can greatly impact soil biological functioning and a number of key soil-based ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes has not been thoroughly integrated to understand system functionality as a whole that can guide improved management. To address this gap, we present a synthesis of various field studies conducted in Central America aimed at: 1) quantifying the influence of the Quesungual agroforestry practices on soil macrofauna abundance and diversity, and 2) understanding how these organisms influence key soil-based ecosystem services that ultimately drive the success of this system. A first set of studies examined the impact of agroecosystem management on soil macrofauna populations, soil fertility and key soil processes. Results suggest that residue inputs (derived from tree biomass pruning), a lack of burning, and high tree densities, lead to conditions that support abundant, diverse soil macrofauna communities under agroforestry, with soil organic carbon content comparable to adjacent forest. Additionally, there is great potential in working with farmers to develop refined soil quality indicators for improved land management. A second line of research explored interactions between residue management and earthworms in the regulation of soil-based ecosystem services. Earthworms are the most prominent ecosystem engineers in these soils. We found that earthworms are key drivers of soil structure maintenance and the stabilization of soil organic matter within soil aggregates, and also had notable impacts on soil nutrient dynamics. However, the impact of earthworms appears to depend on residue management practices, thus indicating the need for an integrated approach for

  13. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  14. Earthworms and litter management contributions to ecosystem services in a tropical agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Steven J; Six, Johan

    2010-06-01

    The development of sustainable agricultural systems depends in part upon improved management of non-crop species to enhance the overall functioning and provision of services by agroecosystems. To address this need, our research examined the role of earthworms and litter management on nutrient dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization, and crop growth in the Quesungual agroforestry system of western Honduras. Field mesocosms were established with two earthworm treatments (0 vs. 8 Pontoscolex corethrurus individuals per mesocosm) and four litter quality treatments: (1) low-quality Zea mays, (2) high-quality Diphysa robinioides, (3) a mixture of low- and high-quality litters, and (4) a control with no organic residues applied. Mesocosms included a single Z. mays plant and additions of 15N-labeled inorganic nitrogen. At maize harvest, surface soils (0-15 cm) in the mesocosms were sampled to determine total and available P as well as the distribution of C, N, and 15N among different aggregate-associated SOM pools. Maize plants were divided into grain and non-grain components and analyzed for total P, N, and 15N. Earthworm additions improved soil structure as demonstrated by a 10% increase in mean weight diameter and higher C and N storage within large macro-aggregates (>2000 microm). A corresponding 17% increase in C contained in micro-aggregates within the macro-aggregates indicates that earthworms enhance the stabilization of SOM in these soils; however, this effect only occurred when organic residues were applied. Earthworms also decreased available P and total soil P, indicating that earthworms may facilitate the loss of labile P added to this system. Earthworms decreased the recovery of fertilizer-derived N in the soil but increased the uptake of 15N by maize by 7%. Litter treatments yielded minimal effects on soil properties and plant growth. Our results indicate that the application of litter inputs and proper management of earthworm populations can have

  15. The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosalino, Luis M.; Rosário, João do; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2009-07-01

    Habitat patches, depending on the degree of differentiation from the matrix, can add few or many elements to the species pool of a particular landscape. Their importance to biodiversity is particularly relevant in areas with complex landscapes, where natural, naturalized, or managed habitats are interspersed by small patches of habitat types with very different biophysical characteristics; e.g., fruit orchards and riparian areas. This is the case of the montado landscape, a cork oak agroforestry system that largely covers south-western Portugal. We evaluated whether the high mammalian biodiversity found in this system is, in part, the cumulative result of the species found in the non-matrix habitats. Our results indicate that in areas where there are inclusions of orchards/olive yards and riparian vegetation in the cork oak woodland, a significantly higher number of mammalian species are present. We further detected a positive effect of low human disturbance on mammal diversity. Ultimately, our results can be used by managers to augment their management options, since we show that the inclusion and maintenance of non-matrix habitat patches in cork oak agro-silvo-forestry systems can help to maximize mammal biodiversity without compromising services associated with agriculture and forestry.

  16. [Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

    2008-11-01

    Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield.

  17. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778

  18. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  19. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance.

  20. Transpiration rates and canopy conductance of Pinus radiata growing with different pasture understories in agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Miller, Blair J.; Clinton, Peter W.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Robson, A. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We measured tree transpiration and canopy conductance in Pinus radiata D. Don at two low rainfall sites of differing soil fertility in Canterbury, New Zealand. At the more fertile Lincoln site, we also assessed the effects of two common pasture grasses on tree transpiration and canopy conductance. At the less fertile Eyrewell Forest site, the effect of no understory, and the effects of irrigation in combination with mixtures of grass or legume species were determined. Tree xylem sap flux (F(d)') was measured by the heat pulse method. Total canopy conductance to diffusion of water vapor (G(t)) was calculated by inverting a simplified Penman-Monteith model. The different treatment effects were modeled by the simple decaying exponential relationship G(t) = G(tmax)e((-bD)), where D = air saturation deficit. At the Lincoln site, trees with an understory of cocksfoot had lower F(d)' and G(tmax) than trees with an understory of ryegrass, although the sensitivity of G(t) to increasing D (i.e., the value of b) did not differ between treatments. At the Eyrewell site, irrigation only increased F(d)' in the absence of an understory, whereas the presence of understory vegetation, or lack of irrigation, or both, significantly reduced G(tmax) and increased b. We conclude that the selection of understory species is critical in designing successful agroforestry systems for low rainfall areas.

  1. Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Hardy, Olivier J; Glele Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice; Van Damme, Patrick; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed.

  2. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  3. A common framework for GHG assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: connecting via GRACEnet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are technical and financial advantages for pursuing agroforestry-derived mitigation and adaptation services simultaneously, with a recognition that carbon (C) payments could assist in supporting the deployment of adaptation strategies (Motocha et al. (2012). However, we lack the repeated/repea...

  4. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.

    PubMed

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

    2013-09-30

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate.

  5. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-28

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging.

  6. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  7. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  8. Changes in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Long Term Improved Natural and Traditional Agroforestry Management Systems of Cacao Genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  9. Population dynamics of earthworms in relation to soil physico-chemical parameters in agroforestry systems of Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Lalthanzara, H; Ramanujam, S N; Jha, L K

    2011-09-01

    Earthworm population dynamics was studied in two agroforestry systems in the tropical hilly terrain of Mizoram, north-east India, over a period of 24 months, from July 2002 to June 2004. Two sites of agroforestry situated at Sakawrtuichhun (SKT) and Pachhunga University College (PUC) campus, Aizawl, having pineapple as the main crop, were selected for detail studies on population dynamics. Five of the total twelve species of earthworm reported from the state were recorded in the study sites. The density of earthworm ranged from 6 to 243 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 3.2 - 677.64 g.m(-2) in SKT. Comparatively the density and biomass in PUC, which is at relatively higher altitude were lowerwith a range of 0 to 176 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 0 - 391.36 g.m(-2) respectively. Population dynamics of earthworm was significantly correlated with rainfall and physical characters of the soil. Earthworm biomass was significantly affected by rainfall and moisture content of the soil. The influence of chemical factors was relatively less.

  10. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional slash and burn agriculture practiced in the Peruvian Amazon region is leading to soil degradation and deforestation of native forest flora. The only way to stop such destructive processes is through the adoptation of sustainable alternatives such as growing crops in agroforestry systems....

  11. Tree Crown Mapping in Managed Woodlands (Parklands) of Semi-Arid West Africa Using WorldView-2 Imagery and Geographic Object Based Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karlson, Martin; Reese, Heather; Ostwald, Madelene

    2014-01-01

    Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35–100 m2) and large (≥100 m2) trees compared to small (<35 m2) trees. The results indicate potential of GEOBIA and WorldView-2 imagery for tree crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. PMID:25460815

  12. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged.

  13. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged. PMID:24784929

  14. The Parkland formula under fire: is the criticism justified?

    PubMed

    Blumetti, Jennifer; Hunt, John L; Arnoldo, Brett D; Parks, Jennifer K; Purdue, Gary F

    2008-01-01

    Controversy has continued regarding the practicality and accuracy of the Parkland burn formula since its introduction over 35 years ago. The best guide for adequacy of resuscitation is urine output (UOP) per hour. A retrospective study of patients resuscitated with the Parkland formula was conducted to determine the accuracy (calculated vs. actual volume) based on UOP. A review of burn resuscitation from a single institution over 15 years was conducted. The Parkland formula was defined as fluid resuscitation of 3.7 to 4.3 ml/kg/% total body surface area (TBSA) burn in the first 24 hours. Adequate resuscitation was defined as UOP of 0.5 to 1.0 ml/kg/hr. Over-resuscitation was defined as UOP > 1.0 ml/kg/hr. Patients were stratified according to UOP. Burns more than 19% TBSA were included. Electrical burns, trauma, and children (<15 years) were excluded. Four hundred and eighty-three patients were reviewed. Forty-three percent (n = 210) received adequate resuscitation. Forty-eight percent (n = 233) received over-resuscitation. The mean fluid in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups was 5.8 and 6.1 ml/kg/%, respectively (P = .188). Mean TBSA and full thickness burns in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups were 38 and 43%, and 19 and 24%, respectively (P < .05). Inhalation injury was present in 12 and 18% (P = .1). Only 14% of adequately resuscitated and 12% of over-resuscitated patients met Parkland formula criteria. The mean Ivy index in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups was 216 and 259 ml/kg (P < .05). There was no significant difference in complication rates (80 vs. 82%) or mortality (14 vs. 17%). The actual burn resuscitation infrequently met the standard set forth by the Parkland formula. Patients commonly received fluid volumes higher than predicted by the Parkland formula. Emphasis should be placed not on calculated formula volumes, as these should represent the initial resuscitation volume only, but instead on parameters used to guide

  15. The Network Of Shelterbelts As An Agroforestry System Controlling The Water Resources And Biodiversity In The Agricultural Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kędziora, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Long-term human activity has led to many unfavourable changes in landscape structure. The main negative effect has been a simplification of landscape structure reflecting the removal of stable ecosystems, such as forests, shelterbelts, strips of meadows and so on, which were converted into unstable ecosystems, mainly farmlands. Thanks to these changes, serious threats have been posed to the sustainable development of rural areas. The most hazardous of these involve a deteriorating of water balance, increased surface and ground water pollution, and impoverishment of biodiversity. An agroforestry system can serve as a toolkit which allows counteracting such negative changes in the landscape. This paper presents the main findings emerge from long-term investigations on the above issues carried out by the Institute for the Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  16. [Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko

    2007-01-01

    Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes.

  17. Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.

    PubMed

    Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

    2008-12-01

    Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes.

  18. Production ecology of agroforestry systems: a minimal mechanistic model and analytical derivation of the land equivalent ratio.

    PubMed

    Keesman, K J; van der Werf, W; van Keulen, H

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the yield and the land equivalent ratio (LER) of a silvo-arable agroforestry (SAF) system, containing one tree and one crop species, is analyzed analytically using a minimal mechanistic model describing the system dynamics. Light competition between tree and crop is considered using light extinction functions. The tree leaf area is driven by annual increase in the number of leaf-bearing shoots with a seasonal cycle of bud burst, leaf expansion and senescence. The crop leaf area dynamics is driven by the solar radiation, heat sum and the dry matter allocation to the leaves. As a consequence of this, the model consists of six state equations expressing the temporal dynamics of: (1) tree biomass; (2) tree leaf area; (3) number of shoots per tree; (4) crop biomass; (5) crop leaf area index, and (6) heat sum. The main outputs of the model are the growth dynamics and final yields of trees and crops. Daily inputs are temperature and radiation. Planting densities, initial biomass of tree and crop species and growth parameters must be specified. The main parameters are those describing light interception, conversion to dry matter and leaf area. Given the crop cover and the tree parameters, it is shown that under potential growing conditions the land equivalent ratio can be explicitly expressed in terms of these parameters.

  19. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved. PMID:21360994

  20. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  1. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  2. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Coupled Socioecological Systems in East Africa: The Case of the Chagga Agroforestry and Maasai Agropastoralism across the Greater Environments of Mount Kilimanjaro Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The various types of rainfall-dependent coupled socioecological systems that conspicuously characterize mountain-environments across Africa, such as the Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, constitute a major economic backbone to the local inhabitants. Similarly, agropastoralism that characterizes the adjoining rangelands of such mountain-environments, such as that practiced by the Maasai people of Kenya, in the northern plains that adjoins Mount Kilimanjaro, is major contributor to local food security. Both Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism also contribute greatly to broader-scale economic sectors and respectively to sustainable utilization of rangeland and mountain-environment resources. Like similar coupled socioecological systems across Africa, the Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism are being, and will continue to be affected by the changing climate. This study uses an integrated approach to explore the sustainability of Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, in the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Concurrently, the sustainability of the Maasai agropastoralism (a livelihood-diversification type) in the northern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and the adjoining plains in Kenya is explored. This explication is followed by conceptualization of the potential future of Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism systems under diverse scenarios of climate change—and alongside simultaneous effects of cross-scale social and biophysical factors, processes, and their interactions—in an integrated model. The premise of this study is that coupled socioecological systems, such as Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism, linked to and/or dependent on mountain environments and microclimates, are natural-laboratories. Apropos this last point, the two systems offer timely insight into how similar systems in different geographical locations are likely to be influenced by the continuously changing

  3. Neighbourhood safety and area deprivation modify the associations between parkland and psychological distress in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate how perceived neighbourhood safety and area deprivation influenced the relationship between parklands and mental health. Methods Information about psychological distress, perceptions of safety, demographic and socio-economic background at the individual level was extracted from New South Wales Population Health Survey. The proportion of a postcode that was parkland was used as a proxy measure for access to parklands and was calculated for each individual. Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression analyses were performed to account for correlation between participants within postcodes, and with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and socio-economic status at the area level. Results In areas where the residents reported perceiving their neighbourhood to be “safe” and controlling for area levels of socio-economic deprivation, there were no statistically significant associations between the proportion of parkland and high or very high psychological distress. In the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods which were perceived as unsafe by residents, those with greater proportions of parkland, over 20%, there was greater psychological distress, this association was statistically significant (20-40% parkland: OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.45-3.55; >40% parkland: OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.53-4.19). Conclusion Our study indicates that perceptions of neighbourhood safety and area deprivation were statistically significant effect modifiers of the association between parkland and psychological distress. PMID:23635303

  4. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    PubMed

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  5. Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

    2011-01-26

    Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

  6. TEK and biodiversity management in agroforestry systems of different socio-ecological contexts of the Tehuacán Valley.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Ramos, Mariana; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; Casas, Alejandro

    2016-07-22

    Transformation of natural ecosystems into intensive agriculture is a main factor causing biodiversity loss worldwide. Agroforestry systems (AFS) may maintain biodiversity, ecosystem benefits and human wellbeing, they have therefore high potential for concealing production and conservation. However, promotion of intensive agriculture and disparagement of TEK endanger their permanence. A high diversity of AFS still exist in the world and their potentialities vary with the socio-ecological contexts. We analysed AFS in tropical, temperate, and arid environments, of the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, to investigate how their capacity varies to conserve biodiversity and role of TEK influencing differences in those contexts. We hypothesized that biodiversity in AFS is related to that of forests types associated and the vigour of TEK and management. We conducted studies in a matrix of environments and human cultures in the Tehuacán Valley. In addition, we reviewed, systematized and compared information from other regions of Mexico and the world with comparable socio-ecological contexts in order to explore possible general patterns. Our study found from 26 % to nearly 90 % of wild plants species richness conserved in AFS, the decreasing proportion mainly associated to pressures for intensifying agricultural production and abandoning traditional techniques. Native species richness preserved in AFS is influenced by richness existing in the associated forests, but the main driver is how people preserve benefits of components and functions of ecosystems. Elements of modern agricultural production may coexist with traditional management patterns, but imposition of modern models may break possible balances. TEK influences decisions on what and how modern techniques may be advantageous for preserving biodiversity, ecosystem integrity in AFS and people's wellbeing. TEK, agroecology and other sciences may interact for maintaining and improving traditional AFS to increase biodiversity

  7. TEK and biodiversity management in agroforestry systems of different socio-ecological contexts of the Tehuacán Valley.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Ramos, Mariana; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; Casas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of natural ecosystems into intensive agriculture is a main factor causing biodiversity loss worldwide. Agroforestry systems (AFS) may maintain biodiversity, ecosystem benefits and human wellbeing, they have therefore high potential for concealing production and conservation. However, promotion of intensive agriculture and disparagement of TEK endanger their permanence. A high diversity of AFS still exist in the world and their potentialities vary with the socio-ecological contexts. We analysed AFS in tropical, temperate, and arid environments, of the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, to investigate how their capacity varies to conserve biodiversity and role of TEK influencing differences in those contexts. We hypothesized that biodiversity in AFS is related to that of forests types associated and the vigour of TEK and management. We conducted studies in a matrix of environments and human cultures in the Tehuacán Valley. In addition, we reviewed, systematized and compared information from other regions of Mexico and the world with comparable socio-ecological contexts in order to explore possible general patterns. Our study found from 26 % to nearly 90 % of wild plants species richness conserved in AFS, the decreasing proportion mainly associated to pressures for intensifying agricultural production and abandoning traditional techniques. Native species richness preserved in AFS is influenced by richness existing in the associated forests, but the main driver is how people preserve benefits of components and functions of ecosystems. Elements of modern agricultural production may coexist with traditional management patterns, but imposition of modern models may break possible balances. TEK influences decisions on what and how modern techniques may be advantageous for preserving biodiversity, ecosystem integrity in AFS and people's wellbeing. TEK, agroecology and other sciences may interact for maintaining and improving traditional AFS to increase biodiversity

  8. Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in croplands converted to walnut-based agroforestry systems and orchards in southeastern Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sen; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong; Yin, Changjun; Sun, Shiyou

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of agroforestry system practices on soil properties in the Loess Plateau of China. Over the last decade, a vegetation restoration project has been conducted in this area by converting cropland into tree-based agroforestry systems and orchards to combat soil erosion and degradation. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of land use conversion on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in southeastern Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: walnut intercropping system (AF), walnut orchard (WO), and traditional cropland (CR). After 7 years of continual management, soil samples were collected at 0-10, 10-30, and 30-50-cm depths for three treatments, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured. Results showed that compared with the CR and AF treatments, WO treatment decreased both SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-50-cm soil profile. However, similar patterns of SOC and TN concentrations were observed in the AF and CR treatments across the entire profile. The SOC stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 5.42, 5.52, and 4.67 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. The calculated TN stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 0.63, 0.62, and 0.57 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. This result demonstrated that the stocks of SOC and TN in WO were clearly lower than those of AF and CR and that the walnut-based agroforestry system was more beneficial than walnut monoculture in terms of SOC and TN sequestration. Owing to the short-term intercropping practice, the changes in SOC and TN stocks were slight in AF compared with those in CR. However, a significant decrease in SOC and TN stocks was observed during the conversion of cropland to walnut orchard after 7 years of management. We also found that land use types had no significant effect on soil C/N ratio. These findings demonstrated that intercropping between walnut rows can potentially maintain

  9. Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in croplands converted to walnut-based agroforestry systems and orchards in southeastern Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sen; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong; Yin, Changjun; Sun, Shiyou

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of agroforestry system practices on soil properties in the Loess Plateau of China. Over the last decade, a vegetation restoration project has been conducted in this area by converting cropland into tree-based agroforestry systems and orchards to combat soil erosion and degradation. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of land use conversion on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in southeastern Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: walnut intercropping system (AF), walnut orchard (WO), and traditional cropland (CR). After 7 years of continual management, soil samples were collected at 0-10, 10-30, and 30-50-cm depths for three treatments, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured. Results showed that compared with the CR and AF treatments, WO treatment decreased both SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-50-cm soil profile. However, similar patterns of SOC and TN concentrations were observed in the AF and CR treatments across the entire profile. The SOC stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 5.42, 5.52, and 4.67 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. The calculated TN stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 0.63, 0.62, and 0.57 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. This result demonstrated that the stocks of SOC and TN in WO were clearly lower than those of AF and CR and that the walnut-based agroforestry system was more beneficial than walnut monoculture in terms of SOC and TN sequestration. Owing to the short-term intercropping practice, the changes in SOC and TN stocks were slight in AF compared with those in CR. However, a significant decrease in SOC and TN stocks was observed during the conversion of cropland to walnut orchard after 7 years of management. We also found that land use types had no significant effect on soil C/N ratio. These findings demonstrated that intercropping between walnut rows can potentially maintain

  10. Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

    1999-01-01

    Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

  11. Modeling annual mallard production in the prairie-parkland region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists have proposed several environmental factors that might influence production of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) nesting in the prairie-parkland region of the United States and Canada. These factors include precipitation, cold spring temperatures, wetland abundance, and upland breeding habitat. I used long-term historical data sets of climate, wetland numbers, agricultural land use, and size of breeding mallard populations in multiple regression analyses to model annual indices of mallard production. Models were constructed at 2 scales: a continental scale that encompassed most of the mid-continental breeding range of mallards and a stratum-level scale that included 23 portions of that same breeding range. The production index at the continental scale was the estimated age ratio of mid-continental mallards in early fall; at the stratum scale my production index was the estimated number of broods of all duck species within an aerial survey stratum. Size of breeding mallard populations in May, and pond numbers in May and July, best modeled production at the continental scale. Variables that best modeled production at the stratum scale differed by region. Crop variables tended to appear more in models for western Canadian strata; pond variables predominated in models for United States strata; and spring temperature and pond variables dominated models for eastern Canadian strata. An index of cold spring temperatures appeared in 4 of 6 models for aspen parkland strata, and in only 1 of 11 models for strata dominated by prairie. Stratum-level models suggest that regional factors influencing mallard production are not evident at a larger scale. Testing these potential factors in a manipulative fashion would improve our understanding of mallard population dynamics, improving our ability to manage the mid-continental mallard population.

  12. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  13. Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments.

  14. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0–40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front’s downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

  15. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

  16. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  17. Determining options for agroforestry systems for the rehabilitation of degraded watersheds in Alemaya Basin, Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Bishaw, B.

    1993-01-01

    Deforestation, accelerated soil erosion, and land degradation are serious problems in Ethiopia. The uncontrolled removal of natural forests, demographic pressures and cyclical drought has aggravated the situation, resulting in massive environmental degradation and a serious threat to sustainable agriculture and forestry. To overcome these problems efforts have been made to launch an afforestation and conservation program; however, success to data has been limited. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the reasons for lack of success in tree planting in the Alemaya Basin both from biophysical and socio-economic perspectives. And, based on this analysis, to propose an alternative strategy for agroforestry for the Basin. The study has identified and characterized major land uses, socio-economic constraints and agricultural and forestry practices which have limited forestry development in the Alemaya Basin. To gather the necessary information for the study, existing information sources were reviewed. Two state sampling was used for a land-use survey, and stratified random sampling for the socio-economic study. Decrease in farm size due to population increases, soil erosion, shortage of fuelwood and fodder for livestock and lack of appropriate extension service were found to be the major problems that affect sustainable production in the Alemaya Basin. Agroforestry is one of the appropriate technologies to overcome some of the problem faced by the farmers in the Alemaya Basin. The study proposed a desired state of sustainable agriculture and forestry for the Basin based on population projections, agriculture and forest products needs, and stable or improved living standards for a 20 year planning period. Alley cropping with and without fertilizers was identified as a promising agroforestry technology. Its economic feasibility was assessed by estimating costs and returns both for traditional farming and alley cropping.

  18. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  19. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems

    PubMed Central

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-01-01

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

  20. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables.

  1. Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J; Birks, H John B; Whittaker, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    As rates of deforestation continue to rise in many parts of the tropics, the international conservation community is faced with the challenge of finding approaches which can reduce deforestation and provide rural livelihoods in addition to conserving biodiversity. Much of modern-day conservation is motivated by a desire to conserve 'pristine nature' in protected areas, while there is growing recognition of the long-term human involvement in forest dynamics and of the importance of conservation outside protected areas. Agroforestry -- intentional management of shade trees with agricultural crops -- has the potential for providing habitats outside formally protected land, connecting nature reserves and alleviating resource-use pressure on conservation areas. Here we examine the role of agroforestry systems in maintaining species diversity and conclude that these systems can play an important role in biodiversity conservation in human-dominated landscapes.

  2. The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

  3. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  4. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract…

  5. Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

  6. Environmental and Anthropogenic Impacts on Avifaunal Assemblages in an Urban Parkland, 1976 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ormond, Sara Elizabeth; Whatmough, Robert; Hudson, Irene Lena; Daniels, Christopher Brian

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Over 32 years, the bird species assemblage in the parklands of Adelaide showed a uniform decline. Surprisingly, both introduced and native species declined, suggesting that even urban exploiters are affected by changes in the structure of cities. Climate and anthropogenic factors also cause short term changes in the species mix. In the case of Adelaide, the drought of 2005–2007 and associated water restrictions profoundly impacted the avian assemblage using the city parklands. Abstract Urban environments are unique, rapidly changing habitats in which almost half of the world’s human population resides. The effects of urbanisation, such as habitat (vegetation) removal, pollution and modification of natural areas, commonly cause biodiversity loss. Long-term ecological monitoring of urban environments is vital to determine the composition and long-term trends of faunal communities. This paper provides a detailed view of long-term changes in avifaunal assemblages of the Adelaide City parklands and discusses the anthropogenic and environmental factors that contributed to the changes between 1976 and 2007. The Adelaide City parklands (ACP) comprise 760 ha of land surrounding Adelaide’s central business district. Naturalist Robert Whatmough completed a 32-year survey of the ACP to determine the structure of the urban bird community residing there. Annual species richness and the abundance of birds in March and September months were analysed. Linear regression analysis was applied to species richness and abundance data of each assemblage. Resident parkland birds demonstrated significant declines in abundance. Native and introduced species also exhibited long-term declines in species richness and abundance throughout the 32-year period. Cycles of varying time periods indicated fluctuations in avian biodiversity demonstrating the need for future monitoring and statistical analyses on bird communities in the Adelaide City parklands. PMID:26479887

  7. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size

  8. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class

  9. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (high Agri Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2015-06-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (high Agri Valley - Basilicata region) that occurred over 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European onshore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the forest/non-forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, and expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  10. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2014-08-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  11. Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

  12. Curb Service Culture: Parkland College Promotes the Cultural Life of Its Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Parkland Community College (Illinois) takes cultural entertainment to the community by traveling to the people. Local organizations, such as Women's Clubs, distribute publicity and sell tickets, while the college provides the programs, secures the facilities, directs advertising, and provides the sponsoring organization with publicity display…

  13. Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, R.W.; Nudds, T.D.

    1995-08-01

    Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data from annual air-ground surveys and from precipitation records to develop relationships between indices of abundance of each of 10 species of ducks and indices of wetland conditions during 1955-1974. Average annual deficits within Canadian prairie-parkland over the period 1975-1989 were estimated at 1.2 x 10{sup 6} birds for both Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Northern Pintail (A. acuta), 480 000 for Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), 190 000 for American Wigeon (A. americana), 175 000 for Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata), 50 000 for Gadwall (A. strepera), 10 000 for Green-winged Teal (A. crecca), 40 000 for Canvasback (Aythya valisineria), 25 000 for Lesser Scaup (A. affinis), and 5000 for Redhead (A. americana). The effect of agricultural expansion in the east on prime waterfowl habitat since 1951 appears to have been negligible. There, as much as 90% had been already lost prior to 1951. In the west, however, where prime waterfowl habitat was still relatively abundant in 1951, agricultural development has encroached substantially. The relationship between the lost area of the best breeding habitats and the size of population deficits for Mallards and Northern Pintails in the entire Canadian prairie-parkland region was significant for both species (P < 0.0027 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, habitat restoration programs located where the highest quality waterfowl habitat and the lowest quality agricultural lands overlap most should have the greatest potential to affect recovery of breeding duck populations in the Canadian prairie-parklands. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  15. Drought effects on soil COagroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

  16. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

  17. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year.

  18. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year. PMID:22182538

  19. Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the soil organic P cycle is important to improve the P fertilization management in low-input tropical agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic P (Po) content by Bowman extraction method and labile P fractions by NaHCO3 extraction in soil profiles under cacao ...

  20. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees.

  1. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees. PMID:25618898

  2. A renewed perspective on agroforestry concepts and classification.

    PubMed

    Torquebiau, E F

    2000-11-01

    Agroforestry, the association of trees with farming practices, is progressively becoming a recognized land-use discipline. However, it is still perceived by some scientists, technicians and farmers as a sort of environmental fashion which does not deserve credit. The peculiar history of agroforestry and the complex relationships between agriculture and forestry explain some misunderstandings about the concepts and classification of agroforestry and reveal that, contrarily to common perception, agroforestry is closer to agriculture than to forestry. Based on field experience from several countries, a structural classification of agroforestry into six simple categories is proposed: crops under tree cover, agroforests, agroforestry in a linear arrangement, animal agroforestry, sequential agroforestry and minor agroforestry techniques. It is argued that this pragmatic classification encompasses all major agroforestry associations and allows simultaneous agroforestry to be clearly differentiated from sequential agroforestry, two categories showing contrasting ecological tree-crop interactions. It can also contribute to a betterment of the image of agroforestry and lead to a simplification of its definition.

  3. Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  4. Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  5. [Evaluation on comprehensive benefits of different regulation models of agroforestry ecosystem in snail river beach].

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Wu, Z; Wei, C; Peng, Z

    2001-04-01

    The economic, ecological, social and comprehensive benefits of different regulation models of agroforestry ecosystem in Nangeng river beach were evaluated by AHP. The results showed that agroforestry ecosystem was significantly superior to reed(Phragmites communis) system. Different regulation models of agroforestry ecosystem had different benefits. The sheet-thinning model had the highest economic, social, and comprehensive benefits, and it was the optimal regulation model. For all thinning models, the key approach to further raise benefits was to choose some intercrop variations, which had a high economic value, especially a high ratio of output to input. For no-thinning model, keeping on intercropping was the effective measure to raise the social and comprehensive benefits.

  6. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  7. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    PubMed

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  8. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  9. Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  10. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  11. Can joint carbon and biodiversity management in tropical agroforestry landscapes be optimized?

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H; Sporn, Simone G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels.

  12. Can Joint Carbon and Biodiversity Management in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes Be Optimized?

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H.; Sporn, Simone G.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential ‘win-win’ scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227–362 Mg C ha−1 to agroforests with 82–211 Mg C ha−1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

  13. Can joint carbon and biodiversity management in tropical agroforestry landscapes be optimized?

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H; Sporn, Simone G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

  14. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  15. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  16. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  17. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  18. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification

    PubMed Central

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M.; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G.; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-01-01

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by ≈75% and species richness of forest-using species by ≈60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by ≈40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends. PMID:17360392

  19. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification.

    PubMed

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-03-20

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximately 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximately 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximately 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

  20. Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

  1. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Williams, Nicholas E; Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  2. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Williams, Nicholas E; Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  3. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sistla, Seeta A.; Roddy, Adam B.; Williams, Nicholas E.; Kramer, Daniel B.; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region’s first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  4. SIGNAL : Water vapour flux variability and local wind field investigations within five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, Christian; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Optimising soil water uptake and ground water consumption in mono-specific agricultural systems plays an important role for sustainable land management. By including tree alleys into the agricultural landscape, called agroforestry (AF), the wind flow is modified leading to a presumably favourable microclimate behind the tree alleys. We expect that this zone is characterized by increased air temperature and atmospheric water vapour content, compared to mono-specific fields. This would extend the growing season and increase the yield production behind the tree alleys. Within the SIGNAL (Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture through Agroforestry) project the evapotranspiration (ET) variability and the local wind field of agroforestry sites compared to mono-specific agricultural systems is investigated. Our study is based on the comparison of five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany. All site feature one agroforestry plot and one reference plot, which represents a mono-specific cropped system. Each plot is equipped with an eddy-covariance tower, including a high frequency 3D SONIC anemometer and instruments gathering standard meteorological parameter as pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, ground heat flux, net- and global radiation. The Surface Energy Budget (SEB) method will be used to calculate evapotranspiration QE as QE = - QN - QH - QG - Res by measuring the sensible heat flux, QH, with the eddy covariance method, the radiation balance, QN and the ground heat flux, QG. QH and QN will be measured continuously long-term. We will quantify site specific energy balance non-closure, Res, by temporarily measuring QE, using eddy covariance and a roving tower and then solving the SEB equation for Res. The short term Res will be used to then continuously derive QE from the SEB method. We will compare measured evapotranspiration rates from the SEB method to modelled evapotranspiration of the agroforestry systems through upscaling

  5. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  6. Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry.

    PubMed

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2006-03-01

    1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic landscape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain forest fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic interactions. 2. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 24 agroforestry systems, differing in the distance to the nearest natural forest (0-1415 m), light intensity (37.5-899.6 W/m(-2)) and number of vascular plant species (7-40 species) were studied. Ten standardized trap nests for bees and wasps, made from reed and knotweed internodes, were exposed in each study site. Occupied nests were collected every month, over a period totalling 15 months. 3. A total of 13,617 brood cells were reared to produce adults of 14 trap-nesting species and 25 natural enemy species, which were mostly parasitoids. The total number of species was affected negatively by increasing distance from forest and increased with light intensity of agroforestry systems. The parasitoids in particular appeared to benefit from nearby forests. Over a 500-m distance, the number of parasitoid species decreased from eight to five, and parasitism rates from 12% to 4%. 4. The results show that diversity and parasitism, as a higher trophic interaction and ecosystem service, are enhanced by (i) improved connectivity of agroecosystems with natural habitats such as agroforestry adjacent to rain forest and (ii) management practices to increase light availability in agroforestry, which also enhances richness of flowering plants in the understorey.

  7. Agroforestry practices, runoff, and nutrient loss: a paired watershed comparison.

    PubMed

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Krstansky, J John; Henderson, Gray S; Garrett, Harold E

    2002-01-01

    A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation was used to examine treatment effects on runoff, sediment, and nutrient losses. During the (1991-1997) calibration and subsequent three-year treatment periods, runoff was measured in 0.91- and 1.37-m H-flumes with bubbler flow meters. Composite samples were analyzed for sediment, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, and ammonium. Calibration equations developed to predict runoff, sediment, and nutrients losses explained 66 to 97% of the variability between treatment watersheds. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced runoff by 10 and 1% during the treatment period. In both treatments, most runoff reductions occurred in the second and third years after treatment establishment. The contour strip treatment reduced erosion by 19% in 1999, while erosion in the agroforestry treatment exceeded the predicted loss. Treatments reduced TP loss by 8 and 17% on contour strip and agroforestry watersheds. Treatments did not result in reductions in TN during the first two years of the treatment period. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced TN loss by 21 and 20%, respectively, during a large precipitation event in the third year. During the third year of treatments, nitrate N loss was reduced 24 and 37% by contour strip and agroforestry treatments. Contour strip and agroforestry management practices effectively reduced nonpoint-source pollution in runoff from a corn-soybean rotation in the clay pan soils of northeastern Missouri.

  8. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P < 0.05) improved the farmers cash income than non-tree based garden. With insignificant garden size; homegarden agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  9. Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Reese, Heather; Bazié, Hugues Roméo; Tankoano, Boalidioa

    2016-08-01

    High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA = 78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA = 68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore concluded that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands.

  10. Disentangling herbivore impacts on Populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in Canada's Aspen Parkland.

    PubMed

    Bork, Edward W; Carlyle, Cameron N; Cahill, James F; Haddow, Rae E; Hudson, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. Replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (Bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the Northern Great Plains. We used a controlled herbivory study in the Parklands of western Canada to compare the impact of native ungulates and cattle on aspen saplings. Native ungulate treatments included a mixed species guild and sequences of herbivory by different ungulates [bison (Bison bison subsp. bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) then deer (Odocoileus hemionus); or deer, elk, then bison]. Herbivory treatments were replicated in three pastures, within which sets of 40 marked aspen saplings (<1.8 m) were tracked along permanent transects at 2-week intervals, and compared to a non-grazed aspen stand. Stems were assessed for mortality and incremental damage (herbivory, leader breakage, stem abrasion and trampling). Final mortality was greater with exposure to any type of herbivore, but remained similar between ungulate treatments. However, among all treatments, the growth of aspen was highest with exposure only to cattle. Herbivory of aspen was attributed primarily to elk within the native ungulate treatments, with other forms of physical damage, and ultimately sapling mortality, associated with exposure to bison. Overall, these results indicate that native ungulates, specifically elk and bison, have more negative impacts on aspen saplings and provide evidence that native and domestic ungulates can have different functional effects on woody plant dynamics in savanna ecosystems. PMID:23649757

  11. Disentangling herbivore impacts on Populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in Canada's Aspen Parkland.

    PubMed

    Bork, Edward W; Carlyle, Cameron N; Cahill, James F; Haddow, Rae E; Hudson, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. Replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (Bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the Northern Great Plains. We used a controlled herbivory study in the Parklands of western Canada to compare the impact of native ungulates and cattle on aspen saplings. Native ungulate treatments included a mixed species guild and sequences of herbivory by different ungulates [bison (Bison bison subsp. bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) then deer (Odocoileus hemionus); or deer, elk, then bison]. Herbivory treatments were replicated in three pastures, within which sets of 40 marked aspen saplings (<1.8 m) were tracked along permanent transects at 2-week intervals, and compared to a non-grazed aspen stand. Stems were assessed for mortality and incremental damage (herbivory, leader breakage, stem abrasion and trampling). Final mortality was greater with exposure to any type of herbivore, but remained similar between ungulate treatments. However, among all treatments, the growth of aspen was highest with exposure only to cattle. Herbivory of aspen was attributed primarily to elk within the native ungulate treatments, with other forms of physical damage, and ultimately sapling mortality, associated with exposure to bison. Overall, these results indicate that native ungulates, specifically elk and bison, have more negative impacts on aspen saplings and provide evidence that native and domestic ungulates can have different functional effects on woody plant dynamics in savanna ecosystems.

  12. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  13. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guangquan

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P < 0.10) to effect accuracy. Vegetation spatial structure (i.e., physiognomy) including plant height, cover, and vertical or horizontal heterogeneity, are important factors influencing biodiversity. Vegetation over and understory were sampled for height, canopy cover, and tree or shrub density within 120 field plots, evenly stratified by vegetation formation (grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P < 0.001). However, LIDAR data could not be used to assess understory (<1.5 m) height within aspen stands, nor grass height and cover. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types are important for rangelands as they provide a basis for the development and evaluation of management policies and actions. In this study, LIDAR data were found to be superior to digital classification schedules for their mapping accuracy in aspen forest and grassland, but not shrubland

  14. Tree Roots in Agroforestry: Evaluating Biomass and Distribution with Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, Kira Alia

    The root systems of five tree species (Populus deltoides x nigra clone DN-177, Juglans nigra, Quercus rubra, Picea abies, and Thuja occidentalis) are described following non-intrusive imaging using ground penetrating radar (GPR). This research aimed to 1) assess the utility of GPR for in situ root studies and 2) employ GPR to estimate tree root biomass and distribution in an agroforestry system in southern Ontario, Canada. The mean coarse root biomass estimated from GPR analysis was 54.1 +/- 8.7 kg tree-1 (+/- S.E.; n=12), within 1 % of the mean coarse root biomass measured from matched excavations. The vertical distribution of detected roots varied among species, with T. occidentalis and P. abies roots concentrated in the top 20 cm and J. nigra and Q. rubra roots distinctly deeper. I evaluate these root systems based on their C storage potential and complementary root stratification with adjacent crops.

  15. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  16. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  17. Response and potential of agroforestry crops under global change.

    PubMed

    Calfapietra, C; Gielen, B; Karnosky, D; Ceulemans, R; Scarascia Mugnozza, G

    2010-04-01

    The use of agroforestry crops is a promising tool for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel substitution. In particular, plantations characterised by high yields such as short rotation forestry (SRF) are becoming popular worldwide for biomass production and their role acknowledged in the Kyoto Protocol. While their contribution to climate change mitigation is being investigated, the impact of climate change itself on growth and productivity of these plantations needs particular attention, since their management might need to be modified accordingly. Besides the benefits deriving from the establishment of millions of hectares of these plantations, there is a risk of increased release into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted in large amounts by most of the species commonly used. These hydrocarbons are known to play a crucial role in tropospheric ozone formation. This might represent a negative feedback, especially in regions already characterized by elevated ozone level.

  18. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

  19. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management.

  20. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    PubMed

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate. PMID:25366937

  1. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    PubMed

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate.

  2. Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Agroforestry is a sustainable land use method with a long tradition in the Bolivian Andes. A better understanding of people’s knowledge and valuation of woody species can help to adjust actor-oriented agroforestry systems. In this case study, carried out in a peasant community of the Bolivian Andes, we aimed at calculating the cultural importance of selected agroforestry species, and at analysing the intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants according to peasants’ sex, age, and migration. Methods Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and freelisting exercises. Two ethnobotanical indices (Composite Salience, Cultural Importance) were used for calculating the cultural importance of plants. Intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants was detected by using linear and generalised linear (mixed) models. Results and discussion The culturally most important woody species were mainly trees and exotic species (e.g. Schinus molle, Prosopis laevigata, Eucalyptus globulus). We found that knowledge and valuation of plants increased with age but that they were lower for migrants; sex, by contrast, played a minor role. The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees, loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood. Decreasing dedication to traditional farming may have led to successive abandonment of traditional tool uses, and the overall transformation of woody plant use is possibly related to diminishing medicinal knowledge. Conclusions Age and migration affect how people value woody species and what they know about their uses. For this reason, we recommend paying particular attention to the potential of native species, which could open promising perspectives especially for the young migrating peasant generation and draw their interest in

  3. Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

  4. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

  5. Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used.

  6. Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used. PMID:25681794

  7. Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

  8. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  9. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  10. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  11. Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

    2008-01-01

    Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry…

  12. Impact of agroforestry plantings for bioenergy production on soil organic carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree windbreaks are an attractive multiple-benefit land use through their ability to mitigate climate change by modifying the local microclimate to improve crop growth and by sequestering carbon in the soil and tree biomass. Recently, such agroforestry practices are also being considered for their b...

  13. Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

  14. Seasonal isotope hydrology of a coffee agroforestry watershed in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh Unwala, K.; Boll, J.; Roupsard, O.

    2014-12-01

    Improved information of seasonal variations in watershed hydrology in the tropics can strengthen models and understanding of hydrology of these areas. Seasonality in the tropics produces rainy seasons versus dry seasons, leading to different hydrologic and water quality processes throughout the year. We questioned whether stable isotopes in water can be used to trace the seasonality in this region, despite experiencing a "drier" season, such as in a Tropical Humid location. This study examines the fluctuations of stable isotope compositions (δ18O and δD) in water balance components in a small (<1 km2) coffee agroforestry watershed located in central Costa Rica on the Caribbean side. Samples were collected in precipitation, groundwater, and stream water for more than two years, across seasons and at an hourly frequency during storm events to better characterize spatial and temporal variations of the isotopic composition and of the respective contribution of surface and deeper groundwater to streamflow in the watershed. Isotope composition in precipitation ranged from -18.5 to -0.3‰ (∂18O) and -136.4 to 13.7‰ (∂D), and data indicate that atmospheric moisture cycling plays an important role in this region. A distinct seasonality was observed in monthly-averaged data between enriched dry season events as compared with the rainy season events. Streamflow data indicate that a deep groundwater system contributes significantly to baseflow, although a shallow, spring-driven system also contributes to stream water within the watershed. During storm events, precipitation contributes to stormflow in the short-term, confirming the role of superficial runoff. These results indicate that isotopes are helpful to partition the water balance even in a Tropical Humid situation where the rainfall seasonality is weak.

  15. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

  16. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  17. Assessment of Agroforestry Trees in Dry-land Savanna Supports Ecohydrologic Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Van de Giesen, Nick; Tyler, Scott; Parlange, Marc

    2016-04-01

    We use stable isotopes of water to demonstrate the ecohydrologic separation, or the plant controlled compartmentalization, of different water sources in a catchment in South Eastern Burkina Faso. We analyze water extracted from the groundwater, stream water, precipitation, perched aquifer, xylem water of agroforestry trees, and sub-canopy soil water over a 6 year period to explore how the separation affects different components of the system over time. The ratio between deuterium and O18 allows us to assess whether the water that plants use is the same as the water that recharges the aquifer and runs off in the stream. Water extracted from the tree at leaf out in February corresponded to deuterium and O18 concentrations of the groundwater, a drop from its dry season, enriched, levels which mimicked the soil water. Examination of the isotopic signature suggests that the size of tree plays an important role in duration and timing of this leaf-out as well as the degree of enrichment during the peak of the dry season. Dates of leaf out were confirmed by analyzing sub-canopy radiation and photographs. Water extracted from roots suggests that the trees are performing hydraulic redistribution, or lifting the ground water and 'sharing it' with the rooting zone soil during the dry season. The enriched level of xylem, in this case, is a product of water loss and enrichment along the travel path of the water from the roots to the tip of the branch, as evidenced by the variation according to size of tree. Vapor pressure deficit, sap flow, soil water, and soil moisture interactions support this picture of interacting controls, separate from hydrologic triggers on the water movement in the tree. A second round of sampling focused on the leaf out period by extracting and analyzing stem water from throughout the canopy during the leaf out. Simultaneous large eddy correlation revealed high levels of latent energy flux, even during the dry season. Our isotope analysis allowed us to

  18. The timing and importance of arboriculture and agroforestry in a temperate East Polynesia Society, the Moriori, Rekohu (Chatham Island)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Justin J.; Howarth, Jamie D.; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Jacobsen, Geraldine E.; Barber, Ian G.

    2016-10-01

    Identifying arboriculture and agroforestry in Polynesian Societies has usually relied heavily upon the ethnographic record in the absence of direct archaeological evidence. In this paper we outline a multi-proxy research design, including ethnography, palynology, anthracology, archaeology and a high precision chronology to evaluate arboriculture and agroforestry as components of Moriori subsistence practices before the arrival of Europeans in 1791. The colonisers of Rekohu brought with them a mainland New Zealand endemic tree, Corynocarpus laevigatus, and the technology to propagate the tree in a less than ideal climate and to process its drupe into a storable source of carbohydrate in what was a difficult environment for Polynesian cultivation practices. We also present a conceptual model of forest change due to Moriori fuel selection practices which suggests that Moriori were actively managing these forest spaces for food, fuel, medicine, construction material and as a habitation space, therefore making agroforestry an important component of Moriori subsistence.

  19. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-07-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha‑1. Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases.

  20. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Zomer, Robert J; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-07-20

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha(-1). Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases.

  1. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets

    PubMed Central

    Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha−1. Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases. PMID:27435095

  2. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Zomer, Robert J; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha(-1). Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases. PMID:27435095

  3. Modelling the impact of agroforestry on hydrology of Mara River basin in East Africa using a distributed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Hosea; Julich, Stefan; Patil, Sopan; McDonald, Morag; Feger, Karl-Heinz

    2016-04-01

    Land use change is one of the main drivers of change of watershed hydrology. The effect of forestry related land use changes (e.g., afforestation, deforestation, agroforestry) on watershed hydrology depends on climate, watershed characteristics and watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was calibrated, validated and used to simulate the impact of agroforestry on the water balance in Mara River Basin (MRB) in East Africa. Model performance was assessed by Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE). The NSE (and KGE) values for calibration and validation were 0.77 (0.88) and 0.74 (0.85) for the Nyangores sub-watershed and 0.78 (0.89) and 0.79 (0.63) for the entire MRB. It was found that agroforestry in the catchment would generally reduce surface runoff, mainly due to enhanced infiltration. However, it would also increase evapotranspiration and consequently reduce the baseflow and the overall water yield, which was attributed to increased water use by trees. Spatial scale was found to have a significant effect on water balance; the impact of agroforestry was higher at the smaller headwater catchment (Nyangores) than for the larger watershed (entire MRB). However, the rate of change in water yield with increase in area under agroforestry was different for the two and could be attributed to the spatial variability of climate within MRB. Our results suggest that direct extrapolation of the findings from a small sub-catchment to a larger watershed may not always be accurate. These findings could guide watershed managers on the level of trade-offs to make between reduced water yields and other benefits (e.g., soil erosion control, improved soil productivity) offered by agroforestry.

  4. Modeling and validation of directional reflectance for heterogeneous agro-forestry scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelu, Z.; Jing, L.; Qinhuo, L.; Huete, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is a common natural phenomenon but is seldom considered in current radiative transfer models for predicting the surface reflectance. This paper developed an explicit analytical Radiative Transfer model for heterogeneous Agro-Forestry scenarios (RTAF) by dividing the scenario into non-boundary regions and boundary regions. The scattering contribution of the non-boundary regions that are treated as homogeneous canopies can be estimated from the SAILH model, whereas that of the boundary regions with lengths, widths, canopy heights, and orientations of the field patches, is calculated based on the bidirectional gap probability by considering the interactions and mutual shadowing effects among different patches. The hot spot factor is extended for heterogeneous scenarios, the Hapke model for soil anisotropy is incorporated, and the contributions of the direct and diffuse radiation are separately calculated. The multi-angular airborne observations and the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model simulations were used for validating and evaluating the RTAF model over an agro-forestry scenario in Heihe River Basin, China. It indicates that the RTAF model can accurately simulate the hemispherical-directional reflectance factors (HDRFs) of the heterogeneous agro-forestry scenario, with an RMSE of 0.0016 and 0.0179 in the red and near-infrared (NIR) bands, respectively. The RTAF model was compared with two widely used models, the dominant cover type (DCT) model and the spectral linear mixture (SLM) model, which either neglected the interactions and mutual shadowing effects between the shelterbets and crops, or did not account for the contribution of the shelterbets. Results suggest that the boundary effect can significantly influence the angular distribution of the HDRFs, and consequently enlarged the HDRF variations between the backward and forward directions in the principle plane. The RTAF model reduced the maximum relative error from 25

  5. Agroforestry management and phytoseiid communities in vineyards in the South of France.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Marialivia; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Hernandes, Akashi Fabio; Douin, Martial; Kreiter, Serge

    2011-10-01

    This study deals with the long-term effect of agroforestry management (trees within vine crops) on communities of phytoseiid mites. Several plots were considered: vineyards co-planted with Sorbus domestica or Pinus pinea, monocultures of vines and monocultures of S. domestica or P. pinea. All vine plots included two vine cultivars, Syrah and Grenache. Phytoseiid mites have been surveyed in these plots during several years within the previous 10 years. In 2010, samplings were again carried out in these same plots, from May to September, twice a month. Significantly higher densities of Phytoseiidae were observed on the cultivar Syrah (0.85 phytoseiids per leaf) than on Grenache (0.26 phytoseiids per leaf). Furthermore, significantly higher phytoseiid mite densities were observed in the monocultural grapevine plot than in the two co-planted ones. The main species found was Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus in all vine plots considered. However, Kampimodromus aberrans was observed in the grapevine plots co-planted with the two trees, but never in the monocultural vine plot. Surprisingly, this phytoseiid species was not found on the co-planted trees, nor in the neighbouring uncultivated vegetation. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain such an unexpected distribution. Furthermore, contrary to what has been observed previously, agroforestry management did not seem to favour phytoseiid mite development, especially on the Grenache cultivar. Again, some hypotheses are developed to explain such observations and density modifications.

  6. Oakland Ravine Stormwater Treatment System Project, Borough of Queens, NYC

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkle, R.E.; Moutal, H.P.; Evans, T.M.; Kloman, L.

    1999-07-01

    Compared to other cities, New York City (NYC) is abundantly endowed with parklands and open spaces, many of which can be utilized to treat and dissipate stormwater runoff flows, in conjunction with the preservation, restoration and creation of ecological systems. Such use of available parklands and open spaces has the benefit of decreasing cost for stormwater treatment and conveyance, while at the same time enhancing the natural biological systems. Through the combined efforts of the NYC Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP), which is responsible for stormwater control, and the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation (NYCDPR), which is responsible for preserving and restoring the ecological systems of parklands and open spaces, URS Greiner Woodward Clyde (URSGWC) developed a project to provide for the treatment of stormwater and the attenuation of peak stormwater flows through restoration and creation of wetlands within Oakland Ravine (located in the densely populated northeastern section of the Borough of Queens, NYC). The proposed Oakland Ravine Stormwater Treatment System Project was developed in conjunction with the East River Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Abatement Project, which is part of the NYC comprehensive program to reduce CSO discharges into receiving waters. Discharges into Alley Creek through Outfall TI-7, an outfall located about one-half mile northeast of the ravine which has been designated for CSO abatement, will be reduced as a result of the project.

  7. Characterization of nutrient transport below the root zone of a willow plantation irrigated with municipal waste water in the Boreal-Parkland transition zone, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainer, A. E.; Dyck, M. F.; Kachanoski, G.

    2010-12-01

    Irrigation of willow and poplar species with municipal waste water offers municipalities a variety of opportunities including reduced energy and waste management costs and preservation of surface water quality. Municipal waste water contains various nutrients that are beneficial to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The woody species reduce treatment costs by further removing many of these nutrients and potentially using the resulting biomass to fuel the facilities. Diversion of municipal waste water from rivers and water bodies improves water quality by reducing the amount of nutrients entering water bodies, decreasing pollution such as eutrophication. As found by many European countries, the bioenergy combined with waste water treatment approach is promising but there are environmental drawbacks including nutrient leaching to groundwater and degradation to soil hydraulic properties. Various nitrogen forms like nitrate are of concern due to impacts on human and environmental health, most notably methemoglobinemia in infants. The overall objective of this research is to assess ecosystem resilience and sustainability with repeated applications of municipal wastewater over the life cycle of a willow plantation. The specific objective of this presentation is to quantify nutrient transport below the root zone of a poplar plantation previously irrigated with municipal waste water under natural climatic conditions using soil solution samplers at 4 depths (50 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm). Meteorological data (precipitation, temperature, evaporimeter) was collected as well. Transport of conservative tracers, bromide and chloride, are compared to the transport of nutrients (nitrogen forms and DOC,). Parameterization of the measured breakthrough curves may be used to predict future nutrient fluxes. The goal of this research is to improve the design of municipal waste water subsurface irrigation systems by minimizing leaching and water losses.

  8. Extrapolating soil redistribution rates estimated from 137Cs to catchment scale in a complex agroforestry landscape using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Leticia; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia; Quijano, Laura; Navas, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The use of fallout radionuclides, particularly 137Cs, in soil erosion investigations has been successfully used over a range of different landscapes. This technique provides mean annual values of spatially distributed soil erosion and deposition rates for the last 40-50 years. However, upscaling the data provided by fallout radionuclides to catchment level is required to understand soil redistribution processes, to support catchment management strategies, and to assess the main soil erosion factors like vegetation cover or topography. In recent years, extrapolating field scale soil erosion rates estimated from 137Cs data to catchment scale has been addressed using geostatistical interpolation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This study aims to assess soil redistribution in an agroforestry catchment characterized by abrupt topography and an intricate mosaic of land uses using 137Cs data and GIS. A new methodological approach using GIS is presented as an alternative of interpolation tools to extrapolating soil redistribution rates in complex landscapes. This approach divides the catchment into Homogeneous Physiographic Units (HPUs) based on unique land use, hydrological network and slope value. A total of 54 HPUs presenting specific land use, strahler order and slope combinations, were identified within the study area (2.5 km2) located in the north of Spain. Using 58 soil erosion and deposition rates estimated from 137Cs data, we were able to characterize the predominant redistribution processes in 16 HPUs, which represent the 78% of the study area surface. Erosion processes predominated in 6 HPUs (23%) which correspond with cultivated units in which slope and strahler order is moderate or high, and with scrubland units with high slope. Deposition was predominant in 3 HPUs (6%), mainly in riparian areas, and to a lesser extent in forest and scrubland units with low slope and low and moderate strahler order. Redistribution processes, both erosion and

  9. Effects of agroforestry on phytoseiid mite communities (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in vineyards in the South of France.

    PubMed

    Barbar, Ziad; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Cheval, Brigitte; Kreiter, Serge

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and diversity of phytoseiid mites were surveyed from April to September 2003 to 2005 in vineyards (Grenache and Syrah cultivars) co-planted with rows of Sorbus domestica or Pinus pinea and in monoculture plots of grapes in the South of France. Densities of phytoseiid mites were different on the two tree species, with P. pinea a more suitable host than S. domestica. Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus was the dominant species occurring on grapes and on co-planted rows of S. domestica and P. pinea, whereas T. (T.) phialatus was the most abundant species in monoculture plots of both S. domestica and P. pinea. Factors determining the dominance of T. (T.) phialatus over T. (T.) exhilaratus in monoculture trees are discussed. In this study, agroforestry management did not affect phytoseiid diversity in vineyards, but did affect phytoseiid density, especially in 2005. The results obtained in 2003 and 2004 are not easy to discuss in this regard because of the low densities of mites observed during these 2 years (very dry climatic conditions and pesticide applications).

  10. Potential hosts of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) among native and agroforestry trees in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nangáyo, F L O; Hill, M G; Wright, D J

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out to establish the extent to which an invasive stored products pest, Prostephanus truncatus Horn exploits wood as a feeding and breeding resource in Kenya. Twenty seven out of 84 native and agroforestry trees and shrubs supported the breeding of P. truncatus under laboratory conditions. Adult survival (<1% to 18%) for 8 weeks was recorded on 51 tree species that did not support breeding. The breeding success of this beetle varied widely between host tree species and showed no obvious trends based on tree systematics or wood hardness. Studies of P. truncatus survival on two host tree species found that the greatest increase in the P. truncatus population occurred on stem sapwood, whilst the smallest population increase was on twigs. Breeding also varied greatly from season to season; studies on ten selected host species showed that reproduction was often greatest in wood samples collected and tested during the dry season in September. The implications of these findings for the management of P. truncatus infestations in farm stored maize are discussed.

  11. Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

  12. Canopy development, CO(2) exchange and carbon balance of a modeled agroforestry tree.

    PubMed

    Nygren, P; Kiema, P; Rebottaro, S

    1996-09-01

    We developed a whole-canopy CO(2) exchange simulation model to study effects of pruning on the carbon balance of trees. Model inputs include global short-wave radiation, photosynthetic photon flux density (PFD), air temperature, time series of the development of canopy diameter, height and total leaf area during the simulation period and local geographical and atmospheric parameters. Canopy structure is derived stochastically from the time series of canopy development and growth functions of individual phytoelements. The PFD incident on a phytoelement is computed from the average gap frequency of the canopy and the binary random probability of sunflecks on the phytoelement. Instantaneous CO(2) assimilation rate of each phytoelement is computed from PFD and phytoelement age. Assimilation rates are integrated over space and time to estimate whole-canopy CO(2) assimilation. The model was used to study carbon balance in five sources of the leguminous agroforestry tree Erythrina poeppigiana (Walpers) O.F. Cook during two 6-month pruning intervals. The canopy description appeared to be realistic. According to the simulations, cumulative assimilation did not provide enough carbon for tree growth until two months after pruning, indicating dependence of tree growth on reserve carbohydrates. The two most productive sources, which had the most open canopies, were the most dependent on reserve carbohydrates after pruning. PMID:14871680

  13. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  14. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  15. Erratum: Erratum to: Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  16. Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  17. Depletion of Stem Water of Sclerocarya birrea Agroforestry Tree Precedes Start of Rainy Season in West African Sudanian Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding water use by agroforestry trees in dry-land ecosystems is essential for improving water management. Agroforestry trees are valued and promoted for many of their ecologic and economic benefits but are often criticized as competing for valuable water resources. In order to understand the seasonal patterns of source water used by agroforestry trees, samples from rain, ground, and surface water were collected weekly in the subcatchment of the Singou watershed that is part of the Volta Basin. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from and under a Sclerocarya birrea agroforstry trees located in this catchment in sealed vials, extracted, and analyzed with a Picarro L2130-i CRDS to obtain both δO18 and δDH fractions. Meteorological measurements were taken with a network of wireless, autonomous stations that communicate through the GSM network (Sensorscope) and two complete eddy-covariance energy balance stations, in addition to intense monitoring of sub-canopy solar radiation, throughfall, stemflow, and soil moisture. Examination of the time series of δO18 concentrations confirm that values in soil and xylem water are coupled, both becoming enriched during the dry season and depleted during the rainy season. Xylem water δO18 levels drops to groundwater δO18 levels in early March when trees access groundwater for leafing out, however soil water does not reach this level until soil moisture increases in mid-June. The relationship between the δDH and δO18 concentrations of water extracted from soil and tree samples do not fall along the global meteoric water line. In order to explore whether this was a seasonally driven, we grouped samples into an "evaporated" group or a "meteoric" group based on the smaller residual to the respective lines. Although more soil samples were found along the m-line during the rainy season than tree samples or dry season soil samples, there was no significant difference in days since rain for any group This suggests that

  18. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from agroforestry legume species in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Terefework, Zewdu; Frostegård, Asa; Lindström, Kristina

    2005-07-01

    The genetic diversity within 195 rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of 18 agroforestry species (15 woody and three herbaceous legumes) growing in diverse ecoclimatic zones in southern Ethiopia was investigated by using PCR-RFLP of the ribosomal operon [16S rRNA gene, 23S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes] and 16S rRNA gene partial sequence (800 and 1350 bp) analyses. All of the isolates and the 28 reference strains could be differentiated by using these methods. The size of the ITS varied among test strains (500-1300 bp), and 58 strains contained double copies. UPGMA dendrograms generated from cluster analyses of the 16S and 23S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP data were in good agreement, and the combined distance matrices delineated 87 genotypes, indicating considerable genetic diversity among the isolates. Furthermore, partial sequence analysis of 67 representative strains revealed 46 16S rRNA gene sequence types, among which 12 were 100% similar to those of previously described species and 34 were novel sequences with 94-99% similarity to those of recognized species. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that strains indigenous to Ethiopia belonged to the genera Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Methylobacterium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium. Many of the rhizobia isolated from previously uninvestigated indigenous woody legumes had novel 16S rRNA gene sequences and were phylogenetically diverse. This study clearly shows that the characterization of symbionts of unexplored legumes growing in previously unexplored biogeographical areas will reveal additional diversity.

  19. [Temporal and spatial variation of mercury in water of agro-forestry and livestock compound watershed in the three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Ya; Mu, Zhi-jian; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of mercury (Hg) in four different sources of stream (aquaculture wastewater, bare land, forestry land and agro-forestry land) and well water of an agro-forestry and livestock compound watershed in the Three Gorge Reservoir region was studied during the period from March 2013 to March 2014. The total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged 9.95-15.26 ng x L(-1) with an average of (11.95 +/- 1.87) ng x L(-1), and the THg concentration decreased in the order of bare land > aquaculture wastewater> forestry land > agro-forestry land > well water. The total methylmercury (TMeHg) concentrations ranged 0.120-0.441 ng x L(-1) with an average of (0.232 +/- 0.099) ng x L(-1), and the TMeHg concentration decreased in the order of aquaculture wastewater > agro-forestry land > forestry land > bare land > well water. THg and TMeHg in well water were both dominated by the dissolved fraction, whereas for other sources of stream, the particulate phase accounted for the major fraction of THg and TMeHg. The THg concentrations in winter and spring were significant higher than those in summer and fall, however, no obvious seasonal trend of TMeHg distribution was observed. Comprehensive analysis showed human activities and weather conditions such as air temperature and precipitation etc. were the main reasons for the difference of temporal and spatial distribution of THg and TMeHg.

  20. Spatial variability in the soil water content of a Mediterranean agroforestry system with high soil heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Antonio Jaime; Llorens, Pilar; Aranda, Xavier; Savé, Robert; Biel, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Variability of soil water content is known to increase with the size of spatial domain in which measurements are taken. At field scale, heterogeneity in soil, vegetation, topography, water input volume and management affects, among other factors, hydrologic plot behaviour under different mean soil water contents. The present work studies how the spatial variability of soil water content (SWC) is affected by soil type (texture, percentage of stones and the combination of them) in a timber-orientated plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The experimental design is a randomized block one with 3 blocks * 4 treatments, based on two factors: irrigation (6 plots irrigated versus 6 plots not irrigated) and soil management (6 plots tillaged versus 6 plots not tillaged). SWC is continuously measured at 25, 50 and 100 cm depth with FDR sensors, located at two positions in each treatment: under tree influence and 2.5 m apart. This study presents the results of the monitoring during 2012 of the 24 sensors located at the 25 cm depth. In each of the measurement point, texture and percentage of stones were measured. Sandy-loam, sandy-clay-loam and loam textures were found together with a percentage of stones ranging from 20 to 70 %. The results indicated that the relationship between the daily mean SWC and its standard deviation, a common procedure used to study spatial variability, changed with texture, percentage of stones and the estimation of field capacity from the combination of both. Temporal stability analysis of SWC showed a clear pattern related to field capacity, with the measurement points of the sandy-loam texture and the high percentage of stones showing the maximun negative diference with the global mean. The high range in the mean relative difference observed (± 75 %), could indicate that the studied plot may be considered as a good field-laboratory to extrapolate results at higher spatial scales. Furthermore, the pattern in the temporal stability of tree growth was clearly related to that one in SWC. Nevertheless, the treatments that represent the mean conditions in growth were not exactly the same than those in SWC, which could be attributable to other characteristics than soil.

  1. Determining vegetation coverage and changes in land use under the Quesungual slash and mulch agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use throughout history has changed to suit the needs of the people, but just as the needs of the people have changed so should the methods employed to cultivate the land. As of 1985 producers in the municipality of Candelaria in the Department of Lempira in Honduras have been applying a locally...

  2. The influence of agroforestry and other land-use types on the persistence of a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) population: an individual-based model approach.

    PubMed

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)--an individual-based model--to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

  3. The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

  4. The influence of agroforestry and other land-use types on the persistence of a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) population: an individual-based model approach.

    PubMed

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)--an individual-based model--to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation. PMID:20967444

  5. Phosphorus monthly losses at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sande-Fouz, Patricia; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus levels in runoff waters help to estimate the possible contamination associated with them and to know the existence of eutrophication conditions. The amounts of P transported from catchments depended on the hydrology, on soil P contents, and on the amount of P added as fertilizer and manure. The aim of this study was to monthly losses of total P (TP), sedimentary P (TSP), and dissolved P (TDP) at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate. This research was conducted at Valiñas River catchment in Coruña (NW Spain), a periurban area of 36.3 km2. Land use is as follows: 35% arable land, 20% grassland or pastures and 45% forest. This study reported data from January 1999 to September 2006. The total sample number was 872, varying from 53 in 1999 and 193 in 2003. Sampling time variability was related to rainfall distribution. The different P forms, TP and TDP, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The TSP was calculated from the difference between TP and TDP. To calculate the mass balance of these P forms, discharge data at the catchment outlet were estimated. Suspended solids were assessed by filtration. Relations between the three P forms and suspended solids were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The concentrations of the three studied P forms varied widely during the whole study period. Total P yearly losses ranged from 0.350 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 to 1.199 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. From January to September 2006 they were 0.259 kg ha-1 month-1. TSP losses varied between 0.201 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 and 0.7315 kg ha-1 month-1 in 1999. Finally, TDP losses oscillated between 0.140 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2005 and 0.508 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. The main causes for these variations were rainfall and flow regimes, soil management, and wastewater discharges. Considering the different seasons, flow regime was low from July to September during the studied years, whereas the highest flows

  6. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  7. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  8. Impacts of climate change on soil erosion in Portuguese watersheds with contrasting Mediterranean climates and agroforestry practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J. P.; Lima, J. C.; Bernard-Jannin, L.; Veiga, S.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Sampaio, E.; Batista, D. P.; Zhang, R.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Moreira, M.; Santos, J. M.; Keizer, J. J.; Corte-Real, J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change in Mediterranean regions could lead to higher winter rainfall intensity and, due to higher climatic aridity, lower vegetation cover. This could lead to increasing soil erosion rates, accelerating ongoing soil degradation and desertification processes. Adaptation to these scenarios would have costs and benefits associated with soil protection but also agroforestry production and water usage. This presentation will cover project ERLAND, which is studying these impacts for two headwater catchments (<1000 ha) in Portugal, located in distinct climatic conditions within the Mediterranean climate area, and their land-use practices are adapted to these conditions. The Macieira de Alcoba catchment in northern Portugal has a wet Mediterranean climate (1800 mm/yr, but with a dry summer season). The high rainfall allows the plantation of fast growing tree species (pine and eucalypt) in the higher slopes, and the irrigation of corn in the lower slopes. Forest fires are a recurring problem, linked with the high biomass growth and the occurrence of a dry season. Potential impacts of climate change include less favorable conditions for eucalypt growth, higher incidence of wildfires, and less available water for summer irrigation, all of which could lead to lower vegetation cover. The Guadalupe catchment in southern Portugal has a dry Mediterranean climate (700 mm/yr, falling mostly in winter). The land-use is montado, an association between sclerophyllous oaks (cork and holm oaks) and annual herbaceous plans (winter wheat or pasture). The region suffers occasional severe droughts; climate change has the potential to increase the frequency and severity of these droughts, leading to lower vegetation cover and, potentially, limiting the conditions for cork and holm oak growth. Each catchment has been instrumented with erosion measurement plots and flow and turbidity measurements at the outlet, together with surveys of vegetation and soil properties; measurements in

  9. Model Optimization Planting Pattern Agroforestry Forest Land Based on Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajati, Tati

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine cropping patterns in class slopes 0 - <15% and the grade slope slopes 15% - <30% and the slopes> 30%. The method used in this study is a description of the dynamic system approach using a software power sim. Forest areas where the research, which is a type of plant that is cultivated by the people in the study…

  10. Two-dimensional finite elements model for boron management in agroforestry sites.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Gokmen; Tanji, Kenneth K; Baba, Alper

    2010-01-01

    Agroforesty systems, which are recommended as a management option to lower the shallow groundwater level and to reuse saline subsurface drainage waters from the tile-drained croplands in the drainage-impacted areas of Jan Joaquin Valley of California, have resulted in excessive boron buildup in the soil root zone. To assess the efficacy of the long-term impacts of soil boron buildup in agroforesty systems, a mathematical model was developed to simulate non-conservative boron transport. The developed dynamic two-dimensional finite element model simulates water flow and boron transport in saturated-unsaturated soil system, including boron sorption and boron uptake by root-water extraction processes. The simulation of two different observed field data sets by the developed model is satisfactory, with mean absolute error of 1.5 mg/L and relative error of 6.5%. Application of the model to three different soils shows that boron adsorption is higher in silt loam soil than that in sandy loam and clay loam soils. This result agrees with the laboratory experimental observations. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that boron uptake by root-water extraction process influences the boron concentration distribution along the root zone. Also, absorption coefficient and maximum adsorptive capacity of a soil for boron are found to be sensitive parameters.

  11. Comparison of quantitative and molecular variation in agroforestry populations of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn) in Mali.

    PubMed

    Sanou, H; Lovett, P N; Bouvet, J-M

    2005-07-01

    In this study we investigated the within- and between-population genetic variation using microsatellite markers and quantitative traits of the shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, an important agroforestry tree species of the Sudano-Sahelian region in Africa. Eleven populations were sampled across Mali and in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Leaf size and form and growth traits were measured in a progeny test at the nursery stage. Eight microsatellites were used to assess neutral genetic variation. Low levels of heterozygosity were recorded (1.6-3.0 alleles/locus; H(E) = 0.25-0.42) and the fixation index (F(IS) = -0.227-0.186) was not significantly different from zero suggesting that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is encountered in all populations sampled. Quantitative traits exhibited a strong genetic variation between populations and between families within populations. The degree of population differentiation of the quantitative traits (Q(ST) = 0.055-0.283, Q(STmean) = 0.189) strongly exceeds that in eight microsatellite loci (F(ST) = -0.011-0.142, F(STmean) = 0.047). Global and pairwise F(ST) values were very low and not significantly different from zero suggesting agroforestry practices are amplifying gene flow (Nm = 5.07). The population means for quantitative traits and the rainfall variable were not correlated, showing variation was not linked with this climatic cline. It is suggested that this marked differentiation for quantitative traits, independent of environmental clines and despite a high gene flow, is a result of local adaptation and human selection of shea trees. This process has induced high linkage disequilibrium between underlying loci of polygenic characters.

  12. Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

  13. Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

  14. Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

  15. Variation in woody plant delta(13)C along a topoedaphic gradient in a subtropical savanna parkland.

    PubMed

    Bai, Edith; Boutton, Thomas W; Liu, Feng; Wu, X Ben; Archer, Steven R

    2008-06-01

    delta(13)C values of C(3) plants are indicators of plant carbon-water relations that integrate plant responses to environmental conditions. However, few studies have quantified spatial variation in plant delta(13)C at the landscape scale. We determined variation in leaf delta(13)C, leaf nitrogen per leaf area (N(area)), and specific leaf area (SLA) in April and August 2005 for all individuals of three common woody species within a 308 x 12-m belt transect spanning an upland-lowland topoedaphic gradient in a subtropical savanna in southern Texas. Clay content, available soil moisture, and soil total N were all negatively correlated with elevation. The delta(13)C values of Prosopis glandulosa (deciduous N(2)-fixing tree legume), Condalia hookeri (evergreen shrub), and Zanthoxylum fagara (evergreen shrub) leaves increased 1-4 per thousand with decreasing elevation, with the delta(13)C value of P. glandulosa leaves being 1-3 per thousand higher than those of the two shrub species. Contrary to theory and results from previous studies, delta(13)C values were highest where soil water was most available, suggesting that some other variable was overriding or interacting with water availability. Leaf N(area) was positively correlated with leaf delta(13)C of all species (p < 0.01) and appeared to exert the strongest control over delta(13)C along this topoedaphic gradient. Since leaf N(area) is positively related to photosynthetic capacity, plants with high leaf N(area) are likely to have low p (I)/p (a) ratios and therefore higher delta(13)C values, assuming stomatal conductance is constant. Specific leaf area was not correlated significantly with leaf delta(13)C. Following a progressive growing season drought in July/August, leaf delta(13)C decreased. The lower delta(13)C in August may reflect the accumulation of (13)C-depleted epicuticular leaf wax. We suggest control of leaf delta(13)C along this topoedaphic gradient is mediated by leaf N(area) rather than by stomatal conductance limitations associated with water availability.

  16. Using Multi-Criteria Analysis for the Study of Human Impact on Agro-Forestry Ecosystem in the Region of Khenchela (algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzekri, A.; Benmessaoud, H.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to study and analyze the human impact on agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem of Khenchela region through the application of multi-criteria analysis methods to integrate geographic information systems, our methodology is based on a weighted linear combination of information on four criteria chosen in our analysis representative in the vicinity of variables in relation to roads, urban areas, water resources and agricultural space, the results shows the effect of urbanization and socio-economic activity on the degradation of the physical environment and found that 32% of the total area are very sensitive to human impact.

  17. The maintenance of soil fertility in Amazonian managed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luizão, Flávio J.; Fearnside, Philip M.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Lehmann, Johannes

    Most of Brazilian Amazonia faces important limitations for conventional agriculture and pastures due to a generally poor chemical fertility as well as the region's environmental conditions, especially high temperature and moisture. Without proper management, degradation of the soil and resulting unsustainability of agricultural and ranching production occur within a few years, leading to land abandonment. Use of perennial crops, especially those based on native tree species, would be instrumental in order to achieve best management such as that which assure recycling processes similar to those in the primary forest. Recommended alternative land uses are those producing high soil organic matter, recycling of nutrients, substantial agricultural production, and economic viability. These include agroforestry systems, enrichment of second growth with valuable native timber or fruit species, accelerated fallow regrowth via enrichment plantings, sequential agroforestry with slash-and-mulch, and diversified forest plantations. Improvement of agricultural soils can be based on lessons learned from the study of processes involved in the formation and maintenance of the rich "dark earths" (terra preta), which owe their high carbon content and fertility in part to high content of charcoal. Adding powdered charcoal combined with selected nutrients can increase soil carbon in modern agriculture. Considering that limitations to expansion of intensified land uses in Amazonia are serious, regional development should emphasize the natural forest, which can maintain itself without external inputs of nutrients. Instead of creating conditions to further expand deforestation, these forests may be used as they stand to provide a variety of valuable environmental services that could offer a sustainable basis for development of Amazonia.

  18. Agroforestry, climate change, and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successfully addressing global climate change effects on agriculture will require a holistic, sustained approach incorporating a suite of strategies at multiple spatial scales and time horizons. In the USA of the 1930’s, bold and innovative leadership at high levels of government was needed to enact...

  19. Assessing Conservation Values: Biodiversity and Endemicity in Tropical Land Use Systems

    PubMed Central

    Waltert, Matthias; Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Kaupa, Stefanie; Montoya, Marcela Leija; Nsanyi, Moses Sainge; Fermon, Heleen

    2011-01-01

    Despite an increasing amount of data on the effects of tropical land use on continental forest fauna and flora, it is debatable whether the choice of the indicator variables allows for a proper evaluation of the role of modified habitats in mitigating the global biodiversity crisis. While many single-taxon studies have highlighted that species with narrow geographic ranges especially suffer from habitat modification, there is no multi-taxa study available which consistently focuses on geographic range composition of the studied indicator groups. We compiled geographic range data for 180 bird, 119 butterfly, 204 tree and 219 understorey plant species sampled along a gradient of habitat modification ranging from near-primary forest through young secondary forest and agroforestry systems to annual crops in the southwestern lowlands of Cameroon. We found very similar patterns of declining species richness with increasing habitat modification between taxon-specific groups of similar geographic range categories. At the 8 km2 spatial level, estimated richness of endemic species declined in all groups by 21% (birds) to 91% (trees) from forests to annual crops, while estimated richness of widespread species increased by +101% (trees) to +275% (understorey plants), or remained stable (- 2%, butterflies). Even traditional agroforestry systems lost estimated endemic species richness by - 18% (birds) to - 90% (understorey plants). Endemic species richness of one taxon explained between 37% and 57% of others (positive correlations) and taxon-specific richness in widespread species explained up to 76% of variation in richness of endemic species (negative correlations). The key implication of this study is that the range size aspect is fundamental in assessments of conservation value via species inventory data from modified habitats. The study also suggests that even ecologically friendly agricultural matrices may be of much lower value for tropical conservation than indicated by

  20. Impact of Makowal type water system on crop productivity in Shivalik foothills of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sher; Singh, Satvinder; Bawa, S S; Sharma, S C; Salaria, Amit

    2015-07-01

    The availability of water through community based water harvesting structure has intensified agriculture and improved livelihood of the surveyed beneficiary households in the Shivalik foothills of India. Before the introduction of Makowal Type Water Harvesting System (before MTWHS), only 83.8% farmers in kharif and 79.7% during rabi season were growing crops but after its introduction (after MTWHS) the corresponding values improved to 100% and 97.3%, respectively, thus increasing cropping intensity from 145% to 189%. Introduction of MTWHS enabled farmers to take paddy and agro-forestry during Kharif, and vegetables and fodder during Rabi season. The increase in cultivated area due to MTWHS was to the tune of 46.1% in Kharif and 36.3% during Rabi, while increase in crop productivity ranged from 55.1% to 111.3% in kharif and 8.6 to 132.0% in Rabiseason. Better availability of irrigation changed varietal spectrum in favour of hybrids and high yielding varieties and farmers started adopting improved agronomic practices targeting better input-use efficiency. The MTWHS produced positive impact on the on-farm (crops, dairy and agro-forestry) sources of income and reduced the relative dependence on off-farm activities (labour, community forest area, etc.) for earnings. This system has brought drinking water very close to hutments of rural women thus reducing their drudgery and saving time. In general, rainwater harvesting from forest watersheds has resulted in quantum jumps in crop and milk production and acted as a catalyst to tie up the economic interest of communities, along with forest protection.

  1. Sources of water used by trees and millet in Sahelian windbreak systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. Mark; Jarvis, Paul G.; Odongo, Julius C. W.

    1997-11-01

    The extent to which water use by trees and crops is complementary in agroforestry systems may be affected by the proximity of groundwater to the soil surface. This may have important implications for the planning and management of agroforestry in semi-arid regions such as the Sahel of West Africa. A method of distinguishing uptake of water by plants from different sources was used, therefore, at locations with contrasting water table levels, to determine whether Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) trees in windbreaks utilised water from the same depths as adjacent crops of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Comparisons of ratios of the stable isotopes of oxygen ( 18O/ 16O) in plant sap, groundwater and water in the unsaturated zone of the soil profile were made in the Majjia Valley, in south-central Niger, where groundwater was found at depths of 6-8 m, and at Sadoré in south-western Niger, where the water table was at a depth of 35 m. In the Majjia Valley, the trees obtained large portions of their water from surface layers of the soil only after rain, when water there was abundant. During dry periods, roots of the trees extracted groundwater or deep reserves of soil water, while the millet crop extracted water from closer to the top of the soil profile. In contrast, at Sadoré, both the trees and crop fulfilled their water requirements from the top 2-3 m of the soil throughout the year. Thus, utilisation of water by windbreak trees and crops is more complementary where groundwater is accessible to tree roots. Competition for water is likely reduced at such locations as a consequence, but may affect the productivity of windbreak systems where groundwater is inaccessible. To maximise the benefits of establishing windbreaks, therefore, it is important that planners recommend strategies for reducing competition for water between trees and crops at sites where groundwater cannot be reached by tree roots.

  2. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p < 0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p < 0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports

  3. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p < 0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p < 0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports

  4. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  5. Relationship between C:N/C:O Stoichiometry and Ecosystem Services in Managed Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghaley, Bhim B.; Sandhu, Harpinder S.; Porter, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Land use and management intensity can influence provision of ecosystem services (ES). We argue that forest/agroforestry production systems are characterized by relatively higher C:O/C:N and ES value compared to arable production systems. Field investigations on C:N/C:O and 15 ES were determined in three diverse production systems: wheat monoculture (Cwheat), a combined food and energy system (CFE) and a beech forest in Denmark. The C:N/C:O ratios were 194.1/1.68, 94.1/1.57 and 59.5/1.45 for beech forest, CFE and Cwheat, respectively. The economic value of the non-marketed ES was also highest in beech forest (US$ 1089 ha-1 yr-1) followed by CFE (US$ 800 ha-1 yr-1) and Cwheat (US$ 339 ha-1 yr-1). The combined economic value was highest in the CFE (US$ 3143 ha-1 yr-1) as compared to the Cwheat (US$ 2767 ha-1 yr-1) and beech forest (US$ 2365 ha-1 yr-1). We argue that C:N/C:O can be used as a proxy of ES, particularly for the non-marketed ES, such as regulating, supporting and cultural services. These ES play a vital role in the sustainable production of food and energy. Therefore, they should be considered in decision making and developing appropriate policy responses for land use management. PMID:25894553

  6. Integrated Food-Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerst, M.; Cox, M. E.; Locke, K. A.; Laser, M.; Raker, M.; Gooch, C.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Predominant forms of food and energy systems pose multiple challenges to the environment as current configurations tend to be structured around centralized one-way through-put of materials and energy. One proposed form of system transformation involves locally integrating "unclosed" material and energy loops from food and energy systems. Such systems, which have been termed integrated food-energy systems (IFES), have existed in diverse niche forms but have not been systematically studied with respect to technological, governance, and environmental differences. This is likely because IFES can have widely different configurations, from co-located renewable energy production on cropland to agroforestry. As a first step in creating a synthesis of IFES, our research team constructed a taxonomy using exploratory data analysis of diverse IFES cases (Gerst et al., 2015, ES&T 49:734-741). It was found that IFES may be categorized by type of primary product produced (plant- or animal-based food or energy) and the degree and direction of vertical supply chain coordination. To further explore these implications, we have begun a study of a highly-coordinated, animal-driven IFES: dairy farms with biogas production from anaerobic digestion of manure. The objectives of the research are to understand the barriers to adoption and the potential benefits to the farms financial resilience and to the environment. To address these objectives, we are interviewing 50 farms across New York and Vermont, collecting information on farmer decision-making and farm operation. These results will be used to calibrate biophysical and economic models of the farm in order understand the future conditions under which adoption of an IFES is beneficial.

  7. Re-marriage of crops and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, P.K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

  8. Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

  9. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    PubMed

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  10. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  11. Long-term effect of rice-based farming systems on soil health.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Priyanka; Nayak, A K; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Shahid, M; Raja, R; Tripathi, R; Bhattacharyya, P; Panda, B B; Mohanty, S; Rao, K S

    2015-05-01

    Integrated rice-fish culture, an age-old farming system, is a technology which could produce rice and fish sustainably at a time by optimizing scarce resource use through complementary use of land and water. An understanding of microbial processes is important for the management of farming systems as soil microbes are the living part of soil organic matter and play critical roles in soil C and N cycling and ecosystem functioning of farming system. Rice-based integrated farming system model for small and marginal farmers was established in 2001 at Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha. The different enterprises of farming system were rice-fish, fish-fingerlings, fruits, vegetables, rice-fish refuge, and agroforestry. This study was conducted with the objective to assess the soil physicochemical properties, microbial population, carbon and nitrogen fractions, soil enzymatic activity, and productivity of different enterprises. The effect of enterprises induced significant changes in the chemical composition and organic matter which in turn influenced the activities of enzymes (urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) involved in the C, N, and P cycles. The different enterprises of long-term rice-based farming system caused significant variations in nutrient content of soil, which was higher in rice-fish refuge followed by rice-fish enterprise. Highest microbial populations and enzymatic properties were recorded in rice-fish refuge system because of waterlogging and reduced condition prolonged in this system leading to less decomposition of organic matter. The maximum alkaline phosphatase, urease, and FDA were observed in rice-fish enterprise. However, highest acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity were obtained in vegetable enterprise and fish-fingerlings enterprise, respectively.

  12. Long-term effect of rice-based farming systems on soil health.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Priyanka; Nayak, A K; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Shahid, M; Raja, R; Tripathi, R; Bhattacharyya, P; Panda, B B; Mohanty, S; Rao, K S

    2015-05-01

    Integrated rice-fish culture, an age-old farming system, is a technology which could produce rice and fish sustainably at a time by optimizing scarce resource use through complementary use of land and water. An understanding of microbial processes is important for the management of farming systems as soil microbes are the living part of soil organic matter and play critical roles in soil C and N cycling and ecosystem functioning of farming system. Rice-based integrated farming system model for small and marginal farmers was established in 2001 at Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha. The different enterprises of farming system were rice-fish, fish-fingerlings, fruits, vegetables, rice-fish refuge, and agroforestry. This study was conducted with the objective to assess the soil physicochemical properties, microbial population, carbon and nitrogen fractions, soil enzymatic activity, and productivity of different enterprises. The effect of enterprises induced significant changes in the chemical composition and organic matter which in turn influenced the activities of enzymes (urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) involved in the C, N, and P cycles. The different enterprises of long-term rice-based farming system caused significant variations in nutrient content of soil, which was higher in rice-fish refuge followed by rice-fish enterprise. Highest microbial populations and enzymatic properties were recorded in rice-fish refuge system because of waterlogging and reduced condition prolonged in this system leading to less decomposition of organic matter. The maximum alkaline phosphatase, urease, and FDA were observed in rice-fish enterprise. However, highest acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity were obtained in vegetable enterprise and fish-fingerlings enterprise, respectively. PMID:25913623

  13. Creating the Sustainable City: Building a Seminar (and Curriculum) through Interdisciplinary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Michael A.; Zimring, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    Using the wealth of sites available in the Chicago metropolitan area, online learning technologies, and classroom interactions, Roosevelt University's seminar "The Sustainable City" takes a multidisciplinary approach to urban ecology, waste management, green design, climate change, urban planning, parklands, water systems, environmental justice,…

  14. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 μm) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses.

  15. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 μm) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

  16. Soil phosphorus dynamics in a humid tropical silvopastoral system

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperband, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries of the humid tropics, timber exploitation and agricultural expansion frequently result in deforestation. Extensive land management, coupled with inherently low soil fertility invariably produce declines in agricultural/livestock productivity which eventually lead to land abandonment and further deforestation. Phosphorus is often the major nutrient limiting plant growth in tropical soils. Agroforestry systems have been considered as viable alternatives to current land use practices. Several hypotheses suggest that combining trees with crops or pasture, especially leguminous species will improve soil nutrient cycling, soil structure and soil organic matter. In this experiment Erythrina berteroana (an arboreous legume) was grown in native grass pastures in Costa Rica to determine the effects of tree pruning and cattle grazing on soil P availability. I measured soil P fluxes as well as changes in pasture biomass over an 18-month period. In a separate field experiment, I determined decomposition rates and P release characteristics of Erythrina leaves, pasture grass clippings and cattle dung. Erythrina leaves decomposed faster than both pasture grass and cattle dung. Erythrina and pasture residues released 4-5 times less P than dung. Phosphorus fluxes after tree pruning and grazing were highly dynamic for all treatments. Tree pruning increased labile soil P over time when coupled with grazing. Pasture biomass production was greatest in the grazed tree treatment. Pasture biomass P production and concentration was greatest in the non-grazed treatment. Trees and grazing together tended to increase nutrient (P) turnover which stimulated biomass production. In contrast, trees without grazing promoted nutrient (P) accumulation in pasture biomass.

  17. Measuring and modelling interception loss by an isolated olive tree in a traditional olive grove - pasture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, Cristina; Pereira, Fernando L.; Valente, Fernanda

    2015-04-01

    Water losses associated to the rainfall interception process by trees can be an important component of the local hydrologic balance and must be accounted for when implementing any sustainable water management programme. In many dry areas of the Mediterranean region where agro-forestry systems are common, those programmes are crucial to foster adequate water conservation measures. Recent studies have shown that the evaluation of interception loss in sparse forests or tree plantations should be made for individual trees, being the total value determined as the sum of the individual contributions. Following this approach, rainfall interception was measured and modelled over two years, in an isolated Olea europeaea L. tree, in a traditional low-density olive grove in Castelo Branco, central Portugal. Total interception loss over the experimental period was 243.5 mm, on a tree crown projected area basis, corresponding to 18.0% of gross rainfall (Pg). Modelling made for each rainfall event using the sparse version of the Gash model, slightly underestimated interception loss with a value of 240.5 mm, i.e., 17.8 % ofPg. Modelling quality, evaluated according to a number of criteria, was good, allowing the conclusion that the methodology used was adequate. Modelling was also made on a daily basis, i.e., assuming a single storm per rainday. In this case, interception loss was overestimated by 12%, mostly because 72% of all rainfall events lasted for more than a day.

  18. Carbon storage of different soil-size fractions in Florida silvopastoral systems.

    PubMed

    Haile, Solomon G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

    2008-01-01

    Compared with open (treeless) pasture systems, silvopastoral agroforestry systems that integrate trees into pasture production systems are likely to enhance soil carbon (C) sequestration in deeper soil layers. To test this hypothesis, total soil C contents at six soil depths (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, 50-75, and 75-125 cm) were determined in silvopastoral systems with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) + bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) and an adjacent open pasture (OP) with bahiagrass at four sites, representing Spodosols and Ultisols, in Florida. Soil samples from each layer were fractionated into three classes (250-2000, 53-250, and <53 microm), and the C contents in each were determined. Averaged across four sites and all depths, the total soil organic carbon (SOC) content was higher by 33% in silvopastures near trees (SP-T) and by 28% in the alleys between tree rows (SP-A) than in adjacent open pastures. It was higher by 39% in SP-A and 20% in SP-T than in open pastures in the largest fraction size (250-2000 microm) and by 12.3 and 18.8%, respectively, in the intermediate size fraction (53-250 microm). The highest SOC increase (up to 45 kg m(-2)) in whole soil of silvopasture compared with OP was at the 75- to 125-cm depth at the Spodosol sites. The results support the hypothesis that, compared with open pastures, silvopastures contain more C in deeper soil layers under similar ecological settings, possibly as a consequence of a major input to soil organic matter from decomposition of dead tree-roots. PMID:18689740

  19. Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

  20. Integrated plant nutrient system - with special emphasis on mineral nutriton and biofertilizers for Black pepper and cardamom - A review.

    PubMed

    K P, Sangeeth; R, Suseela Bhai

    2016-05-01

    Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation. IPNS enhances soil productivity through a balanced use of soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, combined with organic sources of plant nutrients, including bio-inoculants and nutrient transfer through agro-forestry systems and has adaptation to farming systems in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. Horticultural crops, mainly plantation crops, management practices include application of fertilizers and pesticides which become inevitable due to the depletion of soil organic matter and incidence of pests and diseases. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers in these crops deteriorated soil health that in turn affected the productivity. To revitalize soil health and to enhance productivity, it is inexorable to enrich the soil using microorganisms. The lacunae observed here is the lack of exploitation of indigenous microbes having the potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) and to solubilize Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The concept of biofertilizer application appears to be technically simple and financially feasible, but the task of developing biofertilizers with efficient strains in appropriate combinations in a consortia mode is not easier. More than developing consortia, a suitable delivery system to discharge the microbial inoculants warranted much effort. This review focuses on the integrated plant nutrition system incorporating biofertilizer with special emphasis on developing and formulating biofertilizer consortium. PMID:25834919

  1. Integrated plant nutrient system - with special emphasis on mineral nutriton and biofertilizers for Black pepper and cardamom - A review.

    PubMed

    K P, Sangeeth; R, Suseela Bhai

    2016-05-01

    Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation. IPNS enhances soil productivity through a balanced use of soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, combined with organic sources of plant nutrients, including bio-inoculants and nutrient transfer through agro-forestry systems and has adaptation to farming systems in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. Horticultural crops, mainly plantation crops, management practices include application of fertilizers and pesticides which become inevitable due to the depletion of soil organic matter and incidence of pests and diseases. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers in these crops deteriorated soil health that in turn affected the productivity. To revitalize soil health and to enhance productivity, it is inexorable to enrich the soil using microorganisms. The lacunae observed here is the lack of exploitation of indigenous microbes having the potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) and to solubilize Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The concept of biofertilizer application appears to be technically simple and financially feasible, but the task of developing biofertilizers with efficient strains in appropriate combinations in a consortia mode is not easier. More than developing consortia, a suitable delivery system to discharge the microbial inoculants warranted much effort. This review focuses on the integrated plant nutrition system incorporating biofertilizer with special emphasis on developing and formulating biofertilizer consortium.

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Isaac, M E; Hinsinger, P; Harmand, J M

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N(2)-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N(2)-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ(15)N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems.

  3. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  4. Impact of tree planting configuration on canopy interception and soil hydrological properties: Implications for flood mitigation in silvopastoral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunka, Peter; Patil, Sopan

    2015-04-01

    Compaction of upper soil layers by intensive sheep grazing has been connected with increased local flood risk in silvopastoral systems. A 12 week field study was conducted at the Henfaes Research Station near Bangor, Wales to compare two silvopastoral configurations, trees planted in fenced off clumps and trees planted evenly spaced, in terms of canopy throughfall, soil water infiltration and soil bulk density. The study's aim was to characterize the potential of these tree planting configurations to reduce local flood risk. The study site (Henfaes) was established in 1992 on 14 ha of agricultural land and is part of the Silvopastoral National Network Experiment sites that have been set up across the UK to examine the potential of silvopasture and agroforestry on UK farms. Automated throughfall gauges were installed in each silvopastoral treatment along with a similarly designed control gauge located in the grazed control pasture. Soil water infiltration and bulk density were measured 20 times in a stratified random design for each treatment and the control. Soil infiltration capacity in the clumped configuration was significantly higher than in the even spaced configuration and control pasture. The clumped configuration had mean infiltration capacity 504% greater than the control pasture and 454% greater than the even spaced configuration. Canopy interception was higher in the clumped trees than in the evenly spaced trees. Average canopy interception was 34% in the clumped treatment and 28% in the evenly spaced treatment. Soil bulk density was lower in the clumped configuration than in the control pasture and evenly spaced configuration. Results suggest that in silvopastoral systems the clumped tree configuration is more likely to reduce local flood risk than the evenly spaced tree configuration due to enhanced infiltration and increased canopy interception.

  5. Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-15

    Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of

  6. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  7. Diversity and Communities of Foliar Endophytic Fungi from Different Agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in Two Regions of Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J.; González, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  8. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  9. Quantifying Human Appropriated Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) in a Ghanaian Cocoa System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, A.; Adu-Bredu, S.; Adu Sasu, M.; Ashley Asare, R.; Boyd, E.; Hirons, M. A.; Malhi, Y.; Mason, J.; Norris, K.; Robinson, E. J. Z.; McDermott, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ghana is the second largest producer of cocoa (Theobroma cacoa), exporting approximately 18 percent of global volumes. These cocoa farms are predominantly small-scale, ranging in size from 2-4 hectares (ha). Traditionally, the model of cocoa expansion in Ghana relied on clearing new areas of forest and establishing a farm under remnant forest trees. This is increasingly less practical due to few unprotected forest areas remaining and management practices favoring close to full sun cocoa to maximize short-term yields. This study is part of a larger project, ECOLMITS, which is an interdisciplinary, ESPA-funded[1] initiative exploring the ecological limits of ecosystem system services (ESS) for alleviating poverty in small-scale agroforestry systems. The ecological study plots are situated within and around the Kakum National Forest, a well-protected, moist-evergreen forest of the Lower Guinea Forest region. Net primary productivity (NPP) is a measure of the rate at which carbon dioxide (CO2) is incorporated into plant tissues (e.g. canopy, stem and root). For this study, NPP was monitored in situ using methods developed by the Global Environmental Monitoring Network (GEM, http://gem.tropicalforests.ox.ac.uk/). By comparing NPP measured in intact forest and farms, the human appropriated NPP (HANPP) of this system can be estimated. The forest measures provide the "potential" NPP of the region, and then the reduction in NPP for farm plots is calculated for both land-cover change (HANPPLUC) and cocoa harvesting (HANPPHARV). The results presented are of the first year of NPP measurements across the cocoa landscape, including measurements from intact forest, logged forest and cocoa farms across a shade gradient and located at varying distances from the forest edge (e.g. 100 m, 500 m, 1 km and 5 km). These measures will have implications for carbon sequestration potential over the region and long-term sustainability of the Ghanaian cocoa sector. [1] Ecosystem Services for

  10. Large-scale investment in green space as an intervention for physical activity, mental and cardiometabolic health: study protocol for a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction ‘Green spaces’ such as public parks are regarded as determinants of health, but evidence from tends to be based on cross-sectional designs. This protocol describes a study that will evaluate a large-scale investment in approximately 5280 hectares of green space stretching 27 km north to south in Western Sydney, Australia. Methods and analysis A Geographic Information System was used to identify 7272 participants in the 45 and Up Study baseline data (2006–2008) living within 5 km of the Western Sydney Parklands and some of the features that have been constructed since 2009, such as public access points, advertising billboards, walking and cycle tracks, BBQ stations, and children's playgrounds. These data were linked to information on a range of health and behavioural outcomes, with the second wave of data collection initiated by the Sax Institute in 2012 and expected to be completed by 2015. Multilevel models will be used to analyse potential change in physical activity, weight status, social contacts, mental and cardiometabolic health within a closed sample of residentially stable participants. Comparisons between persons with contrasting proximities to different areas of the Parklands will provide ‘treatment’ and ‘control’ groups within a ‘quasi-experimental’ study design. In line with expectations, baseline results prior to the enhancement of the Western Sydney Parklands indicated virtually no significant differences in the distribution of any of the outcomes with respect to proximity to green space preintervention. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained for the 45 and Up Study from the University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the University of Western Sydney Ethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through partner organisations (the Western Sydney Parklands and the National Heart Foundation of Australia), as well as to policymakers in

  11. Winter wheat and summer shade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  12. Making biodiversity-friendly cocoa pay: combining yield, certification, and REDD for shade management.

    PubMed

    Waldron, A; Justicia, R; Smith, L E

    2015-03-01

    The twin United Nations' Millennium Development Goals of biodiversity preservation and poverty reduction both strongly depend on actions in the tropics. In particular, traditional agroforestry could be critical to both biological conservation and human livelihoods in human-altered rainforest areas. However, traditional agroforestry is rapidly disappearing, because the system itself is economically precarious, and because the forest trees that shade traditional crops are now perceived to be overly detrimental to agricultural yield. Here, we show a case where the commonly used agroforestry shade metric, canopy cover, would indeed suggest complete removal of shade trees to maximize yield, with strongly negative biodiversity and climate implications. However, a yield over 50% higher was achievable if approximately 100 shade trees per hectare were planted in a spatially organized fashion, a win-win for biodiversity and the smallholder. The higher yield option was detected by optimizing simultaneously for canopy cover, and a second shade metric, neighboring tree density, which was designed to better capture the yield value of ecological services flowing from forest trees. Nevertheless, even a 50% yield increase may prove insufficient to stop farmers converting away from traditional agroforestry. To further increase agroforestry rents, we apply our results to the design of a sustainable certification (eco-labelling) scheme for cocoa-based products in a biodiversity hotspot, and consider their implications for the use of the United Nations REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) program in agroforestry systems. Combining yield boost, certification, and REDD has the potential to incentivize eco-friendly agroforestry and lift smallholders out of poverty, simultaneously.

  13. Making biodiversity-friendly cocoa pay: combining yield, certification, and REDD for shade management.

    PubMed

    Waldron, A; Justicia, R; Smith, L E

    2015-03-01

    The twin United Nations' Millennium Development Goals of biodiversity preservation and poverty reduction both strongly depend on actions in the tropics. In particular, traditional agroforestry could be critical to both biological conservation and human livelihoods in human-altered rainforest areas. However, traditional agroforestry is rapidly disappearing, because the system itself is economically precarious, and because the forest trees that shade traditional crops are now perceived to be overly detrimental to agricultural yield. Here, we show a case where the commonly used agroforestry shade metric, canopy cover, would indeed suggest complete removal of shade trees to maximize yield, with strongly negative biodiversity and climate implications. However, a yield over 50% higher was achievable if approximately 100 shade trees per hectare were planted in a spatially organized fashion, a win-win for biodiversity and the smallholder. The higher yield option was detected by optimizing simultaneously for canopy cover, and a second shade metric, neighboring tree density, which was designed to better capture the yield value of ecological services flowing from forest trees. Nevertheless, even a 50% yield increase may prove insufficient to stop farmers converting away from traditional agroforestry. To further increase agroforestry rents, we apply our results to the design of a sustainable certification (eco-labelling) scheme for cocoa-based products in a biodiversity hotspot, and consider their implications for the use of the United Nations REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) program in agroforestry systems. Combining yield boost, certification, and REDD has the potential to incentivize eco-friendly agroforestry and lift smallholders out of poverty, simultaneously. PMID:26263660

  14. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and

  15. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation.

  16. High Contribution of Gallery Forests to Local Evaporation in Semi-Arid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Management of the hydrologic cycle is critical to the primary livelihood of a large part of semi-arid West Africa's primary livelihood, rain-fed farming. We use flux measurements from an eddy-covariance station coupled with a dense network of small wireless meteorological stations to examine the relationship between land surface properties (albedo, soil moisture, and roughness) and evapotranspiration in a small (3.5 km2) catchment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The catchment is a matrix of savanna and agricultural land maintained under various regimes, providing a comparison of multiple land use types of Sudanian Wooded Savanna including a canyon gallery forest, agroforestry parklands, occasionally grazed semi-open savanna, a semi-closed wooded slope, fallow fields, rice paddies, and ephemeral wetlands. By filtering out times when dry air was entrained, we demonstrate the small control of soil moisture and vegetation on the evaporative fraction, which was not initially visible. Additionally we document the high contribution of the gallery forest to the the catchment evaporation, despite its small size. These small meteorological stations could be paired with currently available satellite data to calculate evaporation over a much larger area, even when eddy-covariance equipment is not available. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of gallery forests for climate regulation and may provide tools to key local decision makers, rural farmers.

  17. APEX simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers on corn-soybean watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model has the ability to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. The objectives of this study were to calibrate and validate the APEX model for three adjacent watersheds and...

  18. Ecological interactions among phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an agroforestry environment of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares; Cavalcanti, Katrine Bezerra; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Melo Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire

    2013-12-01

    Phlebotomine vectors transmit parasites and can cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or cutaneous leishmaniasis (TL). Phlebotomine females are hematophagous but need to ingest carbohydrates, possibly promoting the development of protozoan parasites in their digestive tract. The present study evaluated the species composition and abundance across several habitats in a metropolitan landscape, as well as associations among phlebotomines, plants, and local climatic parameters. Three consecutive monthly collections were carried out in an Atlantic Forest fragment, using CDC light traps in peridomestic areas and cashew, coconut, and mango tree. plantations. Eight species of phlebotomine were captured: Evandromyia evandroi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia shannoni, Sciopemyia sordellii, Evandromyia walkeri, Psychodopygus wellcomei, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Nyssomyia intermedia, primarily from the forest environment. L. longipalpis was confirmed as a species adapted to anthropic environments, while P. wellcomei was shown to be predominately forest-dwelling. Phlebotomines exhibited diversified food consumption patterns in relation to carbohydrate sources. They fed on both native and exotic species of arboreal and shrubby vegetables and gramineous plants.

  19. Apex simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers for corn-soybean watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model is used to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. A long-term paired watershed study under corn (Zea mays L-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with agroforestr...

  20. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S.; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. Methods and Results: We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. Conclusions: The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis. PMID:26697275

  1. Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Ecological interactions among phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an agroforestry environment of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares; Cavalcanti, Katrine Bezerra; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Melo Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire

    2013-12-01

    Phlebotomine vectors transmit parasites and can cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or cutaneous leishmaniasis (TL). Phlebotomine females are hematophagous but need to ingest carbohydrates, possibly promoting the development of protozoan parasites in their digestive tract. The present study evaluated the species composition and abundance across several habitats in a metropolitan landscape, as well as associations among phlebotomines, plants, and local climatic parameters. Three consecutive monthly collections were carried out in an Atlantic Forest fragment, using CDC light traps in peridomestic areas and cashew, coconut, and mango tree. plantations. Eight species of phlebotomine were captured: Evandromyia evandroi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia shannoni, Sciopemyia sordellii, Evandromyia walkeri, Psychodopygus wellcomei, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Nyssomyia intermedia, primarily from the forest environment. L. longipalpis was confirmed as a species adapted to anthropic environments, while P. wellcomei was shown to be predominately forest-dwelling. Phlebotomines exhibited diversified food consumption patterns in relation to carbohydrate sources. They fed on both native and exotic species of arboreal and shrubby vegetables and gramineous plants. PMID:24581360

  3. Recreation and Agroforestry: Examining New Dimensions of Multifunctionality in Family Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Carla; Valdivia, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctionality serves as an analytical framework to recognize many services that farms provide to their surrounding communities and society. This study explores an often overlooked dimension of multifunctionality by examining different recreational services provided by landowners in Missouri and analyzing the relationship between recreational…

  4. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  5. Biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services and livelihoods in tropical landscapes: towards a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; McNeely, Jeffrey A

    2011-08-01

    Trade-offs between ecosystem conservation and agricultural production can more easily be addressed by shifting the view from the plot scale to the scale of the landscape and integrating biodiversity friendly land use systems into development strategies. The provision of ecosystem services such as watershed protection and carbon sequestration by natural and complex agro-ecosystems can play an important role in making such integrated landscape approaches viable. This special issue brings together papers that were presented at a symposium on agroforestry and landscape scale conservation at the Second World Agroforestry Congress in Nairobi in August 2009. It is divided into two sections focusing on: (1) the biological mechanisms and implications of landscape scale conservation strategies as influenced by land use, especially agroforestry; and (2) the economic drivers and public policies that determine to a large extent the success of agroforestry-based landscape conservation strategies. The contributions provide evidence both for the potential and limitations of agroforestry in landscape scale conservation and development strategies and highlight the importance of economic incentives and policies to promote integrated landscape solutions. This introductory paper summarizes and discusses the contributions and concludes with policy recommendations and research needs.

  6. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  7. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  8. Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

  9. The impact of policy and institutional environment on costs and benefits of sustainable agricultural land uses: the case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation (jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and

  10. The impact of policy and institutional environment on costs and benefits of sustainable agricultural land uses: the case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation (jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and

  11. The Impact of Policy and Institutional Environment on Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Land Uses: The Case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation ( jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and

  12. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  13. Modeling of afforestation possibilities on one part of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozsik, Éva; Riczu, Péter; Tamás, János; Burriel, Charles; Helilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricultural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real - ecological - problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations. Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production. In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system

  14. Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

  15. Estimating surface energy fluxes over an Andalusian Dehesa ecosystem using a thermal-based two-source energy balance model and validation with flux tower measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dehesa, the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe (˜ 3 million ha), is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for its importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). It consists of widely-spaced oak forest (mostly Quercus Ilex L....

  16. Sustainable development and use of ecosystems with non-forest trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-forest trees are components of managed ecosystems including orchards and agroforestry systems and natural ecosystems such as savannas and riparian corridors. Each of these ecosystems includes trees but does not have a complete tree canopy or spatial extent necessary to create a true forest ecosy...

  17. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), co...

  18. Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

  19. Crystal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  20. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  1. Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Betty

    This paper on delivery systems for preparing and training early childhood educators focuses on three main topics: (1) adequacy of delivery systems and access; (2) market influences on delivery systems; and (3) linking preparation and professional development components. Questions addressed include the following: Would the current preparation and…

  2. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  3. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  4. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk

  5. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  6. [Information systems].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Maniega, José Antonio; Trío Maseda, Reyes

    2005-03-01

    The arrival of victims of the terrorist attacks of 11 March at the hospital put the efficiency of its information systems to the test. To be most efficient, these systems should be simple and directed, above all, to the follow-up of victims and to providing the necessary information to patients and families. A specific and easy to use system is advisable. PMID:15771852

  7. CALUTRON SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-08-12

    A calutron system capable of functioning with only a portion of the separation tanks in the system operating is described. The invention is a calutron system comprssing a closed series of alternated tanks and electromagnets having a mid-yoke connecting intermediate positions of the series. dividing the series into twv-o portions, and thereby providing a closed magnetic path through either of the portions.

  8. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  9. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  10. A decision support system for water supply in watersheds with recurrent wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Regina; Fernandes, Luís; Pereira, Mário; Cortes, Rui; Pacheco, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    area which was covered by scrubs (69%), forests (22%) and heterogeneous agricultural areas (9%). A close relationship was found between the concentration of phosphorus in river water and the occurrence of forest fires. The annual and monthly phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge. However, the hydrologic conditions prevail in the sense that, for similar values of burnt area, the maximum phosphorous concentration is higher in dry than in wet years. In addition, the phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the limits imposed by the National and European legislation for good ecological status, human consumption and multiple uses mostly in last years of the study period. The fire frequency is a key variable in the planning and management of water bodies within a fire-prone watershed. The impacts of wildfires on water quality may become periodical instead of occasional as a consequence of the reduced precipitation and increased fire frequency and intensity projected for the near future climate. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by the project SUSTAINSYS: Environmental Sustainable Agro-Forestry Systems (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000044), financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference Framework (QREN), through the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), as well as by National Funds (PIDDAC) through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT/MEC).

  11. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  12. Saturn Systems.

    PubMed

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L

    2016-01-15

    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+).

  13. Saturn Systems.

    PubMed

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L

    2016-01-15

    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+). PMID:26096724

  14. Electronic system

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  15. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  16. Systems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, D. P.; Bell, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the analysis of the administrative systems of various environmental programs related to water quality and pollution policy. A list of 70 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)

  17. Microelectromechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Kaigham J.

    1995-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

  18. Recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Medo, Matúš; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  19. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  20. Laser Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tunable diode lasers are employed as radiation sources in high resolution infrared spectroscopy to determine spectral characteristics of gaseous compounds. With other laser systems, they are produced by Spectra-Physics, and used to monitor chemical processes, monitor production of quantity halogen lamps, etc. The Laser Analytics Division of Spectra-Physics credits the system's reliability to a program funded by Langley in the 1970s. Company no longer U.S.-owned. 5/22/97

  1. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. Chaotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myasishchev, Denis; Bixler, David

    2009-04-01

    Chaos theory is a current topic in physics research and is of great scientific and applied interest. Chaotic systems include weather patterns, genetic evolution and free market economics. Modeling chaotic phenomena using electronic circuits is a convenient way to analyze nonlinear systems. We have built various types of circuits and examined the conditions under which chaos occurs. Chua's circuit and analog computing circuits (ones that directly model systems of differential equations) were in the spotlight during the fall semester. An R-C phase space diagram for the Chua's circuit was constructed and the phase transitions were examined. Different analog computing circuits were built and the resulting attractors, attractor phases, and bifurcations were recorded. A mechanical system, the two block train model, is the current focus of study. The goal is to examine attractors produced by a mechanical system, a computer simulation, and a corresponding circuit in order to prove that the same experimental results can be obtained from different sources. This way if a mechanical system is too complicated to build, it can be substituted by a suitable circuit.

  3. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  4. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods.

  5. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  6. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  7. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods. PMID:21701196

  8. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  9. Ecological Settings and State Economies as Factor Inputs in the Provision of Outdoor Recreation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderelis, Christos; Smith, Jordan W.

    2013-09-01

    State parks play a substantial role in the provision of outdoor recreation opportunities within the United States. Park operators must make crucial decisions in how they allocate capital expenditures, labor, and parkland to maintain recreation opportunities. Their decisions are influenced, in part, by the ecological characteristics of their state's park system as well as the vitality of their state's economy. In this research, we incorporate the characteristics of states' ecosystems and their local economies into a formal production analysis of the states' park systems from the years 1986 to 2011. Our analysis revealed all three factors of production were positive and inelastic. Expenditures on labor had the largest effect on both park utilization and operational expenditures. Our analysis also found a large degree of variability in the effects of ecological characteristics on both utilization and operating expenditures. Parkland utilization and operational expenditures were more elastic in areas such as Oceania and Mediterranean California relative to other ecological regions. These findings lead us to conclude that state park operators will experience variable levels of difficulty in both accommodating increasing demands for recreation from state parks and maintaining the existing quality of outdoor recreation provided within their system.

  10. Ecological settings and state economies as factor inputs in the provision of outdoor recreation.

    PubMed

    Siderelis, Christos; Smith, Jordan W

    2013-09-01

    State parks play a substantial role in the provision of outdoor recreation opportunities within the United States. Park operators must make crucial decisions in how they allocate capital expenditures, labor, and parkland to maintain recreation opportunities. Their decisions are influenced, in part, by the ecological characteristics of their state's park system as well as the vitality of their state's economy. In this research, we incorporate the characteristics of states' ecosystems and their local economies into a formal production analysis of the states' park systems from the years 1986 to 2011. Our analysis revealed all three factors of production were positive and inelastic. Expenditures on labor had the largest effect on both park utilization and operational expenditures. Our analysis also found a large degree of variability in the effects of ecological characteristics on both utilization and operating expenditures. Parkland utilization and operational expenditures were more elastic in areas such as Oceania and Mediterranean California relative to other ecological regions. These findings lead us to conclude that state park operators will experience variable levels of difficulty in both accommodating increasing demands for recreation from state parks and maintaining the existing quality of outdoor recreation provided within their system.

  11. Microbiology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  12. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  13. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  14. Computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  15. Walking a New Path of Life: Learning Tours, "Agroforestry" and the Transformation of the Village of Bann Na Isarn, Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacheen, Piyaporn; Lauzon, Allan C.

    2006-01-01

    Rural areas in both developed and developing countries are being increasingly marginalized through structural changes. Furthermore, the disinvestment in state-provided supports and services means that rural people are left to their own devices to cope with these changes. Numerous authors argue that the most effective way of dealing with these…

  16. System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  17. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  18. Irrigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  19. STAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doverspike, James E.

    The STAR System is a developmental guidance approach to be used with elementary school children in the 5th or 6th grades. Two basic purposes underlie STAR: to increase learning potential and to enhance personal growth and development. STAR refers to 4 basic skills: sensory, thinking, adapting, and revising. Major components of the 4 skills are:…

  20. Bioconversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The production of higher valued products from biomass is the focus of this reference and planning guide for those who deal with the demands of energy recovery. International experts explain the processes and potentials for genetic engineering to bioenergy systems, utilizing biomass lignin and producing chemicals from biomass using wet oxidation. They present studies of possible liquid fuel production in developing countries as well as information on new research and development such as an aquatic biomass growth system integrated with an anaerobic digestion system for producing fuel gas. Several chapters describe the use of forage crops as chemical feedstocks, production of chemicals from microalgae, and the technology and economics of chemicals from wood. CONTENTS: Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass: a Role for GeneSplicing Technology. Lactic Acid Production by Pure and Mixed Bacterial Cultures. Conversion of Lignin to Useful Chemical Products. Chemicals from Microalgae. Forage Crops as Chemical Feedstocks. Biomass Conversion into Chemicals Using Wet Oxidation. Technology and Economics of Chemicals from Wood. An Integrated Anaerobic Digestion System for the Production of Energy and Livestock Fleed Based on Aquatic Biomass Production on Sand Using Seawater Spray. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass in the Developing Countries--an Agricultural and Economic Perspective, Part I--Introduction and Background. Part II--the Tropical Environment and the Availability of Suitable Land. Part III--Agricultural Properties of Energy Crops. Part IV--Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Options and Summary and Conclusions. Index.

  1. Systems Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  2. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  3. Manufacturing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Advanced Process Systems designed a portable purge unit for NASA use. The unit is designed to protect flight and ground crews from toxic fumes and to provide a post-landing controlled environment for sensitive electronic equipment. Although the work has future spinoff potential, it has also led to a research and development program in conjunction with several universities.

  4. Systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Charts and accompanying text are presented that provide a brief synopsis of the contracted efforts for FY-92 in assessing nuclear thermal propulsion requirements, concepts, and associated issues. The objective of the effort is to provide NASA LeRC with assistance in space nuclear propulsion system requirements management and public acceptance planning.

  5. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  6. Burner systems

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Brian J.

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  7. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  8. [Systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Schinke, Susanne; Riemekasten, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a challenging and heterogeneous disease due to the involvement of multiple organs and the high impact on morbidity and quality of life. Lung fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cardiac manifestations are main causes of systemic sclerosis-related deaths. In addition, patients suffer from a various range of co-morbidities such as malnutrition, depression, osteoporosis, malignancies, which are increased in these patients and have to be identified and treated. Early assessment of organ damage is a key to therapeutic success. The discovery of pathogenic autoantibodies combined with increased evidence of effective immunosuppressive and vasoactive treatment strategies are major developments in the therapy of the disease. At present, several clinical studies are ongoing and some of the biological therapies are promising.

  9. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  10. Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  11. Tychonic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the phases of Venus, for which the Ptolemai...

  12. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  13. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  14. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  15. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  16. Copernican System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

  17. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-07-01

    The idea that there are multiple memory systems can be traced to early philosophical considerations and introspection. However, the early experimental work considered memory a unitary phenomenon and focused on finding the mechanism upon which memory is based. A full reconciliation of debates about that mechanism, and a coincidental rediscovery of the idea of multiple memory systems, emerged from studies in the cognitive neuroscience of memory. This research has identified three major forms of memory that have distinct operating principles and are supported by different brain systems. These include: (1) a cortical-hippocampal circuit that mediates declarative memory, our capacity to recollect facts and events; (2) procedural memory subsystems involving a cortical-striatal circuit that mediates habit formation and a brainstem-cerebellar circuit that mediates sensorimotor adaptations; and (3) a circuit involving subcortical and cortical pathways through the amygdala that mediates the attachment of affective status and emotional responses to previously neutral stimuli. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Braking system

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  19. Videobasierte Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Peter

    Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

  20. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  1. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  2. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  3. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  4. Purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T. (Inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

  5. Gastrointestinal system

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Leo K.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract include digestion, absorption, excretion, and protection. In this review, we focus on the electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine, which underlies the motility of these organs, and where the most detailed systems descriptions and computational models have been based to date. Much of this discussion is also applicable to the rest of the GI tract. This review covers four major spatial scales: cell, tissue, organ, and torso, and discusses the methods of investigation and the challenges associated with each. We begin by describing the origin of the electrical activity in the interstitial cells of Cajal, and its spread to smooth muscle cells. The spread of electrical activity through the stomach and small intestine is then described, followed by the resultant electrical and magnetic activity that may be recorded on the body surface. A number of common and highly symptomatic GI conditions involve abnormal electrical and/or motor activity, which are often termed functional disorders. In the last section of this review we address approaches being used to characterize and diagnose abnormalities in the electrical activity and how these might be applied in the clinical setting. The understanding of electrophysiology and motility of the GI system remains a challenging field, and the review discusses how biophysically based mathematical models can help to bridge gaps in our current knowledge, through integration of otherwise separate concepts. PMID:20836011

  6. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  7. Power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

  8. Systems toxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; van Vliet, Erwin; Jaworska, Joanna; Bonilla, Leo; Skinner, Nigel; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The need for a more mechanistic understanding of the ways in which chemicals modulate biological pathways is urgent if we are to identify and better assess safety issues relating to a wide range of substances developed by the pharmaceutical, chemical, agri-bio, and cosmetic industries. Omics technologies provide a valuable opportunity to refine existing methods and provide information for so-called integrated testing strategies via the creation of signatures of toxicity. By mapping these signatures to underlying pathways of toxicity, some of which have been identified by toxicologists over the last few decades, and bringing them together with pathway information determined from biochemistry and molecular biology, a "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the assessment of compound toxicity. PMID:22562485

  9. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  10. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Arnant P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions following incorporation of improved-fallow residues in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, N.; Ndufa, J. K.; Cadisch, G.; Baggs, E. M.

    2004-03-01

    The rotation of crops with fast-growing tree, shrub, and herbaceous N2-fixing legume species (improved fallows) is a central agroforestry technology for soil fertility management in the humid tropics. Maize yields are increased following improved fallows compared with continuous maize cropping or traditional natural-fallow systems consisting of broadleaved weeds and grasses. However, the effect of these improved-fallow systems on N availability and N2O emissions following residue application has yet to be determined. Emissions from these systems not only have a detrimental effect on the environment, but are of additional concern in that they represent a potentially significant loss of N and a reduction in N-use efficiency. Emissions of N2O were measured from improved-fallow agroforestry systems in western Kenya, being characteristic of agroforestry systems in the humid tropics. Emissions were increased after incorporation of fallow residues and were higher after incorporation of improved-fallow legume residues (Sesbania sesban, Crotalaria grahamiana, Macroptilium atropurpureum) than natural-fallow residues (mainly consisting of Digitaria abyssibica, Habiscus cannabinus, Bidens pilosa, Guizotia scabra, Leonotis nepetifolia, Commelina benghalensis). Following incorporation of Sesbania and Macroptilium residues (7.4 t dry matter ha-1; 2.9% N) in a mixed fallow system, 4.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 was emitted over 84 days. The percentages of N applied emitted as N2O following residue incorporation in these tropical agroforestry systems were of the same magnitude as in temperate agricultural systems. N2O (loge) emissions were positively correlated with residue N content (r = 0.93; P < 0.05), and thus the residue composition, particularly its N content, is an important consideration when proposing management practices to mitigate N2O emissions from these systems.

  12. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  13. Incinerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmell, R.K.

    1986-10-07

    An incineration system is described which consists of: combustion chamber structure having an inlet, an outlet, and burner structure in the combustion chamber, heat exchanger structure defining a chamber, divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber, an array of tubes extending through the heat exchanger chamber to the inlet of the combustion chamber at the divider structure. The heat exchanger chamber has an inlet coupled to the outlet of the combustion chamber for flow of the combustion products discharged from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger chamber over the tubes in heat exchange relation, and an outlet for discharge of products from the heat exchanger chamber, aspirator sleeve structure secured to the divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber. Each aspirator sleeve receives the outlet end of a heat exchanger tube in slip fit relation so that the heat exchanger tubes are free to thermally expand longitudinally within the aspirator sleeves, and means for flowing vapor through the heat exchanger tubes into the combustion chamber at sufficiently high velocity to produce a reduced pressure effect in the aspirator sleeves in the heat exchanger chamber to draw a minor fraction of combustion products through the aspirator sleeves into the combustion chamber for reincineration.

  14. Systems approach to space plasma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Richard; Walker, Simon

    The application of nonlinear system identification methodology was used to review complex space plasma systems. It is shown how the nonlinear system identification approach can lead to a comprehensive description of dynamical processes in developed space plasma turbulences. It is also explained how nonlinear system identification can access the analytical approach to complex dynamical systems such as the magnetosphere.

  15. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  16. System safety education focused on system management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  17. Distinguishing Systemic from Systematic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alison A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the difference between systemic and systematic as they relate to school reform and instructional design. Highlights include a history of systems theory; systems engineering; instructional systems design; systemic versus reductionist thinking; social systems; and systemic change in education, including power relationships. (LRW)

  18. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  19. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  20. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  1. Trees, soils, and food security

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, P. A.; Buresh, R. J.; Leakey, R. R. B.

    1997-01-01

    Trees have a different impact on soil properties than annual crops, because of their longer residence time, larger biomass accumulation, and longer-lasting, more extensive root systems. In natural forests nutrients are efficiently cycled with very small inputs and outputs from the system. In most agricultural systems the opposite happens. Agroforestry encompasses the continuum between these extremes, and emerging hard data is showing that successful agroforestry systems increase nutrient inputs, enhance internal flows, decrease nutrient losses and provide environmental benefits: when the competition for growth resources between the tree and the crop component is well managed. The three main determinants for overcoming rural poverty in Africa are (i) reversing soil fertility depletion, (ii) intensifying and diversifying land use with high-value products, and (iii) providing an enabling policy environment for the smallholder farming sector. Agroforestry practices can improve food production in a sustainable way through their contribution to soil fertility replenishment. The use of organic inputs as a source of biologically-fixed nitrogen, together with deep nitrate that is captured by trees, plays a major role in nitrogen replenishment. The combination of commercial phosphorus fertilizers with available organic resources may be the key to increasing and sustaining phosphorus capital. High-value trees, 'Cinderella' species, can fit in specific niches on farms, thereby making the system ecologically stable and more rewarding economically, in addition to diversifying and increasing rural incomes and improving food security. In the most heavily populated areas of East Africa, where farm size is extremely small, the number of trees on farms is increasing as farmers seek to reduce labour demands, compatible with the drift of some members of the family into the towns to earn off-farm income. Contrary to the concept that population pressure promotes deforestation, there is

  2. Systems Engineering Management Education in Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masahiro

    Engineers with system architecture design and project management abilities are required in the field of embedded system development. In university, however, educations are mainly focused on computer science and programming; systems engineering and project management education have been disregard. We implemented educational curriculum of systems engineering and project management in embedded system for graduate program. In this paper the course design, execution and evaluation are described.

  3. Systems design of long-life systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A long-life system is defined as a system which cannot be life-tested in its operational environment. Another restriction is that preventive maintenance and repair shall be either impossible or economically disadvantageous. Examples of such systems include planetary spacecraft, communication satellites, undersea telephone cables, and nuclear power plants. The questions discussed are related to the implementation of system functions, approaches to determine the required level of system reliability, and aspects of tradeoffs between requirements and reliability.

  4. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  5. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  6. Mechanical systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

  7. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. PMID:24283921

  8. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E.; Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  9. System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

  10. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  11. [X-33 Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

  12. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  13. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  14. Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees.

    PubMed

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2003-05-01

    The worldwide decline of pollinators may negatively affect the fruit set of wild and cultivated plants. Here, we show that fruit set of the self-fertilizing highland coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly variable and related to bee pollination. In a comparison of 24 agroforestry systems in Indonesia, the fruit set of coffee could be predicted by the number of flower-visiting bee species, and it ranged from ca. 60% (three species) to 90% (20 species). Diversity, not abundance, explained variation in fruit set, so the collective role of a species-rich bee community was important for pollination success. Additional experiments showed that single flower visits from rare solitary species led to higher fruit set than with abundant social species. Pollinator diversity was affected by two habitat parameters indicating guild-specific nesting requirements: the diversity of social bees decreased with forest distance, whereas the diversity of solitary bees increased with light intensity of the agroforestry systems. These results give empirical evidence for a positive relationship between ecosystem functions such as pollination and biodiversity. Conservation of rainforest adjacent to adequately managed agroforestry systems could improve the yields of farmers. PMID:12803911

  15. Calogero-Moser Systems and Hitchin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtubise, J. C.; Markman, E.

    We exhibit the elliptic Calogero-Moser system as a Hitchin system of G-principal Higgs pairs. The group G, though naturally associated to any root system, is not semi-simple. We then interpret the Lax pairs with spectral parameter of d'Hoker and Phong [dP1] and Bordner, Corrigan and Sasaki [BCS1] in terms of equivariant embeddings of the Hitchin system of G into that of GL(N).

  16. Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

  17. DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

  18. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  19. Tethered Satellite System control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, Donald D.; Mowery, David K.; Bodley, Carl S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the control aspects of the Tethered Satellite System mission. The deployer controls system uses length-error and tension-error feedback to control in-plane libration, length, and length rate. The satellite's reaction control system is used to augment tether tension, control rates and attitude about the tether axis, and to damp in-plane and out-of-plane libration. The orbiter's reaction control system is also used to control in-plane and out-of-plane libration. Results of simulations are presented for the flight portion of the Tethered Satellite System mission.

  20. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  1. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  2. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  3. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2016-10-11

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  4. Lighting system with thermal management system

    SciTech Connect

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  5. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  6. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Debois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire [Southern] sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m 3-mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper level of abstraction and detail. The LSST modeling includes the analysis and documenting the flow of command and control information and data between the suite of systems in the LSST observatory that are needed to carry out the activities of the survey. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  7. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team Salud.uy since 2013.

  8. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  9. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  10. What Are Expert Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agapeyeff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  11. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... new system inserted at any time during your menstrual cycle. If you have chosen to use a different ... of your intrauterine system and you have regular menstrual cycles, you should have the system removed during the ...

  12. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  13. Alternative Videodisc Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Ted

    1981-01-01

    Discusses consumer and industrial videodisc systems for information storage including cost, technology utilized, formats, and features. Reflective and transmissive laser optical systems are described, as well as the grooved and grooveless mechanical systems. Tables containing product data are included. (JJD)

  14. Immune System Involvement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips" to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... swollen and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...

  15. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  16. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  17. The Trinity System

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Billy Joe; Vigil, Benny Manuel

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  18. Electric flight systems, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

  19. Performance Measurement Analysis System

    1989-06-01

    The PMAS4.0 (Performance Measurement Analysis System) is a user-oriented system designed to track the cost and schedule performance of Department of Energy (DOE) major projects (MPs) and major system acquisitions (MSAs) reporting under DOE Order 5700.4A, Project Management System. PMAS4.0 provides for the analysis of performance measurement data produced from management control systems complying with the Federal Government''s Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria.

  20. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  1. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  2. Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

  3. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  4. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  5. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  6. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  7. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  8. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  9. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  10. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  11. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  12. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  13. Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodolski, John

    Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

  14. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  15. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  16. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  17. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  18. Computer Center: CIBE Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crovello, Theodore J.

    1982-01-01

    Differentiates between computer systems and Computers in Biological Education (CIBE) systems (computer system intended for use in biological education). Describes several CIBE stand alone systems: single-user microcomputer; single-user microcomputer/video-disc; multiuser microcomputers; multiuser maxicomputer; and local and long distance computer…

  19. Coaches as System Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…

  20. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  1. Identification of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Guo, Ten-Huei; Duyar, Ahmet

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a tutorial on the use of model identification techniques for the identification of propulsion system models. These models are important for control design, simulation, parameter estimation, and fault detection. Propulsion system identification is defined in the context of the classical description of identification as a four step process that is unique because of special considerations of data and error sources. Propulsion system models are described along with the dependence of system operation on the environment. Propulsion system simulation approaches are discussed as well as approaches to propulsion system identification with examples for both air breathing and rocket systems.

  2. On generalized Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

  3. What is systems engineering?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary process that ensures that the customers` needs are satisfied throughout a system`s entire life cycle. This process includes: understanding customer needs; stating the problem; specifying requirements; defining performance and cost measures, prescribing tests, validating requirements, conducting design reviews, exploring alternative concepts, sensitivity analyses, functional decomposition, system design, designing and managing interfaces, system integration, total system test, configuration management, risk management, reliability analysis; total quality management; project management; and documentation. Material for this paper was gathered from senior Systems Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  5. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  6. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  7. Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2009-01-01

    A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

  8. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  9. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  10. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  11. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  12. Satellite services system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  13. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  14. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  15. On evolutionary systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework.

  16. On evolutionary systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework. PMID:3689299

  17. A System of Systems Approach to the EU Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Tom; Madani, Kaveh; Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, measures to prevent dangerous climate change are being adopted and may change energy systems fundamentally. The European Union (EU) is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20% by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050. In order to achieve this, EU member states aim to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix to 20% by 2020. This commitment comes as part of a series of other aims, principles, and policies to reform the EU's energy system. Cost-efficiency in the emissions reductions measures as well as strategic goals under the Resource Efficient Europe flagship initiative which would include a more prudent approach to other natural resources such as water and land. Using the "System of Systems Approach", as from Hadian and Madani (2015), energy sources' Relative Aggregate Footprints (RAF) in the EU are evaluated. RAF aggregates across four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. The four criteria are weighted by resource availability across the EU and for each Member State. This provides an evaluation of the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio and gives insight into the differences in the desirability of energy sources across Member States. Broadly, nuclear, onshore wind, and geothermal are most desirable under equal criteria weights and EU average weighting introduces only small changes in the relative performance of only few technologies. The member state specific weightings show that most countries have similar energy technology preferences. However, the UK deviates most strongly from the average, with an even stronger preference for nuclear and coal. Sweden, Malta and Finland also deviate from the typical preferences indicating the complexity in play in reforming the EU energy system. Reference Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All Renewables Really Green? Ecological Indicators, 52, 194-206.

  18. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A system infrastructure must be properly designed and integrated from the conceptual development phase to accommodate evolutionary intelligent technologies. Several technology development activities were identified that may have application to rendezvous and capture systems. Optical correlators in conjunction with fuzzy logic control might be used for the identification, tracking, and capture of either cooperative or non-cooperative targets without the intensive computational requirements associated with vision processing. A hybrid digital/analog system was developed and tested with a robotic arm. An aircraft refueling application demonstration is planned within two years. Initially this demonstration will be ground based with a follow-on air based demonstration. System dependability measurement and modeling techniques are being developed for fault management applications. This involves usage of incremental solution/evaluation techniques and modularized systems to facilitate reuse and to take advantage of natural partitions in system models. Though not yet commercially available and currently subject to accuracy limitations, technology is being developed to perform optical matrix operations to enhance computational speed. Optical terrain recognition using camera image sequencing processed with optical correlators is being developed to determine position and velocity in support of lander guidance. The system is planned for testing in conjunction with Dryden Flight Research Facility. Advanced architecture technology is defining open architecture design constraints, test bed concepts (processors, multiple hardware/software and multi-dimensional user support, knowledge/tool sharing infrastructure), and software engineering interface issues.

  19. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  20. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  1. Alkaline etch system qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.E.; Pemberton, S.E.; Tucker, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Based on the data from this qualification activity, the Atotech etch system, even with minimum characterization, was capable of etching production printed circuit products as good as those from the Chemcut system. Further characterization of the Atotech system will improve its etching capability. In addition to the improved etch quality expected from further characterization, the Atotech etch system has additional features that help reduce waste and provide for better consistency in the etching process. The programmable logic controller and computer will allow operators to operate the system manually or from pre-established recipes. The evidence and capabilities of the Atotech system made it as good as or better than the Chemcut system for etching WR products. The Printed Wiring Board Engineering Department recommended that the Atotech system be released for production. In December 1995, the Atotech system was formerly qualified for production.

  2. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  3. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  5. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  6. Flash evaporator systems test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

  7. Programmable telemetry test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadiana, J. M.

    A portable programmable telemetry test system was designed to test shipboard telemetry systems used for evaluating performance of missile systems in the surface missile fleet. The test system accurately simulates any missile in the current Navy inventory, and provides test and calibration signals to verify telemetry systems. The total test system weighs just over 15 lbs and occupies less than 1 cubic foot. Internal batteries allow testing or calibration of RF front ends out on weather decks. The modulation section consists of an FM/PAM/PCM simulator and simple control circuitry, and is programmable via an Intel 2715 EPROM, the frame format memory. A second EPROM provides a wave-form library.

  8. Experiment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Experiment Support System is a switchboard system with displays and controls. It routes electrical power to experiments M092, M093, and M171 equipment; gaseous nitrogen to the Blood Pressure Measurement System; receives biomedical data from all related equipment; routes the conditioned data signals to the Airlock Module Telemetry System and also displays (in digital or analog from) portions of that data which the crewmen must see to complete the experiment successfully. The Experiment Support System is interfaced to the M131 control panel to transfer conditioned data to the Airlock Module Telemetry System.

  9. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  10. Space shuttle avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

  11. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  12. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  13. Precision Pointing System Development

    SciTech Connect

    BUGOS, ROBERT M.

    2003-03-01

    The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

  14. Verification of Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pullum, Laura L; Cui, Xiaohui; Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Christopher; Buskens, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive systems are critical for future space and other unmanned and intelligent systems. Verification of these systems is also critical for their use in systems with potential harm to human life or with large financial investments. Due to their nondeterministic nature and extremely large state space, current methods for verification of software systems are not adequate to provide a high level of assurance for them. The combination of stabilization science, high performance computing simulations, compositional verification and traditional verification techniques, plus operational monitors, provides a complete approach to verification and deployment of adaptive systems that has not been used before. This paper gives an overview of this approach.

  15. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  16. Power system interface and umbilical system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    System requirements and basic design criteria were defined for berthing or docking a payload to the 25 kW power module which will provide electrical power and attitude control, cooling, data transfer, and communication services to free-flying and Orbiter sortie payloads. The selected umbilical system concept consists of four assemblies and command and display equipment to be installed at the Orbiter payload specialist station: (1) a movable platen assembly which is attached to the power system with EVA operable devices; (2) a slave platen assembly which is attached to the payload with EVA operable devices; (3) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed in the power system; and (4) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed on the payload. Operating modes and sequences are described.

  17. NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles

    1996-01-01

    SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

  18. Designing Chaotic Systems by Piecewise Affine Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tiantian; Li, Qingdu; Yang, Xiao-Song

    Based on mathematical analysis, this paper provides a methodology to ensure the existence of homoclinic orbits in a class of three-dimensional piecewise affine systems. In addition, two chaotic generators are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  19. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny

    1999-11-22

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  20. System and method for creating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  1. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  2. School System Empires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Michael

    1972-01-01

    Although most educational systems are resistant to change, there are some features of the community, of the teachers, of government, and of the system that enable one to predict the likelihood of an innovation being accepted and implemented. (AL)

  3. Immune System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lock onto them. T cells are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... can't be prevented, you can help your child's immune system stay stronger and fight illnesses by ...

  4. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePlus

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  5. Instructional Systems: Which One?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, A. Maughan

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the mystical aura attached to the notion of a systems approach to instruction, briefly reviews some of the instructional systems which have been advanced, and suggests a method for successful implementation of the process. (LS)

  6. Central nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  7. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.

  8. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  9. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  10. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  11. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  12. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  13. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  14. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  16. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  17. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  18. Secondary power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

  19. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  20. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  1. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  2. Advanced dive monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Sternberger, W I; Goemmer, S A

    1999-01-01

    The US Navy supports deep diving operations with a variety of mixed-gas life support systems. A systems engineering study was conducted for the Naval Experimental Dive Unit (Panama City, FL) to develop a concept design for an advanced dive monitoring system. The monitoring system is intended primarily to enhance diver safety and secondarily to support diving medicine research. Distinct monitoring categories of diver physiology, life support system, and environment are integrated in the monitoring system. A system concept is proposed that accommodates real-time and quantitative measurements, noninvasive physiological monitoring, and a flexible and expandable implementation architecture. Human factors and ergonomic design considerations have been emphasized to assure that there is no impact on the diver's primary mission. The Navy has accepted the resultant system requirements and the basic design concept. A number of monitoring components have been implemented and successfully support deep diving operations.

  3. JT-60 Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekawa, I.; Kawamata, Y.; Totsuka, T.; Akasaka, H.; Sueoka, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T.

    2002-09-15

    The present status of the JT-60U control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system, and various modifications since the JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces initially, which have been replaced by versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of plasma discharges is executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. A real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60U experiments.

  4. Silver recovery system data

    SciTech Connect

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  5. Intensive care alarm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  6. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  7. Paradigms for Abstracting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Maria; Galvez, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of abstracting systems focuses on the paradigm concept and identifies and explains four paradigms: communicational, or information theory; physical, including information retrieval; cognitive, including information processing and artificial intelligence; and systemic, including quality management. Emphasizes multidimensionality and…

  8. Immune System and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  9. Biomedical recording system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1970-01-01

    System collects medical data directly from patients and permanently records and displays several parameters - electrocardiograph, electroencephalograph, heart rate, respiration rate, auscultatory blood pressure, leg circumference changes, body temperature, and time. Components and operation of the system are described.

  10. Henry Ford Health Systems

    Cancer.gov

    Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.

  11. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  12. Optical discriminator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robelen, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    System includes lightweight, inexpensive movie camera to record simultaneously views from three different angles on same filmstrip. This is noncritical system as it is adaptable to many applications requiring similar, but diverse, viewing areas.

  13. Validation of multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewiorek, D. P.; Segall, Z.; Kong, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments that can be used to validate fault free performance of multiprocessor systems in aerospace systems integrating flight controls and avionics are discussed. Engineering prototypes for two fault tolerant multiprocessors are tested.

  14. Land use change effects on trace gas fluxes in the forest margins of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Edzo; Purbopuspito, Joko; Corre, Marife D.; Brumme, Rainer; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Land use changes and land use intensification are considered important processes contributing to the increasing concentrations of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) and of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of ozone. Studies on the effects of land use changes and land use intensification on soil trace gas emissions were mostly conducted in Latin America and only very few in Asia. Here we present results from Central Sulawesi where profound changes in land use and cultivation practices take place: traditional agricultural practices like shifting cultivation and slash-and-burn agriculture are replaced by permanent cultivation systems and introduction of income-generating cash crops like cacao. Our results showed that N2O emissions were higher from cacao agroforestry (35 ± 10 μg N m-2 h-1) than maize (9 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1), whereas intermediate rates were observed from secondary forests (25 ± 11 μg N m-2 h-1). NO emissions did not differ among land use systems, ranging from 12 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1 for cacao agroforestry and secondary forest to 18 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1 for maize. CH4 uptake was higher for maize (-30 ± 4 μg C m-2 h-1) than cacao agroforestry (-18 ± 2 μg C m-2 h-1) and intermediate rates were measured from secondary forests (-25 ± 4 μg C m-2 h-1). Combining these data with results from other studies in this area, we present chronosequence effects of land use change on trace gas emissions from natural forest, through maize cultivation, to cacao agroforestry (with or without fertilizer). Compared to the original forests, this typical land use change in the study area clearly led to higher N2O emissions and lower CH4 uptake with age of cacao agroforestry systems. We conclude that this common land use sequence in the area combined with the increasing use of fertilizer will strongly increase soil trace gas emissions. We suggest that the future hot spot regions of high N2O (and to a lesser extend NO) emissions in the tropics are those

  15. Versados (operating system)

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Versados is a multitasking operation system designed to meet the requirements of the real-time, online control system environment as well as to support the multiuser software-hardware engineering effort required to develop microprocessor based systems. Versados serves as a major software building block for real-time applications which use the Motorola MC68000 microprocessor and Versamodule board products. It is a modular, multilayered operating system.

  16. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  17. Space shuttle revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air revitalization system is discussed. The sequential steps in loop closure are examined and a schematic outline of the regenerative air revitalization system is presented. Carbon dioxide reduction subsystem concepts are compared. Schemes are drawn for: static feedwater electrolysis cell, solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis cell, air revitalization system, nitrogen generation reactions, nitrogen subsystem staging, vapor compression distillation subsystem, thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation subsystem, catalytic distillation water reclamation subsystem, and space shuttle solid waste management system.

  18. Goddard Ground System Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center's work in providing the Ground System Infrastructure to allow for standard interfaces, and allow for a mix of heritage and new components. This software has been used by NASA and other Government users. Telemetry and command services are also provided as are mission planning and scheduling systems. Other areas that the presentation covers are work on trending systems, and data management system.

  19. Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.

  20. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.