Science.gov

Sample records for parotid gland surgery

  1. Treatment of complications of parotid gland surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marchese-Ragona, R; De Filippis, C; Marioni, G; Staffieri, A

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although several reports in the literature have documented the surgical technique, and the oncological outcome achieved with parotidectomy, only a few articles have described the complications of parotid gland surgery and their management. Several complications have been reported in parotid surgery. We re-classified the complications of parotidectomy in intra-operative and post-operative (early and late). The commonest complications after parotidectomy are temporary or permanent facial palsy and Frey’s syndrome. PMID:16450773

  2. An audit of surgery of the parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Deans, G. T.; Briggs, K.; Spence, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The management of patients undergoing 50 surgical procedures to the parotid gland was reviewed. The overall accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology was 87%, false-positive and false-negative rates for malignant disease both being 4%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of fine needle cytology for malignant parotid tumours was 66%, 95%, and 91%, respectively, that of benign tumours (pleomorphic adenoma or Warthin's tumour) being 88%, 83% and 87%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the remaining (principally inflammatory) parotid diseases was 100%, 95% and 96%, respectively. The predictive value of a positive test for malignant tumours, benign tumours and inflammatory conditions was 66%, 94% and 75%, respectively. The negative predictive value for these conditions was 95%, 71% and 100%, respectively. Facial nerve weakness after parotidectomy occurred in three patients (8.8%), being permanent in two cases (both malignant). Although Frey's syndrome was not recorded in any of the notes, careful follow-up revealed two cases (6%). To date there have been no local recurrences after excision of either benign or primary malignant parotid masses. One patient with squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the parotid gland died, despite block dissection of the neck and radiotherapy. This small series with a limited follow-up suggests that diseases of the parotid gland can be managed by general surgeons with an interest in this field. Although fine needle aspiration and ultrasonic scan may be helpful, the decision to operate should be made on clinical grounds. PMID:7598416

  3. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  4. Telocytes in parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Mihnea I; Bucur, Alexandru; Dinca, Octavian; Rusu, Mugurel C; Popescu, Laurentiu M

    2012-03-01

    The parotid histological structure includes acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells, surrounded by a connective stromal component. The parotid stroma is mostly regarded as an inert shell, consisting of septa, which divide the parenchyma. Telocytes were recently identified as a new stromal cell type in various organs, including exocrine pancreas. We aimed to evaluate telocytes presence in parotid stroma and whether their topographical features might support an involvement in parotid function modulation. Serial ultrathin sections of human and rat parotid glands were studied and compared by transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional concatenation of sequenced micrographs allowed the ultrastructural identification of parotid telocytes, with their specific long, thin, and moniliform prolongations (telopodes). Telocyte location appeared frequently as a strategic one, in close contact or vicinity of both secretory (acini and ducts) and regulatory (nerves and blood vessels) apparatuses. They were also found in the interacinar and the subductal stroma. Two previously reported telocyte markers (c-kit/CD117 and vimentin) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Actin expression was also evaluated. Telocytes are making a network, especially by branching of their long telopodes. Elements of this telocyte network are interacting with each other (homocellular connections) as well as with other cell types (heterocellular connections). These interactions are achieved either by direct contact (stromal synapse), or mediated via shed microvesicles/exosomes. Since telocyte connections include both neurovascular and exocrine elements (e.g., acini and ducts), it is attractive to think that telocytes might mediate and integrate neural and/or vascular input with parotid function.

  5. Parotid Gland Imaging.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ravi S

    2016-04-01

    In this article, various imaging modalities are discussed for evaluation of parotid disease, from congenital to inflammatory to neoplastic etiologies. Key imaging characteristics are outlined using case examples. Introduction to biological imaging is highlighted. Additionally, image-guided biopsy techniques are illustrated for sampling parotid and parapharyngeal space lesions in a minimally invasive manner.

  6. Correlation between cellular phone use and epithelial parotid gland malignancies.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y; Zhang, H Z; Bu, R F

    2011-09-01

    The authors investigated the association between cellular phone use and epithelial parotid gland malignancy. The subjects were 136 cases who were treated for this condition at the authors' hospital from January 1993 to March 2010, and 2051 controls who did not have salivary gland tumours and were admitted to the oral and maxillofacial surgery department during the same period. Logistic analysis was used to examine the relationship between cellular phone use and risk of epithelial parotid gland malignancy and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Overall, the frequency of cellular phone use was not significantly associated with epithelial parotid gland malignancy. Female gender, advanced age, married status, high income, and smoking were associated with an elevated risk of epithelial parotid gland malignancy, especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Residence in a rural area was associated with reduced risk of epithelial parotid gland malignancy. The results suggest a possible dose-response relationship of cellular phone use with epithelial parotid gland malignancy. The authors suggest that the association of cellular phone use and epithelial parotid gland malignancy and mucoepidermoid carcinoma requires further investigation with large prospective studies.

  7. Practical imaging of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Bag, Asim K; Curé, Joel K; Chapman, Philip R; Pettibon, Keith D; Gaddamanugu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    The parotid gland may be affected by numerous pathologies, and physicians from many different medical and surgical specialties request parotid imaging. Mastering the typical imaging features of various types of parotid pathology is facilitated by understanding how various diseases produce their characteristic imaging findings. In this review article, we present succinct overviews of the normal anatomy and the common pathologies of the parotid gland and recommend a practical approach to differential diagnosis that can be easily implemented in day-to-day radiology practice.

  8. [Distant metastases to the parotid gland--review of the literature and report of own two cases].

    PubMed

    Markowski, Jarosław; Gierek, Tatiana; Zielińska-Pajak, Ewa; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Wodołazski, Anatol; Pajak, Jacek; Paluch, Jarosław

    2005-01-01

    Metastatic tumors to the parotid gland are very uncommon and it accounts for 8% of all cancers of parotid gland. The parotid gland and its lymph nodes are possible sites of metastases from head and neck cancers. However, metastasis from distant primary neoplasm below clavicle is possible, too. The authors presented the two cases of distant metastases to the parotid gland. The women with breast cancer and metastases to the parotid gland 11 years after surgery, radio- and chemotherapy of breast cancer. She died 7 months after parotid surgery of systemically advanced disease. The man with metastasis of malignant melanoma of unknown primary site. He underwent total parotid surgery with the tumor and lymph nodes. He died 7 months after surgery. In spite of intensive exam the primary location of the melanoma was unknown. The authors described pathophysiology of distant metastases to the parotid gland with special attention to possibilities of treatment and survival.

  9. Medical Management for the Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection of the Parotid Gland: Avoiding Surgery May Be Possible

    PubMed Central

    Bouhabel, Sarah; Oughton, Matthew Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is uncommon in the head and neck; therefore there is no clear consensus on treating these infections. Our objective was to report our experience with a unique case of NTM infection of the parotid in an immunocompetent patient, in order to determine appropriate management through our experience with this pathology. A 57-year-old man, known for numerous comorbid diseases, presented to our institution complaining of right parotid swelling and pain. A computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed a multiloculated collection in the inferior portion of the right parotid gland, compatible with abscess formation. This abscess was drained by interventional radiology (IR) but required repeat drainage twice due to lack of initial improvement. He was treated with several antibiotics as culture results initially indicated Gram-positive bacilli and then Mycobacterium species, with final identification by a reference laboratory as Mycobacterium abscessus. Imipenem was initiated with amikacin and clarithromycin. His infection clinically and radiologically resolved after 5 months of antibiotherapy. In our case, the patient improved following intravenous antibiotic therapy. Our experience demonstrates that appropriate antibiotherapy can lead to resolution of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in the parotid without the risks associated with surgical intervention. PMID:27340407

  10. Infantile Hemangioendothelioma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chaubal, Rajas; Tavri, Om; Sawant, Atul; Singh, Chitrangada

    2017-01-01

    A 4-month-old infant presented with a painless swelling overlying the left angle of mandible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large lesion replacing the entire left parotid gland, with multiple enlarged vessels. Homogeneous enhancement of the lesion was seen on the postcontrast MRI scans. Based on the imaging features, a diagnosis of infantile hemangioendothelioma of the parotid gland was offered. This helped in avoiding any further invasive testing. PMID:28217408

  11. Transcutaneous approach for the removal of parotid gland stones.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Oh, Je-Seok; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones in the parotid gland can be treated with a wide range of methods. Stones close to the opening of the duct can be easily removed through the oral cavity, whereas the entire salivary gland may need to be removed if stones are located close to the parotid gland. In such cases, surgical removal of the parotid gland may be lengthy and may produce facial nerve injury. We report a simple extraoral approach used for the removal of parotid gland stones located close to the parotid gland by precisely identifying the location of stones in 2 patients with parotid sialolithiasis.

  12. US in preoperative evaluation of parotid gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gerwel, Agata; Kosik, Krzysztof; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for only 3% of all tumors of the head and neck area, but as they represent a wide variety of histological types, they are a big diagnostic challenge. The cornerstone of salivary gland neoplasm treatment, both for the benign and malignant lesions, is surgery. The main goal of the therapy is not only to achieve complete surgical tumor resection, but also to preserve adjacent structures (facial nerve, parapharyngeal space structures). Ultrasonography is an examination commonly used in the preoperative diagnosis of the lesions localized within salivary glands. Very often it is the only diagnostic imaging method used in these cases. The aim of the study was to establish diagnostic value of US examination and its parameters for the assessment of parotid gland tumors. A prospective study was performed on a group of 51 patients with parotid gland neoplasms, who over a period of 3 years underwent surgery in Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Department with Craniomaxillofacial Surgery Department of Central Clinical Hospital of Ministry of Defence in Warsaw. All the included patients underwent US examination in the preoperative period. The parameters selected for the assessment were: ill-defined tumor margins, tumor vascularity and the presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes. The results of imaging examination were compared to the final diagnosis based on pathological examination of the surgical specimen. The parameters of the US examination such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the evaluation of parotid gland tumors were established based on the examination results. An analysis was performed and ill-defined parotid tumor margins turned out to be a US parameter with higher diagnostic value for differentiating benign and malignant lesions than increased tumor vascularity. The presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes with blurred echostructure on the US examination

  13. Giant Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Rehman, Sajid; Misbah, Junaid

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare entity. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common amongst these, comprising 60 - 70% of all parotid tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas are benign and tend to increase in size slowly. Here we are presenting a case of giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid, being the largest in size to be excised in Pakistan in recorded literature measuring 24 x 22 x 12 cm and weighing 1.8 kgs. Superficial parotidectomy was done with an excellent cosmetic outcome.

  14. Cavernous hemangioma of the parotid gland in adults

    PubMed Central

    Peral-Cagigal, Beatriz; Madrigal-Rubiales, Beatriz; Verrier-Hernández, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas account for 0.4-0.6% of all tumors of the parotid gland and most of them occur in children, nevertheless in adults hemangiomas are very rare. We report the case of a 62 year old woman with a mass in the parotid right tail associated with fluctuating swelling episodes unrelated to meals and with a slowly progressive growth. The provisional diagnosis was a pleomorphic adenoma, so a right superficial parotidectomy was performed. During surgery, the macroscopic appearance makes suspect a vascular lesion. The histopathological result was a cavernous hemangioma. The classic clinical presentation of a parotid hemangioma is an intraglandular mass associated or not with skin lesions characterized by reddish macules and/or papules, and a vibration or pulsation when palpating the parotid region. In imaging tests, phleboliths could be observed which are very suggestive of a hemangioma or a vascular malformation. In the absence of these signs, the diagnosis could be difficult, particularly in an adult due to its low prevalence, with about 50 cases reported worldwide. However a hemangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors in adults. Key words:Cavernous hemangioma, parotid gland, superficial parotidectomy, pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25674332

  15. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques.

  16. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

    2012-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

  17. [Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands: diagnostic considerations].

    PubMed

    Bagán Sebastián, J V; Silvestre Donat, F J

    1990-09-01

    We present 3 cases of Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands, one male and two females, who presented associated systemic pathology (liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus), detected following clinically suspect syaloadenosis (the patients were unaware of their systemic disease). In all three cases definitive diagnosis was established by needle aspiration of the gland. Which revealed great acinar dilatation. Finally, differential diagnosis was established between sialoadenosis and those conditions with clinical presentations similar to those described for sialoadenosis.

  18. A rare case of parotid gland lipoma arising from the deep lobe of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Paparo, Francesco; Massarelli, Mauro; Giuliani, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are the most commonly encountered benign mesenchymal tumors, but their occurrence in the head and neck is rare, even more at the level of the parotid region where they can be found nearby the parotid capsule, inside the capsule, or within the gland. In addition, lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely unusual. That is why lipomas are not often considered for differential diagnosis of parotid lumps. Concerning diagnostic tools, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is nowadays considered as the main imaging examination for parotid lipomas due to a characteristic signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Furthermore, even if the cost of MRI is nearly three times that of computed tomography, MRI is accurate, safe, and has few biological costs for the patient. In this reported case, MRI provided all information for either diagnosis or preoperative planning being the best diagnostic tool regarding tumor margin characteristics and surrounding tissues’ involvement. Concerning treatment, surgical excision of parotid masses is always mandatory for definitive diagnosis, but it is challenging because of the facial nerve. For this reason, a well-established surgical technique is mandatory for success. The authors present a rare case of parotid gland lipoma arising from the deep lobe and discuss diagnostic tools and surgical technique.

  19. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the parotid gland: Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, KR Ashok; Mahadesh, Jyothi; Setty, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Dysgenetic polycystic disease (DPD) is a rare cystic lesion affecting mainly the parotid salivary glands with only 14 reported cases in English literature. DPD of parotids is more common in females, common in younger age group, mostly bilateral in occurrence and commonly affects the superficial lobe. Surgery is performed for symptomatic relief and cosmosis. We report a case of a unilateral DPD of the parotid gland with distinctive histopathology. Patient was treated by performing total parotidectomy with preservation of the facial nerve. PMID:24250087

  20. HIV-associated cystic lesions of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Noriko; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Hajime; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Iwao; Himi, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    We present two cases of an HIV-associated parotid gland cyst. One case was a 36-year-old HIV infected woman. She was diagnosed with HIV infection and presented with slowly enlarged parotid gland cysts together with elevation of HIV viral RNA copies/mL in her serum. She was performed parotid gland biopsy under the general anesthesia. The histopathologic analysis revealed negative HIV p24-antigen in her parotid gland tissue. The other case was a 43-year-old man found his parotid gland swelling shortly after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). He was diagnosed with HIV infection 2 years previously. He had started HAART several days before. He showed exceeding elevation of IgE in his serum. We treated him with medication using anti-histamic drugs for his cyst. A computed tomography scan revealed a complete response of his parotid gland cyst 4 weeks after the medication. His serum IgE level was decreased to half of the level before the medication. These findings suggested that the parotid gland swelling associated with HIV was due to various factors including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In case such a parotid gland swelling, we could avoid invasive treatments.

  1. [The hemodynamics of the parotid glands in children consuming carbohydrates].

    PubMed

    Sigal, Z M; Redinova, T L

    1989-01-01

    The rate of sweets consumption was shown to determine, to a large extent, the salivary glands function. In children rarely consuming sweets the parotid blood flow and salivation increased after intake of a 10% sucrose solution. In children abusing sweets even crystal sugar failed to change the parotid glands blood filling with salivation virtually unaltered.

  2. Correlations between the clinical, histological and neurophysiological examinations in patients before and after parotid gland tumor surgery: verification of facial nerve transmission.

    PubMed

    Wiertel-Krawczuk, Agnieszka; Huber, Juliusz; Wojtysiak, Magdalena; Golusiński, Wojciech; Pieńkowski, Piotr; Golusiński, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    Parotid gland tumor surgery sometimes leads to facial nerve paralysis. Malignant more than benign tumors determine nerve function preoperatively, while postoperative observations based on clinical, histological and neurophysiological studies have not been reported in detail. The aims of this pilot study were evaluation and correlations of histological properties of tumor (its size and location) and clinical and neurophysiological assessment of facial nerve function pre- and post-operatively (1 and 6 months). Comparative studies included 17 patients with benign (n = 13) and malignant (n = 4) tumors. Clinical assessment was based on House-Brackmann scale (H-B), neurophysiological diagnostics included facial electroneurography [ENG, compound muscle action potential (CMAP)], mimetic muscle electromyography (EMG) and blink-reflex examinations (BR). Mainly grade I of H-B was recorded both pre- (n = 13) and post-operatively (n = 12) in patients with small (1.5-2.4 cm) benign tumors located in superficial lobes. Patients with medium size (2.5-3.4 cm) malignant tumors in both lobes were scored at grade I (n = 2) and III (n = 2) pre- and mainly VI (n = 4) post-operatively. CMAP amplitudes after stimulation of mandibular marginal branch were reduced at about 25 % in patients with benign tumors after surgery. In the cases of malignant tumors CMAPs were not recorded following stimulation of any branch. A similar trend was found for BR results. H-B and ENG results revealed positive correlations between the type of tumor and surgery with facial nerve function. Neurophysiological studies detected clinically silent facial nerve neuropathy of mandibular marginal branch in postoperative period. Needle EMG, ENG and BR examinations allow for the evaluation of face muscles reinnervation and facial nerve regeneration.

  3. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of parotid gland in a child.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Huang, Xiaofeng; Tang, Enyi

    2009-02-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare tumor presenting predominantly in the parotid gland. Most sebaceous lymphadenomas are composed of variably sized sebaceous glands admixed with salivary ducts in a diffuse lymphoid background. The treatment is complete surgical excision, and this tumor is rarely recurrent. Reported here is a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma of the left parotid gland in a 16-year-old boy. A left superficial parotidectomy was performed.

  4. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Sánchez, Gracia M; Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J; Ruiz-Masera, Juan José; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco M; García de Marcos, José A; Calderón-Bohórquez, José M

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a term that refers to a reactive pseudoneoplastic disorder that can appear in different locations of the human body. The lung is the most frequently affected organ. The etiology is still unknown. It affects individuals of both sexes and of a wide range of ages. The diagnosis is still difficult and it is based on the histological examination of the lesions composed of four cell-types: histiocytes, myofibroblasts, plasma cells and lymphocytes. With regard to the treatment regimes there is no agreement. Treatment ranges from surgical excision to radiotherapy, chemotherapy or steroids. The purpose of this article is to report one case of inflammatory pseudotumor located in the parotid gland and to make a special point of the difficulty in arriving at a correct diagnosis in order to achieve the most adequate treatment.

  5. Solitary fibrous tumor of the parotid gland: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Alexandre A.; Souto, Giovanna R.; Sousa, Isabela A.; Mesquita, Ricardo A.; Gomez, Ricardo S.

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that usually develops in the pleura and peritoneum. The head and neck region is involved in only 6% of the cases. Involvement of the parotid gland is a rare phenomenon, with only 24 cases reported in the literature. The aim of this study is to report an additional case of SFT affecting the parotid gland, and to review the literature on previously reported cases. The patient was a 42-year-old male with a 4-cm, fibro-elastic, movable, painless nodule in the inferior lobe of the parotid gland. The lesion was surgically excised and, following histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, a diagnosis of SFT was rendered. The patient has been followed-up for ten months, with no signs of recurrence. Clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and treatment aspects of the tumor are discussed. Key words:Solitary fibrous tumor, parotid gland, case report. PMID:24455083

  6. [Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Guérin, Maxime; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Nallet, Emmanuel; Duflo, Suzy; Laé, Marick; Wassef, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the parotid gland is a rare and recently described lesion. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with a tumor of the parotid gland which was carried to the diagnosis of MASC. Diagnostic was confirmed by highlighting the ETV6-NTRK3 gene translocation. However, some morphologic and immunohistochemical features are suggestive of this entity. This carcinoma should be distinguished from its main differential diagnoses: acinic cell carcinoma and low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma.

  7. Remarkable Triple Pleomorphic Adenoma Affecting both Parotid and Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Arias-Gallo, L. J.; Demaría-Martínez, G.; Chamorro Pons, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the first case reported in the literature of metachronous pleomorphic adenoma of bilateral parotid glands and submaxillary gland. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old female with metachronous mixed tumors in her right parotid and submandibular glands. The patient has no history of previous radiotherapy. All three lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. The histopathologic evaluation of all three major salivary gland masses demonstrated pleomorphic adenomas, with no occult malignancy observed on serial sections. The presentation of pleomorphic adenomas in the parotids and submandibular glands probably represents three unrelated primary sites of tumor, yet the possibility of metastasis from one gland to the other cannot be excluded. PMID:26000084

  8. Helical Tomotherapy for Parotid Gland Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Kyu; Rosen, Isaac I.; Gibbons, John P.; Fields, Robert S.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate helical tomotherapy (HT) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as a postoperative treatment for parotid gland tumors. Methods and Materials: Helical tomotherapy plans were developed for 4 patients previously treated with segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC) IMRT. A primary planning target volume (PTV64) and two secondary PTVs (PTV60, PTV54) were defined. The clinical goals from the SMLC plans were applied as closely as possible to the HT planning. The SMLC plans included bolus, whereas HT plans did not. Results: In general, the HT plans showed better target coverage and target dose homogeneity. The minimum doses to the desired coverage volume were greater, on average, in the HT plans for all the targets. Minimum PTV doses were larger, on average, in the HT plans by 4.6 Gy (p = 0.03), 4.8 Gy (p = 0.06), and 4.9 Gy (p = 0.06) for PTV64, PTV60, and PTV54, respectively. Maximum PTV doses were smaller, on average, by 2.9 Gy (p = 0.23), 3.2 Gy (p = 0.02), and 3.6 Gy (p = 0.03) for PTV64, PTV60, and PTV54, respectively. Average dose homogeneity index was statistically smaller in the HT plans, and conformity index was larger for PTV64 in 3 patients. Tumor control probabilities were higher for 3 of the 4 patients. Sparing of normal structures was comparable for the two techniques. There were no significant differences between the normal tissue complication probabilities for the HT and SMLC plans. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy treatment plans were comparable to or slightly better than SMLC plans. Helical tomotherapy is an effective alternative to SMLC IMRT for treatment of parotid tumors.

  9. Poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from adenolymphoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Peri, Andrea; Braidotti, Paola; Cioffi, Ugo; Scaramellini, Gabriele; Ciulla, Michele M; De Simone, Matilde; Arizzi, Carmelo; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Background There is only one previous case report of a poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from an adenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumour). The absence of clinical symptoms, and the aspecificity of the radiological pattern make the diagnosis very difficult. Case presentation We here report the case of a 73-year-old man with Warthin's tumour who was brought to our attention because of a swelling in the parotid region. Conclusions In this case with an atypical clinical presentation, the intra-operative examination of a frozen section of the parotid mass allowed us to diagnose the malignant tumour correctly and consequently undertake its radical excision. PMID:12533195

  10. Oncocytoma of the Deep Lobe of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Popovski, Vladimir; Benedetti, Alberto; Monevska, Danica Popovik; Grcev, Aleksandar; Serafimovski, Predrag; Pecanovski, Ruse; Stamatoski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oncocytoma or oxyphilic adenoma is uncommon salivary gland tumour, occurs predominantly in the in patients older than 60 years of age. Clinically oncocytoma resemble other salivary tumours while histology is typically consisting of oncocytes with many hyperplastic mitochondria. It usually occurs in the parotid gland. Because the features of oncocytoma are similar to those of other benign and low-grade malignant salivary tumours, clinical diagnosis is often challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: This report presents the pathologic and imaging findings of an oncocytoma arising in the deep lobe of the right parotid gland in a 74-year-old male. Oncocytoma was diagnosed on the basis of histological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphic findings and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). CONCLUSION: This case was unique because in the literature there are few articles about the rare presentation and deep lobe location of this type of parotid oncocytoma. PMID:27335603

  11. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Diwakar; Vats, Manu; Akhtar, Azaz; Pathania, Om Prakash

    2015-06-16

    Lipomatous neoplasms of the parotid gland are rare tumours contributing from 0.6% to 4.4% to all parotid neoplasms with most series reporting an incidence of 1%. It is extremely rare in females, being 10 times more common in males, and the most common age of presentation is the five to sixth decade. Numerous histological variants of salivary gland lipoma have been described. Sialolipoma is a rare variant having proliferation of mature adipocytes with secondary entrapment of the normal salivary gland element. We report a rare case of sialolipoma in the right parotid of a 45-year-old woman who was treated with superficial parotidectomy. Postoperative recovery as well as follow-up has been uneventful.

  12. Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Job, Anjana Juanita; Manipadam, Marie Therese

    2016-06-01

    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland, characterized by noticeable cystic and solid areas with papillary endophytic projections. These tumours lack features that characterize cystic variants of several more common salivary gland carcinomas. It was first described in 1991 by World Health Organization as a separate entity and cystadenocarcinoma with or without papillary component in the AFIP classification. Most of these tumours occurred in the major salivary glands followed by minor salivary glands. Cystadenocarcinoma is the malignant counterpart of cystadenoma. We report a case of papillary cystadenocarcinoma of parotid. A 40-year-old lady presented with gradually progressive swelling below the right ear associated with occasional pain. Clinical and radiological features suggested benign neoplasm. Right lobe superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary cystadenocarinoma of the parotid gland. Histologic confirmation of stromal invasion is required to differentiate it from the benign lesion. Conservative wide local surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

  13. Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Job, Anjana Juanita; Manipadam, Marie Therese

    2016-01-01

    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland, characterized by noticeable cystic and solid areas with papillary endophytic projections. These tumours lack features that characterize cystic variants of several more common salivary gland carcinomas. It was first described in 1991 by World Health Organization as a separate entity and cystadenocarcinoma with or without papillary component in the AFIP classification. Most of these tumours occurred in the major salivary glands followed by minor salivary glands. Cystadenocarcinoma is the malignant counterpart of cystadenoma. We report a case of papillary cystadenocarcinoma of parotid. A 40-year-old lady presented with gradually progressive swelling below the right ear associated with occasional pain. Clinical and radiological features suggested benign neoplasm. Right lobe superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary cystadenocarinoma of the parotid gland. Histologic confirmation of stromal invasion is required to differentiate it from the benign lesion. Conservative wide local surgical excision is the treatment of choice. PMID:27504297

  14. [A bilateral epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Tauziède-Espariat, Arnault; Raffoul, Johnny; Sun, Shan Rong; Monnin, Christine; Lassabe, Catherine; Costes, Valérie

    2015-12-01

    We report the case of a 52-year-old man, who was admitted in the department of otorhinolaryngology for a mass of the right parotid gland. The radiological and clinical hypothesis was a squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological examination revealed a biphasic proliferation composed of epithelial cells arranged in a tubular pattern stained with cytokeratins 5-6 and 7 and EMA surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells stained with smooth muscle actin and p63. Ki-67 labeling index was low. The diagnosis of epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma was proposed. One year after, the patient noticed a centimetric mass of the left parotid gland. The radiological hypothesis was the presence of an intraparotidian lymph node. Histopathological examination showed a second epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma. This is an uncommon neoplasm comprising approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumours, affecting mainly the parotid gland. It is occurring preferably in patients older than 60years old. This is a low-grade malignant tumour with tendency to local recurrence and lymph node metastatic potential. We describe an exceptional bilateral epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland.

  15. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD{sub 50} (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD{sub 50}. Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  16. [2 cases of adenolymphoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Andreini, A; Avogadro, M; Trassini, R

    1979-01-01

    Starting from two cases of adenolymphoma of the parotid gland they had under observation, the Authors underline their doubts regarding the histogenesis, discuss the clinical approach and show their attitude towards the therapy. It consists of an enucleation or nucleoresection of the tumour in case only the superficial part of the gland is affected; a total parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation and without any radiotherapy, in case of a radical operation; with complementary radiotherapy if the operation has not been radical for certain.

  17. Human Parotid Gland Alpha-Amylase Secretion as a Function of Chronic Hyperbaric Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    parotid ...Pullman, WA 99163 Gilman, S. C, G. J. Fischer, R. J. Biersner, R. D. Thornton, and D. A. Miller. 1979. Human parotid gland alpha-amylase secretion...as a function of chronic hyperbaric exposure. Undersea Biomed. Res. 6(3):303-307.—Secretion of a-amylase by the human parotid gland increased

  18. Metachronous bilateral pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sindeval José da; Costa Junior, Gabriel Tadeu; Brant Filho, Adalberto Caldeira; Faria, Paulo Rogério; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2006-03-01

    Bilateral salivary gland tumors are very rare, accounting for 3% of all parotid gland tumors. Although the most common tumor with bilateral development is the Warthin tumor, pleomorphic adenomas (PA) have been diagnosed simultaneously as well, but in a smaller incidence. Because of this, the prevalence, etiology, pathogenesis, and behavior of the PA in this context are poorly understood. We present a case of bilateral metachronous PA affecting the parotid gland in a 63-year-old woman. Clinically, the lesions presented with similar aspects as seen in cases of solitary PA with slow-growing asymptomatic nodule. Both lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy at an interval of 2 years between them. A total and superficial parotidectomy for left and right tumors, respectively, was performed. Only on the left side some facial nerve branches were removed that induced partial paralysis in the patient. A review of the pertinent literature is included.

  19. A comparison of mean parotid gland dose with measures of parotid gland function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Implications for future trials

    SciTech Connect

    Roesink, Judith M. . E-mail: J.M.Roesink@azu.nl; Schipper, Maria; Busschers, Wim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the most adequate parameter to measure the consequences of reducing the parotid gland dose. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with radiotherapy for various malignancies of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated using three methods. Parotid gland function was objectively determined by measuring stimulated parotid flow using Lashley cups and scintigraphy. To assess xerostomia-related quality of life, the head-and-neck cancer module European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ (Quality of Life Questionnaire) H and N35 was used. Measurements took place before radiotherapy and 6 weeks and 12 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Complication was defined for each method using cutoff values. The correlation between these complications and the mean parotid gland dose was investigated to find the best measure for parotid gland function. Results: For both flow and scintigraphy data, the best definition for objective parotid gland toxicity seemed to be reduction of stimulated parotid flow to {<=}25% of the preradiotherapy flow. Of all the subjective variables, only the single item dry mouth 6 weeks after radiotherapy was found to be significant. The best correlation with the mean parotid gland dose was found for the stimulated flow measurements. The predictive ability was the highest for the time point 1 year after radiotherapy. Subjective findings did not correlate with the mean parotid dose. Conclusions: Stimulated flow measurements using Lashley cups, with a complication defined as flow {<=}25% of the preradiotherapy output, correlated best with the mean parotid gland dose. When reduction of the mean dose to the parotid gland is intended, the stimulated flow measurement is the best method for evaluating parotid gland function.

  20. Sonoelastography – A Useful Adjunct for Parotid Gland Ultrasound Assessment in Patients Suffering from Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Kałużny, Jarosław; Ruchała, Marek; Stajgis, Marek; Kopeć, Tomasz; Szyfter, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Background Shear wave elastography (SWE) is widely used in breast, liver, prostate and thyroid evaluations. Elastography provides additional information if used to assess parotid gland pathology. We assessed parotid glands by means of SWE to compare the parenchyma properties in different types of inflammation. Material/Methods Prospective analysis included 78 consecutive patients with parotid gland pathology: sialolithiasis (33), Stensen’s duct stenosis (15), chronic inflammation (10), and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) (20) treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of PUMS. The primary predictor variable was type of parotid pathology, and secondary predictor variables were patient age and the duration and intensity of complaints. Ultrasound pictures were compared with elastography values of parotid parenchyma. Results Mean elasticity values for pSS (111 Kilopascals (kPa), Stensen’s duct stenosis (63 kPa), sialolithiasis (82 kPa), and chronic inflammation (77 kPa) were significantly higher than the mean value for healthy patients (24 kPa). Elasticity increased proportionally to the intensity of complaints: mild (51 kPa), moderate (78 kPa), and strong (90 kPa). Increased elasticity did not correspond with ultrasonographic pictures. In pSS the parenchyma was almost twice as stiff as in chronic inflammation (p=0.02), although subjective complaints were mostly mild or moderate, and the ultrasonographic picture did not present features of fibrosis. Conclusions Sonoelastography, by improving routine ultrasonographic assessment, might be a useful tool for parotid evaluations during the course of chronic inflammation. An extraordinarily high degree of stiffness was revealed in pSS despite lack of fibrosis by ultrasonography and moderate subjective complaints, suggesting that sonoelastography could be a valuable diagnostic tool. PMID:25398237

  1. Simple tool for prediction of parotid gland sparing in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gensheimer, Michael F.; Hummel-Kramer, Sharon M.; Cain, David; Quang, Tony S.

    2015-10-01

    Sparing one or both parotid glands is a key goal when planning head and neck cancer radiation treatment. If the planning target volume (PTV) overlaps one or both parotid glands substantially, it may not be possible to achieve adequate gland sparing. This finding results in physicians revising their PTV contours after an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan has been run and reduces workflow efficiency. We devised a simple formula for predicting mean parotid gland dose from the overlap of the parotid gland and isotropically expanded PTV contours. We tested the tool using 44 patients from 2 institutions and found agreement between predicted and actual parotid gland doses (mean absolute error = 5.3 Gy). This simple method could increase treatment planning efficiency by improving the chance that the first plan presented to the physician will have optimal parotid gland sparing.

  2. [Sialadenosis of the parotid gland after chronic nicotine use].

    PubMed

    Maier, H; Mall, G; Born, I A

    1991-04-01

    The effect of chronic nicotine consumption on the morphology of the rat parotid gland was investigated. After nicotine-loading for 90 days with an average serum nicotine concentration of 78 +/- 10 ng/ml a significant increase of acinar cell volume was observed. The acinar cells contained an increased number of enlarged light, immature secretory granules. These findings were confirmed by morphometric analysis. Further an increase of the granular endoplasmatic reticulum, an enlargement of the Golgi complexes and an oedematous swelling of intraglandular autonomous nerves were found. Similar findings have been observed in the parotid gland of animals and also of humans chronically treated with the beta-adrenergic drugs aludrin and isoproterenol, and have been termed "sialadenosis". It seems likely that the observed morphological alterations are caused by a stimulation of glandular beta-adrenoceptors via a nicotine-induced release of catecholamines from the adrenals.

  3. Parotid gland solitary fibrous tumor with mandibular bone destruction and aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    González-Otero, Teresa; Castro-Calvo, Alejandro; Ruiz-Bravo, Elena; Burgueño, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumor is associated with serosal surfaces. Location in the salivary glands is extremely unusual. Extrathoracic tumors have an excellent prognosis associated with their benign clinical behavior. We report an aggressive and recurrent case of this tumor. We review the clinical presentation, inmunohistochemical profiles and therapeutic approaches. Case Report: A 73-years-old woman presented a mass in her right parotid gland. She had a past history of right superficial parotidectomy due to a neurilemoma. FNAB and magnetic resonance were non-specific. After a tumor resection, microscopic findings were spindled tumor cells with reactivity to CD34, bcl-2 and CD99 and the tumor was diagnosed as Solitary Fibrous Tumor. The patient suffered two recurrences and the tumor had a histological aggressive behavior and a destruction of the cortical bone of the mandible adjacent to the mass. A marginal mandibulectomy with an alveolar inferior nerve lateralization was performed. Conclusions: Solitary fibrous tumor is a very rare tumor. Usually, they are benign, but occasionally they can be aggressive. Complete resection is the most important prognostic factor and no evidence supports the efficacy of any therapy different to surgery. Due to the unknown prognosis and to the small number of cases reported, a long-term follow-up is guaranteed. Key words:Solitary fibrous tumor, parotid mass, parotid gland, salivary gland, rare tumors. PMID:25136435

  4. In vivo biocompatibility of the PLGA microparticles in parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Cantín, Mario; Miranda, Patricio; Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela; Arenas, Patricia; Velásquez, Luis; Vilos, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are used in various disorders for the controlled or sustained release of drugs, with the management of salivary gland pathologies possible using this technology. There is no record of the response to such microparticles in the glandular parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to assess the morphological changes in the parotid gland when injected with a single dose of PLGA microparticles. We used 12 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were injected into their right parotid gland with sterile vehicle solution (G1, n=4), 0.5 mg PLGA microparticles (G2, n=4), and 0.75 mg PLGA microparticles (G3, n=4); the microparticles were dissolved in a sterile vehicle solution. The intercalar and striated ducts lumen, the thickness of the acini and the histology aspect in terms of the parenchyma organization, cell morphology of acini and duct system, the presence of polymeric residues, and inflammatory response were determined at 14 days post-injection. The administration of the compound in a single dose modified some of the morphometric parameters of parenchyma (intercalar duct lumen and thickness of the glandular acini) but did not induce tissue inflammatory response, despite the visible presence of polymer waste. This suggests that PLGA microparticles are biocompatible with the parotid tissue, making it possible to use intraglandular controlled drug administration. PMID:24228103

  5. Unusual Foreign Body of Parotid Gland Presenting as Sialolithiasis: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sreetharan, Sivapatha Sundaram; Philip, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    This case report highlights an unusual case where a foreign body in the parotid gland was initially thought to be sialolithiasis based on CT scans. The foreign body was safely retrieved from the parotid gland without formal superficial parotidectomy using methylene blue and an image intensifier to localize the lesion. Diagnosis and management of foreign bodies in the parotid gland are reviewed, and surgical options in removal of such lesions are discussed. PMID:23320231

  6. Minimally-invasive surgery in the management of symptomatic parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Samani, Meera; Hills, Alexander James; Holden, Adam Matthew; Man, Chang-Bon; McGurk, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, large, symptomatic, parotid stones that were refractory to conservative treatment were usually managed by parotidectomy, with the attendant risk to the facial nerve. Microendoscopes have transformed the management of such stones. For large stones that are not amenable to retrieval with a basket the endoscope provides a new dimension to operative surgery. It can guide the surgeon on to the duct and stone without the need to remove the parotid gland. In 2005-2014, 111 consecutive patients underwent endoscopically-assisted operations for the removal of 132 parotid stones at Guy's Hospital. Removal was successful in all but three cases. Long-term follow up (mean (SD) 44 (30) months) was obtained by postal or online survey and telephone, and 92 patients (83%) said that they had no symptoms. Further endoscope-assisted surgery was required in four cases, with preservation of the gland in all patients. Sialocoeles developed postoperatively in 15% (n=17). Transient facial nerve weakness occurred in 4 cases (4%), and there was no case of permanent deficit. Endoscopically-assisted retrieval of parotid stones is a technique to preserve the gland that adds to the current minimally-invasive options for management of parotid calculi.

  7. Predicting facial nerve invasion by parotid gland carcinoma and outcome of facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Preis, M; Soudry, E; Bachar, G; Shufel, H; Feinmesser, R; Shpitzer, T

    2010-01-01

    We sought to define risk factors for facial nerve involvement in parotid gland carcinoma and assess the outcome of facial nerve reanimation. Medical records were reviewed of 66 patients who underwent surgery for parotid carcinoma in 2000–2007 at a tertiary hospital. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between patients with and without facial nerve involvement and were analyzed on their influence on functional outcome following reanimation. Facial nerve involvement was verified intraoperatively in 24 patients, of whom 16 underwent reanimation during ablative surgery. Deep lobe invasion was significantly associated with intraoperative finding of facial nerve involvement. Tumors larger than 4 cm and salivary duct carcinoma had an obvious trend for facial nerve involvement. House-Brackmann score at 12 months was 3-4 in most patients. Deep lobe involvement and large tumor size may identify patients at risk of facial nerve involvement. Reanimation is associated with good functional outcome regardless of patient's age.

  8. Histological reclassification of parotid gland carcinomas: importance for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Stodulski, Dominik; Majewska, Hanna; Skálová, Alena; Mikaszewski, Bogusław; Biernat, Wojciech; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2016-11-01

    Reassessment of histological specimens of salivary gland carcinomas is associated with a change of primary diagnosis in a significant number of patients. The authors evaluated the relation between reclassification/verification of histological diagnosis and the clinical course of parotid gland carcinomas. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations of 111 specimens of parotid gland carcinomas operated on during the years 1992-2010 were revised and in some cases supplemented with cytogenetic tests (FISH), to verify the diagnosis and potentially reclassify the tumours. Analysis of the clinical documentation and follow-up data of patients whose diagnosis was changed was then carried out. The prognostic factors taken into account in the evaluation of the clinical course included the T and N stage, the tumour grade and the extent of resection. The primary diagnosis was changed on review in 28 patients (25.2 %). In 16 patients, the change involved a different histological type of cancer. In six cases, what was thought to be a primary salivary gland cancer was reclassified as a secondary tumour. In four other cases, the change was made from a malignant to a benign tumour and in one case to a non-neoplastic lesion (necrotizing sialometaplasia). Additionally, in two patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, the malignant component was found to be of in situ type. A potentially atypical clinical course was observed in 4 out of 28 patients whose diagnosis was changed. In the case of 2 patients, the course of disease was more aggressive (dissemination, death) than predicted and less aggressive in rest of the patients. Histological reclassification/verification of parotid gland carcinomas can explain the cause of an atypical clinical course in some patients and sometimes enables doctors to implement a change in therapy.

  9. An unusual case of spleen metastasis from carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luigi; Giordani, Erika; Fontana, Antonella; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Bagni, Oreste; Filippi, Luca; Bianchi, Loredana; Rinaldi, Giulia; Congedi, Francesca Perrone; Papa, Anselmo; Caruso, Davide; Verrico, Monica; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Tomao, Silverio

    2014-01-23

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is a rare tumor arising from the salivary glands that spreads through direct extension, through the lymphatic vessels, and, rarely, hematogenously. When distant metastases have been found, they have been reported mainly in the lung. We present an unusual case of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland with splenic metastases. The patient presented with a primary carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland and he underwent a total parotidectomy with laterocervical lymphadenectomy ipsilateral and adjuvant radiation therapy to the right parotid area. One year later, the patient showed an ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node recurrence, treated with surgery and radiation therapy. Two more years later, the patient developed lung and splenic lesions, detected through CT and PET. He underwent splenectomy and pathologic assessment of the specimen showed metastatic carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. To our knowledge, there is no reported case of a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma metastasizing to the spleen. Patients treated for carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma should be investigated for distant metastases with a long-term follow-up examination for local and distant metastases and new splenic lesions in these patients should be investigated.

  10. Carcinosarcoma of parotid gland (malignant mixed tumor).

    PubMed

    Feng, Duan; Fidele, Nyimi Bushabu; Agustin, Mansthumba Milolo; Jian, Guan; Bourleyi, Sekele Isouradi; Augustin, Lamwe; Olivier, Ngueji Kakubu

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm; with a poor prognosis. The most common epithelial components are adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the most common mesenchymal components are chondrosarcoma. It should not be confused with the most common carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, in which the epithelial component alone is malignant. This condition might exhibit with a wide variety of presentation and symptoms along with associated conditions. We present a case of an old patient who presented with a very unusual type clinically with confusing presentation which was eventually diagnosed as carsinosarcoma. In addition, the literature is reviewed, and the possible clinical signs and management of malignant mixed tumor of the salivary gland are briefly discussed.

  11. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association.

  12. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  13. Simultaneous Bilateral Hypertrophies of the Parotid Gland and Masseter Muscle: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Rohan; Mandel, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Increased salivary demand can lead to enlarged parotid salivary glands, and increased activity of the masseter muscles can cause masseter hypertrophy. This report describes a most unusual case of simultaneous bilateral hypertrophies of the parotid gland and masseter muscle originating from the very extensive habit of chewing gum. An extensive literature review uncovered many cases of the independent existence of masseteric or parotid hypertrophy, but no example of the simultaneous occurrence of these 2 conditions.

  14. Use of semiconducting laser in drug-induced chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna

    1997-10-01

    A case of chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands in a patient as a results of complication induced by the drug Ospolot in the treatment of epilepsy was presented. Apart from conventional methods a semiconducting laser was used. The laser beam had beneficial effect on elimination of pain and increase in the parotid gland secretion activity.

  15. Skull Base Involvement by Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Joseph T.; Carlson, Matthew L.; Link, Michael J.; Moore, Eric J.; Neff, Brian A.; Driscoll, Colin L.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Describe the clinical course and outcomes of patients with primary acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland with skull base invasion or metastasis. Design Retrospective case series (1995–2011) at a single institution. Results Ten patients met study criteria. Mean and median time from initial diagnosis of parotid ACC to development of skull base disease were 14.6 and 10.2 years, respectively. Two patients demonstrated skull base disease on initial presentation. Those who pursued further treatment after developing disease at the skull base underwent surgery (4/7), stereotactic radiosurgery (4/7), or external beam radiation (3/7). The 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimated overall survival after initial diagnosis of parotid ACC was 80%. Once skull base invasion occurred, 2-year estimated overall survival was 50%. Conclusion Although primary ACC of the parotid generally caries an excellent prognosis, tumor control with cranial base disease is difficult and the majority of patients present with late aggressive recurrences. Our observations underscore the importance of long-term follow-up in this patient group. PMID:24294553

  16. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the parotid gland: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Casas, Pablo; Bernáldez, Ricardo; Patrón, Mercedes; López-Ferrer, Pilar; García-Cabezas, Miguel A

    2005-03-01

    A 74-year-old male presented with a large polinodular mass in the neck. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed an undifferentiated large cell carcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large parotid mass with multiple satelite nodules. The remaining radiological studies were normal. Radical parotidectomy was performed. The tumor was a large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine features and positive immunostain for neuroendocrine markers. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy and was free of tumor eight months later. Only four cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the salivary gland have been communicated. All of them have involved the parotid gland. This tumor presents in elderly patients as a large infiltrating parotid mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology serves to recognize the carcinoma, but it fails in recognizing the neuroendocrine features of the tumor. The histopathological features of this tumor are the same as in other organs. Chromogranin and synaptophysin are useful immunohistochemical markers. A primary location of the tumor in another organ, specially the lung, should be ruled out. Surgery is the main treatment modality and can be complemented with postoperative radiotherapy. The prognosis seems to be poor. More studies are needed to better define the therapeutical alternatives and prognostic factors of these rare tumors.

  17. Local Rhomboid Flap Reconstruction for Skin Defects After Excising Large Parotid Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hung, Min-Hui; Liao, Chun-Ta; Kang, Chung-Jan; Huang, Shiang-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Most parotid tumors grow slowly, and sometimes these patients do not request surgical treatment until the tumors become large and affect their appearance. The surgical treatment of these large tumors is usually accompanied by large skin defects after excision, and it is challenging for surgeons to close the defect primarily. This report describes the case of a 68-year-old man with a left parotid gland tumor (largest dimension, 110 mm) and the case of a 79-year-old man with a left parotid gland tumor measuring approximately 77 mm that had existed for decades. These patients underwent facial nerve dissection and parotidectomy with skin sacrifice. The large skin defects after the parotidectomy were successfully reconstructed with local rhomboid flaps. No facial palsy, wound disruption, flap edge loss, or major complications occurred after the surgeries. Except for the scars, the color of the cheek flap was not apparent from the periphery. In conclusion, local rhomboid flap reconstruction is a rapid and practical technique for reconstructing medium to large skin defects in the cheek and upper neck regions after tumor excisions. The flap was reliable in blood supply and cosmetic outcome.

  18. Preservation of Facial Nerve With Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Recurrent Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shufang; Ma, Hailong; He, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands harbors the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion because of the translocation t (12; 15) (p13; q25) and resembles breast secretory carcinoma. This tumor composed of papillary, cystic, solid, and cribriform patterns. Immunohistochemically, the tumors are positive for mammaglobin, CK7, CK8, STAT5a, vimentin, and S100. In this report, the authors presented a patient of recurrent parotid gland mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman. The patient received extended parotidectomy with partial adhesive masseter surgery. The facial nerve was preserved during the surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy was performed postoperation. The patient did not suffer local recurrence and facial paralysis in the 18 months follow-up period.

  19. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  20. Bath and Shower Effects in the Rat Parotid Gland Explain Increased Relative Risk of Parotid Gland Dysfunction After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Luijk, Peter van Faber, Hette; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid glands of Wistar rats was performed using 150-MeV protons. To determine suitable (i.e., subtolerance) dose levels for a bath-dose, both whole parotid glands were irradiated with 5 to 25 Gy. Subsequently groups of Wistar rats received 30 Gy to the caudal 50% (shower) and 0 to 10 Gy to the cranial 50% (bath) of both parotid glands. Stimulated saliva flow rate (function) was measured before and up to 240 days after irradiation. Results: Irradiation of both glands up to a dose of 10 Gy did not result in late loss of function and is thus regarded subtolerance. Addition of a dose bath of 1 to 10 Gy to a high-dose in the caudal 50% of the glands resulted in enhanced function loss. Conclusion: Similar to the spinal cord, the parotid gland demonstrates a bath and shower effect, which may explain the less-than-expected sparing of function after IMRT.

  1. Step-by-step protocol to perfuse and dissect the mouse parotid gland and isolation of high-quality RNA from murine and human parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Watermann, Christoph; Valerius, Klaus Peter; Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline; Karnati, Srikanth

    2016-04-01

    Macroscopic identification and surgical removal of the mouse parotid gland is demanding because of its anatomic location and size. Moreover, the mouse parotid gland contains high concentrations of RNases, making it difficult to isolate high-quality RNA. So far, appropriate methods for optimal perfusion-fixation and dissection of mouse parotid glands, as well as the isolation of high quality RNA from this tissue, are not available. Here we present a simple, optimized, step-by-step surgical method to perfuse and isolate murine parotid glands. We also compared two common RNA extraction methods (RNeasy Mini Kit versus TRIzol) for their yields of high-quality, intact RNA from human and murine parotid gland tissues that were either snap-frozen or immersed in RNAlater stabilization solution. Mouse parotid tissue that was perfused and immersed in RNAlater and human samples immersed in RNAlater exhibited the best RNA quality, independent of the isolation method.

  2. Effects of shock waves on oxidative stress in parotid gland of rat.

    PubMed

    Garca, M Fatih; Kavak, Servet; Gecit, Ilhan; Meral, Ismail; Demir, Halit; Turan, Mahfuz; Çeğin, Bilal; Bektas, Hava; Çankaya, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) exposure to parotid gland produces an oxidative stress in parotid glands of rats. Twelve male Wistar-albino rats, 6 months of age with an average body weight of 250-300 g, were divided randomly into two groups, each consisting of six rats. The animals in the first group did not receive any treatment and served as control. The left parotid glands of animals in group 2 (ESWL treated) received a thousand 18 kV shock waves after anesthetizing the rats with 50 mg/kg of ketamine. The animals in both groups were killed 72 hours after the ESWL treatment, and the parotid glands were harvested for the determination of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH-Px and catalase (CAT). It was found that MDA level increased in parotid glands of rats after the ESWL treatment. The SOD, GSH-Px and CAT enzyme activities, and the level of antioxidant GSH decreased in parotid gland of rats after the ESWL treatment. It was concluded that short-term ESWL treatment caused an increase in the free radical production and a decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activity in parotid glands of ESWL-treated rats.

  3. An intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors using Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bing; Wen, Zhining; Li, Yi; Li, Longjiang; Xue, Lili

    2014-11-01

    The preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors is difficult, but is important for their surgical management. In order to explore an intraoperative diagnostic method, Raman spectroscopy is applied to detect the normal parotid gland and tumors, including pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin’s tumor and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In the 600-1800 cm-1 region of the Raman shift, there are numerous spectral differences between the parotid gland and tumors. Compared with Raman spectra of the normal parotid gland, the Raman spectra of parotid tumors show an increase of the peaks assigned to nucleic acids and proteins, but a decrease of the peaks related to lipids. Spectral differences also exist between the spectra of parotid tumors. Based on these differences, a remarkable classification and diagnosis of the parotid gland and tumors are carried out by support vector machine (SVM), with high accuracy (96.7~100%), sensitivity (93.3~100%) and specificity (96.7~100%). Raman spectroscopy combined with SVM has a great potential to aid the intraoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors and could provide an accurate and rapid diagnostic approach.

  4. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts of parotid and submandibular glands in a HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Shankarnarayan, Lata; Jambunath, Usha; Basavaraju, Sowbhagya Malligere

    2015-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been reported to have parotid swellings of various types such as diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, parotitis, intraparotid lymphadenopathy, benign lymphoepithelial cyst (BLEC), as well as salivary gland neoplasms such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. LECs in the parotid gland are uncommon benign entities with increased incidence associated with HIV infection. We are presenting a case of 28-year-old HIV-positive patient with BLECs in the parotid and submandibular glands. PMID:26097320

  5. New models of experimental parotitis and parotid gland distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A significant reduction of the escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the lateral facial skin was observed bilaterally at days 2 and 3 after unilateral complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) administration into parotid gland. A slight reduction of mechanical escape threshold was also observed in rats with saline administration. The parotid gland inflammation was verified and quantified by measuring the tissue Evans' blue dye extravasation. The Evans' blue concentration in the parotid gland tissues was significantly greater in the CFA-injected rats than that of the saline-injected rats at 72 h after treatment. On day 10 after CFA administration into the parotid gland, the Evans' blue concentration was recovered to the control level. The administration of capsaicin into the parotid gland did not alter neuronal activities in the transition zone between the trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis (Vi/Vc). In contrast, capsaicin administration induced significant increases in the receptive field size and mechanical and cold responses of neurons located in superficial laminae of the C1/C2. The subgroup of C1/C2 neurons responded to mechanical distension of the parotid gland, whereas no Vi/Vc neurons responded to parotid distension.

  6. [Sialadenosis of the parotid gland. Ultrastructural, clinical and experimental findings in disturbances of secretion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Donath, K

    1976-01-01

    Among the secretory disturbances ("Dyschylien") of salivary glands the sialadenosis of the parotid gland is a clinic and a morphologic definited entity. The typical clinical symptom is a bilateral, often recurrent, and painless swelling of the parotid gland. The characteristic pathological findings consist in an acinar cell hypertrophy without any inflammatory signs. According to this definition, sialadenosis has to be separated from those diseases of salivary glands, which are primarily altered by inflammation of the salivary tissue with secondary secretory disturbances. From flinical point of view it is possible to distinguish the following kinds of sialadenosis according to the syntropy with various diseases: Endocrine sialadenosis (in diabetes mellitus, dysfunction of gonads, pituitary gland, thyroid gland etc.); dystrophic-metabolic sialadenosis (malnutrition, avitaminosis, alcohilsm, chronic liver diseases etc.), and neurogenic sialadenosis (dysfunction of the vegetative nervous system, drug damages e.g. antihypertensive agents). The question arises, whether all forms of sialadenosis have a common etiology and a coincidental pathogenic factor. The following studies were carried out with the aim to find further details concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of sialadenosis. The study is based on the following material: a) 126 Biopsies of parotid glands from patients with sialadenosis (Register of salivary gland diseases at the Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg, supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). This material was collected from 1965 to 1973. b) 80 Biopsies of parotid glands from patients with other diseases (parotitis [4]; acinic cell carcinoma [4]; other parotid and oral tumors [72]; for comparison. c) Experimental studies on the parotid salivary glands of Wistar-rats. The biopsies of the parotid glands were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally. The investigations centered on the ultrastruct of sialadenosis

  7. Congenital Unilateral Agenesis of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Teymoortash, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital unilateral agenesis of the parotid gland is a rare condition with only few cases reported in the literature. A review of 21 cases in the available literature is presented in this article. We report on a further case of a 34-year-old woman with agenesis of the left parotid gland and lipoma of the right cheek. Clinicopathological characteristics of described cases in the literature were discussed. PMID:27895943

  8. Sialendoscopy and sialendoscopically-assisted operations in the treatment of lithiasis of the submandibular and parotid glands: our experience of 239 cases.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Tomasz; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Kałużny, Jarosław; Młodkowska, Anna; Szyfter, Witold

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of treatment of sialolithiasis of the submandibular and parotid glands using sialendoscopy and sialendoscopy-assisted surgery. Between 2009-2013, 397 consecutive patients (mean (range) age 48 (18-76) years) were treated for obstructive diseases of the major salivary glands (sialolithiasis n=239, 175 submandibular and 64 parotid). In a total of 175 patients with 191 stones in the submandibular gland treated by endoscopic retrieval or surgical release, 149 patients (85%) were rendered free of stones (by sialendoscopy alone n=82, and sialendoscopy with operation n=67) Twenty patients (11%) had residual stones and 6 patients (4%) required excisionof the gland. Sixty-four patients had 71 stones removed from the parotid gland by endoscopic retrieval or surgical release and 43 (67%) were free of stones (by sialendoscopy alone n=25, and sialendoscopy with operation n=18). Twenty patients (31%) had residual stones and one (2%) required removal of the gland. In the group of patients whose stones were removed endoscopically, the effectiveness of sialendoscopy was 87% and 85%, respectively. We confirm that sialendoscopy and sialendoscopy-assisted removal is the current treatment of choice for stones in the submandibular and parotid glands. The indications for excision of the gland are becoming less common as first-line treatment, although it is still indispensable in some cases.

  9. EFFECT OF IRRADIATION ON MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS OF PAROTID GLANDS IN THE MINIATURE PIG

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junji; Yan, Xing; Gao, Runtao; Mao, Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng, Changyu; Zhang, Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg2+-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage. PMID:20832188

  10. Effect of Irradiation on Microvascular Endothelial Cells of Parotid Glands in the Miniature Pig

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Junji; Yan Xing; Gao Runtao; Mao Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng Changyu; Zhang Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials: A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg{sup 2+}-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results: Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions: Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage.

  11. Adaptive parotid gland hypertrophy induced by dietary treatment of GSE in rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Matsuo, Saori; Tamura, Kei; Takahashi, Miwa; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-08-01

    In a 13-week feeding toxicity study of grape skin extract (GSE) performed previously, 5.0% GSE showed diffuse hypertrophy and basophilia in rat parotid glands. To clarify whether the change in the parotid glands was an adverse effect of GSE, 6-week-old male F344 rats were fed a diet containing 5.0% GSE or were administered a dose corresponding to the dietary concentration via gavage for 4 weeks, and the treatment was stopped for 2 weeks. To ascertain the effect of astringency, other animals were fed a diet containing 5.0% tannic acid (TA) using the same protocol as the GSE feed group. Control groups were fed a basal diet or were administered sterilized distilled water by gavage. In the GSE and TA feed groups, diffuse severe hypertrophy and basophilia in the parotid glandular epithelial cells were observed. Macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics consistent with cellular hypertrophy was less apparent after the recovery period in both feed groups. In contrast, no changes were observed in the parotid glands of the gavage GSE and control groups at week 4. Based on these findings of parotid hypertrophy without cytotoxicity, the data from this and previous studies suggest that hypertrophy of the parotid glands induced by feeding treatment with GSE is an adaptive non-adverse effect that is reversible upon removal of the sialotrophic agent.

  12. A fibrous histiocytoma of intermediate malignancy arisen from the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Khalkhali, Kazem; Azizi, Mohammad-Reza; Atighechi, Saeid

    2007-01-01

    The light microscopic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a case of fibrous histiocytoma of intermediate malignancy arising from the parotid gland are presented. This neoplasm is rare in this site and must be distinguished from other spindle cell tumors of the parotid gland, particularly those of epithelial and myoepithelial origins. Histologic characteristics similar to those displayed by dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans help to differentiate this tumor from other spindle cell tumors. The absence of cytochemical epithelial markers is useful for establishing the diagnosis. This tumor appears to have arisen from mesenchymal elements within the gland.

  13. Function of parotid gland following irradiation and its relation to biological parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Takeda, M.

    1980-09-01

    The function of the parotid gland in the mouse (synthesis and secretion of ..cap alpha..-amylase) following X irradiation was analyzed in relation to the parameters of surviving acinar cell fraction, DNA or protein content, and wet weight of the gland. Both synthesis and secretion of amylase in parotid were essentially unchanged when mice were irradiated with a dose of up to 3000 rad. When mice were irradiated and then given a proliferative stimulus of isoproterenol, latent lethal damage in the acinar cell population was expressed and resulted in cell degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. The mean value of amylase activity per gland in similarly treated parotids was, however, totally unaffected. The relationship between amylase activity per gland and the other biological parameters was analyzed by regression analysis. The results indicate that amylase activity per surviving acinar cell increased proportionately to compensate for the loss of acinar cells.

  14. Volume effects and region-dependent radiosensitivity of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Cotteleer, Femmy; Faber, Hette; Luijk, Peter van; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Rob P.

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To detect volume effects and possible regional differences in radiosensitivity of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Parotid glands of male albino Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated, with collimators with conformal radiation portals used to supply 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was used to provide the outlines of the parotid glands. Single doses of up to 40 Gy were applied, and the effects on saliva secretion, measured with the aid of miniaturized Lashley cups, were followed up to 365 days after the irradiation. Results: Under conditions of equal mean absorbed doses and small variations in dose distribution, a pertinent volume effect was observed for late but not for early radiation damage. The late effects were different for the cranial part as compared with the caudal part of the parotid gland. The reduction in flow rate was much more severe after irradiation in the cranial part. After a single dose of 30 Gy, the reductions in flow rates were approximately 65% and 25% for the cranial and caudal parts, respectively. At that dose, no saliva flow was observed after irradiation of 100% of the gland. Conclusion: From the rat model studies presented, it is concluded that late radiation damage after partial irradiation of parotid glands shows region-dependent volume effects. This finding is expected to be relevant to the radiosensitivity of human salivary glands, and it implies that the predictive power of the mean dose concept in radiotherapeutic practice is limited. The finding of region-dependent late radiation damage also challenges the basic assumptions of most current normal tissue complication probability models for parotid gland function.

  15. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  16. Actual Dose Variation of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Han Chunhui Chen Yijen; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer, accurate dose delivery is crucial to the success of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of daily image-guided patient setup corrections and to quantify the parotid gland volume and dose variations for nasopharyngeal cancer patients using helical tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Five nasopharyngeal cancer patients who underwent helical tomotherapy were selected retrospectively. Each patient had received 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Daily megavoltage CT scans were registered with the planning CT images to correct the patient setup errors. Contours of the spinal cord and parotid glands were drawn on the megavoltage CT images at fixed treatment intervals. The actual doses delivered to the critical structures were calculated using the helical tomotherapy Planned Adaptive application. Results: The maximal dose to the spinal cord showed a significant increase and greater variation without daily setup corrections. The significant decrease in the parotid gland volume led to a greater median dose in the later phase of treatment. The average parotid gland volume had decreased from 20.5 to 13.2 cm{sup 3} by the end of treatment. On average, the median dose to the parotid glands was 83 cGy and 145 cGy for the first and the last treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusions: Daily image-guided setup corrections can eliminate significant dose variations to critical structures. Constant monitoring of patient anatomic changes and selective replanning should be used during radiotherapy to avoid critical structure complications.

  17. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  18. Giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: an unusual case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, A; Pizzigallo, A; Giorgini, F; Marchetti, C

    2015-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of all salivary gland tumours. Although uncommon, cases of giant pleomorphic adenomas have been described in the medical literature, the majority involving the parotid gland. This paper describes an unusual case of a giant adenoma arising in the parotid gland. The patient underwent surgical resection of the giant tumour, which was one of the largest pleomorphic adenoma reported in recent literature. This case has prompted us to evaluate the behaviour of those benign tumours, which suggested that aesthetic and social morbidity is sufficient to justify, when possible, early tumour excision, despite the relatively low risk of malignant transformation. Management of this unusual tumour is discussed, and the literature on giant parotid tumours is reviewed.

  19. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult. PMID:23798840

  20. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  1. Functional studies of the parotid and pancreas glands in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Charchaflie, R J; Bustos Fernandez, L; Perec, C J; Gonzalez, E; Marzi, A

    1974-07-01

    Functional studies of the pancreas and parotid glands are reported in 17 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exocrine function of the pancreas was studied by measuring amylase concentration after stimulation with the endogenous secretin-pancreozymine test (ESP). Under these conditions, the pancreatic amylase concentration in ALS patients was found to be markedly decreased by about 45% when compared with those of healthy control subjects. Different conclusions in the literature about a possible impairment of the exocrine pancreas in ALS patients induced us to study the function of the parotid gland, which has close structural, functional, and physiopathological relationship with the pancreas. Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of parotid saliva were measured after indirect stimulation (intraoral citric acid) and direct stimulation (pilocarpine). After indirect stimulation, both parotid flow rate and bicarbonate concentration from ALS patients were found to be decreased by about 66% and 70% respectively, when compared with controls. On the other hand, direct stimulation with pilocarpine in ALS patients elicited normal responses in both flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of saliva. It is concluded that the pancreatic and parotid deficiencies observed in ALS patients do not indicate primary disease of these exocrine glands. This interpretation is further emphasized by the results obtained by a sweat test, plasma osmolarity, and sialographic studies. The possibility that the gland impairments observed might be due to modifications of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating their secretory activity is suggested.

  2. Effect of low-level laser therapy on irradiated parotid glands--study in mice.

    PubMed

    Acauan, Monique Dossena; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutziling; Braga-Filho, Aroldo; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiotherapy-induced morphological changes and caspase-3 immunodetection in parotids of mice. Forty-one Swiss mice were divided into control, radiotherapy, 2- and 4-J laser groups. The experimental groups were exposed to ionizing radiation in a single session of 10 Gy. In the laser groups, a GaAlAs laser (830 nm, 100 mW, 0.028  cm2, 3.57  W/cm2) was used on the region corresponding to the parotid glands, with 2-J energy (20 s, 71  J/cm2) or 4 J (40 s, 135  J/cm2) per point. LLLT was performed immediately before and 24 h after radiotherapy. One point was applied in each parotid gland. The animals were euthanized 48 h or 7 days after radiotherapy and parotid glands were dissected for morphological analysis and immunodetection of caspase-3. There was no significant difference between groups in the immunodetection of caspase-3, but the laser groups had a lower percentage compared to the radiotherapy group. LLLT promoted the preservation of acinar structure, reduced the occurrence of vacuolation, and stimulated parotid gland vascularization. Of the two LLLT protocols, the one using 4 J of energy showed better results.

  3. Functional studies of the parotid and pancreas glands in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Charchaflie, R. J.; Fernandez, L. Bustos; Perec, C. J.; Gonzalez, E.; Marzi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Functional studies of the pancreas and parotid glands are reported in 17 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exocrine function of the pancreas was studied by measuring amylase concentration after stimulation with the endogenous secretin-pancreozymine test (ESP). Under these conditions, the pancreatic amylase concentration in ALS patients was found to be markedly decreased by about 45% when compared with those of healthy control subjects. Different conclusions in the literature about a possible impairment of the exocrine pancreas in ALS patients induced us to study the function of the parotid gland, which has close structural, functional, and physiopathological relationship with the pancreas. Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of parotid saliva were measured after indirect stimulation (intraoral citric acid) and direct stimulation (pilocarpine). After indirect stimulation, both parotid flow rate and bicarbonate concentration from ALS patients were found to be decreased by about 66% and 70% respectively, when compared with controls. On the other hand, direct stimulation with pilocarpine in ALS patients elicited normal responses in both flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of saliva. It is concluded that the pancreatic and parotid deficiencies observed in ALS patients do not indicate primary disease of these exocrine glands. This interpretation is further emphasized by the results obtained by a sweat test, plasma osmolarity, and sialographic studies. The possibility that the gland impairments observed might be due to modifications of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating their secretory activity is suggested. PMID:4852110

  4. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  5. Relapsed Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland With Diffuse Distant Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Khelfa, Yousef; Mansour, Munthir; Abdel-Aziz, Yousef; Raufi, Ali; Denning, Krista; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon salivary gland neoplasm that generally displays an indolent growth pattern. Most cases arise in the major glands, particularly the parotid. However, it can arise from minor salivary glands in the oral cavity and aero-digestive tract. Although ACC is generally a low-grade malignant tumor, poorly differentiated and high-grade transformed variants exhibit a propensity for late recurrence and metastasis. There are no adequate clinical trials that define the optimal approach to patients with metastatic salivary gland tumors due to its rarity. Systemic therapy is reserved for cases where local therapy, such as radiation or metastasectomy, is not appropriate. Nevertheless, there is insufficient data in the literature regarding the chemotherapy of choice for metastatic ACC. In this article, we report a case of metastatic ACC of the right parotid gland that progressed on carboplatin and paclitaxel after partial response followed by doxorubicin and is currently on checkpoint inhibitor treatment. PMID:27847831

  6. Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: The Combined Michigan and Utrecht Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, Tim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Houweling, Anette C.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze the combined and updated results from the University of Michigan and University Medical Center Utrecht on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the parotid gland 1 year after radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck (HN) cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 222 prospectively analyzed patients with various HN malignancies were treated with conventional and intensity-modulated RT. Stimulated individual parotid gland flow rates were measured before RT and 1 year after RT using Lashley cups at both centers. A flow ratio <25% of pretreatment was defined as a complication. The data were fitted to the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Results: A total of 384 parotid glands (Michigan: 157; Utrecht: 227 glands) was available for analysis 1 year after RT. Combined NTCP analysis based on mean dose resulted in a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to 50% complication probability) of 39.9 Gy and m (steepness of the curve) of 0.40. The resulting NTCP curve had good qualitative agreement with the combined clinical data. Mean doses of 25-30 Gy were associated with 17-26% NTCP. Conclusions: A definite NTCP curve for parotid gland function 1 year after RT is presented, based on mean dose. No threshold dose was observed, and TD{sub 50} was equal to 40 Gy.

  7. [Two cases of anesthesia mumps in the upper parotid gland after general anesthesia in the lateral position].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yushi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Itagaki, Taiga; Obata, Yukako; Doi, Matsuyuki; Sato, Shigehito

    2008-09-01

    We describe two cases of acute transient swelling of the upper side of parotid glands of the patients after general anesthesia in the lateral position. The serum amylase levels in the patients were not increased and the enlargement of the parotid gland was diagnosed as anesthesia mumps. Previous reports suggested that mechanical compression might produce the swelling of the secreting organ, but our patients showed temporal parotid enlargement in the upper free side. Although, pre-medication with atropine might become a cause of parotid gland swelling, we anesthetized these patients without anti-cholinergic drugs. Procedures of oro-tracheal intubation and stimuli of endotracheal tube may induce impairment of the normal flow of saliva and lead to enlargement of the parotid gland.

  8. Parotid Gland Sparing With Helical Tomotherapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Voordeckers, Mia; Farrag, Ashraf; Everaert, Hendrik; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the ability of helical tomotherapy to spare the function of the parotid glands in patients with head-and-neck cancer by analyzing dose-volume histograms, salivary gland scintigraphy, and quality of life assessment. Methods and Materials: Data from 76 consecutive patients treated with helical tomotherapy (Hi-Art Tomotherapy) at University Hospital Brussel were analyzed. During planning, priority was given to planning target volume (PTV) coverage: {>=}95% of the dose must be delivered to {>=}95% of the PTV. Elective nodal regions received 54 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). A dose of 70.5 Gy (2.35 Gy/fraction) was prescribed to the primary tumor and pathologic lymph nodes (simultaneous integrated boost scheme). Objective scoring of salivary excretion was performed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Subjective scoring of salivary gland function was evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaires Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (QLQ-C30) and Quality of Life Questionnaire-Head and Neck 35 (H and N35). Results: Analysis of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) showed excellent coverage of the PTV. The volume of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (V95%) was 99.4 (range, 96.3-99.9). DVH analysis of parotid gland showed a median value of the mean parotid dose of 32.1 Gy (range, 17.5-70.3 Gy). The median parotid volume receiving a dose <26 Gy was 51.2%. Quality of life evaluation demonstrated an initial deterioration of almost all scales and items in QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35. Most items improved in time, and some reached baseline values 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: DVH analysis, scintigraphic evaluation of parotid function, and quality of life assessment of our patient group showed that helical tomotherapy makes it possible to preserve parotid gland function without compromising disease control. We recommend mean parotid doses of <34 Gy and doses <26 Gy to a maximum 47% of the parotid

  9. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-08-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse.

  10. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:3170770

  11. Radioprotective effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone on parotid glands in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanqing; Chen, Ning; Miao, Dengshun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) serve a radioprotective role in parotid gland damage induced by total body irradiation (TBI) in C57BL/6J mice. A total of 15 female 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into three treatment groups: i) Untreated control (no irradiation); ii) 4 gray (Gy) X-ray irradiation; iii) 4 Gy X-ray irradiation with additional dietary PQQ (4 mg PQQ/kg in normal diet). Each group included five mice. After 4 weeks, all animals were collected for evaluating the phenotype, body weight, pathological and biochemical parameters. The results indicated that PQQ had biological effects on total body phenotype. PQQ could partially rescue TBI-induced damage to parotid glands. In addition, PQQ served radioprotective effects on parotid glands via multiple mechanisms, such as promoting proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis and senescence, upregulating antioxidant ability, scavenging reactive oxygen species and reducing DNA damage. The results of the present study demonstrate that PQQ serves a radioprotective role in parotid gland damage induced by TBI, possibly via inhibiting oxidative stress and participating in DNA damage repair. The study provides experimental and theoretical knowledge for the development of radioprotective clinical drugs. PMID:28105098

  12. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

  13. A comparative study of salivary secretion by parotid and mandibular glands of anaesthetized Capra hircus: effect of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Moreno, M; Raggi, L A; Martinez de Victoria, E; Mataix, F J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of basal secretion and the effect of the infusion of pilocarpine on the flow and composition of saliva in the parotid and mandibular glands of the anaesthetized lactating goat. In the parotid gland there was a basal flow (1.6 +/- 0.29 microliter/min) which was not present in the mandibular gland. There is a statistically significant dose-effect relationship between pilocarpine and salivary flow in both glands. Salival composition and its variation with respect to the flow of saliva did not conform to either of the two glands to an exclusive monogastric or ruminant model.

  14. Ultrastructural studies of the parotid glands in sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Donath, K; Seifert, G

    1975-01-01

    30 parotid biopsies of patients with sialadenosis--a symmetrical, painless, non-inflammatory, recurrent parotid swelling--were studied by electron microscopy. The patients suffered from different diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, hypertension and other affections. Parotid biopsies from 25 patients with slight parotitis or with oral cancer were used as controls. Morphometric studies reveal that the parotid swelling is caused by an enlargement of acinar cells. In controls the average diameters of the acinar cells are 30 to 40 mu. In sialadenosis the diameters are enlarged to 50 to 70 mu, in some cases to a maximum of 100 mu. Histologically the cytoplasm of the enlarged acinar cells shows either a granular pattern due to a numerical increase in secretory granules or a vacuolar transformation. Ultrastructurally the vacuolar transformed acinar cells also contain an increased number of granules with less electron density than the surrounding cytoplasm. Three types of sialadenosis can be distinguished with regard to the electron density of the acinar granules: a) a dark granular type, b) a pale granular type and c) a mixed granular type. The mixed granular type probably develops from the dark granular form. Alterations leading to the destruction of the myoepithelial cells were observed in all three types of sialadenosis with minimal changes in the dark granular type. Degenerative alterations of the autonomic nervous system are evident in all three groups with most pronounced changes in the pale granular type of sialadenosis. The ultrastructural alterations are interpreted as a disturbance of secretion, probably primarily caused by the degeneration of the autonomic nervous system. The alteration of the autonomic nervous system is suggested to be the common pathogenetic principle in all types of human sialadenosis occurring with different basic diseases. The enlargement of the acinar cells is the result of an intracellular disturbance in the secretory

  15. Large lipid-rich mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid gland: An unusual case.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prashant; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Singh, Shuchita; Kinra, Prateek; Ray, Ruma; Thakar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland is a malignant tumor which bears morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features similar to those of mammary secretory carcinoma. The tumor is considered as a low-grade malignancy perhaps slightly more aggressive than acinic cell carcinoma. High-grade transformation with recurrences, regional nodal involvement, metastases, and cancer-related death has been reported in a few cases. We report an unusual case of large MASC of the parotid gland in a young patient without regional lymph node involvement. To the best of our knowledge till date such a large MASC of the salivary gland has not been reported in the English literature.

  16. The accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis of parotid gland masses: a clinicopathological study of 114 patients

    PubMed Central

    GUDMUNDSSON, Jens Kristjan; AJAN, Aida; ABTAHI, Jahan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a valuable method for preoperative assessment of head and neck tumors. However, its accuracy in detection of salivary gland masses is controversial compared with other methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses. Material and Methods Over a 10-year period, 126 parotid gland masses were resected. Retrospective chart reviews of 114 patients were performed. The results of FNAC and final histological diagnosis were compared and the accuracy of FNAC was determined. Results Final histological evaluation revealed 11 malignant tumors and 103 benign lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (63%), followed by Warthin’s tumor (17.5%). The sensitivity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumors was 73% and the specificity was 97%. Positive predictive value (PPV) was 73% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. The overall accuracy of FNAC in detecting parotid masses was 95%. False-negative diagnosis was found in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma whereas there was false-positive diagnosis in cases of pleomorphic adenoma and normal parotid gland tissue. Conclusion FNAC is a reliable minimally invasive diagnostic method with a high sensitivity in diagnosis of lesions in parotid glands. The sensitivity of detection of malignant tumors in parotid glands was low due to the biopsy technique used, and depended on tumor location. Postoperative complications decreased after superficial parotidectomy. PMID:28076460

  17. Radioprotective effect of amifostine on parotid gland functioning is region dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To investigation the protective ability of amifostine during partial irradiation of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Single-dose X-ray irradiation was performed by use of collimators with conformal radiation portals for either the 100% volume (15 Gy) or the 50% cranial/caudal partial parotid gland volumes (30 Gy). Amifostine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 250 mg per kg body weight, 25 minutes before irradiation. Saliva flow rates, gland weights, and the tissues of the individual lobes were investigated up to 1 year after treatment. Results: A clear protective effect of amifostine was found against loss of saliva flow, the altered appearance of gross morphology, loss of gland weight, and histopathologic changes for the 100% volume gland irradiations and for the 50% volume cranial irradiations but not for the 50% volume caudal irradiations. Conclusions: The protective ability of amifostine is strongly dependent on the irradiated glandular region and observed for later damage only. The major effect of the drug seems to be the prevention of volume effects caused by secondary damage that occurs in shielded parts of the gland. The results of the present study show that understanding of the anatomy and physiology of organs that are to be spared is necessary to ensure optimal preservation of function.

  18. Fine structure of the parotid gland in tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Mifune, H; Nishida, T; Obara, T; Kamimura, R; Sakamoto, H; Mohammad Abdul, A; Nishinakagawa, H

    1995-10-01

    The parotid glands of Tupaia glis were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The acinar cells were seromucous in nature, and contained many acidophilic granules with strong affinity for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and weak affinity for alcian blue (AB). These granules consisted of a fine granular matrix of moderate density in which a denser corpuscles or semilunar materials were present. Intercalated duct cells had a few fine vesicles, vacuoles and very few dense granules in the apical region. In occasional epithelial cells, acidophilic, PAS-positive and AB-negative bodies with moderate density were observed in the supranuclear region. The striated ducts consisted of columnar light and dark cells containing round or small ovoid granules of moderate density and did not show the granular duct as seen in the parotid glands of kobe mole and tenrec which are placed in the order insectivora.

  19. Traumatic diseases of parotid gland and sequalae. Review of literature and case reports.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, B O

    2009-06-01

    Parotid gland injuries are accompanied by a large number of sequelae. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of thorough management of these parotid glandinjuries especially at initial presentation in order to minimize the complications that accompany these injuries. A review of the aetiology and management of the existing cases of parotid gland injuries obtained from published journals and internet search as well as a report of two cases managed in our centre is presented in this paper. A total of about 70 cases in the previous literatures were reviewed of which assault was responsible for almost 90% of the cases. Sialoceles and fistulae were the main sequelae of these injuries. More than half of the cases (54%) were managed by conservative methods. Surgical drainage was done in about 44% cases; where the Stenson's ducts were accessible, primary repair was done. Excision of the gland was done in very few cases. The two cases managed in our centre were due to assault from broken bottles and road traffic accident respectively and both were managed by conservative methods. The first patient was a case of sialocele following the injury, which resolved within 3 weeks after the cyst formation with reduction in food intake, aspirations and external surgical drainage; while the second patient was a case of persistent fistula which healed after about 5 weeks following the trauma. Follow-up of both patients for about 3 months revealed no further leakage or accumulation of saliva. Management of these injuries involves a thorough understanding of the structure and function of the parotid gland and closely related tissues.

  20. Effect of fractionated radiotherapy on the parotid gland: an experimental study in Brazilian minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Stramandinoli-Zanicotti, Roberta Targa; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Torres, Maria Fernanda; Funchal, Melissa; Smaniotto, Gustavo Henrique; Dissenha, José Luis; Carvalho, Andre Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Radiotherapy (RT) of head and neck neoplasms often damages the salivary glands. Aim: To examine the pattern of morphologic changes resulting from RT of the head and neck region in minipig parotid glands in a clinical and experimental research setting. Methods: Twelve 18-month-old male Brazilian minipigs weighing 30–40 kg were selected. Eight minipigs were assigned to the experimental group (group 1) and 4 to the control group (group 2). The RT was performed under general anesthesia at Erasto Gaertner Hospital, Curitiba, Brazil, using an á/â ratio of 2.5. The minipigs from group 1 underwent 3 sessions of irradiation with Cobalt 60 of the head and neck, bilaterally, with 3 exposures of 8 Gy each at 7-day intervals for a total dose of 24 Gy. The animals were sacrificed 12 weeks post-RT. Results: The irradiated parotid glands displayed reductions in the size and number of acini as well as loss of secretory granules. The presence of fibrosis and loss of parenchyma relative to non-irradiated glands were observed, with an average reduction in volume of 54%. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that this model for parotid gland damage resulting from an RT regimen appears to be useful for preclinical large animal studies of RT-induced damage and testing novel potential treatment options. Although recent advances in radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, have reduced the dose and limited the field of radiation, considerable salivary gland injury still occurs and can greatly impact the patient's quality of life after cancer treatment. PMID:25992008

  1. [Possible relation between viruses and oromaxillofacial tumors. V. Demonstration of hemagglutination-inhibiting anti-BK virus antibodies in patients with tumors of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Stoian, M; Zaharia, O; Suru, M; Constantinescu, E; Goldstein, I; Nastac, E

    1987-01-01

    Anti-BK-virus hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies were revealed in 81.8% of the patients with parotid gland tumors. Results of the investigations conducted on oromaxillofacial tumors including the parotid gland ones are discussed from the point of view of the presence of viral antigens (herpes-, SV40 and BK-viruses) and of specific antibodies. Possible implication of the papova viruses in the etiopathogenesis of the parotid gland tumors in humans are also discussed.

  2. Sialadenosis of the parotid gland: report of four cases diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, V; Albedi, F M; De Blasiis, R; Nardi, F

    1993-01-01

    Four patients presented with a history of recurrent bilateral swellings of parotid glands. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens showed highly cellular smears containing clusters of enlarged acini and numerous naked nuclei. A diagnosis consistent with sialadenosis was made considering the distinct morphologic appearance: micrometric measurements in all cases, in addition to histology and electron microscopy in two cases confirmed this hypothesis. A review of clinical histories revealed hormonal, nutritional and neurogenic disorders, which are known to be associated with sialadenosis. In the work-up of salivary gland swellings, it is important to recognize cytologically this underestimated entity, which does not necessarily require surgical treatment.

  3. Dopamine actions in vitro on enzyme and electrolyte secretion from normal and sympathectomized rat parotid glands.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, A; Henriksson, R; Sundström, S; Wester, P

    1988-01-01

    1. Adult rats were denervated unilaterally by removal of the left superior cervical ganglion or chemically denervated with 6-hydroxydopamine or reserpine. Two weeks later the parotid glands were used for in vitro secretory studies and their catecholamines and major metabolites were measured. 2. Noradrenaline concentrations were reduced 2 weeks after surgical sympathectomy and reserpine pre-treatment 18 h previously, whereas 6-hydroxydopamine pre-treatment for 3 days reduced both noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations. 3. Dopamine caused a prominent amylase release from incubated control glands. However, a subsensitivity for dopamine-induced amylase release was recorded on the denervated side. 4. Dopamine caused a prominent potassium efflux measured as 86Rb+ efflux from control glands, but was without effect in denervated glands. This is in contrast to noradrenaline-induced 86Rb+ efflux which was equally effective in both denervated and control glands. 5. Dopamine caused [3H]noradrenaline efflux in control glands, but was without effect in surgically denervated glands and in glands pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine. 6. It is concluded that dopamine-induced potassium release is caused by a presynaptic action on noradrenergic nerves, whereas dopamine-induced amylase release has a presynaptic and a postsynaptic component. The results suggest a specific action of dopamine in salivary glands, with different effects on enzyme release and ionic fluxes. PMID:2473198

  4. [A case of gigantic pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Namysłowski, G; Misiołek, M; Kubik, P; Misiołek, H; Morawski, K

    1996-01-01

    The case of big size pleomorphic adenoma of the partoid gland was presented. Attention was paid on the necessity of the surgical treatment of pleomorphic adenomas by superficial or total parotidectomies. Possibility of the post operative complications avoidance, even in such big cases was emphasized.

  5. [Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, rules for resection].

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Mischa; Smeele, Ludi E; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-01-01

    The importance of complete excision of a benign pleomorphic adenoma is illustrated by two patients' histories. A 28-year-old man underwent a local excision of a nodule under the left ear without histological confirmation. Ten years later he returned to our institute with a large multilocular process and subcutaneous nodules. Cytology showed pleomorphic adenoma. Patient was treated with total facial nerve preserving parotidectomy and radiotherapy. An 81-year-old male underwent a surgical removal of a swelling under his left ear eight years before admission for a large diffusely infiltrating tumor in the neck. Repeated cytology showed carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. This tumor was inoperable and he was treated by palliative irradiation. In case of incomplete resection, pleomorphic adenoma cells are spilled with an increasing chance of local recurrence. Also degeneration into carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is possible after incomplete resection, with impact on survival. These risks of residual disease determine the need of centralization of diagnosis and treatment of this benign parotid tumor.

  6. Multi-atlas-based Segmentation of the Parotid Glands of MR Images in Patients Following Head-and-neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guanghui; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Xu, Zhijian; Zhao, Hongfu; Wang, Yuefeng; Liu, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth), resulting from radiation damage to the parotid glands, is one of the most common and distressing side effects of head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. Recent MRI studies have demonstrated that the volume reduction of parotid glands is an important indicator for radiation damage and xerostomia. In the clinic, parotid-volume evaluation is exclusively based on physicians’ manual contours. However, manual contouring is time-consuming and prone to inter-observer and intra-observer variability. Here, we report a fully automated multi-atlas-based registration method for parotid-gland delineation in 3D head-and-neck MR images. The multi-atlas segmentation utilizes a hybrid deformable image registration to map the target subject to multiple patients’ images, applies the transformation to the corresponding segmented parotid glands, and subsequently uses the multiple patient-specific pairs (head-and-neck MR image and transformed parotid-gland mask) to train support vector machine (SVM) to reach consensus to segment the parotid gland of the target subject. This segmentation algorithm was tested with head-and-neck MRIs of 5 patients following radiotherapy for the nasopharyngeal cancer. The average parotid-gland volume overlapped 85% between the automatic segmentations and the physicians’ manual contours. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the feasibility of an automatic multi-atlas based segmentation algorithm to segment parotid glands in head-and-neck MR images. PMID:25914491

  7. Immunolocalisation of cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein in pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Devlin, H; Sloan, P

    2001-02-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid salivary glands often contains chondroid elements and may exhibit cartilaginous and osseous differentiation, although the latter is extremely rare. Twenty-nine pleomorphic adenomas (PAs) of the parotid gland were examined immunohistochemically for the distribution of cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (CD-RAP), a recently described marker of chondrocytes, which may be important in the morphogenesis and development of the salivary gland. In the normal parotid gland, the ductal cells expressed CD-RAP, but not the myoepithelial cells. In the pleomorphic salivary adenomas, the duct-like cells, but not the myoepithelial cells, expressed CD-RAP. Since many authorities consider myoepithelial cells to be the source of the chondroid matrix, it is surprising that these cells do not express the chondrocytic marker, CD-RAP. Putative neoplastic myoepithelium in the pleomorphic adenoma and some cells in the myxochondroid areas expressed S-100 and calponin.

  8. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland with Four Morphological Features

    PubMed Central

    Rosero, David S; Alvarez, Ramiro; Gambó, Paula; Alastuey, María; Valero, Alberto; Torrecilla, Nerea; Roche, A. Belén; Simón, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma arising in salivary glands is a rare tumor, accounting for 2% to 5% of the primary neoplasms of the parotid gland. When these tumors are well-differentiated, the neoplasia has innocuous aspect, due to the similarity to normal parotid tissue. This makes the diagnosis difficult. Initially the malignancy of this tumor was uncertain; however, recent studies have declared it as malignant. The female / male ratio is 3:2. The nodule usually presents as solitary and well defined shape. Several authors have used different terms to describe histomorphological patterns of these tumors. Four descriptive categories (solid, microcystic, papillary-cystic and follicular) are useful for pathologists. Here we report a case of a 49 yr old man with a left parotid nodule of 5 cm. Parotidectomy was performed at the Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, in Zaragoza (Spain). The microscopy showed a tumor with acinic semblance, having the four morphologic patterns previously described. The morphological and immunohistochemical study was consistent with the diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma. PMID:27499783

  9. Multiple clear-cell sarcomas of small intestine with parotid gland metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Ren, Wen-Hao; Wang, Peng; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Hai-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Clear-cell sarcoma is a rare, malignant soft tissue tumor that displays melanocytic differentiation with a distinct molecular profile. It is rarely localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Herein we reported a case of multiple synchronous clear-cell sarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract with parotid gland metastasis. A 51-year-old male patient presented with a growing painless mass under the right ear. A preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed multiple intestinal masses and a mass in the right parotid with increased glucose uptake, and he underwent operative treatment with resection of three tumors in the jejunum and ileum and then received a right parotidectomy. Postoperative pathological examination showed that cells in the intestinal tumor were consistent with clear-cell sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract, and the malignant cells in the parotid gland were similar to the intestinal tumor. Immunohistochemical studies revealed positive expression of HMB-45, Melan-A, and S-100. EWSR1 gene fusion transcripts were undetectable by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  10. ConA and UEA-I lectin histochemistry of parotid gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Ana Paula V; Rego, Moacyr J B M; Cavalacanti, Carmelita L B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2010-03-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) corresponds to 5-12% of all salivary gland tumours, and is classified as low, intermediate or high grade. Traditionally, immunohistochemistry was considered as the complementary tool for diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasia. Lectin histochemistry has also been increasingly used in recent years. In this work, lectins were used as histochemical markers for normal and transformed parotid glands. Biopsy specimens of 15 cases diagnosed as MEC (low, intermediate and high grade) of the parotid gland were trypsin- and methanol-H(2)O(2)-treated and incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated lectins, Concanavalin A (Con A-HRP) and Ulex europeus I (UEA-I-HRP). Con A stained the neoplasic cells of MEC (all grades). In high and intermediate cases, ductal cells were weakly stained by Con A. UEA-I weakly stained normal cells of the excretory duct and neoplasic cells in high grade. Neoplasic cells in intermediate grade were moderately stained and in low grade, the cell membrane was intensely stained with UEA-I. Stroma presented a direct relation between malignancy and staining intensity for UEA-I. The results indicated that lectin histochemistry distinguished the cell biology among histological grades of MEC.

  11. Surgical management of pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland in elderly patients: role of morphological features.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Germano; Testa, Domenico; Montagnani, Stefania; Tafuri, Domenico; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Salzano, Giovanni; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Piombino, Pasquale; Motta, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    The neoplasms of the salivary glands account for 2% of head and neck tumors and the most common form is the Pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Parotid gland is affected from 80% to 90% of cases. In elderly these tumors occur mostly in females. These benign tumors are composed of epithelial and myoepithelial cells that are arranged with various morphological patterns and subtypes. The classification of these tumors is also based on the amount and nature of the stroma. In literature there is an almost complete consensus that, in the major salivary glands, PAs are enclosed by a layer of fibrous tissue often called "capsule" but there is disagreement about the form, extension and thickness of this layer. The treatment is surgical and there are two main different surgical approaches: an enucleation (local dissection) or so-called subtotal superficial parotidectomy and lateral or superficial total parotidectomy. Histopathological characteristics of PAs especially of capsular alterations such as thin capsule areas, capsule-free regions, capsule penetration, satellite nodules and pseudopodia in the different subtypes are important for the choice of surgical treatment and the first explanation for tumor recurrence. In our study we describe a morphological features of 84 cases of pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland from elderly patients treated by a surgical "enucleation like" method called nucleoresection.

  12. Recurrence in Region of Spared Parotid Gland After Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Donald M.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To discuss the implications of three examples of periparotid recurrence after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We present 3 patients with HNC who underwent definitive IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy and later had treatment failure in or near a spared parotid gland. Two patients had bilateral multilevel nodal disease, and all had Level II nodal disease ipsilateral to the site of recurrence. The patients were treated using dose-painting IMRT with a dose of 70 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 59.4 Gy or 54 Gy to the high-risk or low-risk clinical tumor volume, respectively. The parotid glands were spared bilaterally. The patients had not undergone any surgical treatment for HNC before radiotherapy. Results: All patients had treatment failure in the region of a spared parotid gland. Failure in the 2 patients with bilateral multilevel nodal involvement occurred in the periparotid lymph nodes. The third patient developed a dermal metastasis near the tail of a spared parotid gland. On pretreatment imaging, the 2 patients with nodal failure had small nonspecific periparotid nodules that showed no hypermetabolic activity on positron emission tomography. Conclusion: For HNC patients receiving definitive IMRT, nonspecific positron emission tomography-negative periparotid nodules on pretreatment imaging should raise the index of suspicion for subclinical disease in the presence of multilevel or Level II nodal metastases. Additional evaluation of such nodules might be indicated before sparing the ipsilateral parotid gland.

  13. Long-term dexamethasone treatment alters the histomorphology of acinar cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Bighetti, Bruna B; Assis, Gerson F d; Vieira, Danilo C; Violato, Natalia M; Cestari, Tania M; Taga, Rumio; Bosqueiro, José R; Rafacho, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce insulin resistance (IR), a condition known to alter oral homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term dexamethasone administration on morphofunctional aspects of salivary glands. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone [0.1 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally] for 10 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline. Subsequently, glycaemia, insulinaemia, insulin secretion and salivary flow were analysed. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for histomorphometric evaluation and Western blot experiments. The DEX rats were found to be normoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant (P < 0.05). DEX rat islets secreted more insulin in response to glucose (P < 0.05). DEX rats had significant reductions in the masses of the parotid (29%) and submandibular (16%) glands (P < 0.05) that was associated with reduced salivary flux rate. The hypotrophy in both glands observed in the DEX group was associated with marked reduction in the volume of the acinar cells in these glands of 50% and 26% respectively (P < 0.05). The total number of acinar cells was increased in the submandibular glands of the DEX rats (P < 0.05) but not in the parotid glands. The levels of proteins related to insulin and survival signalling in both glands did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, the long-term administration of dexamethasone caused IR, which was associated with significant reductions in both mass and flux rate of the salivary glands. The parotid and submandibular glands exhibited reduced acinar cell volume; however, the submandibular glands displayed acinar hyperplasia, indicating a gland-specific response to GCs. Our data emphasize that GC-based therapies and insulin-resistant states have a negative impact on salivary gland homeostasis. PMID:25186305

  14. Facial Paralysis Secondary to Extensive Perineural Spread of Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland Identified by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Achong, Dwight M; Zloty, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Brain MRI in an 82-year-old man with presumed Bell's palsy revealed a clinically unsuspected right parotid gland mass but no other acute findings. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Staging F-FDG PET/CT revealed an FDG-avid parotid mass, abnormal FDG uptake along the course of the facial nerve from mass to skull base, and multiple FDG-avid right level II neck lymph nodes and hepatic metastases. The PET/CT findings and prolonged clinical course suggest that diffuse perineural spread of tumor from a smoldering parotid neoplasm, and not idiopathic Bell's palsy, was responsible for the patient's facial paralysis.

  15. Radiation-Induced Damage to Microstructure of Parotid Gland: Evaluation Using High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Tomoko; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Michimoto, Koichi; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To elucidate the radiation-induced damage to the microstructure of the parotid gland using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Materials: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the parotid gland was performed before radiotherapy (RT) and during the RT period or {<=}3 weeks after RT completion for 12 head-and-neck cancer patients using a 1.5-T scanner with a microscopy coil. The maximal cross-sectional area of the gland was evaluated, and changes in the internal architecture of the gland were assessed both visually and quantitatively. Results: Magnetic resonance images were obtained at a median parotid gland dose of 36 Gy (range, 11-64). According to the quantitative analysis, the maximal cross-sectional area of the gland was reduced, the width of the main duct was narrowed, and the intensity ratio of the main duct lumen to background was significantly decreased after RT (p <.0001). According to the visual assessment, the width of the main duct tended to narrow and the contrast of the duct lumen tended to be decreased, but no significant differences were noted. The visibility of the duct branches was unclear in 10 patients (p = .039), and the septum became dense in 11 patients (p = .006) after RT. Conclusion: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive method of evaluating radiation-induced changes to the internal architecture of the parotid gland. Morphologic changes in the irradiated parotid gland were demonstrated during the RT course even when a relatively small dose was delivered to the gland.

  16. [Possible relation between viruses and oromaxillofacial tumors. III. Demonstration of the SV40 antigen and anti-SV40 antibodies in patients with tumors of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Stoian, M; Zaharia, O; Suru, M; Goldstein, I; Nastac, E

    1987-01-01

    SV40 antigen was detected in 7 of 13 malignant tumors developed in the head and neck region. Specific complement fixing antibodies were found in all the patients with the SV40 antigen present in the parotid gland tumoral cells. Incidence of the anti-SV40 complement fixing antibodies in parotid gland tumor bearing patients was of 69.6%.

  17. Management of midcheek masses and tumors of the accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Giacomo; Meloni, Silvio M; Massarelli, Olindo; Tullio, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Tumors of the lateral wall of the mouth have different origins and behaviors. These lesions often arise from salivary tissues, such as the accessory parotid gland, but tumors can also originate from the muscles, buccal fat pad, or other structures. Surgical approaches are limited in this region by the presence of the facial nerve and the Stensen's duct. In this article, we present 9 cases of midcheek masses that were operated on via extra- or intraoral approaches. We discuss the problems related to the diagnosis of such tumors, as well as the indications and rationales for different treatment approaches.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the excretory system of the rabbit parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Valentino, B; Farina Lipari, E; Carini, F; Valenza, V

    1999-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the rabbit parotid gland was performed using an antibody against rabbit ANF and avidin-biotin or streptoavidin as detector. Results showed positivity in cuboidal and columnar cells of intralobular ducts and in basal cells of extralobular and main excretory duct. These data support the hypothesis that ANF produced by intralobular ducts could act through a paracrine mechanism; ANF produced by extralobular and main ducts may play a role in the regulation of salivary composition.

  19. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  20. Bilateral multiple sialolithiasis of the parotid gland in a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Paschaloudi, S; Triaridis, S; Fyrmpas, G; Sechlidis, S; Constantinidis, J

    2007-01-01

    Summary The presence of multiple calculi in the major salivary glands is an uncommon finding. Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocyte-mediated destruction of the exocrine glands. The case is presented of a 49-year-old female with Sjögren’s syndrome found to have bilateral multiple sialolithiasis in the parenchyma of the parotid glands. The patient presented with a right sided painful inflamed swelling of the parotid region. Even though she had been diagnosed with primary Sjögren’s syndrome 3 years prior to admission, she did not report any previous episode of sialadenitis. Full blood count showed leukocytosis (white blood cells = 14,900/106L) with neutrophilia (75%). Radiological assessment included ultrasound and computed tomography scan of the parotids which demonstrated intra-parenchymal multiple calculi of both parotid glands and obstruction of the right Stensen’s duct. The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. On the second day of hospitalisation, she reported spontaneous extrusion of a calculus during massage of the gland, with immediate relief of symptoms. In patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and radiological findings of calculi in the major salivary glands, close observation is mandatory for better control of recurrent sialadenitis and early recognition of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. PMID:17601211

  1. Association between microtubules and Golgi vesicles isolated from rat parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Raymond, M N

    1990-01-01

    We report an isolation procedure of trans-Golgi vesicles (GVs) from rat parotid glands. Various organelle markers were used, particularly galactosyl transferase as a trans-Golgi marker, to test the purity of the GV fraction. A quantitative in vitro binding assay between microtubules and GVs is described. The vesicles were incubated with taxol-induced microtubules, layered between 50% and 43% sucrose cushions and subjected to centrifugation. Unlike free microtubules which were sedimented, the GV-bound microtubules co-migrated upward with GVs. Quantification of these bound microtubules was carried out by densitometric scanning of Coomassie blue-stained gels. The association between microtubules and GVs followed a saturation curve, with a plateau value of 20 micrograms of microtubule protein bound to 500 micrograms of GV fraction. The half-saturation of the GV sites was obtained with a microtubule concentration of 20 micrograms/ml. Electron microscopy of negatively stained re-floated material showed numerous microtubule-vesicle complexes. Coating of microtubules with an excess of brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) abolished binding. In the absence of exogenous microtubules, we showed that the GV fraction was already interacting with a class of endogenous rat parotid microtubules. This class of colcemid and cold-stable microtubules represents 10-20% of the total tubulin content of the parotid cell.

  2. Regulated phosphorylation of secretory granule membrane proteins of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, C.R.; Castle, J.D.; Gorelick, F.S. )

    1990-07-01

    An antiserum raised against purified rat parotid secretory granule membrane proteins has been used to identify organelle-specific protein phosphorylation events following stimulation of intact cells from the rat parotid gland. After lobules were prelabeled with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and exposed to secretagogues, phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated with the granule membrane protein antiserum, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography. Parallel studies of stimulated amylase release were performed. Isoproterenol treatment of parotid lobules resulted in an increase in the phosphate content of immunoprecipitable 60- and 72-kDa proteins that correlated with amylase release in a time-dependent manner. Forskolin addition mimicked these effects, but only the isoproterenol effects were reversed by propranolol treatment. To confirm the specificity of the antiserum to the secretory granule membrane fraction, subcellular isolation techniques were employed following in situ phosphorylation. The 60- and 72-kDa phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated from both a particulate fraction and a purified secretory granule fraction. Furthermore, the extraction properties of both species suggest that they are integral membrane proteins. These findings support the possibility that stimulus-regulated secretion may involve phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins of the exocrine secretory granule.

  3. Leiomyosarcoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingxuan; Marzouk, Mark

    2016-01-01

    There is only one previously reported incident in the English literature of sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid and there are only 8 cases of primary parotid leiomyosarcoma. In our case, a 79-year-old female patient presented to our care with left preauricular pain, swelling, and facial weakness. After CT imaging, she underwent left total parotidectomy. A spindle cell lesion was identified intraoperatively and the facial nerve was sacrificed. Subsequent analysis of the lesion yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. After 30 fractions of radiation therapy, scans were negative for tumor. However, 18 months after first experiencing symptoms, she was found to have metastases to the brainstem and lung. When diagnosing sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, it is important to perform thorough immunohistochemical staining and exclude a previous history of sarcoma or other sources of metastases. Complete resection is critical due to the tumor's local aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Although these tumors are not very responsive to chemotherapy or radiation, adjuvant treatment is commonly used when margins are unclear. PMID:27672466

  4. Acquired von Willebrand's disease associated with epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Chilvers, Geoffrey Spencer; Porter, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This is the first case report of a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease (AvWD) secondary to epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the parotid salivary gland. This patient presented to haematology following an abnormal bleeding episode with von Willebrand factor Ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) <5% and VWF:Ag 13%. He was diagnosed with AvWD. At the same time he was found to have a left parotid lump which was excised following a multidisciplinary team meeting. This was histologically reported as an EMC. Following excision, unusually this patient's AvWD did not resolve. Extensive investigation looking for other causes of the AvWD did not reveal any other potential cause; therefore, due to the similar timing of onset of both pathologies it is felt that the AvWD in this case is secondary to the EMC. This case report highlights the presentation, investigation and management of AvWD and parotid lumps as well as discussing proposed pathophysiological mechanisms for AvWD. PMID:25096657

  5. Atrophy of myoepithelial cells in parotid glands of diabetic mice; detection using skeletal muscle actin, a novel marker☆

    PubMed Central

    Nashida, Tomoko; Yoshie, Sumio; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Imai, Akane; Shimomura, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    In mouse parotid glands, we found expression of skeletal muscle actin (actin-α1) protein and mRNA. We isolated myoepithelial cells from the mouse parotid glands and investigated their actin-α1 expression because smooth muscle actin (actin-α2) has been used as a marker for myoepithelial cells. We used actin-α1 expression to identify pathological changes in diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD; NOD/ShiJcl) mice—a mouse model for Sjögren's syndrome—and found myoepithelial cells to be decreased or atrophied in the diabetic state. PMID:23772384

  6. Relapsed Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland With Diffuse Distant Metastasis: Case Report With Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Khelfa, Yousef; Mansour, Munthir; Abdel-Aziz, Yousef; Raufi, Ali; Denning, Krista; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon salivary gland neoplasm that generally displays an indolent growth pattern. Most cases arise in the major glands, particularly the parotid. However, it can arise from minor salivary glands in the oral cavity and aero-digestive tract. Although ACC is generally a low-grade malignant tumor, poorly differentiated and high-grade transformed variants exhibit a propensity for late recurrence and metastasis. There are no adequate clinical trials that define the optimal approach to patients with metastatic salivary gland tumors due to its rarity. Systemic therapy is reserved for cases where local therapy, such as radiation or metastasectomy, is not appropriate. Nevertheless, there is insufficient data in the literature regarding the chemotherapy of choice for metastatic ACC. In this article, we report a case of metastatic ACC of the right parotid gland that progressed on carboplatin and paclitaxel after partial response followed by doxorubicin and is currently on checkpoint inhibitor treatment.

  7. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland with hepatic metastasis: clinic-radiological case report.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Manu; Tomar, Divya; Sharma, Manu; Goel, Samta; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2014-04-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma originally called the mixed tumour is a neoplasm commonly involving major salivary glands. The spectrum of malignancy in pleomorphic adenoma comprises three distinct entities - Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, carcinosarcoma and benign metastasising pleomorphic adenoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma consists of pleomorphic adenoma with a malignant epithelial component. Occasionally, carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma develops metastasis. Here we are reporting here a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma arising in parotid gland which turned into malignancy after four years. The patient developed facial nerve paralysis suggesting malignant transformation. Along the course of the disease, the patient developed regional metastasis to lymph nodes and neck and distant metastasis to liver. This case report emphasises the role of advanced imaging modalities in the early diagnosis of the condition and evaluation of metastasis. The patients with this condition should be treated early for favorable outcome and investigated for distant metastasis.

  8. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the parotid gland: Cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Andola, Sainath K; Masgal, Meenakshi M; Reddy, Rajeev M

    2016-01-01

    Primary malignant lymphomas of the salivary glands are rare, accounting for 2-5% of salivary gland tumors and 5% of extranodal lymphomas, frequently seen in the parotid gland. There are single case reports mentioned in the literature. Clinical presentation is not characteristic and the disease is often overlooked with delay in diagnosis and treatment. We are reporting a case of bilateral parotid gland lymphoma in a 55-year-old male, presented with bilateral enlarged parotids. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral enlarged parotid glands with multiple well-defined intraparotid lesions. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of both showed mixed population of lymphoid cells with large monocytoid cells with scant cytoplasm, anisonucleosis with prominent nucleoli, and numerous mitoses suggestive of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Histopathology showed sheets of large lymphoma cells destructing the salivary acini and infiltrating the periparotid fat. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed diffuse CD20 positivity, B-cell lymphoma 6 protein (Bcl-6) was focally positive and negative for cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD5, CD10, and Multiple myeloma oncogene-1 (MUM1) which led to the diagnosis of NHL-Diffuse large B cell type. PMID:28028340

  9. Unique cellular structures in the parotid gland of an Old world fruit bat, Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox).

    PubMed

    Lanlua, Passara; Sricharoenvej, Sirinush; Niyomchan, Apichaya; Chico, Diane E

    2007-01-01

    Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox), an Old World fruit bat, consumes only ripe fruit, which contains low protein and sodium. The carpophagous diet of P. lylei presents an adaptive challenge for salivary glands to conserve sufficient nutrition for living. Therefore, the parotid glands in both sexes were investigated by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No structural difference was observed in the parotid glands between sexes. The acinar cell contained dense serous secretory granules, prominent luminal microvilli and intercellular canaliculi. The intercalated duct exhibited simple cuboidal epithelium with no secretory granule. Striated duct consisted of simple columnar epithelium with basal striation, numerous elongated mitochondria, and apical vesicles. In the interlobular duct, simple tall columnar epithelium and apocrine secretion were found. The interlobar and excretory ducts surprisingly contained continuous capillaries that intervened in stratified cuboidal epithelium. In addition, there were several blood vessels around the interlobular, interlobar and excretory ducts. The morphological adaptation of the parotid gland observed in P. lylei enables this species to obtain sufficient nutrients from the preferred consumption of ripe fruit. Serous secretory granule was suitable for digestion of ripe fruit. A well-developed striated duct, continuous capillaries among the epithelial cells of interlobar and excretory ducts, and numerous blood vessels around these ducts enhanced the reabsorption of amino acids and ions. Structural variations in the parotid gland can indicate not only a correlation to diet and survival but also a close relationship of the Old World fruit bat to other kinds of bats.

  10. Prognostic value of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in parotid gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Demgensky, Ariane; Molls, Christoph; Hardt, Aline; Luers, Jan C; Grosheva, Maria; Huebbers, Christian U; Klussmann, Jens P

    2012-04-01

    Although cell proliferation is related to tumour aggressiveness and prognosis, there are few studies describing the expression of proliferative markers in salivary gland cancer. Our aim was to assess the long-term prognostic value of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a large group of histologically different salivary gland cancers. We analysed the expression of PCNA in 159 patients with parotid gland cancer by means of immunohistochemistry. The mean follow-up time was 56.6 months. A high expression of PCNA showed a significant correlation to the patients' pathological lymph node stage (p = 0.004). A high PCNA expression significantly indicated a poor 5-year disease-free (p = 0.046) and overall survival rate (p = 0.018). The PCNA expression was the only prognostic factor for a worse 5-year disease-free and overall survival in acinic cell carcinomas (p = 0.004, p = 0.022). The correlation between PCNA expression and survival probabilities of salivary gland cancer might make proliferation markers helpful tools in patient follow-up, prognosis and targeted therapy in salivary gland cancer in future.

  11. Valproic acid-associated sialadenosis of the parotid and submandibular glands: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Mauz, P S; Mörike, K; Kaiserling, E; Brosch, S

    2005-04-01

    Sialadenosis has been defined as a non-inflammatory, parenchymatous salivary gland disease causing recurrent, bilateral swelling of the salivary glands. As an adverse drug reaction of valproic acid, sialadenosis is very rare. To our knowledge, it has been reported only once in the world literature to date. We present herein the case of a patient with valproic acid-associated sialadenosis of both the parotid and submandibular glands. This appears to be the first published case of a patient who received surgical treatment. On light and electron microscopy of all the affected salivary glands, granular sialadenosis with predominantly moderate electron-dense secretory cytoplasmatic granules was observed. No relevant degenerative alterations were seen. There was no histological evidence of peripheral neuropathy of the nerve supply, leading to disordered activity of acinar cells by loss of neurosecretory granules. Lateral parotidectomy, performed under neuromonitoring control for safety reasons, is the treatment of choice for chronic recurrent parotitis that does not respond to conservative therapy, particularly if the cosmetic deformity is unacceptable to the patient. If the submandibular glands are involved, partial removal is recommended.

  12. Single Cell Clones Purified from Human Parotid Glands Display Features of Multipotent Epitheliomesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, TacGhee; Lee, Songyi; Choi, Nahyun; Shin, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Junghee; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of the biology of tissue-resident stem cell populations is essential to development of therapeutic strategies for regeneration of damaged tissue. Here, we describe the isolation of glandular stem cells (GSCs) from a small biopsy specimen from human parotid glands. Single colony-forming unit-derived clonal cells were isolated through a modified subfractionation culture method, and their stem cell properties were examined. The isolated clonal cells exhibited both epithelial and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like features, including differentiation potential and marker expression. The cells transiently displayed salivary progenitor phenotypes during salivary epithelial differentiation, suggesting that they may be putative multipotent GSCs rather than progenitor cells. Both epithelial and mesenchymal-expressing putative GSCs, LGR5+CD90+ cells, were found in vivo, mostly in inter-secretory units of human salivary glands. Following in vivo transplantation into irradiated salivary glands of mice, these cells were found to be engrafted around the secretory complexes, where they contributed to restoration of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction. These results showed that multipotent epitheliomesenchymal GSCs are present in glandular mesenchyme, and that isolation of homogenous GSC clones from human salivary glands may promote the precise understanding of biological function of bona fide GSCs, enabling their therapeutic application for salivary gland regeneration. PMID:27824146

  13. Parotid gland tumours in a West Indian population: Comparison to world trends

    PubMed Central

    RAMDASS, MICHAEL J.; MAHARAJ, KHEMANAND; MOOTEERAM, JUSTIN; DWARIKA, WENDELL; TILLUCKDHARRY, CLYDE; BARROW, SHAHEEBA

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of parotid gland tumours in Trinidad and Tobago and the wider Caribbean is currently unknown. Therefore, an analysis of the pathological records was conducted to determine the pattern of this disease in Trinidad and Tobago. A retrospective analysis was conducted on all parotid gland tumours and the demographic and histological data were analysed. Data from 60 cases were collected over a period of 8 years (October, 2003 to February, 2012), including 56 primary and 4 secondary tumours (1 basal cell carcinoma and 3 metastatic tumours). The patients included 31 men and 29 women, with a mean age of 48.7 years and an age range of 21–73 years (peak age, 51–60 years). The surgical interventions included 53 superficial parotidectomies, 6 radical parotidectomies and 1 biopsy. Of the 56 primary tumours, 41 were benign [34 pleomorphic adenomas and 7 Warthin's tumours (adenolymphomas)], accounting for 73.2% of the cases. The malignant lesions included 6 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 papillary carcinoma, accounting for 26.8% of the total cases, without any age predominance. The pattern of disease distribution was similar to that indicated by worldwide data, with benign primary lesions accounting for ~80% of the cases (pleomorphic adenomas, 80% and Warthin's tumours, 20%). The most common carcinomas were mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic types, as indicated by worldwide data; however, in our series, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type, followed by mucoepidermoid, acinic cell and adenoid cystic carcinomas. The present study will hopefully provide useful information on parotid pathology in Trinidad and Tobago and encourage further research in this field. PMID:25469289

  14. Development of the glandular epithelium of the bovine parotid gland during ontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrückner, A; Fink, C; Kressin, M

    2003-06-01

    The development of the parotid gland was examined in 36 bovine embryos and foetuses with a crown-rump-length (CRL) from 28 up to 1000 mm by light, transmission electron microscopical and actin-immunohistochemical methods. The anlage of the parotid gland in an embryo with 28 mm CRL can be found at the lateral angle of the primitive oral cavity as a local thickening of the epithelium. During the second month, the differentiation of primary ducts and endbuds starts and a lumen develops in the primary ducts. At the end of the second month a lumen appears in the terminal endbuds. In the immature endpiece cells first secretory granules can be seen from a CRL of 240 mm. In the third month differentiation between intra- and inter-lobular ducts is possible. Immature myoepithelial cells present as a basal layer of flattened cells between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane at the end of the second month. During further development they increase in number, become more flattened and form long cellular processes. At the end of the fourth month isolated actin filament bundles are formed, which were also detected by an antibody against smooth muscle actin. The actin filaments condense continuously until they fill the cell processes completely at the end of foetal development.

  15. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands of the head. Studies on the physiology and pathophysiology of parotid secretion.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R

    1981-01-01

    Sialadenosis is a noninflammatory disease of the salivary glands of the head. It is observed in connection with endocrine disorders, malnutrition and neurologic diseases. The parotid glands are predominantly affected by a parenchymatous swelling. Based on morphologic and biochemical investigations it can be assumed that disorders of the gland's acinar protein secretion are responsible for sialadenosis. Changes in secretory behavior are caused by either excessive stimulation ('stimulatory proteodyschylia') or by inhibition of secretion ('inhibitory proteodyschylia'). The origin of these secretory disorders is very likely to be found in the vegetative nerve system. The pathophysiology of sialadenosis can therefore only be understood after elucidation of the physiologic mechanisms of salivary gland secretion. Research in the field of biophysical and biochemical principles underlying parotid secretion has made considerable progress in recent years. A comprehensive review of this new evidence is necessary for the understanding of experimental studies on the pathogenesis of sialadenosis.

  16. Large Cohort Dose-Volume Response Analysis of Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: Intensity-Modulated Versus Conventional Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, Tim Terhaard, Chris H.J.; Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Gils, Carla H. van; Moerland, Marinus A.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To compare parotid gland dose-volume response relationships in a large cohort of patients treated with intensity-modulated (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and materials: A total of 221 patients (64 treated with IMRT, 157 with CRT) with various head-and-neck malignancies were prospectively evaluated. The distribution of tumor subsites in both groups was unbalanced. Stimulated parotid flow rates were measured before and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from computed tomography-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow ratio <25% of the pretreatment flow rate. The relative risk of complications was determined for IMRT vs. CRT and adjusted for the mean parotid gland dose using Poisson regression modeling. Results: One year after radiotherapy, NTCP curves for IMRT and CRT were comparable with a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to a 50% complication probability) of 38 and 40 Gy, respectively. Until 6 months after RT, corrected for mean dose, different complication probabilities existed for IMRT vs. CRT. The relative risk of a complication for IMRT vs. CRT after 6 weeks was 1.42 (95% CI 1.21-1.67), after 6 months 1.41 (95% CI; 1.12-1.77), and at 1 year 1.21 (95% CI 0.87-1.68), after correcting for mean dose. Conclusions: One year after radiotherapy, no difference existed in the mean dose-based NTCP curves for IMRT and CRT. Early after radiotherapy (up to 6 months) mean dose based (Lyman) models failed to fully describe the effects of radiotherapy on the parotid glands.

  17. Further evidence for AQP8 expression in the myoepithelium of rat submandibular and parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Wellner, Robert B; Redman, Robert S; Swaim, William D; Baum, Bruce J

    2006-02-01

    Previously (Wellner et al., Pflugers Arch 441:49-56, 2000) we suggested that the localization of the aquaporins (AQPs) AQP5 and AQP8 in the apical and basolateral membranes of rat submandibular gland (SMG) acinar cells, respectively, provides for transcellular water flow during saliva formation. While the localization of AQP5 in this gland has been verified in several laboratories, there have been differing reports regarding AQP8 localization. Other investigators subsequently reported that AQP8 is not expressed in the acinar or ductal cells of the major salivary glands of the rat, but in the myoepithelium of each gland. Thus, we have carried out additional studies: (1) to reassess the localization of AQP8 in the rat SMG and (2) to assess the localization of AQP8 in the rat parotid gland (PG). Initially, we compared the localizations of AQP8 with recognized basolateral markers in acinar cells [the Na+,K+-ATPase and the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1)]. Our results indicated that Na+,K+-ATPase localized in both the basal and lateral membranes of rat SMG acinar cells, whereas AQP8 was detected only in the basal regions of the acini. In the rat PG, AQP8 was invested near intercalated ducts and adjacent acini, whereas NKCC1 localized in the basolateral membranes of acinar cells. As these results were suggestive of myoepithelial localization in both glands, we compared AQP8 localization with the localization of smooth muscle actin, a myoepithelial marker. We found that AQP8 and smooth muscle actin colocalized in both the rat SMG and PG, providing additional strong support for a myoepithelial localization of AQP8. Thus, in agreement with an earlier report by other investigators (Elkjaer et al., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 281:F1047-F1057, 2001), we report that AQP8 is expressed in the myoepithelial cells, but not in the acinar cells, of both the rat SMG and PG.

  18. Differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumours: which magnetic resonance findings should be taken in account?

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, T; Botto, A; Sciandra, M; Gaudino, S; Danieli, L; Parrilla, C; Paludetti, G; Colosimo, C

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to define typical magnetic resonance (MRI) findings in malignant and benign parotid tumours. This study is based on retrospective evaluation of pre-surgical MRI of 94 patients with parotid gland tumours. Histology results were available for all tumours. There were 69 cases of benign (73%) and 25 cases of malignant (27%) tumours, including 44 pleomorphic adenomas, 18 Warthin's tumours, 7 various benign tumours, 6 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas, 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 13 various malignant tumours. The following MRI parameters were evaluated: shape, site, size, margins, signal intensity (SI) on T1w and T2w images, contrast enhancement, signal of cystic content, presence or absence of a capsule, perineural spread, extraglandular growth pattern and cervical adenopathy. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the MRI findings most suggestive of malignancy, and to define the most typical MRI pattern of the most common histologies. Ill-defined margins (p < 0.001), adenopathies (p < 0.001) and infiltrative grown pattern (p < 0.001) were significantly predictive of malignancy. Typical findings of pleomorphic adenoma included hyperintensity on T2w images (p = 0.02), strong contrast enhancement (p < 0.001) and lobulated shape (p = 0.04). Typical findings of Warthin's tumour included hyperintense components on T1w images (p < 0.001), location in the parotid inferior process (p < 0.001) and mild or incomplete contrast enhancement (p = 0.01). SI on T1w and T2w images and contrast enhancement enables differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour.

  19. Primary B-Cell Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Hard Palate and Parotid Gland: Report of One Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yonal-Hindilerden, Ipek; Hindilerden, Fehmi; Arslan, Serkan; Turan-Guzel, Nalan; Dogan, Ibrahim Oner; Nalcaci, Meliha

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with an ulcerated palate mass and swelling of the right parotid gland. Incisional biopsy from the hard palate revealed an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, also called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Final diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the parotid gland with concomitant involvement of an extremely seldom site of involvement: the hard palate. To our knowledge, this report illustrates the first case of MALT lymphoma of the hard palate and parotid gland without an underlying autoimmune disease. Rituximab-based combination regimen (R-CHOP) provided complete remission with total regression of mass lesions at the hard palate and parotid gland. At 44-month follow-up, there is no disease relapse. We adressed the manifestations and management of MALT lymphoma patients with involvement of salivary gland and oral cavity. PMID:27738485

  20. Primary B-Cell Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Hard Palate and Parotid Gland: Report of One Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Yonal-Hindilerden, Ipek; Hindilerden, Fehmi; Arslan, Serkan; Turan-Guzel, Nalan; Dogan, Ibrahim Oner; Nalcaci, Meliha

    2016-11-01

    A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with an ulcerated palate mass and swelling of the right parotid gland. Incisional biopsy from the hard palate revealed an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, also called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Final diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the parotid gland with concomitant involvement of an extremely seldom site of involvement: the hard palate. To our knowledge, this report illustrates the first case of MALT lymphoma of the hard palate and parotid gland without an underlying autoimmune disease. Rituximab-based combination regimen (R-CHOP) provided complete remission with total regression of mass lesions at the hard palate and parotid gland. At 44-month follow-up, there is no disease relapse. We adressed the manifestations and management of MALT lymphoma patients with involvement of salivary gland and oral cavity.

  1. Parotid Gland Dose in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Is What You Plan What You Get?

    SciTech Connect

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Garden, Adam S.; Schwartz, David L.; Wang He; Ang, Kian K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Rosenthal, David I.; Morrison, William H.; Asper, Joshua A.; Zhang Lifei; Tung Shihming; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify the differences between planned and delivered parotid gland and target doses, and to assess the benefits of daily bone alignment for head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Eleven head and neck cancer patients received two CT scans per week with an in-room CT scanner over the course of their radiotherapy. The clinical IMRT plans, designed with 3-mm to 4-mm planning margins, were recalculated on the repeat CT images. The plans were aligned using the actual treatment isocenter marked with radiopaque markers (BB) and bone alignment to the cervical vertebrae to simulate image-guided setup. In-house deformable image registration software was used to map daily dose distributions to the original treatment plan and to calculate a cumulative delivered dose distribution for each patient. Results: Using conventional BB alignment led to increases in the parotid gland mean dose above the planned dose by 5 to 7 Gy in 45% of the patients (median, 3.0 Gy ipsilateral, p = 0.026; median, 1.0 Gy contralateral, p = 0.016). Use of bone alignment led to reductions relative to BB alignment in 91% of patients (median, 2 Gy; range, 0.3-8.3 Gy; 15 of 22 parotids improved). However, the parotid dose from bone alignment was still greater than planned (median, 1.0 Gy, p = 0.007). Neither approach affected tumor dose coverage. Conclusions: With conventional BB alignment, the parotid gland mean dose was significantly increased above the planned mean dose. Using daily bone alignment reduced the parotid dose compared with BB alignment in almost all patients. A 3- to 4-mm planning margin was adequate for tumor dose coverage.

  2. ( sup 3 H)protein secretion in rat parotid gland: Substance P-. beta. -adrenergic synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Dreux, C.; Imhoff, V.; Rossignol, B. )

    1987-12-01

    In parotid fragment ({sup 3}H)protein, secretion induced by substance P was moderate, but strongly Ca dependent. However, secretion induced by isoproterenol was large and Ca independent. Potentiation of protein secretion was observed when substance P (SP) and isoproterenol (ISO) acted together. Addition of 10{sup {minus}8} M SP caused a shift to the left in the secretion dose-response curve caused by ISO, but did not enhance ISO-induced maximal response. The potentiating effect seems to be a postreceptor event, since it can be mimicked by forskolin (FK), known to induce directly cAMP accumulation, thus bypassing the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. The synergism described above was, therefore, investigated at the second messenger production level. Stimulation of parotid gland fragments by simultaneous addition of SP plus ISO or FK did not modify cAMP nor inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) accumulation induced independently by each secretagogue alone. The ionophore A23187 was also able to potentiate secretion induced by a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, this effect being totally abolished by external calcium omission, thus suggesting a role for external calcium in this potentiation phenomenon. These results suggest that the potentiation phenomenon observed is a postreceptor event that occurs at a step distal from the second messenger production.

  3. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  4. Sialochemistry of whole, parotid, and labial minor gland saliva in patients with oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Gandara, B K; Izutsu, K T; Truelove, E L; Mandel, I D; Sommers, E E; Ensign, W Y

    1987-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether oral lichen planus in otherwise healthy patients is associated with sialochemical abnormalities. Unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva, stimulated parotid saliva, and stimulated labial minor gland saliva were collected from 25 patients with oral lichen planus and from 25 age- and sex-matched controls. Flow rate and salivary concentrations of immunoglobulins A and G, albumin, amylase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and total protein were determined by standard analytical techniques. Concentrations of inorganic components including sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphate were also measured. No significant differences were found between the lichen planus patients and the controls. These findings do not support an association between oral lichen planus and salivary dysfunction in otherwise healthy patients.

  5. A safe transoral surgical approach to parapharyngeal tumor arising from deep lobe of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Casale, Manuele; Capuano, Francesco; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Pace, Annalisa; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Vella, Paola; Moffa, Antonio; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The management of parapharyngeal tumor is surgical, but the approach remains a challenge. Attention should be paid to avoidance intra-operative bleeding or cranial nerves damage. We report a case of a 67-year-old male complaining of left-ear fullness. A submucosal mass arising from the lateral wall of oropharynx on the left side was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a mass arising from the parotid gland, in particular from the deep lobe, and a fine needle biopsy was compatible with "Warthin tumor." We performed a mini-invasive transoral approach under magnification, previous isolation of homolateral vessels. The decision on which surgical approach to be used is determined by site, size vascularity, and histology of the tumor. A literature review of the main surgical approaches was performed. We performed a combined transoral dissection under magnification with cervicotomic exposure of the neck vascular bundle allowing to dissect the tumor and manage any intra-operative complications.

  6. Intensity-Modulated vs. Conformal Radiotherapy of Parotid Gland Tumors: Potential Impact on Hearing Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Lamers-Kuijper, E. Schwarz, M.; Rasch, C.; Mijnheer, B.

    2007-01-01

    In 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy of parotid gland tumors, little effort is made to avoid the auditory system or the oral cavity. Damage may occur when the ear is located inside the treatment field. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate an intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) class solution, and to compare this technique to a 3D conformal approach with respect to hearing loss. Twenty patients with parotid gland cancer were retrospectively planned with 2 different techniques using the original planning target volume (PTV). First, a conventional technique using a wedged beam pair was applied, yielding a dose distribution conformal to the shape of the PTV. Next, an IMRT technique using a fluence map optimization with predefined constraints was designed. A dose of 66 Gy in the PTV was given at the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measures (ICRU) dose prescription point. Dose-volume histograms of the PTV and organs at risk (OARs), such as auditory system, oral cavity, and spinal cord, were compared. The dose in the OARs was lower in the IMRT plans. The mean volume of the middle ear receiving a dose higher than 50 Gy decreased from 66.5% to 33.4%. The mean dose in the oral cavity decreased from 19.4 Gy to 16.6 Gy. The auditory system can be spared if the distance between the inner ear and the PTV is 0.6 cm or larger, and if the overlap between the middle ear and the PTV is smaller than 10%. The maximum dose in the spinal cord was below 40 Gy in all treatment plans. The mean volume of the PTV receiving less than 95% of the prescribed dose increased in the IMRT plan slightly from 3.3% to 4.3 % (p = 0.01). The mean volume receiving more than 107% increased from 0.9% to 2.5% (p = 0.02). It can be concluded that the auditory system, as well as the oral cavity, can be spared with IMRT, but at the cost of a slightly larger dose inhomogeneity in the PTV. The IMRT technique can therefore, in most cases, be recommended as the treatment

  7. FDG-PET Assessment of the Effect of Head and Neck Radiotherapy on Parotid Gland Glucose Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Michael C.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Higgins, Kristin A.; Hawk, Thomas C.; Hoang, Jenny K.; Brizel, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Functional imaging with [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) provides the opportunity to define the physiology of the major salivary glands before and after radiation therapy. The goal of this retrospective study was to identify the radiation dose-response relationship of parotid gland glucose metabolism in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods: Forty-nine adults with HNSCC were identified who had curative intent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and FDG-PET imaging before and after treatment. Using a graphical user interface, contours were delineated for the parotid glands on axial CT slices while all authors were blinded to paired PET slices. Average and maximal standard uptake values (SUV) were measured within these anatomic regions. Changes in SUV and volume after radiation therapy were correlated with parotid gland dose-volume histograms from IMRT plans. Results: The average parotid gland volume was 30.7 mL and contracted 3.9 {+-} 1.9% with every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). However, within the first 3 months after treatment, there was a uniform reduction of 16.5% {+-} 7.3% regardless of dose. The average SUV{sub mean} of the glands was 1.63 {+-} 0.48 pretreatment and declined by 5.2% {+-} 2.5% for every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). The average SUV{sub max} was 4.07 {+-} 2.85 pretreatment and decreased in a sigmoid manner with mean dose. A threshold of 32 Gy for mean dose existed, after which SUV{sub max} declined rapidly. Conclusion: Radiation dose responses of the parotid glands can be measured by integrated CT/FDG-PET scans. Retrospective analysis showed sigmoidal declines in the maximum metabolism but linear declines in the average metabolism of the glands with dose. Future studies should correlate this decline in FDG uptake with saliva production to improve treatment planning.

  8. Bilateral Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Alexander; Tang, Christopher G; Rasgon, Barry M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We describe the first known case of bilateral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the parotid gland, and we review existing literature. Case Presentation: A previously healthy, 70-year-old white man presented with a 2-cm enlarging mass in the tail of the right parotid gland. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography showed ipsilateral pathologic adenopathy. Results of fine-needle aspiration revealed a high-grade malignancy with squamous features. The patient underwent a right total parotidectomy and modified radical neck dissection. Final pathologic findings revealed a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Four years after the initial resection, the patient presented with an enlarging left parotid mass. Findings of fine-needle aspiration and imaging were similar to those 4 years earlier. The patient received a left total parotidectomy and modified radical neck dissection. Postoperative radiation therapy was performed after each surgical intervention. He remains disease free at 4-year follow-up after the second mass was resected. Discussion: Squamous cell carcinoma with basaloid features is a rare and aggressive type of squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of bilateral parotid basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:28333602

  9. A quantitative assessment of volumetric and anatomic changes of the parotid gland during intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer using serial computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ajani, Abdallah A.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Orlina, Lawrence; Sakai, Osamu; Truong, Minh Tam

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the change in volume and movement of the parotid gland measured by serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A prospective study was performed on 13 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing dose-painted IMRT to 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. Serial computed tomography scans were performed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, and 6 of radiotherapy (RT), and at 6 weeks post-RT. The parotid volume was contoured at each scan, and the movement of the medial and lateral borders was measured. The patient's body weight was recorded at each corresponding week during RT. Regression analyses were performed to ascertain the rate of change during treatment as a percent change per fraction in parotid volume and distance relative to baseline. The mean parotid volume decreased by 37.3% from baseline to week 6 of RT. The overall rate of change in parotid volume during RT was−1.30% per fraction (−1.67% and−0.91% per fraction in≥31 Gy and<31 Gy mean planned parotid dose groups, respectively, p = 0.0004). The movement of parotid borders was greater in the≥31 Gy mean parotid dose group compared with the<31 Gy group (0.22% per fraction and 0.14% per fraction for the lateral border and 0.19% per fraction and 0.06% per fraction for the medial border, respectively). The median change in body weight was−7.4% (range, 0.75% to−17.5%) during RT. A positive correlation was noted between change in body weight and parotid volume during the course of RT (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = 0.66, p<0.01). Head and neck IMRT results in a volume loss of the parotid gland, which is related to the planned parotid dose, and the patient's weight loss during RT.

  10. Comparison of Complications in Parotid Surgery With Harmonic Scalpel Versus Cold Instruments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyong; Yu, Yang; Li, Dapeng; Dong, Li

    2017-02-22

    Complications following parotid surgery with harmonic scalpel versus cold instruments were seldom discussed. The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical record of 94 patients who received parotid surgery at Tianjin National Clinical Research Center for Cancer between January 2012 and October 2015, and compared the complications in patients operated with either Harmonic FCS9 (HF) or traditional cold instruments (CI). The mean operative time was 65.1 minutes in HF group versus 88.9 minutes for CI group. Intraoperative blood loss was 35 mL in HF group versus 55 mL in CI group. The mean drainage time was 3.7 days in HF group compared with 4.9 days in CI group. The mean total drainage volume was 62 mL in HF group versus 89 mL in CI group. The occurrence of Frey syndrome showed no difference in these 2 groups. Thus, the use of the HF in the surgical treatment of parotid disease is safe and confers advantages over conventional methods of parotid dissection.

  11. Automated Segmentation of the Parotid Gland Based on Atlas Registration and Machine Learning: A Longitudinal MRI Study in Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Cheng, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yu, David S.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parotid segmentation method to monitor radiation-induced parotid gland changes in patients after head and neck radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The proposed method combines the atlas registration method, which captures the global variation of anatomy, with a machine learning technology, which captures the local statistical features, to automatically segment the parotid glands from the MRIs. The segmentation method consists of 3 major steps. First, an atlas (pre-RT MRI and manually contoured parotid gland mask) is built for each patient. A hybrid deformable image registration is used to map the pre-RT MRI to the post-RT MRI, and the transformation is applied to the pre-RT parotid volume. Second, the kernel support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the subject-specific atlas pair consisting of multiple features (intensity, gradient, and others) from the aligned pre-RT MRI and the transformed parotid volume. Third, the well-trained kernel SVM is used to differentiate the parotid from surrounding tissues in the post-RT MRIs by statistically matching multiple texture features. A longitudinal study of 15 patients undergoing head and neck RT was conducted: baseline MRI was acquired prior to RT, and the post-RT MRIs were acquired at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The resulting segmentations were compared with the physicians' manual contours. Results: Successful parotid segmentation was achieved for all 15 patients (42 post-RT MRIs). The average percentage of volume differences between the automated segmentations and those of the physicians' manual contours were 7.98% for the left parotid and 8.12% for the right parotid. The average volume overlap was 91.1% ± 1.6% for the left parotid and 90.5% ± 2.4% for the right parotid. The parotid gland volume reduction at follow-up was 25% at 3 months, 27% at 6 months, and 16% at 12 months. Conclusions: We have validated our

  12. Automated Segmentation of the Parotid Gland Based on Atlas Registration and Machine Learning: A Longitudinal MRI Study in Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Cheng, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yu, David S.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop an automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parotid segmentation method to monitor radiation-induced parotid gland changes in patients after head and neck radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials The proposed method combines the atlas registration method, which captures the global variation of anatomy, with a machine learning technology, which captures the local statistical features, to automatically segment the parotid glands from the MRIs. The segmentation method consists of 3 major steps. First, an atlas (pre-RT MRI and manually contoured parotid gland mask) is built for each patient. A hybrid deformable image registration is used to map the pre-RT MRI to the post-RT MRI, and the transformation is applied to the pre-RT parotid volume. Second, the kernel support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the subject-specific atlas pair consisting of multiple features (intensity, gradient, and others) from the aligned pre-RT MRI and the transformed parotid volume. Third, the well-trained kernel SVM is used to differentiate the parotid from surrounding tissues in the post-RT MRIs by statistically matching multiple texture features. A longitudinal study of 15 patients undergoing head and neck RT was conducted: baseline MRI was acquired prior to RT, and the post-RT MRIs were acquired at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The resulting segmentations were compared with the physicians' manual contours. Results Successful parotid segmentation was achieved for all 15 patients (42 post-RT MRIs). The average percentage of volume differences between the automated segmentations and those of the physicians' manual contours were 7.98% for the left parotid and 8.12% for the right parotid. The average volume overlap was 91.1% ± 1.6% for the left parotid and 90.5% ± 2.4% for the right parotid. The parotid gland volume reduction at follow-up was 25% at 3 months, 27% at 6 months, and 16% at 12 months. Conclusions We have validated our automated

  13. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects: A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette; Cotteleer, Femmy; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. Single doses up to 40 Gy were applied. Parotid saliva samples were collected, and the three lobes of the parotid gland were examined individually on the macro- and micromorphologic level up to 1 year after irradiation. Results: Dose-dependent loss of gland weight was observed 1 year after total or partial X-irradiation. Weight loss of the glands correlated very well with loss of secretory function. Irradiating the cranial 50% volume (implicating a shielded lateral lobe) resulted in substantially more damage in terms of weight loss and loss of secretory function than 50% caudal irradiation (shielding the ventral and dorsal lobe). Histologic examinations of the glands 1 year after irradiation revealed that the shielded lateral lobe was severely affected, in contrast to the shielded ventral and dorsal lobes. Time studies showed that irradiation of the cranial 50% volume caused late development of secondary damage in the shielded lateral lobe, becoming manifest between 240 and 360 days after irradiation. The possible clinical significance of this finding is discussed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the observed region-dependent volume effect for late function loss in the rat parotid gland after partial irradiation is mainly caused by secondary events in the shielded lateral lobe. The most probable first step (primary radiation event) in the development of this secondary damage is radiation exposure to the hilus region (located between the ventral and dorsal lobe). By injuring major excretory ducts and supply routes for blood and nerves in this area, the facility system necessary for proper functioning of the nonexposed lateral lobe is seriously affected

  14. Ultrasonic Nakagami-parameter characterization of parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy: A feasibility study of late toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yuefeng; Tridandapani, Srini; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian; Bruner, Deborah W.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The study aims to investigate whether Nakagami parameters—estimated from the statistical distribution of the backscattered ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) signals—could provide a means for quantitative characterization of parotid-gland injury resulting from head-and-neck radiotherapy. Methods: A preliminary clinical study was conducted with 12 postradiotherapy patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Each participant underwent one ultrasound study in which ultrasound scans were performed in the longitudinal, i.e., vertical orientation on the bilateral parotids. For the 12 patients, the mean radiation dose to the parotid glands was 37.7 ± 9.5 Gy, and the mean follow-up time was 16.3 ± 4.8 months. All enrolled patients experienced grade 1 or 2 late salivary-gland toxicity (RTOG/EORTC morbidity scale). The normal parotid glands served as the control group. The Nakagami-scaling and Nakagami-shape parameters were computed from the RF data to quantify radiation-induced parotid-gland changes. Results: Significant differences in Nakagami parameters were observed between the normal and postradiotherapy parotid glands. Compared with the control group, the Nakagami-scaling parameter of the postradiotherapy group decreased by 25.8% (p < 0.001), and the Nakagami-shape parameter decreased by 31.3% (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 for the Nakagami-scaling parameter and was 0.95 for the Nakagami-shape parameter, which further demonstrated the diagnostic efficiency of the Nakagami parameters. Conclusions: Nakagami parameters could be used to quantitatively measure parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy. Moreover, the clinical feasibility was demonstrated and this study provides meaningful preliminary data for future clinical investigation.

  15. Sodium tungstate on some biochemical parameters of the parotid salivary gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a short-term study.

    PubMed

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Nicolau, José

    2009-02-01

    Several studies have shown the antidiabetic properties of sodium tungstate. In this study, we evaluated some biochemical parameters of the parotid salivary gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with sodium tungstate solution (2 mg/ml). The studied groups were: untreated control (UC), treated control (TC), untreated diabetic (UD), and treated diabetic (TD). After 2 and 6 weeks of treatment, parotid gland was removed and total protein and sialic acid (free and total) concentration and amylase and peroxidase activities were determined. Data were compared by variance analysis and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The sodium tungstate treatment modestly decreased the glycemia of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. At week 2 of the study, parotid gland of diabetic rats presented a reduction of total protein concentration (55%) and an increase of amylase (120%) and peroxidase (160%) activities, free (150%) and total (170%) sialic acid concentration. No alteration in the evaluated parameters at week 6 of the study was observed. Sodium tungstate presented no significant effect in parotid gland. Our results suggest that diabetes causes initial modification in biochemical composition of parotid. However, this gland showed a recovery capacity after 6 week of the experimental time. Sodium tungstate has no effect in peripheral tissues, such as salivary glands.

  16. A safe transoral surgical approach to parapharyngeal tumor arising from deep lobe of parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Manuele; Capuano, Francesco; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Pace, Annalisa; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Vella, Paola; Moffa, Antonio; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The management of parapharyngeal tumor is surgical, but the approach remains a challenge. Attention should be paid to avoidance intra-operative bleeding or cranial nerves damage. We report a case of a 67-year-old male complaining of left-ear fullness. A submucosal mass arising from the lateral wall of oropharynx on the left side was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a mass arising from the parotid gland, in particular from the deep lobe, and a fine needle biopsy was compatible with “Warthin tumor.” We performed a mini-invasive transoral approach under magnification, previous isolation of homolateral vessels. The decision on which surgical approach to be used is determined by site, size vascularity, and histology of the tumor. A literature review of the main surgical approaches was performed. We performed a combined transoral dissection under magnification with cervicotomic exposure of the neck vascular bundle allowing to dissect the tumor and manage any intra-operative complications. PMID:28228953

  17. Purification and characterization of a high-Mr carbonic anhydrase from sheep parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Fernley, R T; Coghlan, J P; Wright, R D

    1988-01-01

    Approximately half the carbonic anhydrase activity of sheep parotid-gland homogenate is derived from a high-Mr protein [Fernley, Wright & Coghlan (1979) FEBS Lett. 105, 299-302]. This enzyme has now been purified to homogeneity, and its properties were compared with those of the well-characterized sheep carbonic anhydrase II. The protein has an apparent Mr of 540,000 as measured by gel filtration under non-denaturing conditions and an apparent subunit Mr of 45,000 as measured by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. After deglycosylation with the enzyme N-glycanase the protein migrates with an apparent Mr of 36,000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The CO2-hydrating activity was 340 units/mg compared with 488 units/mg for sheep carbonic anhydrase II measured under identical conditions. This enzyme does not, however, hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl acetate. The enzyme contains 0.8 g-atom of zinc/mol of protein subunit. The peptide maps of the two carbonic anhydrases differ significantly from one another, indicating they are not related closely structurally. Unlike the carbonic anhydrase II isoenzyme, which has a blocked N-terminus, the high-Mr enzyme has a free glycine residue at its N-terminus. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3124821

  18. Nicotine derived genotoxic effects in human primary parotid gland cells as assessed in vitro by comet assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and chromosome aberrations test.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Steussloff, Gudrun; Koehler, Christian; Burghartz, Marc; Scherzed, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2014-08-01

    Genotoxic effects of nicotine were described in different human cells including salivary gland cells. Based on the high nicotine concentration in saliva of smokers or patients using therapeutic nicotine patches, the current study was performed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of nicotine in human salivary gland cells. Therefore, primary salivary gland cells from 10 patients undergoing parotid gland surgery were exposed to nicotine concentrations between 1 μM and 1000 μM for 1 h in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation. The acinar phenotype was proven by immunofluorescent staining of alpha-amylase. Genotoxic effects were evaluated using the Comet assay, the micronucleus test and the chromosome aberration test. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue exclusion test and Caspase-3 assay. Nicotine was able to induce genotoxic effects in all three assays. The chromosome aberration test was the most sensitive and increases in numerical and structural (chromatid-type and chromosome-type) aberrations were seen at ≥1 μM, whereas increases in micronuclei frequency were detected at 10 μM and DNA damage as measured in the Comet assay was noted at >100 μM. No cytotoxic damage or influence of apoptosis could be demonstrated. Nicotine as a possible risk factor for tumor initiation in salivary glands is still discussed controversially. Our results demonstrated the potential of nicotine to induce genotoxic effects in salivary gland cells. These results were observed at saliva nicotine levels similar to those found after oral or transdermal exposure to nicotine and suggest the necessity of careful monitoring of the use of nicotine in humans.

  19. Dosimetric consequences of the parotid glands using CT-to-CBCT deformable registration during IMRT for late stage head and neck cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conill, Annette L.

    Patients receiving Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for late stage head and neck (HN) cancer often experience anatomical changes due to weight loss, tumor regression, and positional changes of normal anatomy (1). As a result, the actual dose delivered may vary from the original treatment plan. The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate the dosimetric consequences of the parotid glands during the course of treatment, and (b) to determine if there would be an optimal timeframe for replanning. Nineteen locally advanced HN cancer patients underwent definitive IMRT. Each patient received an initial computerized tomography simulation (CT-SIM) scan and weekly cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scans. A Deformable Image Registration (DIR) was performed between the CT-SIM and CBCT of the parotid glands and Planning Target Volumes (PTVs) using the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and the Velocity deformation software. A recalculation of the dose was performed on the weekly CBCTs using the original monitor units. The parameters for evaluation of our method were: the changes in volume of the PTVs and parotid glands, the dose coverage of the PTVs, the lateral displacement in the Center of Mass (COM), the mean dose, and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) of the parotid glands. The studies showed a reduction of the volume in the PTVs and parotids, a medial displacement in COM, and alterations of the mean dose to the parotid glands as compared to the initial plans. Differences were observed for the dose volume coverage of the PTVs and NTCP of the parotid gland values between the initial plan and our proposed method utilizing deformable registration-based dose calculations.

  20. Stationary facial nerve paresis after surgery for recurrent parotid pleomorphic adenoma: a follow-up study of 219 cases in Denmark in the period 1985-2012.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, Anders; Andreasen, Simon; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Homøe, Preben

    2016-10-01

    The purpose was to assess degree of permanent facial nerve dysfunction after surgery for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (RPA) of the parotid gland, including variables that might influence re-operation outcomes. Nationwide retrospective longitudinal cohort study including a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing surgery for RPA. Of 219 living patients, 198 (92 %) responded and 127 (63 %) reported no facial dysfunction. Statistically significant associations were found between number of surgeries and permanent facial nerve dysfunction of all degrees (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.16-1.78, p = 0.001). A not significant tendency for females to be associated with worse outcome was found (p = 0.073). Risks of different degrees of paresis after the second-fourth surgeries were found (OR 1.86-2.19, p < 0.05). Our study demonstrates a significant correlation between number of surgeries for RPA of the parotid and severity of facial nerve paresis. This is important when informing and planning treatment of these patients.

  1. The Diagnostic Value of B-Mode Sonography in Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Tumors of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Khalife, Ali; Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Davachi, Behrouz; Mashhadi, Leila; Khazaeni, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Different imaging modalities are used to evaluate salivary gland diseases, including tumors. Ultrasonography (US) is the preferred method on account of its ease of use, affordability, safety profile, and good tolerance among patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of US in differentiating malignant from benign parotid tumors, in the context of previous controversy in the literature on this subject. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in patients who presented to Qaem Medical Center with parotid masses and who were candidates for parotidectomy between June 2013 and January 2015. Patients were initially referred for a diagnostic US of the parotid. US examinations were performed and sonographic features were reported. The tumors were then classified as benign or malignanton the basis of literature descriptions of the US features of parotid tumors, and were next diagnosed pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for the purpose of differentiating malignant from benign tumors were then calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (aged 18–92 years) underwent US of parotid masses. Twenty-three tumors were diagnosed as benign and five were diagnosed as malignant. The final histopathologic examination showed 21 benign and seven malignant tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for differentiating malignant from benign tumors were calculated as 57%, 95%, 80%, and 87%, respectively. Conclusion: US has a high specificity in differentiating between malignant and benign tumors. However, fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy is advocated for an exact diagnosis. PMID:27738606

  2. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity.

  3. Impact of Node Negative Target Volume Delineation on Contralateral Parotid Gland Dose Sparing Using IMRT in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, William J; Urban, Erich; Bayliss, R Adam; Harari, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable practice variation in treatment of the node negative (N0) contralateral neck in patients with head and neck cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of N0 neck target delineation volume on radiation dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Following institutional review board approval, 12 patients with head and neck cancer were studied. All had indications for treatment of the N0 neck, such as midline base of tongue or soft palate extension or advanced ipsilateral nodal disease. The N0 neck volumes were created using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group head and neck contouring atlas. The physician-drawn N0 neck clinical target volume (CTV) was expanded by 25% to 200% to generate volume variation, followed by a 3-mm planning target volume (PTV) expansion. Surrounding organs at risk were contoured and complete intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were generated for each N0 volume expansion. The median N0 target volume drawn by the radiation oncologist measured 93 cm(3) (range 71-145). Volumetric expansion of the N0 CTV by 25% to 200% increased the resultant mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland by 1.4 to 8.5 Gray (Gy). For example, a 4.1-mm increase in the N0 neck CTV translated to a 2.0-Gy dose increase to the parotid, 7.4 mm to a 4.5 Gy dose increase, and 12.5 mm to an 8.5 Gy dose increase, respectively. The treatment volume designated for the N0 neck has profound impact on resultant dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Variations of up to 15 mm are routine across physicians in target contouring, reflecting individual preference and training expertise. Depending on the availability of immobilization and image guidance techniques, experts commonly recommend 3 to 10 mm margin expansions to generate the PTV. Careful attention to the original volume of the N0 neck CTV, as well as expansion margins, is important in achieving effective contralateral gland sparing to reduce the resultant xerostomia and dysguesia that may ensue

  4. Parotid Glands Dose–Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Replanning in Radiation Therapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Fernandes, Laura L.; Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E.; Cornwall, Craig; Feng, Mary; Schipper, Mathew J.; Balter, James M.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiation therapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help make decisions regarding adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemoirradiation underwent daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with clinical setup alignment based on the C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results: Thirty-six parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy, and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were −4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands in which delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with posttreatment salivary outputs at almost all posttherapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions (on average, SD 3.6 Gy) characterized the dose–effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident at first fraction (r=.92, P<.0001) because of complex setup deviations (eg, rotations and neck articulations), uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions: After daily translational setup corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose–saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were

  5. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up.

  6. [Possible relation between viruses and oromaxillofacial tumors. IV. Presence of the herpes antigen and anti-herpes antibodies in patients with tumors of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Stoian, M; Suru, M; Zaharia, O; Constantinescu, E; Goldstein, I; Nastac, E

    1987-01-01

    The presence of herpesvirus antigen and of antiherpesvirus antibodies was detected in 46% and in 36.3%, respectively, of the patients bearing parotid gland tumors. Very high titers of antiherpesvirus antibodies were found in 70.6% of the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  7. Quantification of Trade-Off Between Parotid Gland Sparing and Planning Target Volume Underdosages in Clinically Node-Negative Head-and-Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kruijf, Wilhelmus de . E-mail: kruijf.de.w@bvi.nl; Heijmen, Ben; Levendag, Peter C.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To quantify the trade-off between parotid gland sparing and planning target volume (PTV) underdosages for head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A planning study was performed for 4 patients with either soft palate or tonsil tumors treated with external radiotherapy up to 46 Gy. The trade-off between underdosages in the PTV and sparing of the parotid glands was investigated by systematically varying the optimization objectives for the inverse planning. A new way of presenting dose-volume information allows easy detection of small PTV subvolumes with underdosages that cannot be assessed in conventional cumulative dose-volume histograms. A simple radiobiological model to estimate the control probability for an electively irradiated neck level was developed. Results: The average dose to the parotid glands can decrease by >10 Gy by allowing the PTV to be underdosed in such a way that the radiobiological model predicts a decrease in subclinical disease control probability of (typically) 1% to a few percent. Conclusion: The trade-off between parotid gland sparing and underdosages in the PTV has been quantified by the use of an alternative method to present dose-volume information and by the use of a radiobiological model to predict subclinical disease control probability.

  8. A Comparison of Dose-Response Models for the Parotid Gland in a Large Group of Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Houweling, Antonetta C.; Philippens, Marielle E.P.; Dijkema, Tim; Roesink, Judith M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: The dose-response relationship of the parotid gland has been described most frequently using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. However, various other normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models exist. We evaluated in a large group of patients the value of six NTCP models that describe the parotid gland dose response 1 year after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 patients with head-and-neck tumors were included in this prospective parotid gland dose-response study. The patients were treated with either conventional radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Dose-volume histograms for the parotid glands were derived from three-dimensional dose calculations using computed tomography scans. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before and 1 year after radiotherapy. A threshold of 25% of the pretreatment flow rate was used to define a complication. The evaluated models included the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, the mean dose model, the relative seriality model, the critical volume model, the parallel functional subunit model, and the dose-threshold model. The goodness of fit (GOF) was determined by the deviance and a Monte Carlo hypothesis test. Ranking of the models was based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Results: None of the models was rejected based on the evaluation of the GOF. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model based on the AIC. The TD{sub 50} in these models was approximately 39 Gy. Conclusions: The mean dose model was preferred for describing the dose-response relationship of the parotid gland.

  9. TH-E-BRF-09: Gaussian Mixture Model Analysis of Radiation-Induced Parotid-Gland Injury: An Ultrasound Study of Acute and Late Xerostomia in Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T; Yu, D; Beitler, J; Curran, W; Yang, X; Tridandapani, S; Bruner, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia (dry mouth), secondary to parotid-gland injury, is a distressing side-effect in head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT). This study's purpose is to develop a novel ultrasound technique to quantitatively evaluate post-RT parotid-gland injury. Methods: Recent ultrasound studies have shown that healthy parotid glands exhibit homogeneous echotexture, whereas post-RT parotid glands are often heterogeneous, with multiple hypoechoic (inflammation) or hyperechoic (fibrosis) regions. We propose to use a Gaussian mixture model to analyze the ultrasonic echo-histogram of the parotid glands. An IRB-approved clinical study was conducted: (1) control-group: 13 healthy-volunteers, served as the control; (2) acutetoxicity group − 20 patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 8.9 years, follow-up: 2.0±0.8 months); and (3) late-toxicity group − 18 patients (mean age: 60.7 ± 7.3 years, follow-up: 20.1±10.4 months). All patients experienced RTOG grade 1 or 2 salivary-gland toxicity. Each participant underwent an ultrasound scan (10 MHz) of the bilateral parotid glands. An echo-intensity histogram was derived for each parotid and a Gaussian mixture model was used to fit the histogram using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The quality of the fitting was evaluated with the R-squared value. Results: (1) Controlgroup: all parotid glands fitted well with one Gaussian component, with a mean intensity of 79.8±4.9 (R-squared>0.96). (2) Acute-toxicity group: 37 of the 40 post-RT parotid glands fitted well with two Gaussian components, with a mean intensity of 42.9±7.4, 73.3±12.2 (R-squared>0.95). (3) Latetoxicity group: 32 of the 36 post-RT parotid fitted well with 3 Gaussian components, with mean intensities of 49.7±7.6, 77.2±8.7, and 118.6±11.8 (R-squared>0.98). Conclusion: RT-associated parotid-gland injury is common in head-and-neck RT, but challenging to assess. This work has demonstrated that the Gaussian mixture model of the echo-histogram could quantify acute and late

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation and extracellular matrix gene expression in pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Aigner, T; Neureiter, D; Völker, U; Belke, J; Kirchner, T

    1998-10-01

    Mesenchymal and epithelial cell differentiation are assumed to be dichotomic primary events in embryonic development. In this study, pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland were analysed as a model which shows morphological features of both epithelial and mesenchymal tissue types. Using matrix gene expression profiles as a supplementary criterion for the identification of cellular phenotypes, areas with unequivocal epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation could be demonstrated. Many areas displayed a transitional phenotype with cells showing both epithelial and mesenchymal features. The data provide evidence that epithelial-mesenchymal transitions represent the basic principle of the tisuse heterogeneity in pleomorphic adenomas. Thus, pleomorphic adenomas demonstrate the potential of adult (neoplastic) epithelial cells to transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells in vivo.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer of AQP1 to the irradiated minipig parotid gland restores fluid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Zourelias, L; Wu, C; Edwards, PC; Trombetta, M; Passineau, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Xerostomia is a common side effect of ionizing radiation used to treat head and neck cancer. A groundbreaking Phase I human clinical trial utilizing Adenoviral gene transfer of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) to a single salivary gland of individuals suffering from radiation-induced xerostomia has recently been reported. Unfortunately, the limitations of the Adenoviral vector system utilized in this pioneering trial preclude its advancement to a Phase II trial and we have thus undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer (UAGT) as an alternative means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy to the salivary gland by comparing head-to-head with the canonical Adenoviral vector in a swine model. Findings Swine irradiated unilaterally with a 10Gy electron beam targeted at the parotid gland suffered from significant, sustained hyposalivation that was bilateral, despite irradiation being confined to the targeted gland. Unilateral AQP1 gene therapy with UAGT resulted in bilateral restoration of stimulated salivary flow at 48 hours and one week post-treatment (1.62+/−0.48ml, 1.87+/−0.45ml) to pre-injury levels (1.34+/−0.14ml) in a manner comparable to Adenoviral delivery (2.32+/−0.6ml, 1.33+/−0.97ml). Conclusions UAGT can replace the Adenoviral vector as a means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy in the irradiated swine model and is a candidate for advancement to a Phase I human clinical trial. PMID:25871828

  12. Regional radiation dose susceptibility within the parotid gland: Effects on salivary loss and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Haley Reinsberg, Stefan; Hovan, Allan; Thomas, Steven; Wu, Jonn

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is one of the most likely late toxic effects of radiotherapy treatment in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Modern treatment techniques can incorporate knowledge of complication risk into treatment plans. To this end, the authors attempt to quantify the regional radiotherapy dose-dependence of salivary output loss and recovery in a prospective study. Methods: Salivary output was collected from patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency between February 2008 and May 2013. Regional dose-dependence (i.e., dose susceptibility) of loss and recovery is quantified using nonparametric (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, local linear regression) and parametric (least-sum of squares, least-median of squares) techniques. Results: Salivary flow recovery was seen in 79 of 102 patients considered (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon sign rank test). Output loss was strongly correlated with left- and right parotid combined dose φ = min (D{sub L},  45 Gy) + min (D{sub R},  45 Gy), and can be accurately predicted. Median early loss (three months) was 72% of baseline, while median overall loss (1 yr) was 56% of baseline. Fitting an exponential model to whole parotid yields dose sensitivities A{sub 3m} = 0.0604 Gy{sup −1} and A{sub 1y} = 0.0379 Gy{sup −1}. Recovery was not significantly associated with dose. Hints of lateral organ sub-segment dose–response dimorphism were observed. Conclusions: Sub-segmentation appears to predict neither loss nor recovery with any greater precision than whole parotid mean dose, though it is not any worse. Sparing the parotid to a combined dose φ of <50 Gy is recommended for a patient to keep ≈40% of baseline function and thus avoid severe xerostomia at 12 months post-treatment. It seems unlikely that a population’s mean recovery will exceed 20%–30% of baseline output at 1 yr after radiotherapy treatment using current (whole-organ based) clinical guidelines.

  13. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and a Comprehensive Review of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Cerrillo, Javier; Moreno García del Real, Carmen; Díez, Juan J.; Alonso-Gordoa, Teresa; Pulido, Enrique Grande

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies from cells derived from the neural crest with neuroendocrine differentiation. Despite the differences in the site of origin, nomenclature, biological behavior, and functional status, NETs share certain ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features. NETs are relative rare tumors with an annual incidence of 5.76 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants and they usually appear in the gastrointestinal tract or in the pulmonary system. Head and neck NETs are uncommon with limited information regarding frequency, most of them showing small cell carcinoma features. NETs that arise from the salivary glands are exceedingly rare. Regardless of their low frequency, it is imperative to accurately differentiate these tumors from the much more common squamous cell carcinomas and from metastasis from another primary tumor due to the completely different therapeutic approaches and prognosis. The diagnosis is based on the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and immunohistochemical staining and on an exhaustive work-up. Hereby, we report a case of a moderately differentiated NET of the parotid gland that was treated with a complete parotidectomy. We summarize the clues that led to the final diagnosis and major strategies that were employed to manage the patient. We also perform a comprehensive review of the scarce available literature on this topic. PMID:27610258

  14. Cystic Dilatation of the Parotid Duct of a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cystic dilatation of the parotid duct of a goat was diagnosed by exploratory surgery and analysis of cyst contents. The cyst and its associated salivary gland were surgically removed. This case is compared with the more common salivary mucocele. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7397617

  15. Reducing Xerostomia After Chemo-IMRT for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Beyond Sparing the Parotid Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Little, Michael; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Vineberg, Karen; Cornwall, Craig; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To assess whether, in addition to sparing the parotid glands (PGs), xerostomia after chemotherapy plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (chemo-IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer is affected by reducing the dose to the other salivary glands. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, 78 patients with Stage III-IV oropharynx/nasopharynx cancer underwent chemo-IMRT, with the aim of sparing the parts of the bilateral PGs, oral cavity (OC) containing the minor salivary glands, and contralateral submandibular gland (SMG) outside the target (when contralateral level I was not a target). Before therapy and periodically for 24 months, validated patient-reported xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) scores and observer-graded xerostomia scores were recorded. Also, the stimulated and unstimulated saliva was measured selectively from each of the PGs and SMGs. The mean OC doses served as surrogates of minor salivary gland dysfunction. Regression models assessed the XQ and observer-graded xerostomia predictors. Results: Statistically significant predictors of the XQ score on univariate analysis included the OC, PG, and SMG mean doses and the baseline XQ score, time since RT, and both stimulated and unstimulated PG saliva flow rates. Similar factors were statistically significant predictors of observer-graded xerostomia. The OC, PG, and SMG mean doses were moderately intercorrelated (r = 0.47-0.55). On multivariate analyses, after adjusting for the PG and SMG doses, the OC mean dose (p < .0001), interval from RT (p < .0001), and stimulated PG saliva (p < .0025) were significant predictors of the XQ scores and the OC mean dose and time for observer-graded xerostomia. Although scatter plots showed no thresholds, an OC mean dose of <40 Gy and contralateral SMG mean dose of <50 Gy were each associated with low patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia at almost all post-therapy points. Conclusion: The PG, SMG, and OC mean doses were significant predictors of both patient

  16. Low-level (gallium-aluminum-arsenide) laser irradiation of Par-C10 cells and acinar cells of rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Onizawa, Katsuhiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Matsuki, Miwako; Ohta, Kazumasa; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Oda, Yutaka; Shimono, Masaki

    2009-03-01

    We investigated cell response, including cell proliferation and expression of heat stress protein and bcl-2, to clarify the influence of low-level [gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) diode] laser irradiation on Par-C10 cells derived from the acinar cells of rat parotid glands. Furthermore, we also investigated amylase release and cell death from irradiation in acinar cells from rat parotid glands. The number of Par-C10 cells in the laser-irradiated groups was higher than that in the non-irradiated group at days 5 and 7, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Greater expression of heat shock protein (HSP)25 and bcl-2 was seen on days 1 and 3 in the irradiated group. Assay of the released amylase showed no significant difference statistically between the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group. Trypan blue exclusion assay revealed that there was no difference in the ratio of dead to live cells between the irradiated and the non-irradiated groups. These results suggest that low-level laser irradiation promotes cell proliferation and expression of anti-apoptosis proteins in Par-C10 cells, but it does not significantly affect amylase secretion and does not induce rapid cell death in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid glands.

  17. Augmentation of cholinergic-mediated amylase release by forskolin in mouse parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.L.; Singh, J.C.; Jacobson, K.L.

    1985-12-30

    Cholinergic-mediated amylase release in mouse parotid acini was augmented by forskolin; the potency but not the maximal response to carbachol was altered. Amylase released by carbachol plus forskolin was dependent on extracellular calcium and was mimicked by the calcium ionophore, A23187 plus forskolin. Forskolin was also shown to enhance carbachol-stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into isolated acini. Hydroxylamine, nitroprusside, and 8-bromo-c-GMP each in combination with forskolin mimicked the effects of carbachol plus forskolin on amylase release. In the presence of carbachol (10/sup -8/M) forskolin did not augment c-AMP levels. However, in the presence of carbachol (5 x 10/sup -7/ M) or hydroxylamine (50 ..mu..M) forskolin did significantly augment c-AMP accumulation. These results suggest that calcium and c-GMP may mediate the augmentation of cholinergic-mediated amylase release by effects on c-AMP metabolism. 21 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  18. Cellular phone use and risk of benign and malignant parotid gland tumors--a nationwide case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Jarus-Hakak, Avital; Cardis, Elisabeth; Deutch, Yonit; Duvdevani, Shay; Zultan, Ahuva; Novikov, Ilya; Freedman, Laurence; Wolf, Michael

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this nationwide study was to assess the association between cellular phone use and development of parotid gland tumors (PGTs). The methods were based on the international INTERPHONE study that aimed to evaluate possible adverse effects of cellular phone use. The study included 402 benign and 58 malignant incident cases of PGTs diagnosed in Israel at age 18 years or more, in 2001-2003, and 1,266 population individually matched controls. For the entire group, no increased risk of PGTs was observed for ever having been a regular cellular phone user (odds ratio = 0.87; p = 0.3) or for any other measure of exposure investigated. However, analysis restricted to regular users or to conditions that may yield higher levels of exposure (e.g., heavy use in rural areas) showed consistently elevated risks. For ipsilateral use, the odds ratios in the highest category of cumulative number of calls and call time without use of hands-free devices were 1.58 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.24) and 1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.13), respectively. The risk for contralateral use was not significantly different from 1. A positive dose-response trend was found for these measurements. Based on the largest number of benign PGT patients reported to date, our results suggest an association between cellular phone use and PGTs.

  19. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of cystic benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in patients at risk for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finfer, M D; Gallo, L; Perchick, A; Schinella, R A; Burstein, D E

    1990-01-01

    Cystic benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLL), a previously rare lesion of the parotid gland consisting of marked lymphoid hyperplasia with accompanying squamous-lined cysts, has recently been described in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS risk factors. Thirteen fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples of parotid gland masses from patients with AIDS (one case), AIDS risk factors (five cases) or denial of AIDS risk factors (two cases) and a histopathologic diagnosis of BLL were examined. The FNA features that correlated best with the histopathologic findings were (1) a heterogeneous lymphoid population, (2) scattered single and/or clustered foamy macrophages and (3) superficial and/or anucleated squamous cells. Most aspirates showed some combination of these three components. The differential diagnostic considerations, the clinical and radiologic correlations and the relationship of this lesion to HIV infection are discussed. Patients with parotid masses whose aspirates consist of some combination of squamous cells, lymphocytes and foamy macrophages should be questioned for possible AIDS risk factors.

  20. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  1. Hyperglycemia simultaneously induces initial caries development and enhances spontaneous occlusal surface wear in molar teeth related to parotid gland disorder in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Taiki; Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Taniguchi, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and salivary gland dysfunction are major factors that induce dental caries in experimental animals, but there are no reports analyzing the association of dental caries and salivary glands in an animal model of diabetes mellitus (DM). To clarify the initial development of dental caries and preceding salivary gland disorder, we performed a histopathological analysis on teeth and salivary glands in diabetic Wistar rats 7 weeks after alloxan treatment (DM group) in comparison with nondiabetic rats (Non-DM group) and functional analysis on saliva secretion during the experimental period. Pilocarpine-induced salivary fluid secretion in diabetic rats gradually decreased with continuous hyperglycemia from immediately after alloxan treatment to the time of autopsy. Histopathologically, Oil Red O-positive lipid droplets accumulated in the acinar cells of the parotid gland. No tooth was stereoscopically defined as having dental caries in any of the rats in either group; however, the external appearance remarkably changed owing to occlusal wear in almost all molars in the DM group. The initial lesions of dental caries, appearing as micro-defects in dentin with bacterial colonization on the molar surface, were identified using histopathological analysis, and the incidence in the DM group was more than twice that in the Non-DM group. In conclusion, hyperglycemia simultaneously induces initial caries development and enhances spontaneous occlusal wear in molar teeth of Wistar rats 7 weeks after alloxan treatment. The parotid gland dysfunction caused by hyperglycemia may be mostly involved in the pathogenesis of occlusal wear as well as in dental caries in this diabetic model. PMID:28190924

  2. Improvement of anti-nutritional effect resulting from β-glucanase specific expression in the parotid gland of transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-Zeng; Cai, Jin-Shun; Zhao, Shuai; Sun, Yu-Ping; Wang, Jing-Lan; Jiang, Yong; Shu, Gang; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2017-02-01

    β-Glucan is the predominant anti-nutritional factors in monogastric animal feed. Although β-glucanase supplementation in diet can help to eliminate the adverse effects, enzyme stability is substantially modified during the feed manufacturing process. To determine whether the expression of endogenous β-glucanase gene (GLU) in vivo can improve digestibility of dietary β-glucan and absorption of nutrients, we successfully produced transgenic pigs via nuclear transfer which express the GLU from Paenibacillus polymyxa CP7 in the parotid gland. In three live transgenic founders, β-glucanase activities in the saliva were 3.2, 0.07 and 0.03 U/mL, respectively, and interestingly the enzyme activities increased in the pigs from 178 days old to 789 days old. From the feed the amount of gross energy, crude protein and crude fat absorbed by the transgenic pigs was significantly higher than the non-transgenic pigs. Meanwhile the moisture content of the feces was significantly reduced in transgenic pigs compared with the non-transgenic pigs. Furthermore, in all positive G1 pigs, β-glucanase activity was detectable and the highest enzyme activity reached 3.5 U/mL in saliva. Also, crude protein digestion was significantly higher in G1 transgenic pigs than in control pigs. Taken together, our data showed that the transgenic β-glucanase exerted its biological catalytic function in vivo in the saliva, and the improved performance of the transgenic pigs could be accurately passed on to the offspring, indicating a promising alternative approach to improving nutrient availability was established to improve utilization of livestock feed through transgenic animals.

  3. The dilemma of parotid gland and pharyngeal constrictor muscles preservation-Is daily online image guidance required? A dosimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Olivia; Forde, Elizabeth; Leech, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    With margin reduction common in head and neck radiotherapy, it is critical that the dosimetric effects of setup deviations are quantified. With past studies focusing on the quantification of positional and volumetric changes of organs at risk (OARs), this study aimed to measure the dose delivered to these the parotid gland (PG) and pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCMs) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Furthermore, this investigation sought to establish a potential time trend of change in dose delivered to target volumes secondary to ascertaining the need for daily image guidance (IG) to reduce the dose burden to these important OARs. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for 5 locally advanced head and neck patients׳ plans were created and mapped to weekly CBCTs. Each plan was recalculated without heterogeneity correction allowing for dosimetric comparison. Dosimetric endpoints recorded to assess the effect of positional variation were as per ICRU 83 and included D95 and D98 for the target volumes, mean dose (MD) and V30Gy for the PGs, and V50Gy and MD for the PCMs. Results were deemed statistically significant if p < 0.05. No significant time trends were established for these OARs. A significant decrease in V50Gy was observed for all PCMs (p < 0.001) on all CBCTs relative to the original plan. Regarding target volumes, a highly significant decrease in MD (MD = 20Gy, CI: -20.310 to -19.820) in D98 of the high-dose planning target volume (PTV [70Gy]; PTVD98% = 70Gy) for case 3 was found (p ≤ 0.001). A nonpredictable, yet significant dosimetric effect was found. A clinically acceptable balance must be achieved between OAR dosimetry and target coverage as can be achieved by frequent IG.

  4. Binding sites of Ulex europaeus-lectin I in human parotid gland. A light-microscopic and ultrastructural study using the immunoperoxidase technique and immunocryoultramicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Born, I A; Zimmer, K P; Schwechheimer, K; Maier, H; Möller, P

    1987-05-01

    Twenty non-neoplastic parotid glands (removed during neck dissection for regional tumours) were examined for cellular and subcellular binding sites of Ulex europaeus-lectin I (UEA-I), a lectin reported to be specific for alpha-L-fucose. For light microscopy, an extended peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was applied; for the evaluation of the subcellular localization of bound lectin, three of these glands were examined following immunocryoultramicrotomy and staining by the protein A-gold technique. In addition to the known cytoplasmic affinity of UEA-I for capillary endothelium, acinar cells bound the lectin within the cytoplasmic compartment; the number and distribution of stained acinar cells varied among individuals. Furthermore, cytomembrane-bound labelling that occurred most markedly at the luminar surface was observed in striated-duct epithelium. Using the electron microscope, protein A-gold particles were seen in zymogen granules and in Golgi cisternae of serous acinar cells; primary saliva secreted in the lumina exhibited strong labelling; serous acinar cells had binding sites on their cell membranes, striated-duct epithelium had binding sites on its surface membrane and in the vicinity of apical vesicles. Our results show that UEA-I is a useful tool for the study of the structure and functional states of the parotid gland epithelium and its associated pathological alterations.

  5. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 06: The influence of regional dose sensitivity on salivary loss and recovery in the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H; Thomas, S; Moiseenko, V; Hovan, A; Wu, J

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC 2010) survey of radiation dose-volume effects on salivary gland function has called for improved understanding of intragland dose sensitivity and the effectiveness of partial sparing in salivary glands. Regional dose susceptibility of sagittally- and coronally-sub-segmented parotid gland has been studied. Specifically, we examine whether individual consideration of sub-segments leads to improved prediction of xerostomia compared with whole parotid mean dose. Methods: Data from 102 patients treated for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency were used in this study. Whole mouth stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline), three months, and one year after cessation of radiotherapy. Organ volumes were contoured using treatment planning CT images and sub-segmented into regional portions. Both non-parametric (local regression) and parametric (mean dose exponential fitting) methods were employed. A bootstrap technique was used for reliability estimation and cross-comparison. Results: Salivary loss is described well using non-parametric and mean dose models. Parametric fits suggest a significant distinction in dose response between medial-lateral and anterior-posterior aspects of the parotid (p<0.01). Least-squares and least-median squares estimates differ significantly (p<0.00001), indicating fits may be skewed by noise or outliers. Salivary recovery exhibits a weakly arched dose response: the highest recovery is seen at intermediate doses. Conclusions: Salivary function loss is strongly dose dependent. In contrast no useful dose dependence was observed for function recovery. Regional dose dependence was observed, but may have resulted from a bias in dose distributions.

  6. Predictors of Pathologic Outcome of Focal FDG Uptake in the Parotid Gland Identified on Whole Body FDG PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mabray, Marc C.; Behr, Spencer C.; Naeger, David M.; Flavell, Robert R.; Glastonbury, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test whether patient's primary malignancy type and presence of FDG-avid cervical lymph node(s) are predictors of pathologic outcome of incidental focal FDG-avid parotid lesions. Basic Procedures Retrospective cohort study of pathologically proven incidental cases. Main Findings Focal parotid FDG uptake in the setting of head and neck cancer/melanoma(OR=24.6,p<0.01), lymphoma(OR=7.2,p=0.02), or FDG-avid cervical lymph node(s)(OR=3.6,p=0.07) has a higher odds of representing metastases. No malignant primary parotid tumors were incidentally discovered. Principal Conclusions In patients with head and neck cancer/melanoma, lymphoma, or FDG-avid cervical lymph node(s) there was a higher odds that focal parotid FDG uptake was a metastasis. PMID:26324219

  7. Immediate facial reanimation in oncological parotid surgery with neurorrhaphy of the masseteric-thoracodorsal-facial nerve branch.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Tarabbia, Filippo; Allevi, Fabiana; Colombo, Valeria; Giovanditto, Federica; Latiff, Mahfuz; Lozza, Alessandro; Previtera, Antonino; Cupello, Silvia; Rabbiosi, Dimitri

    2016-06-01

    The extracranial facial nerve may be sacrificed together with the parotid gland during a radical parotidectomy, and immediate reconstruction of the facial nerve is essential to maintain at least part of its function. We report five patients who had had radical parotidectomy (two with postoperative radiotherapy) and immediate (n=3) or recent (n=2) reconstructions of the masseteric-thoracodorsal-facial nerve branch. The first mimetic musculature movements started 6.2 (range 4-8.5) months postoperatively. At 24 months postoperatively clinical evaluation (modified House-Brackmann classification) showed grade V (n=3), grade IV (n=1), and grade III (n=1) repairs. This first clinical series of masseteric-thoracodorsal-facial nerve neurorrhaphies has given encouraging results, and the technique should be considered as an option for immediate or recent reconstruction of branches of the facial nerve, particularly when its trunk is not available for proximal neurorrhaphy.

  8. Efficacy and treatment-related toxicity of radiotherapy for early-stage primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, Kenneth R. . E-mail: kolivier@ufl.edu; Brown, Paul D.; Stafford, Scott L.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Martenson, James A.

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the parotid gland. Methods and materials: Data on 35 consecutive patients seen at Mayo Clinic between 1974 and 2000 with Ann Arbor Stage I and II NHL of the parotid gland were reviewed retrospectively. Radiotherapy was given to 23 patients, and 12 patients were observed. Eight patients received RT to local fields only. In addition to local fields, 9 patients received ipsilateral neck irradiation, and 6 patients received both ipsilateral and contralateral neck irradiation. Results: Median follow-up was 6.5 years (range, 2 months-24 years). Local control was significantly improved in the RT group compared with the observation group (p = 0.03). Both overall survival and disease-specific survival were 90% at 5 years and 71% at 10 years. There was no significant difference in disease-specific survival or overall survival between the RT and observation groups. Conclusions: The overall prognosis for this rare presentation of NHL is excellent. Radiotherapy provided significant improvement in local control with minimal morbidity and should be considered in the treatment of these patients.

  9. Adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma mimicking basal cell adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Cecilia; Clarke, Martha R; Zhang, Lei; Antonescu, Cristina R; Seethala, Raja R

    2015-06-01

    Adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma (AES) is a rare variant of the Ewing family of tumors that resembles classic adamantinoma of bone. AES shows epithelial differentiation and a more complex immunohistochemical expression profile with keratin and basal marker immunoreactivity and can resemble a variety of carcinomas. We report an unusual case of an AES of the parotid gland that mimicked a basal cell adenocarcinoma. Like basal cell adenocarcinoma, this AES showed a nested basaloid proliferation with peripheral palisading in tumor nests with 'basaloid' epithelial differentiation as highlighted by cytokeratin AE1/3 and p40 positivity. However, unlike most basal cell adenocarcinomas, this tumor demonstrated high grade morphology, showed no true ductal or myoepithelial component, and also showed a tendency towards neuroectodermal phenotype with focal rosette formation, CD99 and weak synaptophysin immunoreactivity. EWSR1 and FLI1 fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of a translocation supporting the diagnosis of AES. This is the first case of AES presenting as a primary parotid mass highlighting the potential to be mistaken for primary salivary gland carcinomas, which in addition to basal cell adenocarcinoma include other basaloid tumors such as adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  10. Parotid angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Hallur, Neelakamal H; Zainab, Heena; Shah, Ashwin; Siddiqua, Aaisha

    2014-01-01

    Angiofibromas are rare, benign, locally invasive vascular tumors, which represent 0.05-0.5% of all head and neck tumors. Most frequent site of occurrence is the posterior nasopharynx, called as nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (NA), when these arise outside the nasopharyngeal region they are termed as extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas (ENA). Only 65 cases of ENA have been reported, and the most common site has been reported to be maxilla followed by ethmoids. Other unusual sites of occurrence reported so far in literature are nasal cavity, nasal septum, larynx, sphenoid sinus, pterygomaxillary fissure, infratemporal fossa, cheek, oropharynx, retromolar area, middle turbinate, inferior turbinate, and tonsil. ENA arising from the superficial lobe of parotid gland has not been reported in the literature so far and this case is the first to be reported. PMID:25328316

  11. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and not phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate is the probable precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in agonist-stimulated parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Downes, C P; Hawkins, P T; Irvine, R F

    1986-01-01

    When [3H]inositol-prelabelled rat parotid-gland slices were stimulated with carbachol, noradrenaline or Substance P, the major inositol trisphosphate produced with prolonged exposure to agonists was, in each case, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were present in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate fraction separated by anion-exchange h.p.l.c. Analysis of the inositol trisphosphate head group of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in [32P]Pi-labelled parotid glands showed the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, but no detectable phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]inositol-labelled parotid glands contained an inositol polyphosphate with the chromatographic properties and electrophoretic mobility of an inositol tetrakisphosphate, the probable structure of which was determined to be inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Since an enzyme in erythrocyte membranes is capable of degrading this tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, it is suggested to be the precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in parotid glands. PMID:2432882

  12. A rare malignancy of the parotid gland in a 13-year-old Taiwanese boy: case report of a mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland with molecular study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Michael J; Wu, Pei Ru; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described malignancy of the salivary glands characterized by an ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene. Morphologically, MASC is sometimes difficult to distinguish from acinic cell carcinoma. Consequently, identifying the chromosomal translocation is essential for diagnosis. We present a case of parotid gland MASC in a 13-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Histologic evaluation showed a tumor composed of microcysts, tubular structures, solid nests, or papillary architecture, with secretions within the lumens of the cysts or tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed diffuse positive staining of S-100 protein, cytokeratin 19, and vimentin. ETV6 rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and EN fusion transcripts were verified by reverse transcription (RT-PCR) assay.

  13. Alpha adrenergic drugs inhibit ( sup 3 H)-QNB binding to muscarinic receptors of rat heart, brain and parotid gland membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.; Filep, J.; Zelles, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Alpha adrenergic agonists and antagonists as clonidine, guanfacine, yohimbine, phenylephrine and prazosin inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-QNB binding to rat brain cortex muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR, M-1 subtype), heart (M-2 subtype) and parotid gland homogenate (M-3 subtype) in a dose-dependent competitive fashion. Ki values were between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}3} M. Hill coefficients were about 1. No correlation was found between mAChR inhibiting capacity of these drugs and their activity on alpha adrenergic receptors. In contrast, other transmitters, as dopamine, GABA, glutamic acid, histamine, serotonin, isoproterenol and platelet activating factor (PAF) did not affect the QNB binding.

  14. Extravascular type of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia mimicking parotid gland neoplasia and the possible role of ferritin in the pathogenesis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mignogna, Chiara; Barca, Ida; Di Vito, Anna; Puleo, Francesca; Malara, Natalia; Giudice, Amerigo; Giudice, Mario; Barni, Tullio; Donato, Giuseppe; Cristofaro, Maria Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) is defined as a vascular lesion characterized by extensive proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. This lesion was first described by Pierre Masson in 1923 as intravascular hemangioendothelioma. The most frequent sites of involvement are the skin and subcutis. IPEH comprises ~2% of the vascular tumors of the skin and subcutaneous tissue and it has a predilection for the head, neck, trunk and the extremities. The diagnosis is based on histopathology. We herein present the second case of Masson's tumor of the parotid gland described in literature. The patient was a 70-year-old female. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an irregular lesion with smooth margins, initially considered to be compatible with pleomorphic adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positivity of the tumor cells for ferritin heavy and light chains, vimentin and CD31. The aim of the present study was to emphasize the immunohistochemical characteristics and briefly discuss the potential role of ferritin in the pathogenesis of IPEH. PMID:28357092

  15. [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in surgery of the adrenal gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Nichitaĭlo, M E; Litvinenko, A N; Gul'ko, O N; Kvacheniuk, A N; Lukecha, I I

    2013-02-01

    In 2002-2012 yrs in The Department of Laparoscopic Surgery and Choledocholithiasis laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for various adrenal gland diseases was done in 94 patients. The operation time while doing right-sided and left-sided LA have had constituted, accordingly, at average (73.6 +/- 12.1) and (121.6 +/- 11.9) min, intraoperative blood loss - (49.3 +/- 9.2) ml. Hemotransfusion was not applied. There was no need for conversion. In 1 (1,1%) patient hemoperitoneum have had occurred as a consequence of traumatic injury of spleen while performing left-sided LA. Nonspeciphic postoperative complications were absent.

  16. [Epidemic parotiditis, a reportable disease].

    PubMed

    Boverhoff, J C; Baart, J A

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive patients with an acute swelling of one of the cheeks, were diagnosed with epidemic parotiditis. The first phase of the diagnostic procedure for an acute cheek swelling is to eliminate the possibility of odontogenic causes. When odontogenic problems have been excluded, non-dentition-related causes may be considered. An acute, progressive swelling in the preauricular area can often be attributed to an inflammation of the parotid gland, but epidemic parotiditis should also be considered. Epidemic parotiditis, or mumps, is caused by the mumps virus. Contamination occurs aerogenically. In the Netherlands, mumps vaccine is an ingredient of the governmental combined mump-measles-rubella inoculation programme. However, in recent years several small-scale parotiditis epidemics have broken out, predominantly among young, inoculated adults. Oropharyngeal mucus and blood samples are needed to diagnose the disease. Each case of the disease should be reported to the community healthcare service.

  17. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  18. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Improves Target Coverage and Parotid Gland Sparing When Delivering Total Mucosal Irradiation in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck of Unknown Primary Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bhide, Shreerang Clark, Catherine; Harrington, Kevin; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2007-10-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with occult primary site represents a controversial clinical problem. Conventional total mucosal irradiation (TMI) maximizes local control, but at the expense of xerostomia. IMRT has been shown to spare salivary tissue in head and cancer patients. This study has been performed to investigate the potential of IMRT to perform nodal and TMI and also allow parotid gland sparing in this patient group. Conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and IMRT plans were produced for six patients to treat the ipsilateral (involved) post-operative neck (PTV1) and the un-operated contralateral neck and mucosal axis (PTV2). Plans were produced with and without the inclusion of nasopharynx in the PTV2. The potential to improve target coverage and spare the parotid glands was investigated for the IMRT plans. There was no significant difference in the mean doses to the PTV1 using CRT and IMRT (59.7 and 60.0 respectively, p = 0.5). The maximum doses to PTV1 and PTV2 were lower for the IMRT technique as compared to CRT (P = 0.008 and P < 0.0001), respectively, and the minimum doses to PTV1 and PTV2 were significantly higher for IMRT as compared to CRT (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001), respectively, illustrating better dose homogeneity with IMRT. The mean dose to the parotid gland contralateral to PTV1 was significantly lower for IMRT (23.21 {+-} 0.7) as compared to CRT (50.5 {+-} 5.8) (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in parotid dose between plans with and without the inclusion of the nasopharynx. IMRT offers improved dose homogeneity in PTV1 and PTV2 and allows for parotid sparing.

  19. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome presenting multiple concurrent cutaneous and parotid gland neoplasms: cytologic findings on fine-needle sample and description of a novel mutation of the CYLD gene.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Longo, Francesco; Perri, Francesco; Caponigro, Francesco; Schiavone, Concetta; Ionna, Franco; Maiello, Francesco; Martinuzzi, Claudia; Nasti, Sabina; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple dermal cylindromas and membranous basal cell adenoma of parotid gland in a 67-year-old woman with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) were examined by fine-needle cytology. Histology, immunochemistry, and CYLD germline mutation testing were also performed. Cytomorphology and immunochemistry of the two lesions showed basaloid neoplasms, remarkably similar, composed by proliferating epithelial cells of basal type accompanied by a smaller proportion of myoepithelial cells. CYLD gene showed a novel germline splice acceptor site mutation (c.2042-1G>C) with skipping of the entire exon 15. The occurrence of analogous tumors, dermal cylindromas, and membranous basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland, in the same patient may result from the action of a single gene on ontogenetically similar stem cells. Therefore, patients with BSS should be offered a genetic counselling for an early and correct diagnosis.

  20. Alcoholic parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Mandel, L; Hamele-Bena, D

    1997-10-01

    Alcoholism is a primary cause of sialadenosis, which is an asymptomatic, bilateral enlargement of the parotid glands. The authors outline the pathogenesis, symptoms and testing involved in diagnosing sialadenosis. Recognizing sialadenosis is important because it may point to the unsuspected presence of underlying systemic disease. Therefore, dental practitioners need to be able to differentiate sialadenosis from an inflammatory or neoplastic process to prevent unnecessary treatment.

  1. Gland-preserving robotic surgery for benign submandibular gland tumours: a comparison between robotic and open techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Benign tumours of the submandibular gland are usually treated surgically. Gland-preserving techniques, which can be used to completely remove the tumour, preserve the function of the gland and reduce complications, but conventional open operations result in obvious scars on the neck. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of gland-preserving robotic surgery using a hairline approach. We compared robotic with open techniques for gland-preserving operations to remove benign tumours of the submandibular gland. Patients were matched for age and sex (4 in each group). All patients in the robotic surgery group had their tumours removed successfully through hairline approaches. No patient had operative complications or postoperative functional nerve deficit, and an aesthetically pleasing outcome was achieved by concealing the scars within the hairline. Robotic operations took longer than open operations. No recurrence was noted during follow-up. Gland-preserving robotic surgery is a feasible alternative to conventional techniques and has potential advantages for safety and aesthetic outcome.

  2. Benign tumours affecting the deep lobe of the parotid gland: how to select the optimal surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Casani, A P; Cerchiai, N; Dallan, I; Seccia, V; Sellari Franceschini, S

    2015-04-01

    Many types of approaches allow extra-capsular dissection in the deep parotid parenchyma in the treatment of benign tumours. A transcervical approach (TCA), transparotid approach (TPA) and a combined transcervical-transparotid approach (TPTCA) are the three main procedures performed to expose the deep parenchyma. We conducted a retrospective chart review enrolling 24 consecutive patients treated for benign tumours affecting the deep lobe of the parotid. Review of the surgical data was accompanied by careful follow-up to establish surgical morbidity, functional (Frey's Syndrome and first-bite syndrome) and aesthetical outcomes. A TPA was performed in the majority of cases; in 26% superficial parotidectomy was not required (selective deep parotidectomy). Minor's test showed a low rate of Frey's syndrome (3 cases of 23, 13%). No long-lasting first-bite syndrome was reported. Some additional procedures were easily performed in order to improve aesthetical results (rotational flap of sternocleidomastoid muscle, free abdominal fat transfer); these had the same results as selective deep parotidectomy. TCA (or TPTCA) ensures the best control of the facial nerve, providing good exposure and good functional and aesthetical results (without sparing the superficial parenchyma if additional techniques are performed with the aim of reducing skin depression in the treated area). The choice of the approach should have only the aim of safe resection and should not be influenced by aesthetical outcome; the craniocaudal level of the tumour seems to be the best indicator of the feasibility of the procedure also considering the branches of the facial nerve. In our experience, mandibulotomy can always be avoided.

  3. Specific expression of an A-kinase anchoring protein subtype, AKAP-150, and specific regulatory mechanism for Na(+),K(+)-ATPase via protein kinase A in the parotid gland among the three major salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Kinji; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Amano, Osamu; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Iseki, Shoichi

    2003-07-15

    We have examined the expression of A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) in the three major salivary glands, i.e. the parotid gland (PG), submandibular gland (SMG), and sublingual gland (SLG), of the rat to elucidate the functional relevance between saliva secretion and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase regulation by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation, since an AKAP subtype, AKAP-150, is known to be involved in the regulation of the ATPase in PG. Although AKAP-150 and its mRNA were clearly detected in the PG, they were hardly detectable in either the SMG or SLG. The membrane-bound form of the RII regulatory subunit of PKA, an index for the total amount of AKAP subtypes and therefore of the anchored PKA holoenzyme, was also undetectable in membranes from the SMG and SLG but was found in the PG; though a substantial and comparable amount of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was present in all of these membrane preparations. Incubation with [gamma-32P]ATP revealed that Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the PG membranes was quickly phosphorylated upon the addition of cAMP, whereas the ATPases in the membranes from SMG and SLG were not; though they were readily and equally phosphorylated by the exogenously added PKA catalytic subunit. AKAP-150 in the basolateral membranes of PG acinar cells was co-immunoprecipitated with RII by an anti-RII antiserum; and AKAP-150 and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were immunohistochemically co-localized predominantly on the basolateral membranes, suggesting a possibility that the ATPase might directly interact with the AKAP to form an ATPase/AKAP/PKA complex or associate with the AKAP, such association being mediated via some scaffolding molecule. Expression of AKAP-150 and quick down-regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase by AKAP-anchored PKA in response to cAMP elevation are characteristics specific to PG among the three major salivary glands, suggesting the presence of PG-specific regulatory mechanisms for saliva production/secretion.

  4. A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of managing parotid and submandibular sialoliths using sialendoscopy assisted surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jadu, Fatima M.; Jan, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To review the available techniques and procedures for management of parotid and submandibular sialoliths with special emphasis on the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used combination of techniques; namely, sialendoscopy with conservative surgical removal of the stone. Methods: A systematic search of the English literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library databases were conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Articles between the years 2004 and 2013 were selected on the basis of preset inclusion criteria. Then, they were reviewed against a checklist to assess the evidence of efficacy of therapy or prevention and analyzed for pertinent data. Results: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of sialendoscopy combined with minor surgical removal of parotid and submandibular sialoliths ranges from 69-100%. Conclusion: Sialendoscopy combined with a minor surgical extraction of parotid and submandibular sialoliths is safe and efficacious. PMID:25316462

  5. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Third World Country Perspective-A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Salat, Huzaifah; Mumtaz, Ramiz; Ikram, Mubasher; Din, Nasir Ud

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described pathological entity in major salivary glands, which was first described by Skálová et al. in 2010. Since then only a limited number of case reports/series have been published describing this tumor with the majority of them discussing the genetic and cytoarchitectural aspect of this tumor. Keeping this in view with the lack of clinical correlation with regard to this tumor, we present our approach to management of two such cases which, according to the best of our knowledge, are the first 2 cases presenting in the South Asian continent. Both patients were diagnosed and managed at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

  6. [Morphometric studies of the parotid gland of rats after bilateral gonadectomy and after gonadectomy and administration of mesterone].

    PubMed

    Zarebska, A

    1989-01-01

    The influence of bilateral gonadectomy on the secretory segments of the partoid gland in male rats was investigated. The changes in the section area of cell nuclei, secretory cells, serous vesicles as well as in the mean number of cells in the vesicles were statistically analyzed. Eleven-day gonadectomy caused a statistically significant increase of the mean section area of cell nuclei, secretory vesicles and cells. Eight-day mesterone treatment in the dose of 2 mg/kg of body mass does not eliminate the changes caused by gonadectomy but results in the further increase of the mean section area of cell nuclei and secretory vesicles, as well as in the increase of cells in the vesicles.

  7. Investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the Differentiation of Nerve and Gland Tissue—A Possible Application for a Laser Surgery Feedback Control Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehari, F.; Rohde, M.; Knipfer, C.; Kanawade, R.; Klämpfl, F.; W., Adler; Oetter, N.; Stelzle, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2016-06-01

    Laser surgery provides clean, fast and accurate modeling of tissue. However, the inability to determine what kind of tissue is being ablated at the bottom of the cut may lead to the iatrogenic damage of structures that were meant to be preserved. In this context, nerve preservation is one of the key challenges in any surgical procedure. One example is the treatment of parotid gland pathologies, where the facial nerve (N. VII) and its main branches run through and fan out inside the glands parenchyma. A feedback system that automatically stops the ablation to prevent nerve-tissue damage could greatly increase the applicability and safety of surgical laser systems. In the present study, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to differentiate between nerve and gland tissue of an ex-vivo pig animal model. The LIBS results obtained in this preliminary experiment suggest that the measured spectra, containing atomic and molecular emissions, can be used to differentiate between the two tissue types. The measurements and differentiation were performed in open air and under normal stray light conditions.

  8. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pape, S A; MacLeod, R I; McLean, N R; Soames, J V

    1995-09-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) is an uncommon, non-inflammatory condition which usually causes bilateral, diffuse enlargement of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid. We present a series of 7 patients with sialadenosis. Two had bilateral and 4 unilateral parotid involvement. One patient had unilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. One patient had bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. The clinicopathological features and management of the condition are reviewed.

  9. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Parotid Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidan, Youssef H.; Shiue, Kevin; Weed, Daniel; Johnstone, Peter A.; Terry, Colin; Freeman, Stephen; Krowiak, Edward; Borrowdale, Robert; Huntley, Tod; Yeh, Alex

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Our practice policy has been to provide intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) at resection to patients with head-and-neck malignancies considered to be at high risk of recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with the use of IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2007, 96 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. The median age was 62.9 years (range, 14.3-88.1). Of the 96 patients, 33 had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy as a component of definitive therapy. Also, 34 patients had positive margins after surgery, and 40 had perineural invasion. IORT was administered as a single fraction of 15 or 20 Gy with 4-6-MeV electrons. The median follow-up period was 5.6 years. Results: Only 1 patient experienced local recurrence, 19 developed regional recurrence, and 12 distant recurrence. The recurrence-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 82.0%, 68.5%, and 65.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate after surgery and IORT was 88.4%, 66.1%, and 56.2%, respectively. No perioperative fatalities occurred. Complications developed in 26 patients and included vascular complications in 7, trismus in 6, fistulas in 4, radiation osteonecrosis in 4, flap necrosis in 2, wound dehiscence in 2, and neuropathy in 1. Of these 26 patients, 12 had recurrent disease, and 8 had undergone external beam radiotherapy before IORT. Conclusions: IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity and should be considered for patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland.

  10. [Acrylamid- and immunelectrophoretic separations of human parotid secretions from individuals with parotid tumors, chronic parotitis and sialadenosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H

    1976-11-01

    After previous examinations in normal parotid glands in this paper secretion of proteins in parotid glands with pleomorphic adenomas, Whartin tumors, parotid carcinomas, chronic parotitis and sialadenosis should be studied. Different discelectrophoretic and immunelectrophoretic runs were done. Thereby we got the following changes in electrophoreses: Pleomorphic adenomas generally show a more palid pattern in band-structure, caused by the diminished proteinconcentration in the secretions. Most remarkable are thereby the c1 and d1-4-bands. Immunelectrophoretic separations are normal. Whartin tumors show a different bandpattern in the anodal near gel region, which is enpowered by immunelectrophoretic runs. Secretions from parotid carcinomas show a characteristic change in bandstructure. There are found added bands which result from serumproteins as immunelectrophoretic examinations proof. The same is found in glands with parotitis in contrary to glands with sialadenosis.

  11. [Surgery of the thymus gland, normal, atrophied or cancerous].

    PubMed

    Limet, R; Rogister, B

    2000-10-01

    Thymoma is the most frequently resected mediastinal tumor. Its malignancy is related more to macroscopical findings than to microscopical analysis. All thymomas should be resected, in order to prevent malignant degeneration. Furthermore, for the treatment of myasthenia, several centers recommend resection of the thymus, either tumoral (thymoma) or atrophied. Although the role of surgery in this regard is controversial, all authors unanimously stress that complete resection of all thymic remnants is essential to achieve adequate results.

  12. Long-term Outcomes and Quality of Life of 186 Patients With Primary Parotid Carcinoma Treated With Surgery and Radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Rooij, Peter van; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcomes, toxicity, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with primary parotid carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2010, 186 patients with parotid carcinoma were treated with parotidectomy with or without neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) was applied to high-risk, node-negative disease. End points were locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS), late toxicity, and QOL. Results: After a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 4-172 months), the 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for LRC, DFS, CSS, and OS were 89%, 83%, 80%, and 68%, respectively. Forty-five events were reported: 24 distant metastases (DM) and 21 locoregional failures (LRF). Event-free survival rates by histological types were 89%, 78%, 76%, 74%, and 70% for acinic cell, mucoepidermoid, adenoid cystic, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. More LRF were reported in patients with squamous cell and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (21% and 19%, respectively) than in patients with other histological types (p = 0.04) and more DM in patients with adenoid cystic and adenocarcinoma (20% and 19%, respectively) than in patients with other types (p = 0.03). None of the high-risk node-negative patients who received ENI developed regional failure. On multivariate analysis, T stage, N stage, grade, and presence of perineural invasion and facial paralysis correlated significantly with DFS. The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade {>=}2 late toxicity was 8%. QOL scores deteriorate during and shortly after treatment but returned in almost all scales to baseline scores within 6 months. Conclusions: Of the entire group, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent outcomes with minimal side effects and preservation of good QOL scores. However, in

  13. Toward defining the human parotid gland salivary proteome and peptidome: identification and characterization using 2D SDS-PAGE, ultrafiltration, HPLC, and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Markus; Thomas, Lindsay R; Dixon, Scott E; Newport, George; Agabian, Nina; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Hall, Steven C; Witkowska, H Ewa; Fisher, Susan J

    2005-03-01

    Saliva plays many biological roles, from lubrication and digestion to regulating bacterial and leukocyte adhesion. To understand the functions of individual components and families of molecules, it is important to identify as many salivary proteins as possible. Toward this goal, we used a proteomic approach as the first step in a global analysis of this important body fluid. We collected parotid saliva as the ductal secretion from three human donors and separated the protein components by two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE). Proteins in gel spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, and the results were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry of selected peptides. Complementing this approach we used ultrafiltration to prepare a low-molecular-weight fraction of parotid saliva, which was analyzed directly or after reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation by using mass spectrometric approaches. MS analyses of 2D SDS-PAGE spots revealed known components of saliva, including cystatins, histatins, lysozyme, and isoforms and/or fragments of alpha-amylase, albumin, and proline-rich proteins. We also discovered novel proteins, such as several isoforms of Zn-alpha-2-glycoprotein and secretory actin-binding protein. MS analyses of the ultrafiltrate showed that the low-molecular-weight fraction of parotid saliva was peptide-rich, with novel fragments of proline-rich proteins and histatins in abundance. Experiments using Candida albicans as the test organism showed that at least one of the novel peptides had antifungal activity. Our results show that saliva is a rich source of proteins and peptides that are potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  14. Parotid salivary duct sialocele associated with glandular duct stenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vallefuoco, Rosario; Jardel, Nicolas; El Mrini, Meryem; Stambouli, Fouzia; Cordonnier, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    Feline parotid salivary duct sialocele is an uncommon disorder that has been previously reported in association with traumatic rupture of the duct in only two cats. Both cases were successfully treated by proximal duct ligation. We describe the successful surgical treatment of a parotid duct sialocele, secondary to spontaneous salivary duct stenosis, in an adult domestic shorthair cat. The cat was referred for assessment of a recurrent fluid-filled swelling on the left side of the face. Cytology of the aspirated fluid was consistent with serous saliva. The anatomical localisation of the lesion and the nature of the fluid were indicative of parotid gland/duct involvement. Retrograde sialography by parotid duct cannulation was unsuccessful because the left parotid duct opening was stenosed and obstructed by scar tissue. Surgical exploration revealed a parotid salivary duct sialocele, which was completely removed along with the parotid gland without complications.

  15. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeun J.; Hong, Hyun S.; Jeong, Sun H.; Lee, Eun H.; Jung, Min J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) is a rare malignancy with the histopathological feature of undifferentiated carcinoma and an intermixed reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Although clinically significant because of its malignant nature, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis by preoperative imaging. Here, we report 3 cases of primary LEC arising in the major salivary glands, which showed unusual imaging features unlike other malignant tumors. Patient concerns: Our first case is a 44-year-old man with LEC in the right parotid gland, the second case is a 71-year-old woman with LEC in the right submandibular gland, and the third case is a 35-year-old woman with LEC in the right parotid gland. All of the patients presented with a palpable mass of variable duration. Diagnoses: Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a relatively well-defined, slightly hyperattenuated exophytic solid mass that had homogeneous well-enhanced regions. Ultrasonography (US) in the first 2 cases showed well-defined, hypoechoic solid masses with posterior enhancement. The CT findings seem to be benign tumors, but US features are compatible with highly cellular and hypervascular tumors. Interventions: The resection of the involved salivary gland with postoperative radiation therapy was performed. Outcomes: There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 5 years in all 3 patients. Lessons: Understanding these unusual imaging findings may be helpful in detecting LEC, and may also help clinicians provide adequate management to patients, such as surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy, because of its malignant entity. PMID:28207533

  16. Oxidative stress in alcohol-induced rat parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Sara Cristina Gonçalves; Moreira, Denise Aparecida Corrêa; Nunes, Terezinha D'Avila e Silva; Colepicolo, Pio; Brigagão, Maísa Ribeiro Pereira Lima

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the oxidative status of rat parotid and submandibular glands. To identify the endogenous response to ethanol ingestion, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined. In addition, the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol was supplied to the animals in order to estimate its action in ethanol-associated glandular damage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the protein carbonyl (PC) content, both markers of cellular oxidative stress on lipid and protein structures, respectively, were recorded. Animals subjected to alcohol ingestion showed a low body growth rate with concomitant enlargement of absolute and relative parotid wet weight, compared with pair-fed calorie-controlled rats. Parotid glands of ethanol-treated animals showed increased SOD and GPx activity, and alpha-tocopherol was able to reduce their activities to the control levels. TBARS and PC were enhanced after chronic ethanol treatment in rat parotids. Supplemental alpha-tocopherol suppressed the oxidative ethanol-induced damage in lipid without affecting induced protein oxidation. Submandibular glands revealed no alterations in the weight, enzymatic and oxidative parameters tested due to ethanol and/or alpha-tocopherol ingestion. These findings indicate the involvement of oxidative stress in parotid gland sialadenosis due to ethanol consumption and the capability of alpha-tocopherol to halt lipid damage, although this low-molecular antioxidant compound leads to neither increased glandular weight nor protein oxidation in ethanol-induced parotid alterations.

  17. [Flow rate, amylase and protein content of parotid saliva in sialadenosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Opaitz, M; Arglebe, C

    1978-03-01

    Flow rate, protein concentration and amylase activity of parotid saliva were investigated in 17 patients with sialadenosis. The results were compared with the data obtained from 90 healthy controls. Total protein and amylase concentrations of saliva did not change although, under the influence of sialadenosis, the parotid gland clearly shows ultrastructural signs of disturbed protein secretion. Also the flow rates of parotid saliva were the same in sialadenosis patients and the control group. This can be explained by the patho-physiology of parotid secretion from the sialadenotic gland.

  18. [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands. Report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    BenJelloun, H; Jouhadi, H; Maazouzi, A; Benchakroun, N; Acharki, A; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2005-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is rare. Tumours develop mostly in children and young patients but can be diagnosed in older people. We report three new cases in women 7, 14 and 75 years old. Tumefaction of the parotid region and facial paralysis were the principle clinical symptoms. Two patients underwent a total parotidectomy and radiotherapy. The third patient had a locally advanced tumour and received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence was observed in all cases and median survival was 12 months. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is locally aggressive. Treatments include surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains to be discussed.

  19. Modifications of transaxillary approach in endoscopic da Vinci-assisted thyroid and parathyroid gland surgery.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Piccoli, Micaela; Mullineris, Barbara; Colli, Giovanni; Janssen, Martin; Siemer, Stephan; Schick, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic surgery for treatment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies is increasingly gaining attention. The da Vinci system has already been widely used in different fields of medicine and quite recently in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Herein, we report about modifications of the transaxillary approach in endoscopic surgery of thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies using the da Vinci system. 16 patients suffering from struma nodosa in 14 cases and parathyroid adenomas in two cases were treated using the da Vinci system at the ENT Department of Homburg/Saar University and in cooperation with the Department of General Surgery in New Sant'Agostino Hospital, Modena/Italy. Two different retractors, endoscopic preparation of the access and three different incision modalities were used. The endoscopic preparation of the access allowed us to have a better view during preparation and reduced surgical time compared to the use of a headlamp. To introduce the da Vinci instruments at the end of the access preparation, the skin incisions were over the axilla with one incision in eight patients, two incisions in four patients and three incisions in a further four patients. The two and three skin incisions modality allowed introduction of the da Vinci instruments without arm conflicts. The use of a new retractor (Modena retractor) compared to a self-developed retractor made it easier during the endoscopic preparation of the access and the reposition of the retractor. The scar was hidden in the axilla and independent of the incisions selected, the cosmetic findings were judged by the patients to be excellent. The neurovascular structures such as inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve and vessels, as well as the different pathologies, were clearly 3D visualized in all 16 cases. No paralysis of the vocal cord was observed. All patients had a benign pathology in their histological examination. The endoscopic surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid gland can be

  20. Combination of Hot-Hypertonic Saline and Pressure Dressing in the Management of Parotid Fistula.

    PubMed

    Aisha; Fatima, Saira; Memon, Aijaz Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Parotid fistula is a rare complication of surgical or non-surgical trauma on or in the vicinity of parotid gland. Many pharmacological agents and surgical methods are used to treat it with their own merits, demerits and patient preferences. Injection of hypertonic hot saline along with compression dressing is an economical, patient-preferred and almost complication-free method to deal parotid fistula with promising results.

  1. Parotid salivary secretory pattern in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Riad, M; Barton, J R; Wilson, J A; Freeman, C P; Maran, A G

    1991-01-01

    Parotid gland enlargement occurs in about 25% of patients with the binge eating syndrome of bulimia nervosa. The parotid salivary secretory patterns in 28 bulimics were determined in order to investigate the functional abnormality in the glands. Bulimia patients had a reduced resting flow rate. Bulimics who developed sialadenosis (4 patients) had reduced resting and stimulated flow rates. The salivary amylase activity was increased in both the resting and stimulated states in bulimics and the sialadenosis group. The resting total protein levels were greater in the bulimics. The electrolyte and immunoglobulin levels were within normal limits. The possibility of protein and enzymatic secretory disturbances due to autonomic nerve disorders as an explanation for the development of sialadenosis in bulimia nervosa is discussed.

  2. Role of parotid amylase in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1989-09-01

    In order for the role of parotid amylase in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats to be clarified, this study investigated the effect of parotid-duct ligation on both amylase secretion from the parotid glands and pancreas into the gastro-intestinal tract and on starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal contents during feedings. In both diabetic rats and control rats, parotid-duct ligation reduced amylase activity in both the parotid glands during fasting and in the gastric contents after feeding. The amylase activity in the intestinal contents after feeding was reduced by parotid-duct ligation in the diabetic rats. Starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract after feeding was reduced by parotid-duct ligation in the diabetic rats. The results suggest that most of the amylase activity in the gastric contents and a large part of the amylase activity in the intestinal contents are derived from the parotid glands, and that parotid amylase plays an important role in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats.

  3. Bilateral parotid enlargement as a presenting feature of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, J. A.; Fortune, F.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male is reported. The clinical presentation was one of painless parotid swelling of 3 years duration with marked weight loss and underlying metabolic alkalosis. The diagnostic significance of parotid salivary gland swellings is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8140014

  4. Cytological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland in a 15-year-old girl: a case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takako; Fukumura, Yuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ohba, Shinichi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yao, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized tumor of salivary glands characterized by the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This tumor is very rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of MASC in a 15-year-old girl, the fifth youngest case so far reported. The patient complained of a left infra-auricular mass that gradually enlarged for a year. Fine-needle aspiration cytology/imprint cytology showed individual tumor cells that had faintly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with secretion granules sometimes seen adjacent to the tumor cells. These cytological features overlapped between those of zymogen granule-poor acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and MASC. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the related literature with a focus on the cytological features of MASC. The differential diagnostic clues are also discussed.

  5. Sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical removal of parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Pasquale, Capaccio; Gaffuri, Michelle; Michele, Gaffuri; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Pignataro

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgical approaches to parotid stones (such as extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and sialendoscopy) have proved to be effective in a high percentage of cases, although success depends on factors such as the localisation of the stone, its size and its mobility. The failure rate of 10% is largely due to large and impacted stones and, in such cases, a combined external and sialendoscopic approach can be used to avoid morbidity and the risks of more invasive superficial parotidectomy. We treated eight patients with large parotid stones (>7 mm) using a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical approach that was effective in all but one case, which was successfully solved by combining this procedure with extra-corporeal lithotripsy and operative sialendoscopy. Our results confirm that the combined approach is a valid alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones and should be added to other minimally invasive techniques aimed at restoring the function of the affected parotid gland.

  6. Differential Diagnosis of Parotid Lipoma in a Breast Ca Patient

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lipomas are common benign tumors usually detected on the torso, neck, upper thighs, and upper arms. However, they are rarely found in the parotid gland region. Because of their rarity at this site, they are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors. This report describes a rare case of a lipoma in the superficial lobe of parotid gland. A 71-year-old female patient admitted to our department complaining about swelling and pain in the posterior area of the left mandibular region since one month. Her medical history included mastectomy after breast CA fifteen years ago. Clinical examination revealed a smooth-surfaced, soft, and painful mass, with well-defined margins in the left mandibular region. Differential diagnosis of metastasis, inflammatory neck swellings, and benign salivary gland tumors were considered for the patient. Advanced imaging methods such as ultrasonography and contrast tomography revealed that the lesion was a lipoma of parotid gland. A surgical intervention under general anesthesia was planned for the removal of the mass; however patient refused the surgical treatment. Patient was placed on six-month periodic recall. This article reviews the radiographic appearance and differential diagnoses of lipoma in this rare location. PMID:28255469

  7. Canalicular adenoma: a case report of an unusual parotid lesion

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Colin; Kulendra, Kevin N; Menon, Gopind; D’Souza, Alwyn R

    2009-01-01

    The present report describes a case of an 85-year-old woman who underwent an excisional biopsy of a preauricular lesion centred over the zygoma and subsequently developed an immediate iatrogenic facial palsy. Histopathological diagnosis revealed a canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland. PMID:21686469

  8. [A case of parotid pleomorphic adenoma metastasis to multiple organs].

    PubMed

    Kessoku, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Iino, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, a 64-year-old woman who had undergone tumor resection for pleomorphic adenoma of the left parotid gland four times since her first operation in 1996 visited an orthopedist in our hospital complaining of pain in her right lower limb. Computed tomography (CT) of the whole body showed multiple tumors on the left parotid gland, right kidney, the sacrum, and both lungs. Biopsy of the sacral region and right nephrectomy were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of sacral and pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma, and palliative radiation therapy was immediately begun on the sacral region. Given the definitive pathological diagnosis of metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, the recurrent tumor of the left parotid gland and the surrounding lymph nodes were first removed. Postoperative findings demonstrated that the pleomorphic adenoma had metastasized to the lymph nodes. The lung tumors were resected subsequently, and postoperative findings led to the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. Metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma is known to be extremely rare, and to our knowledge this case of metastasis to a kidney is the first reported in Japan.

  9. Comparative Analysis of an Image-Guided Versus a Non-Image-Guided Setup Approach in Terms of Delivered Dose to the Parotid Glands in Head-and-Neck Cancer IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Duma, Marciana Nona; Kampfer, Severin; Wilkens, Jan Jakob; Schuster, Tibor; Molls, Michael; Geinitz, Hans

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of interfractional variations of shape and setup uncertainties on the dose to the parotid glands (PGs) in head-and-neck cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Methods and Materials: Two scenarios were analyzed retrospectively for 10 head-and-neck cancer patients, treated with helical TomoTherapy (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI): the IGRT scenario and the non-IGRT scenario. The initial dose-volume histograms derived from the planning computed tomography (PCT) scan and 120 recalculated dose-volume histograms of the PGs of each scenario and of corresponding fractions were compared. Setup errors, cumulative median doses (CMDs) for 6 fractions, overall volumes of the PGs, and volumes that received less than 1 Gy or more than 1.6 Gy per fraction were analyzed. Results: The mean decrease in the PG volume was 0.13 cm{sup 3}/d. There was a significantly higher CMD than initially predicted (mean increase for 6 fractions, 1.13 Gy for IGRT and 0.96 Gy for non-IGRT). The volume that received less than 1 Gy per fraction decreased (mean difference to PCT, 1.36 cm{sup 3} for IGRT [p = 0.003] and 1.35 cm{sup 3} for non-IGRT [p = 0.003]) and the volume that received more than 1.6 Gy per fraction increased with increasing fraction number (mean difference to PCT, 1.14 cm{sup 3} for IGRT [p = 0.01] and 1.16 cm{sup 3} for non-IGRT [p = 0.006]). There was no statistically significant difference between the two scenarios (CMD, p = 0.095; volume that received <1 Gy per fraction, p = 0.896; and volume that received >1.6 Gy per fraction, p = 0.855). Conclusions: In the analyzed group the actual delivered dose to the PGs does not differ significantly between an IGRT and a non-IGRT approach. However, IGRT in head-and-neck cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy is strongly recommended to improve patient setup.

  10. Endosphenoidal coil for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland during transsphenoidal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Talagala, S. Lalith; Merkle, Hellmut; Sarlls, Joelle E.; Montgomery, Blake K.; Piazza, Martin G.; Scott, Gretchen; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lonser, Russell R.; Oldfield, Edward H.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Butman, John A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pituitary MR imaging fails to detect over 50% of microadenomas in Cushing’s disease and nearly 80% of cases of dural microinvasion. Surface coils can generate exceptionally high-resolution images of the immediately adjacent tissues. To improve imaging of the pituitary gland, a receive-only surface coil that can be placed within the sphenoid sinus (the endosphenoidal coil [ESC]) during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was developed and assessed. METHODS Five cadaver heads were used for preclinical testing of the ESC. The ESC (a double-turn, 12-mm-diameter surface coil made from 1-mm-diameter copper wire) was developed to obtain images in a 1.5-T MR scanner. The ESC was placed (via a standard sublabial TSS approach) on the anterior sella face. Clinical MR scans were obtained using the 8-channel head coil and ESC as the receiver coils. Using the ESC, ultra–high-resolution, 3D, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) and T1-weighted imaging were performed at resolutions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.50 mm3 and 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.30 mm3, respectively. RESULTS Region-of-interest analysis indicated a 10-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pituitary when using the ESC compared with the 8-channel head coil. ESC-related improvements (p < 0.01) in the SNR were inversely proportional to the distance from the ESC tip to the anterior pituitary gland surface. High-resolution BFFE MR imaging obtained using ESC revealed a number of anatomical features critical to pituitary surgery that were not visible on 8-channel MR imaging, including the pituitary capsule, the intercavernous sinus, and microcalcifications in the pars intermedia. These ESC imaging findings were confirmed by the pathological correlation with whole-mount pituitary sections. CONCLUSIONS ESC can significantly improve SNR in the sellar region intraoperatively using current 1.5-T MR imaging platforms. Improvement in SNR can provide images of the sella and surrounding structures with unprecedented

  11. Endosphenoidal coil for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland during transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Lalith Talagala, S; Merkle, Hellmut; Sarlls, Joelle E; Montgomery, Blake K; Piazza, Martin G; Scott, Gretchen; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lonser, Russell R; Oldfield, Edward H; Koretsky, Alan P; Butman, John A

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Pituitary MR imaging fails to detect over 50% of microadenomas in Cushing's disease and nearly 80% of cases of dural microinvasion. Surface coils can generate exceptionally high-resolution images of the immediately adjacent tissues. To improve imaging of the pituitary gland, a receive-only surface coil that can be placed within the sphenoid sinus (the endosphenoidal coil [ESC]) during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was developed and assessed. METHODS Five cadaver heads were used for preclinical testing of the ESC. The ESC (a double-turn, 12-mm-diameter surface coil made from 1-mm-diameter copper wire) was developed to obtain images in a 1.5-T MR scanner. The ESC was placed (via a standard sublabial TSS approach) on the anterior sella face. Clinical MR scans were obtained using the 8-channel head coil and ESC as the receiver coils. Using the ESC, ultra-high-resolution, 3D, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) and T1-weighted imaging were performed at resolutions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.50 mm(3) and 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.30 mm(3), respectively. RESULTS Region-of-interest analysis indicated a 10-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pituitary when using the ESC compared with the 8-channel head coil. ESC-related improvements (p < 0.01) in the SNR were inversely proportional to the distance from the ESC tip to the anterior pituitary gland surface. High-resolution BFFE MR imaging obtained using ESC revealed a number of anatomical features critical to pituitary surgery that were not visible on 8-channel MR imaging, including the pituitary capsule, the intercavernous sinus, and microcalcifications in the pars intermedia. These ESC imaging findings were confirmed by the pathological correlation with whole-mount pituitary sections. CONCLUSIONS ESC can significantly improve SNR in the sellar region intraoperatively using current 1.5-T MR imaging platforms. Improvement in SNR can provide images of the sella and surrounding structures with unprecedented

  12. Parasympathetic denervation increases responses to VIP in isolated rat parotid acini

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R. )

    1989-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter found in the salivary glands of many species, including the rat parotid gland. Parasympathetic denervation has been reported to deplete VIP in the rat parotid gland and to lead to supersensitivity to this peptide in vivo. We have compared the effects of VIP on acini isolated from parasympathetically denervated and unoperated parotid glands to examine possible supersensitivity to the peptide in vitro. VIP normally produced responses similar to those obtained with a low concentration of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO), but strikingly different from the effects obtained with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (CARB). In parotid membrane preparations, VIP stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Dissociated acini treated with VIP showed increases in cAMP accumulation and amylase release which were potentiated by forskolin and also by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. After parasympathetic denervation, maximal effects of VIP on adenylate cyclase, cAMP accumulation and amylase release in intact cells were increased two- to five-fold over contralateral control (or unoperated) parotid responses. The increase in adenylate cyclase-mediated responses after denervation was specific to VIP; there was no increased response nor increased sensitivity of any of these responses to ISO. Specific (125I)VIP binding to parotid acini increased two-fold per gland and three-fold per mg of protein after denervation; this probably explains the observed increases in the response to VIP.

  13. [Lupus erythematosus panniculitis presenting as palpebral edema and parotiditis].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pastor, G; Valcuende, F; Tomás, G; Moreno, M

    2007-10-01

    Lupus erythematosus panniculitis or lupus erythematosus profundus is characterized by inflammation of the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It can occur in isolation or associated with chronic systemic or discoid lupus erythematosus. It usually consists of nodules and hardened subcutaneous plaques on the forehead, cheeks, proximal extremities, and buttocks. Periorbital and parotid involvement are rare and can lead to misdiagnosis. We present the case of a patient with lupus erythematosus panniculitis who presented with palpebral edema and involvement of the periocular fat and parotid gland.

  14. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  15. [Biochemical findings in proteincomposition of secretions of human malignant parotid tumours, chronic parotitis and sialadenoses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H; Bretzel, G; Hochstrasser, K

    1977-01-01

    In comparison to former investigations in pleomorphic adenoms and Wharthin tumours in the present paper secretion of IgA, lysozyme in correlation to flowrate and total secretion in glands with malignant tumours, inflammations and Sialadenosis were estimated. Thereby 12 patients with malignomas of the parotid gland, 11 patients with chronic parotitis and 12 with sialadenoses were examined. The following results were found: 1. The concentration of protein, IgA and Lysozym is significantly higher than in normal glands and in glands with pleomorphic adenomas and Wharthin tumours. 2. Differentialdiagnosis of Sialadenitis and Sialadenosis of parotid glands is possible by estimating the examined parameters. Thereby in glands with sialadenosis flowrate is higher than in normal glands, and significant lower in glands with sialadenitis. Moreover concentrations of IgA and Lysozyme and protein in glands with sialadenitis are evaluated.

  16. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of parotid masses. Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Yologlu, Zeynel; Aydin, Hasan; Alp, Nalan A.; Aribas, Bilgin K.; Kizilgoz, Volkan; Arda, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the diagnostic potentials of MRI, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping in the detection of parotid masses correlated to the histopathological results. Methods Study design was retrospective. Fifteen patients with parotid gland masses were included as the study group and contralateral normal parotis glands of same patients were taken as the control group. Patients with bilateral parotid gland tumors were excluded, 7 right-sided and 8 left-sided parotid masses were included in the research. The study took place at the Department of Radiology, Ankara, Turkey, between May 2012 and September 2014. Results Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of 15 parotis tumors in 1000 and 750 sec/mm2 b-values with comparison to the contralateral normal gland parenchyma were demonstrated. Neurofibromas was predicted as the highest, and lipomas as the lowest ADC values. Pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin’s tumor, and normal parotid parenchyma indicate significant statistical differences from each other on the basis of mean ADC values (p<0.05). Conclusion The DWI and ADC mapping of parotis gland could aid in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant masses. PMID:27874161

  17. Interventional sialendoscopy for parotid ductal calculi: our preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, P P; Gupta, Neelima; Goyal, Arun; Tomar, Sanjeev

    2012-09-01

    With this article we present our initial experience with interventional sialendoscopy of the parotid duct for the parotid calculi. We carried out a prospective study of patients of parotid calculi in a tertiary referral centre. Diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy was performed in five cases of parotid calculi. The outcome was classified on the basis of clearance of the lumen of the duct and resolution of symptoms. Diagnostic sialendoscopy was able to diagnose the calculus in all cases. Interventional sialendoscopy was done under general anesthesia in all cases and calculus was successfully removed. The average size of sialolith was 8.2 mm. No complications occurred in any of the cases. Check sialendoscopy was done in all cases after a minimum follow up of 6 months, which showed the duct lumen to be free of stone with no stricture of the duct. Sialendoscopy is an optimal technique for removal of intraductal parotid calculi and avoids removal of the gland. In our series there was no associated morbidity and complication.

  18. Controversies in Parotid Defect Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tamplen, Matthew; Knott, P Daniel; Fritz, Michael A; Seth, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the parotid defect is a complex topic that encompasses restoration of both facial form and function. The reconstructive surgeon must consider facial contour, avoidance of Frey syndrome, skin coverage, tumor surveillance, potential adjuvant therapy, and facial reanimation when addressing parotid defects. With each defect there are several options within the reconstructive ladder, creating controversies regarding optimal management. This article describes surgical approaches to reconstruction of parotid defects, highlighting areas of controversy.

  19. Morphological Changes of Myoepithelial Cells in the Rat Submandibular Gland Following the Application of Surgical Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Yoshihiro; Mizobe, Kenich; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji; Taira, Fuyoko; Tomomura, Akito; Araki, Hisao; Amano, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) exist on the basal surface of acini in major exocrine glands, include myofilaments and various constructive proteins, and share characteristics with smooth muscle and epithelial cells. MECs project several ramified processes to invest acini, and possibly contract to compress acini to support the secretion by the glandular cells. However, the functional roles of MECs in salivary secretion are still unclear. We investigated morphological changes in immunostained MECs using the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) antibody in operated or non-operated contralateral (NC) submandibular glands after partial or total resection. Furthermore, we investigated and discuss other salivary glands of rats. MECs in the parotid, sublingual and submandibular gland of adult rats exhibited different shapes and localizations. After surgery, in both operated and NC glands, the number of MECs and αSMA-immunopositive areas increased significantly. Three-dimensional analysis using a confocal laser-scanning microscope revealed that substantial and significant enhancement became evident in the number, length, and thickness of MEC-processes covering acini of the operated and NC submandibular glands. The preset findings indicate that MECs alter the morphology of their processes in operated and NC glands after surgery of the partial or total resection. It is suggested that MECs promote salivary secretion using elongated, thickened, and more ramified processes. PMID:28127104

  20. Cell deletion by apoptosis during regression of rat parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, D M; Adi, M M; Ervine, I M; Ogden, G R

    1995-01-01

    Enlargement of the rat parotid salivary glands was induced by repeated administration of isoproterenol. Mean wet weights of the treated glands increased steadily to 240% of control values. Following withdrawal of the drug, quantitative histological techniques were used to investigate the balance between hypertrophy, hyperplasia and apoptosis. The volume occupied by acinar cells relative to the total gland volume together with cytoplasmic magnitude of nuclear area ratios as measures of hypertrophy increased during the early experimental period. Similarly, serous acinar cell mitotic counts increased, indicating that hyperplasia had occurred. Apoptosis was demonstrated at light microscopical level to be the main mechanism for cell deletion as the glands returned to normal size and weight. The results indicate that hypertrophy and hyperplasia of serous acinar cells contribute to isoproterenol-induced sialadenosis. The experimental animal model demonstrates that these proliferative changes are completed by 48 h and thereafter are balanced by apoptosis as the glands recover their normal size and weight.

  1. SMAS fold flap and ADM repair of the parotid bed following removal of parotid haemangiomas via pre- and retroauricular incisions to improve cosmetic outcome and prevent Frey's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliang; Li, Jingsong; Yang, Zhaohui; Yongjie, Wang; Zhiquan, Wang; Wang, Youyuan

    2008-08-01

    The growth of parotid haemangiomas during the proliferative phase may be rapid and unpredictable. Involution often takes many years, with attendant psychological sequelae to the child. Although conservative management is usually proposed for parotid haemangiomas occurring in infancy, this may not be particularly helpful and the haemangioma difficult to conceal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliable and aesthetic benefit of using a superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) fold flap and allograft dermal matrix (ADM) repair of the parotid bed following parotid haemangiomas via pre- and retroauricular incision. Forty-three paediatric patients (33 boys and 10 girls) with haemangiomas involving the parotid gland underwent total parotidectomy using a pre- and retroauricular approach with intraoperative placement of ADM within the parotid bed. They further underwent repair of the parotid bed with SMAS fold flaps. A panel of three plastic surgeons assessed the cosmetic outcomes. All of the patients were evaluated using a short questionnaire; postoperative gustatory sweating was assessed using a modification of Minor's starch-iodine test.

  2. Parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Polat, Kerem; Doğan, Mansur; Yüce, Salim; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Müderris, Suphi

    2013-03-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, accounting for 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. Most of them are benign and originate in the salivary glands, especially the pleomorphic adenoma. We presented a 47-year-old man with parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space. The patient applied to our clinic with the complaints of a painless mass on his neck and in his mouth for 3 months. After fine needle aspiration biopsy, the mass was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. The patient was hospitalized and operated in our clinic. As we see in literature review, parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, and most of them are pleomorphic adenomas arising from the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extend into the PPS.

  3. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  4. Acute neonatal parotid abscess: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kolekar, Shreesh; Chincholi, Tejas S.; Kshirsagar, Ashok; Porwal, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment. PMID:28051052

  5. Effect of low-level laser therapy on irradiated parotid glands—study in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acauan, Monique Dossena; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutziling; Braga-Filho, Aroldo; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiotherapy-induced morphological changes and caspase-3 immunodetection in parotids of mice. Forty-one Swiss mice were divided into control, radiotherapy, 2- and 4-J laser groups. The experimental groups were exposed to ionizing radiation in a single session of 10 Gy. In the laser groups, a GaAlAs laser (830 nm, 100 mW, 0.028 cm2, 3.57 W/cm2) was used on the region corresponding to the parotid glands, with 2-J energy (20 s, 71 J/cm2) or 4 J (40 s, 135 J/cm2) per point. LLLT was performed immediately before and 24 h after radiotherapy. One point was applied in each parotid gland. The animals were euthanized 48 h or 7 days after radiotherapy and parotid glands were dissected for morphological analysis and immunodetection of caspase-3. There was no significant difference between groups in the immunodetection of caspase-3, but the laser groups had a lower percentage compared to the radiotherapy group. LLLT promoted the preservation of acinar structure, reduced the occurrence of vacuolation, and stimulated parotid gland vascularization. Of the two LLLT protocols, the one using 4 J of energy showed better results.

  6. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  7. Wegener's granulomatosis: parotid involvement and associated pancreatitis with C.T. findings.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, S L; Smart, P J

    1992-11-01

    Parotid enlargement is an uncommon physical sign and even less commonly the reason for referral for computerised tomography (CT) as the aetiology is usually self-evident. In cases referred for CT examination Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered, particularly if the pathology appears bilateral. This diagnosis may be confirmed by biopsy and/or supported by Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA) assay. A case of Wegener's granulomatosis with parotid gland involvement and temporally related pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation is reported. This is the second reported case of possible pancreatic involvement in Wegeners granulomatosis and approximately the tenth reported case of salivary gland involvement.

  8. Effects of dopamine on adenylyl cyclase activity and amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Hatta, S; Amemiya, N; Takemura, H; Ohshika, H

    1995-06-01

    Several previous studies have shown that dopamine causes amylase secretion from rat parotid tissue. However, the mechanism of this dopamine action is still unclear. The present study was designed to characterize dopamine action in rat parotid gland tissue by examining the effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release. Dopamine significantly enhanced accumulation of cyclic AMP in parotid slices and stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in parotid membrane preparations. It also significantly stimulated amylase release from parotid slices. The stimulatory effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release were effectively blocked with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, but not by either SCH 23390, a preferential D1 antagonist, or butaclamol, a preferential D2 antagonist. No substantial specific binding sites for D1 receptors were detectable by [3H]SCH 23390 binding in parotid membranes. These results suggest that the stimulatory effect of dopamine on amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue is not mediated through specific D1 dopamine receptors but rather through beta-adrenergic receptors.

  9. Surgical management of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to non-iatrogenic trauma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Hun-Young; MIN, Byong-Su; KIM, Sun-Young; LEE, Da-Eun; KIM, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old French bulldog presented for evaluation of recurrent swelling and a fistula on the right cheek after a dog fight. A large volume of serous fluids was identified on the wound immediately after atropine drops. A diagnosis of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to trauma was made. On surgical exploration, the thickened proximal segment of the severed duct was identified and circumferentially double ligated with 3–0 silk. No evidence of swelling and normal appearance of the parotid salivary gland were identified 4 months postoperative recheck. No further problems were noted 10 months postoperatively phone-call. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful proximal parotid duct ligation of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to non-iatrogenic trauma. PMID:27666341

  10. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Recurrent Parotid Carcinosarcoma in an Asymptomatic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Joshua; Mangaonkar, Abhishek; Kota, Vamsi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present the case of a 52-year-old male with a history of parotid carcinosarcoma with initial diagnosis being 18 months prior. Initial treatment included a combination of gamma knife surgery coupled with high dosage chemotherapy and X-ray radiation therapy. At the time of follow-up, the patient presented with no complaints and had a nearly normal physical exam with the exception of some facial nerve weakness on the same side as the initial surgery. Despite being asymptomatic, the patient had a significant progression of disease that was manifested with intracranial lesions, multiple pathologic fractures, and a dramatic increase in overall tumor burden. Ultimately, the patient decided to pursue comfort measures only and succumbed to the disease peacefully soon thereafter. PMID:27847832

  12. Possible involvement of parotid beta-adrenergic receptors in the etiology of sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Witzemann, V; Opaitz, M; Arglebe, C

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of beta-adrenergic receptors was determined in rat and human parotid glands, in normal tissue as well as after sympathetic denervation of the rat, and in human sialadenosis. Receptor levels were clearly elevated after denervation of the rat and in sialadenosis. The possible implications of these findings for the etiology of human sialadenosis are discussed.

  13. Pleomorphic adenoma of submandibular gland: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Preeti; Burde, Krishna; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Thorawat, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasms that arise in the salivary glands are relatively rare, yet they represent a wide variety of both benign and malignant histologic subtypes. Approximately 70% of the salivary gland tumors affect parotid gland with the submandibular gland being affected in 5-10% of the cases, sublingual gland in 1% and minor glands in 5-15% of the cases. Submandibular gland tumors are relatively rare and very few studies have been reported in the literature that is exclusively conducted on tumors affecting submandibular gland. In this paper, we describe a case of pleomorphic adenoma affecting submandibular gland with brief review of current literature on submandibular gland tumors. PMID:25097655

  14. Parotid or carotid? Misled by site.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Munjal, Manish; Kaur, Pavneet; Kaur, Harpreet; Sood, Neena

    2017-03-06

    We present an interesting scenario where a 64 years old male presented with a long standing painless, infra-auricular swelling, which had progressively increased in size. Based on the site, the clinical impression was of a salivary gland lesion and FNAC was performed. The smears were unusually cellular and had necrotic background. The cytological diagnosis was a cystic neoplasm of salivary gland, possibly mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Warthin's tumor was also kept in differential. However, the radiological investigations, which were made available after the FNAC report were conflicting with cytological diagnosis of a malignancy and were characteristic of a carotid body tumor, generally a benign neoplasm. Surgical excision of the tumor with regional lymph node sampling was done and histopathological examination solved the puzzle by revealing metastasis of paraganglioma to right posterior triangle lymph nodes. This case is unique because of the unusual presentation of a malignant paraganglioma as an infra-auricular swelling, which was clinically considered as a parotid tumor. The clinician as well as the pathologist need to be aware of such diagnostic pitfall. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery. PMID:26722591

  16. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery.

  17. [Sialendoscopy: endoscopic approach to obstructive salivary gland disease].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Pijpe, J; van Ingen, J M; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    Sialendoscopy: endoscopic approach to obstructive salivary gland defects Obstructive defects of the parotid and the submandibular gland often present themselves clinically by mealtime-related swelling of the affected salivary gland, the so-called 'mealtime syndrome'. Salivary ductal obstruction of the parotid and submandibular gland is predominantly caused by the presence of a salivary stone, a mucous plug, or by ductal stenosis. Until recently, diagnostic and treatment options for these obstructive salivary gland defects were restricted. Surgical removal of the affected salivary gland was often the treatment of choice. By applying sialendoscopy, a minimally invasive, semi rigid optical technique, it is possible to diagnose and treat obstructions which are found in the salivary ductal system. In many cases, therefore, the surgical removal of the salivary gland becomes unnecessary.

  18. Physical, Chemical, and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Damage to Salivary Glands in a Model of Intoxication with Aluminium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Natacha M. M.; Correa, Russell S.; Júnior, Ismael S. M.; Figueiredo, Adilson J. R.; Vilhena, Kelly F. B.; Farias-Junior, Paulo M. A.; Teixeira, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Nayana M. M.; Pereira-Júnior, João B.; Dantas, Kelly das Graças F.; da Silva, Marcia C. F.; Silva-Junior, Ademir F.; Alves-Junior, Sergio de M.; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V.; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II), a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular glands, leads to an increased expression of MT-I/II in both the glands, damages the cytoskeleton of the myoepithelial cells in both glands, and damages the cytoskeleton of the acinar/ductal cells of the parotid glands, with the submandibular glands showing resistance to the toxicity of the latter. PMID:25464135

  19. Relationship between parotid amylase secretion and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1999-12-01

    The relationship between parotid amylase secretion and the osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet was investigated. In sham-operated rats fed a pelleted diet, amylase activity in the parotid glands decreased, amylase activity in the plasma increased, and there was strong amylase activity in the gastric contents. As a result, both reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents increased. In parotid duct-ligated rats, the feeding of a pelleted diet affected neither parotid nor plasma amylase activity and there was little amylase activity in the gastric contents; this resulted in decreased starch digestion. The amylase activity in the gastric contents of rats fed a liquid diet was lower than that of rats fed the pelleted diet. Both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were lower than those of rats fed the pelleted diet. However, both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were higher than those in the liquid diet itself. A small quantity of parotid amylase seems to effectively digest a large part of the starch in the stomaches of rats fed the liquid diet. These findings suggest that amylase secreted from parotid glands increases osmolality in the gastric contents via the production of reducing sugars from starch in rats when fed either pelleted or liquid diets.

  20. [Hypertrophy of the salivary glands in bulimia].

    PubMed

    Herrlinger, P; Gundlach, P

    2001-07-01

    We report a case of bulimia nervosa with bilateral swelling of the parotid and submandibular glands. It was the only symptom of the behavioral disorder. Sjögren's disease was excluded histologically. In our case, the parotomegaly as a symptom of sialadenosis was found at the same time as the eating disorder. MRI or ultrasound are important diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis.

  1. Chymotrypsin with sialendoscopy-assisted surgery for the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, H-J; Xiao, J-Q; Qiao, Q-H; Bao, X; Wu, C-B; Zhou, Q

    2017-03-06

    Chronic obstructive parotitis (COP) is a common disease of the parotid gland. A total of 104 patients with COP were identified and randomized into a treatment group (52 cases) and a control group (52 cases). All patients underwent sialography and salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) examinations before surgery. The patients in the treatment group received chymotrypsin combined with gentamicin via interventional sialendoscopy to irrigate the duct, and the control group received gentamicin alone. All patients were asked to record their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) before treatment and at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The VAS score for pain intensity was decreased at 1 week post-treatment in both groups (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the VAS score was lower in the treatment group at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month post-treatment (P<0.05). The 6-month postoperative SGS results showed improved uptake and excretion in both groups (P<0.05). The treatment group exhibited higher scores for postoperative SGS excretion than the control group (P<0.05). The administration of chymotrypsin combined with gentamicin by sialendoscopy is effective for the treatment of non-stone-related COP and specifically improves the excretion function of the parotid gland.

  2. Evaluation of Parotid Salivary Glucose Level for Clinical Diagnosis and Monitoring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Du, Juan; Zhu, Zhao; Ma, Zhihong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Background. To investigate the relationships among blood glucose, mixed saliva glucose, and parotid glucose in type 2 diabetes patients and to evaluate the diagnostic and monitoring value of salivary gland glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (type 2DM). Material and Methods. Thirty patients with type 2DM and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included in this study. Glucose levels in unstimulated mixed saliva and in unstimulated parotid saliva were measured by the glucose oxidase peroxidase method. Results. The blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose levels in type 2DM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). The blood glucose, parotid salivary glucose, and mixed salivary glucose were 7.46 ± 1.44 mmol/L, 0.18 ± 0.19 mmol/L, and 3.17 × 10−2 ± 2.84 × 10−2 mmol/L, respectively, in the type 2DM group; the corresponding glucose levels in the control group were 5.56 ± 0.71 mmol/L, 7.70 × 10−2 ± 6.02 × 10−2 mmol/L, and 3.47 × 10−2 ± 2.79 × 10−2 mmol/L. The parotid salivary and blood glucose levels in type 2DM patients were strongly correlated; the linear regression equation for blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose was Y = 6.267X + 6.360, with r = 0.810. However, mixed salivary glucose levels were not significantly different in the type 2 diabetes group compared with the control group. Conclusion. Our results suggest that parotid salivary glucose has potential as a biomarker to monitor type 2DM and as a painless, noninvasive method for the management of type 2DM. PMID:28251153

  3. Evaluation of Parotid Salivary Glucose Level for Clinical Diagnosis and Monitoring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Du, Juan; Zhu, Zhao; Ma, Zhihong; Wang, Songlin; Shan, Zhaochen

    2017-01-01

    Background. To investigate the relationships among blood glucose, mixed saliva glucose, and parotid glucose in type 2 diabetes patients and to evaluate the diagnostic and monitoring value of salivary gland glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (type 2DM). Material and Methods. Thirty patients with type 2DM and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included in this study. Glucose levels in unstimulated mixed saliva and in unstimulated parotid saliva were measured by the glucose oxidase peroxidase method. Results. The blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose levels in type 2DM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). The blood glucose, parotid salivary glucose, and mixed salivary glucose were 7.46 ± 1.44 mmol/L, 0.18 ± 0.19 mmol/L, and 3.17 × 10(-2) ± 2.84 × 10(-2) mmol/L, respectively, in the type 2DM group; the corresponding glucose levels in the control group were 5.56 ± 0.71 mmol/L, 7.70 × 10(-2) ± 6.02 × 10(-2) mmol/L, and 3.47 × 10(-2) ± 2.79 × 10(-2) mmol/L. The parotid salivary and blood glucose levels in type 2DM patients were strongly correlated; the linear regression equation for blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose was Y = 6.267X + 6.360, with r = 0.810. However, mixed salivary glucose levels were not significantly different in the type 2 diabetes group compared with the control group. Conclusion. Our results suggest that parotid salivary glucose has potential as a biomarker to monitor type 2DM and as a painless, noninvasive method for the management of type 2DM.

  4. Frequency and Histopathology by Site, Major Pathologies, Symptoms and Signs of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    The frequency distribution of salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) is, in decreasing order, parotid neoplasms, submandibular gland neoplasms, minor SGNs, and sublingual gland neoplasms. The larger the salivary gland (e.g. parotid), the more likely a neoplasm is benign, and the smaller the gland (e.g. minor salivary gland), the more likely the neoplasm is malignant. The majority of SGNs, benign and/or malignant, irrespective of site, present as a painless swelling or mass. Definitive symptoms and signs of salivary gland malignancy are the presence of named nerve palsy in anatomical proximity to the gland and/or the presence of cervical lymphadenopathy. All discrete major salivary gland masses and non-ulcerated submucosal masses presenting in the head and neck region, irrespective of age, should be investigated, with the aim of excluding an SGN.

  5. Anorexia/bulimia-related sialadenosis of palatal minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, M D; Fedele, S; Lo Russo, L

    2004-08-01

    In patients affected by alimentary disorders sialadenosis is frequently observed. This non-inflammatory condition is described to affect major salivary glands, leading to the characteristic parotid and/or submandibular swelling. Thus fine-needle aspiration cytology or parotid open biopsy are generally required to diagnose histologically the disorder. We report the case of a 28-year-old patient affected by bulimia/anorexia nervosa who presented, in addition to parotid enlargement, a bilateral symmetric painless soft swelling of the hard palate. The lesion was biopsied and histopathological examination showed the classical features of sialadenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of sialadenosis affecting palatal minor salivary glands. It underlines that when sialadenosis is clinically suspected, clinicians could check also patients' oral cavity for minor salivary glands involvement, in order to potentially avoid invasive extra-oral procedures and to easily confirm diagnosis with an intra-oral biopsy.

  6. Outcomes of temporal bone resection for locally advanced parotid cancer.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Saral; Morris, Luc G; Shah, Jatin; Bilsky, Mark; Selesnick, Samuel; Kraus, Dennis H

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to report outcomes and identify factors predictive of survival and recurrence in patients undergoing lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) as part of an extended radical parotidectomy for parotid cancer. This is a retrospective cohort study which includes all patients undergoing LTBR for parotid cancer between 1994 and 2010 at two affiliated academic centers. Survival and recurrence rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate regression. A total of 12 patients with median follow-up duration of 30.6 months were included: 6 de novo cases and 6 patients referred after local recurrence. Actuarial locoregional control at 2 years was 73%. Most patients (11; 92%) developed disease recurrence with distant metastases the most common site of first failure (83%). Overall and disease-specific survival rates were 80% at 2 years and 22.5% at 5 years. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 67% at 2 years and 8.3% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, surgical margin status was an independent predictor of RFS (hazard ratio = 3.85, p = 0.045). In advanced parotid cancer, LTBR with a goal of gross total resection offers good locoregional control with an acceptable complication rate. The benefits of this surgery must be balanced with the morbidity and low likelihood of long-term survival, with most patients ultimately experiencing disease recurrence and death.

  7. Outcomes of Temporal Bone Resection for Locally Advanced Parotid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Saral; Morris, Luc G.; Shah, Jatin; Bilsky, Mark; Selesnick, Samuel; Kraus, Dennis H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to report outcomes and identify factors predictive of survival and recurrence in patients undergoing lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) as part of an extended radical parotidectomy for parotid cancer. This is a retrospective cohort study which includes all patients undergoing LTBR for parotid cancer between 1994 and 2010 at two affiliated academic centers. Survival and recurrence rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate regression. A total of 12 patients with median follow-up duration of 30.6 months were included: 6 de novo cases and 6 patients referred after local recurrence. Actuarial locoregional control at 2 years was 73%. Most patients (11; 92%) developed disease recurrence with distant metastases the most common site of first failure (83%). Overall and disease-specific survival rates were 80% at 2 years and 22.5% at 5 years. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 67% at 2 years and 8.3% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, surgical margin status was an independent predictor of RFS (hazard ratio = 3.85, p = 0.045). In advanced parotid cancer, LTBR with a goal of gross total resection offers good locoregional control with an acceptable complication rate. The benefits of this surgery must be balanced with the morbidity and low likelihood of long-term survival, with most patients ultimately experiencing disease recurrence and death. PMID:22547966

  8. High (18)F-FDG uptake by the remaining adrenal gland four months after surgery and initiation of mitotane treatment in two patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mpanaka, Ioanna; Lyra, Vassiliki D; Kaltsas, Gregory; Chatziioannou, Sofia N

    2011-01-01

    Two men, one 42 and the other 35 years old were both subjected to adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Adjuvant treatment with mitotane [o,p΄-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane, (o,p΄-DDD)], was initiated following surgery. Mitotane is the only agent available at present for treatment in ACC because of a late-onset specific adrenocortical cell toxicity. Both patients underwent a (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan, which revealed 4 months after starting treatment with mitotane significantly high (18)F-FDG uptake in the contralateral adrenal gland. Both patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging, while one had a laparotomy, because of an abcess at the site of previous adrenalectomy. No metastasis or size increase of the remaining adrenal glands were found suggesting that their hypermetabolic state could be attributed to mitotane treatment. Beside its cytotoxic delayed-effect, mitotane has an early -onset effect on steroid metabolism. In conclusion, an abnormal high (18)F-FDG uptake was observed in the contralateral adrenal gland in both our adrenalectomized ACC patients, 4 months after starting mitotane treatment, probably related to mitotane's effect on steroid metabolism, not yet fully understood.

  9. [Immunoglobulin and electrolyte levels in sialadenosis of the parotid (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Proescher, H J

    1975-03-01

    A comparison of 15 patients with sialadenosis of the parotid gland and 15 control patients was made of their levels of immunoglobulins A, G and M, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, albumin, inorganic phosphate, cholesterin, uric acid and creatinin. Those patients with sialadenosis, in comparison with the control group and the findings in other reports, show reduced immunoglobulin A and increased potassium in the parotic secretion. The disturbance of function of the acinic cell is discussed.

  10. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  11. Bilateral parotid swelling: a radiological review

    PubMed Central

    Gadodia, A; Bhalla, A S; Sharma, R; Thakar, A; Parshad, R

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral parotid swelling is not an uncommon occurrence and may pose a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Numerous causes of bilateral parotid swellings have been identified. The purpose of this pictorial review is to display this wide array with a focus on multimodality approach. PMID:21960397

  12. Sialolithiasis. Proposal for a new minimally invasive procedure: Piezoelectric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo-Díaz, Alfonso; Aracil-Kessler, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the presence of stones in the ducts of the salivary glands. Most episodes are unique, and 60-80% are located exclusively in the main excretory duct. The main clinical manifestations are swelling and pain typically before, during or after meals that decreases if the obstruction is not complete. The highest prevalence of lithiasis is in the submandibular gland -87%-, whose secretion is more viscous, followed by the parotid gland -10%- and finally the sublingual gland -3%-. The most significant consequences are caused by the prolonged blockage of the duct by a stone, which can produce a persistent ductal dilatation with a swelling that does not subside, and could lead to the complete degeneration of the parenchyma, becoming a hot spot where secondary infections may occur, leading to acute bacterial sialadenitis or glandular abscesses. Treatment options range from a single probing extraction, extraction with sialographic control using the sialoendoscope, LASER intraductal lithotripsy, lithotripsy extracorporeal shock wave (ESWL), to the surgical techniques combining open duct with endoscopic or glandular removal. We propose, with regard to a case, the use of a simple piezoelectric device which, tunnelling through the glandular channel by the ostium, allows stone fragmentation, without damaging the surrounding soft tissue. Stone removal by this less invasive method reduces the need for more complex and expensive techniques. The postoperative course without retraction of the ostium, and the regaining of functionality is favourable. Key words:Calculus, lithotripsy, minimally invasive therapy, piezoelectric surgery, salivary glands, soft tissues. PMID:25136434

  13. Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD. PMID:21441486

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma--unusual presentation of a salivary gland tumor in the neck of a child.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bansal, Vishal; Saxena, Susmita; Elhence, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic salivary gland tumors are rare in children. When salivary gland tumors do develop, they preferentially affect major salivary glands and then minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma, also referred to as a benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Approximately 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland, while the remaining 10% affect the minor salivary glands. However, it is uncommon to find them elsewhere in the head and neck region. We report a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma in the upper neck, an unusual site in an 8-year-old boy.

  15. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics of sulfamethazine in plasma and parotid saliva of sheep.

    PubMed

    Pulido, E; Meot, F; Sumano, H; Boivin, R

    1998-04-01

    Salivary output in sheep is large enough to be considered a physiologic body fluid compartment. The hypothesis for this work was that pharmacokinetics of sulfamethazine in saliva was similar to that in plasma. A reliable technique was developed to measure parotid salivary output. Mean output of saliva was 3.18 +/- 1.04 L from a single parotid gland per day with a mean flow of 2.21 +/- 0.43 mL/min. Using concentrations of sulfamethazine in parotid saliva made it possible to calculate the total passage of sulfamethazine to parotid saliva, which was calculated to be 3.5% of the total dose. Pharmacokinetic variables obtained for sulfamethazine in plasma and in saliva were closely related (AUC 1408 micrograms.h/mL and AUC 1484 micrograms.h/mL; Vdarea 0.434 L/kg and Vdarea 0.374 L/kg; t 1/2 beta 4.30 h and 3.46 h, respectively) and no substantial differences were observed. The convenience of using salivary concentrations of sulfamethazine for drug monitoring is discussed.

  17. [Radiation therapy for pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid].

    PubMed

    Jardel, P; Fakhry, N; Makeieff, M; Ferrie, J-C; Milin, S; Righini, C; Lacout, A; Costes, V; Malard, O; Marcy, P-Y; Guevara, N; Odin, G; Bensadoun, R-J; Thariat, J

    2014-01-01

    Parotid pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequent tumor of salivary glands. The prognosis depends on the recurrences because they could lead to iatrogenic events (facial paralysis). Moreover the risk of malignant transformation increases with the number of local relapses. This article aims at reviewing histological and radiological criteria and the surgical techniques. To improve local control, adjuvant irradiation (in first intention or after recurrence) may be useful but is still controversial for benign tumors in young patients with a risk of radio-induced cancer. We listed studies in which adjuvant radiotherapy was used so as to define its place in the treatment strategy. Prognostic factors were found by some authors. Other studies have to be done before strong evidence-based recommendations are issued.

  18. Massive transcranial parotid pleomorphic adenoma: recurrence after 30 years.

    PubMed

    Strub, Graham M; Georgolios, Alexandros; Graham, Robert S; Powers, Celeste N; Coelho, Daniel H

    2012-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor affecting the parotid gland and can reach massive size; however, intracranial invasion is rare. Recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma after excision is a well-known phenomenon and can present decades after resection of the primary tumor. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented to our clinic with ear fullness, otalgia, and hearing loss 30 years after undergoing total parotidectomy and external beam radiotherapy for pleomorphic adenoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive transcranial tumor invading the mastoid cavity, the dura of the posterior fossa, the fallopian and semicircular canals, the jugular foramen, the lateral infratemporal fossa skull base, the sigmoid and transverse sinuses, and the superior parapharyngeal region. Gross examination and histopathological studies confirmed that the mass was a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Here we discuss the features of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and review the current literature.

  19. A Systems Biology Approach Identifies a Regulatory Network in Parotid Acinar Cell Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Melissa A.; Venkatesh, Srirangapatnam G.; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Carenbauer, Anne L.; Perez, Sara M.; Andres, Sarah A.; Appana, Savitri; Brock, Guy N.; Wittliff, James L.; Darling, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transcription factor networks that drive parotid salivary gland progenitor cells to terminally differentiate, remain largely unknown and are vital to understanding the regeneration process. Methodology A systems biology approach was taken to measure mRNA and microRNA expression in vivo across acinar cell terminal differentiation in the rat parotid salivary gland. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to specifically isolate acinar cell RNA at times spanning the month-long period of parotid differentiation. Results Clustering of microarray measurements suggests that expression occurs in four stages. mRNA expression patterns suggest a novel role for Pparg which is transiently increased during mid postnatal differentiation in concert with several target gene mRNAs. 79 microRNAs are significantly differentially expressed across time. Profiles of statistically significant changes of mRNA expression, combined with reciprocal correlations of microRNAs and their target mRNAs, suggest a putative network involving Klf4, a differentiation inhibiting transcription factor, which decreases as several targeting microRNAs increase late in differentiation. The network suggests a molecular switch (involving Prdm1, Sox11, Pax5, miR-200a, and miR-30a) progressively decreases repression of Xbp1 gene transcription, in concert with decreased translational repression by miR-214. The transcription factor Xbp1 mRNA is initially low, increases progressively, and may be maintained by a positive feedback loop with Atf6. Transfection studies show that Xbp1Mist1 promoter. In addition, Xbp1 and Mist1 each activate the parotid secretory protein (Psp) gene, which encodes an abundant salivary protein, and is a marker of terminal differentiation. Conclusion This study identifies novel expression patterns of Pparg, Klf4, and Sox11 during parotid acinar cell differentiation, as well as numerous differentially expressed microRNAs. Network analysis identifies a novel stemness arm, a

  20. [Sialochemistry in nonneoplastic diseases of parotid gland: immunoglobulins and electrolytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Zhu, X; Zhu, J

    1996-07-01

    The concentration and total value of immunoglobulins (SIgA, IgG) and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium and phosphorus) in mixed saliva were examined in 28 patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), 25 with chronic obstructive parotitis (COP), 32 with sialadenosis and 32 normal controls. The results showed that in SS group, total saliva flow rate was decreased: concentration of SIgA, IgG, electrolytes was significantly elevated; but total value of SIgA, IgG, electrolytes was markedly decreased. Decreased total value of sodium, potassium, chlorine and calcium was revealed in COP group. Elevated concentration and total value of phosphorus was found in sialadenosis group. This study indicates that examination of total value of immunoglobins and electrolytes has greater value than that of concentration. The possible mechanism of changes observed is discussed.

  1. Function of salivary glands and sialochemistry in sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Arglebe, C

    1983-01-01

    Human sialadenosis is a non-inflammatory disease affecting the cephalic salivary glands, mainly the parotid, characterized by a mostly bilateral, painless swelling due to a substantial increase of the glandular parenchyma. After the presentation of clinical, cytological and biochemical data the probable etiology of this disease is discussed. It is concluded that sialadenosis is not a disease of the salivary glands themselves but of their sympathetic innervation.

  2. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  3. THE LIPID CONSTITUENTS OF WHOLE AND PAROTID SALIVA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Chloroform: methanol extracts of whole and parotid saliva were subjected to paper chromatography to further characterize their lipid components. The...the sample materials. Whole and parotid saliva had similar nonphosphatides, but differed in their phospholipid composition. (Author)

  4. Adrenal-preserving minimally invasive surgery: the role of laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy, cryosurgery, and radiofrequency ablation of the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Munver, Ravi; Del Pizzo, Joseph J; Sosa, R Ernest

    2003-02-01

    Adrenalectomy has become the standard of care for the management of hormonally active adrenal masses. Various surgical therapies have been proposed to excise completely or destroy these adrenal lesions, which may be benign or malignant. New minimally invasive, adrenal-sparing procedures have recently been introduced, among them laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy, cryosurgery, and radiofrequency ablation. These procedures focus on reducing patient morbidity and hastening postoperative recovery while preserving normal adrenal tissue. However, questions remain about the risks and benefits associated with routine application of minimally invasive therapies for adrenal-sparing surgery in terms of complete tumor extirpation. Clearly, more experience and longer follow-up is necessary to validate these procedures. Herein we describe the surgical techniques and early results of treatment with adrenal-sparing surgery.

  5. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  6. Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, W L; Salih, E; Wan, D L; Helmerhorst, E J; Oppenheim, F G

    2008-05-01

    Recent research efforts in oral biology have resulted in elucidation of the proteomes of major human salivary secretions and whole saliva. One might hypothesize that the proteome of minor gland secretions may show significantly different characteristics when compared with the proteomes of parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted the first exploration into the proteome of minor salivary gland secretion. Minor gland secretion was obtained from healthy volunteers, and its components were subjected to liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry. This led to the identification of 56 proteins, 12 of which had never been identified in any salivary secretion. The unique characteristics of the minor salivary gland secretion proteome are related to the types as well as the numbers of components present. The differences between salivary proteomes may be important with respect to specific oral functions.

  7. Management of an unusual case of iatrogenic parotid sialocele using an infant feeding tube: a novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ambadas; Chandrasala, Soumithran; Nimbeni, Basavaraj S; Pal Singh, Surendar; Golai, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the parotid duct and parenchyma resulting in swelling in the cheek region commonly present in maxillofacial practice. Sialocele is a discrete collection of saliva in a subcutaneous cavity that can be iatrogenic, idiopathic or the result of post-traumatic injuries to the duct or parenchyma, presenting as a salivary pseudocyst or retention cyst. We present an unusual case of parotid sialocele following surgery for sialolithiasis which presented with progressive painless swelling in the preauricular region of 9 months duration. Treatment included surgical exploration under local anaesthesia and draining the cavity by keeping the opening patent using an infant feeding tube. PMID:25331148

  8. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: routine diagnostic experience in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika

    2012-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery.

  9. Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.

  10. Optical nerve identification in head and neck surgery after Er:YAG laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Stelzle, Florian; Knipfer, Christian; Bergauer, Bastian; Rohde, Maximilian; Adler, Werner; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Facial nerve function may be hampered by iatrogenic damage during head and neck laser surgery procedures. Optical techniques can serve as a basis for feedback-controlled tissue-specific laser surgery on the jaw bone and the parotid gland. In order to preserve nerve tissue during laser surgery, the alteration of optical tissue properties through laser-tissue interactions have to be taken into account. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the viability of optical tissue differentiation through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy after exposure to laser light as a basis for a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Spectra of diffuse reflectance (wavelength, 350-650 nm) of nerves, salivary glands, and cortical and cancellous bone of the midfacial region (ex vivo domestic pig heads) were acquired before/after Er:YAG laser (wavelength, 2.94 μm) ablation (each 16,800 spectra). Principal component analysis was computed followed by quadratic discriminant analysis. The tissue classification performance as well as area under the curve (AUC) sensitivity and specificity for tissue differentiation was assessed before and after laser-tissue exposure. A high classification performance was observed before laser ablation (total error, 7.74%). Nerve tissue was differentiated from bone and salivary glands with results greater than 0.96 in AUC, sensitivity and specificity. After laser exposure, a total classification error of 18.61% was observed. The differentiation of nerve tissue was reduced with an AUC of >0.94, sensitivity of >0.95, and specificity >0.87. Er:YAG laser ablation only slightly reduces the differentiation performance through diffuse reflectance in the investigated tissue types. The results show the general viability of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in identifying neural structures in the vicinity of salivary glands and bone as a basis for nerve preservation during feedback-controlled laser surgery.

  11. Myoparasitism mimicking parotid swelling: a rare presentation of cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Sandeep; Singh, Saumya; Jaiswal, Vaibhav; Mishra, Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Muscular infestation with larval stage of Taenia solium is a well-recognised entity but cysticercosis of the head and neck region is a rarity. We present a case of 35-year-old young man with diffuse swelling of 3.5×4 cm in the parotid region on the right side of the face with signs of inflammation. Diagnosis was established on high-resolution ultrasonography which revealed it to be of parasitic origin. The patient was managed with antihelminthic pharmacotherapy and improved within a month. Thus cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous swellings of the head and neck region, especially in endemic zones and it must be investigated well with appropriate imaging modalities so that inadvertent surgery can be avoided. PMID:24842360

  12. Protein expression in salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mednieks, Maija I; Szczepanski, Andrew; Clark, Brett; Hand, Arthur R

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a widespread disease with high morbidity and health care costs. An experimental animal model was employed, using morphological and biochemical methods, to investigate the effects of DM on the expression and compartmentation of salivary gland proteins. The distribution of proline-rich proteins (PRP), submandibular mucin (Muc10) and the regulatory (RI and RII) subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I and type II was determined in the parotid and submandibular (SMG) glands of rats treated with streptozotocin. Quantitative immunocytochemistry of secretory granules in diabetic glands revealed decreases of 30% for PRP in both the parotid and SMG, and a 40% decrease in Muc10 in the SMG. Immunogold labelling showed that RII decreased in nuclei and the cytoplasm in diabetic acinar cells while labelling of secretory granules was similar in control and diabetic parotid. Electrophoresis and Western blotting of tissue extracts of two secretory proteins showed that the response to DM and insulin treatment was gland specific: PRP showed little change in the SMG, but decreased in the parotid in DM and was partially restored after insulin treatment. Photoaffinity labelling showed only RI present in the SMG and mainly RII in the parotid. The results of this and previous studies demonstrating highly specific changes in salivary protein expression indicate that the oral environment is significantly altered by DM, and that oral tissues and their function can be compromised. These findings may provide a basis for future studies to develop tests using saliva for diabetic status or progression in humans. PMID:19659899

  13. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Hug, Eugen B.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  14. Histology and mucosubstance histochemistry of mongoose salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Poddar, S; Jacob, S

    1978-01-01

    The histology and mucosubstance histochemistry of the mongoose salivary glands were studied. Histologically, the mongoose salivary glands were generally similar to those in other carnivores (dog, cat and ferret). The mucosubstance histochemistry demonstrated considerable variations in the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands in comparison to the other carnivores. The partoid gland contained carboxylated mucin which was sialidase-resistant. Granules in a few cells also contained sulphated mucin. Both submandibular and sublingual glands contained mainly carboxylated sialomucin which was sialidase-labile except in a few cell, some neutral mucin but no sulphated mucin. The molar and zygomatic glands were similar to those in the other carnivores. They contained both sulphated and carboxylated mucins but no neutral mucin. The carboxylated mucin was sialidase-resistant.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The

  17. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Knaś, M.; Daniszewska, I.; Klimiuk, A.; Kołodziej, U.; Waszkiel, D.; Ładny, J. R.; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions. PMID:27478848

  18. Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed.

  19. Oxidative Modification in the Salivary Glands of High Fat-Diet Induced Insulin Resistant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziej, Urszula; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Miąsko, Agnieszka; Matczuk, Jan; Knaś, Małgorzata; Żukowski, Piotr; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Borys, Jan; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Still little is known about the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of the salivary gland dysfunction in the course of insulin resistance (IR). To induce IR rats was fed with a high fat diet (HFD) during 8 weeks. Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rate, total protein, as well as oxidative damage markers: 4-HNE protein adduct, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-D-guanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), and protein carbonyls (PC) were determined in the plasma and submandibular and parotid glands of IR and control rats. We have shown a significant decrease (45%) of the stimulated salivary flow rate, and in the total protein concentration in the parotid (35%) and submandibular (10%) glands of HFD IR as compared to the control rats. The level of 4-HNE protein adduct (15%) and 8-isoP (20%) in the submandibular glands of IR rats as well as total level of 4-HNE protein adduct (39%), 8-isoP (27%), AOPP (25%), PC (32%), and 8-OHdG (18%) in the parotid glands of IR rats were significantly higher as compared to the control group. We showed no correlation between the assessed OS parameters in the plasma and salivary glands. However, the redox balance in both glands shifted toward the oxidative status, parotid glands of IR rats are exposed to greater intensity OS. Stimulated secretory ability and mechanisms involved in the synthesis/secretion of proteins in the salivary glands are depressed in the course of IR. Oxidative damage in the salivary glands arises independently from the general OS in the course of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet. PMID:28184199

  20. Oxidative Modification in the Salivary Glands of High Fat-Diet Induced Insulin Resistant Rats.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Urszula; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Miąsko, Agnieszka; Matczuk, Jan; Knaś, Małgorzata; Żukowski, Piotr; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Borys, Jan; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Still little is known about the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of the salivary gland dysfunction in the course of insulin resistance (IR). To induce IR rats was fed with a high fat diet (HFD) during 8 weeks. Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rate, total protein, as well as oxidative damage markers: 4-HNE protein adduct, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-D-guanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), and protein carbonyls (PC) were determined in the plasma and submandibular and parotid glands of IR and control rats. We have shown a significant decrease (45%) of the stimulated salivary flow rate, and in the total protein concentration in the parotid (35%) and submandibular (10%) glands of HFD IR as compared to the control rats. The level of 4-HNE protein adduct (15%) and 8-isoP (20%) in the submandibular glands of IR rats as well as total level of 4-HNE protein adduct (39%), 8-isoP (27%), AOPP (25%), PC (32%), and 8-OHdG (18%) in the parotid glands of IR rats were significantly higher as compared to the control group. We showed no correlation between the assessed OS parameters in the plasma and salivary glands. However, the redox balance in both glands shifted toward the oxidative status, parotid glands of IR rats are exposed to greater intensity OS. Stimulated secretory ability and mechanisms involved in the synthesis/secretion of proteins in the salivary glands are depressed in the course of IR. Oxidative damage in the salivary glands arises independently from the general OS in the course of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet.

  1. Observations on two cases of apparent submandibular gland cysts in HIV positive patients: MR and CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Gottesman, R.I.; Som, P.M.; Mester, J.; Silvers, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    To present two cases of probable lymphoepithelial cysts of the submandibular glands in patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and who also had lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands. Computed tomography and MRI of two HIV positive patients with lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands and cysts in tile submandibular glands were correlated with the histories and the possible presence of other known causes of submandibular gland multiple cysts. Because of the present treatment philosophy regarding HIV positive patients with major salivary gland cysts, surgical resection of these glands was not performed. All other known causes of multiple submandibular gland cysts were excluded by either history or laboratory data. Computed tomography and MRI on two patients with known HIV infection and bilateral parotid lymphoepithelial cysts are presented. Both patients also had bilateral multiple submandibular gland cysts and no evidence of obstructive glandular diseases autoimmune disease, or other organ system cysts. These cases of presumed submandibular gland lymphoepithelial cysts are rare in the literature. They are presented in the hope that other radiologists will be stimulated to document the occurrence of this entity. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Histological characteristics following a long-term nitrate-rich diet in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dengsheng; Qu, Xingmin; Tran, Simon D; Schmidt, Laura L; Qin, Lizheng; Zhang, Chunmei; Cui, Xiuyu; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the histological characteristics following a 2-year nitrate-rich diet in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy. Using averages collected data from three time points at 6, 12, and 24 months following the induction of parotid gland atrophy, salivary nitrate levels of the nitrate-diet parotid-atrophied group (17.3 ± 3.9 ng/µl) were close to those of the control group (19.6 ± 5.1 ng/µl). Compared to the control group, the nitrate-diet group had significantly higher nitrate levels in blood (P < 0.05) and urine (P < 0.001). Histological and electron microscopy analyses showed no abnormalities in the organs of experimental or control animals. No significant differences on apoptosis rate were found in liver and kidney tissues between the standard- and nitrate-diet groups. Therefore, dietary nitrate supplementation could restore salivary nitrate levels. High-dose nitrate loading for 2 years had no observed systemic toxicity in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy.

  3. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  4. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  5. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Parotid Area Lymph Nodes: Dose and Volume Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. Grekin, Roy C.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, Mary K.; Margolis, Lawrence W.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: The intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes are the most commonly involved when skin cancer of the head and neck metastasizes beyond the primary site. We sought to report the clinical outcome of patients treated with radiation therapy for parotid-area metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: The records of 36 patients treated with radiation therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma involving the parotid-area lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients had clinically N0 necks and were without evidence of distant disease. Thirty patients (83%) were treated postoperatively after gross total tumor resection. Median dose to the parotid area was 60 Gy (range, 50-72 Gy). Treatment of clinically N0 necks consisted of surgical dissection (7 patients), irradiation (15 patients), and observation (14 patients). Results: The 5-year estimate of local (parotid) control was 86% in patients treated using surgery with postoperative therapy and 47% in patients treated using radiation therapy alone. Three of 4 patients with tumors that relapsed locally after surgery and postoperative radiation received a dose of less than 60 Gy. Elective neck irradiation decreased the incidence of subsequent nodal failures from 50% to 0% and significantly improved neck control (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 63%. Conclusions: Surgery followed by radiation therapy to doses of at least 60 Gy results in effective local control for patients with parotid area metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Routine irradiation of the clinically N0 neck is recommended.

  6. April 2002: 35-year-old healthy man with enlarging right parotid mass.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Elsa K; Lopes, M Beatriz S

    2002-10-01

    The April 2002 Case of the Month (COM). 35-year-old healthy man developed a mass in the right parotid gland. A superifical parotidectomy was performed for a 4.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm mass involving the intraparotid facial nerve. Grossly the tumor was multinodular, smooth and yellow with normal surrounding salivary gland. Microscopically, the tumor showed expanding nodules composed of proliferating fibroblasts, Schwann cells, and perineural-like cells in a myxoid stroma. Normal peripheral nerve twigs were identified in the periphery of the tumor. There was no increased mitotic activity, cellularity or nuclear pleomorphism. S-100 immunohistochemical stain was positive. The tumor was diagnosed as a solitary plexiform neurofibroma. Plexiform neurofibromas in this area have been described in children with von Recklinghausen's disease or neurofibromatosis 1 (NF 1). Plexiform neurofibromas typically involve deep seated nerve trunks and is considered pathognomonic for NF 1. This unusual case represents a solitary variant of plexiform neurofibroma presenting as a parotid mass in an adult patient without a personal stigmata or family history of NF 1.

  7. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.

  8. SU-E-J-109: Evaluation of Deformable Accumulated Parotid Doses Using Different Registration Algorithms in Adaptive Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S; Liu, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Three deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms are utilized to perform deformable dose accumulation for head and neck tomotherapy treatment, and the differences of the accumulated doses are evaluated. Methods: Daily MVCT data for 10 patients with pathologically proven nasopharyngeal cancers were analyzed. The data were acquired using tomotherapy (TomoTherapy, Accuray) at the PLA General Hospital. The prescription dose to the primary target was 70Gy in 33 fractions.Three DIR methods (B-spline, Diffeomorphic Demons and MIMvista) were used to propagate parotid structures from planning CTs to the daily CTs and accumulate fractionated dose on the planning CTs. The mean accumulated doses of parotids were quantitatively compared and the uncertainties of the propagated parotid contours were evaluated using Dice similarity index (DSI). Results: The planned mean dose of the ipsilateral parotids (32.42±3.13Gy) was slightly higher than those of the contralateral parotids (31.38±3.19Gy)in 10 patients. The difference between the accumulated mean doses of the ipsilateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (36.40±5.78Gy, 34.08±6.72Gy and 33.72±2.63Gy ) were statistically significant (B-spline vs Demons, P<0.0001, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.002). And The difference between those of the contralateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (34.08±4.82Gy, 32.42±4.80Gy and 33.92±4.65Gy ) were also significant (B-spline vs Demons, p =0.009, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.074). For the DSI analysis, the scores of B-spline, Demons and MIMvista DIRs were 0.90, 0.89 and 0.76. Conclusion: Shrinkage of parotid volumes results in the dose increase to the parotid glands in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy. The accumulated doses of parotids show significant difference using the different DIR algorithms between kVCT and MVCT. Therefore, the volume-based criterion (i.e. DSI) as a quantitative evaluation of

  9. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland in a 14 year Old Child.

    PubMed

    Pramod Krishna, B

    2013-06-01

    Salivary gland tumours are rare in childhood, and almost all of them occur in parotid gland. Minor salivary gland tumours are even rarer, pleomorphic adenoma being the most frequently found tumour. Only seventeen cases of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland tumour have been reported in children and adolescents. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland represents about 45% of all the tumours of the minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma is slowly enlarging tumour indistinguishable from adenoid cystic carcinoma clinically, except for pain and ulceration, which is more common in the latter. Carcinoma arising from pleomorphic adenoma has been reported in 3% cases amongst the minor salivary gland tumours. This report presents a case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in a 14 year old female patient with a brief review of literature.

  10. [Acute parotiditis after tracheostomy in Intensive Care].

    PubMed

    Serviá Goixart, L; Badía, M; Campi, D; Trujillano, J; Alcega, R; Vilanova, J

    2006-01-01

    Post-anesthesic parotiditis is a little known entity related with anesthesic procedures but described in any situation that motivates manipulation of the oropharyngeal cavity. Its physiopathological mechanism is not well-defined, although it could have a multifactorial origin. A case of a male who was admitted for post-operative control of brain tumor exeresis and who had preauricular and submaxillary inflammation after a routinely performed tracheostomy is presented. Coincidence with the performing of a tracheostomy required us to propose the differential diagnosis with the complications associated to said surgical act. Post-anesthesic parotiditis, even though it is a rare complication and has no clinical significance, should be kept in mind when there is facial edema after any manipulation of the oropharyngeal cavity.

  11. Pulmonary Tumor Thrombotic Microangiopathy Caused by a Parotid Tumor: Early Antemortem Diagnosis and Long-term Survival

    PubMed Central

    Toyonaga, Haruka; Tsuchiya, Michiko; Sakaguchi, Chikara; Ajimizu, Hitomi; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Nishiyama, Seiya; Morikawa, Noboru; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Nagasaka, Yukio; Yasui, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a high-mortality disease that is difficult to diagnose clinically. Our patient was an 80-year-old woman who came to us due to symptoms of increasing dyspnea. A clinical evaluation showed that she had hypoxemia and pulmonary arterial hypertension without any abnormalities in the major pulmonary arteries, bronchi, or alveoli. A lung perfusion scan showed multiple wedge-shaped perfusion defects. Further examination revealed adenocarcinoma in her right parotid gland with metastasis to the submandibular lymph nodes. We diagnosed her to have PTTM caused by a parotid tumor. The patient survived for 11 months with chemotherapy. An early antemortem diagnosis by minimally invasive examinations will help PTTM patients to survive longer. PMID:28050002

  12. Accuracy of Ultrasound-Guided and Non-ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection Into Cadaver Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (US)-guided and non-US-guided botulinum toxin (BTX) injection into the salivary glands (parotid and submandibular glands) of cadavers. Methods Two rehabilitation physician injected dye into three sites in the salivary glands (two sites in the parotid gland and one site in the submandibular gland) on one side of each cadaver (one was injected on the right side, while the other was injected on the left side), using either a non-US-guided injection procedure based on superficial landmarks or a US-guided procedure. Orange dye was used for the US-guided procedure, and green dye was used for the blind procedure. Two physicians uninvolved with the injection procedures and who were blinded to the method of injection dissected the cadavers to identify whether the dye was accurately injected into each target site. Results The accuracies of the blind and US-guided injections into the parotid gland were 79.17% and 95.83%, respectively. In the submandibular gland, the accuracies of the blind and US-guided injections were 50.00% and 91.67%, respectively. The difference in accuracy between the two procedures was statistically significant only in the submandibular gland (p=0.025). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of US-guided and non-US-guided injections between the two physicians for the two sites in the parotid gland (p=0.278 and p=0.146, respectively). Conclusion US-guided BTX injection into the submandibular gland offers significantly greater accuracy over blind injection. For the treatment of drooling by injecting BTX into the submandibular gland, clinicians should consider using US guidance for improved accuracy. PMID:28289635

  13. Minor salivary glands as a major source of secretory immunoglobin A in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J M; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J

    1975-12-19

    Secretory immunoglobulin A is the predominant immunoglobulin in labial minor salivary gland secretions. Its mean concentration is four times higher in these secretions than in parotid gland secretion. The minor salivary glands can produce 30 to 35 percent of the immunoglobulin A that enters the oral cavity. This, together with the potential accessibility of these glands to antigenic stimulation, suggest that they may be an important source of the immune factors that are involved in the regulation of the microorganisms in the oral environment.

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma of the soft palate: major tumor in a minor gland.

    PubMed

    Hmidi, Mounir; Aatifi, Hicham; Boukhari, Ali; Zalagh, Mohammed; Messary, Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a relatively rare and morphologically diverse group of lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign tumor of the salivary gland that consists of a combination of epithelial and mesenchymal elements. The tumor most commonly arises from the parotid (60-70%) or submandibular glands. It develops less frequently in a minor salivary gland, presenting as an intraoral mass depend on the soft palate. We describe a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma of soft palate in a 45 year old female with computed tomography and histopathological findings. This patient presented in ENT department with history of gradually increasing mass lesion in the palatal region over a period of few months.

  15. Incorporating single-side sparing in models for predicting parotid dose sparing in head and neck IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Lulin Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yoo, David; Jiang, Yuliang; Ge, Yaorong

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Sparing of single-side parotid gland is a common practice in head-and-neck (HN) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. It is a special case of dose sparing tradeoff between different organs-at-risk. The authors describe an improved mathematical model for predicting achievable dose sparing in parotid glands in HN IMRT planning that incorporates single-side sparing considerations based on patient anatomy and learning from prior plan data. Methods: Among 68 HN cases analyzed retrospectively, 35 cases had physician prescribed single-side parotid sparing preferences. The single-side sparing model was trained with cases which had single-side sparing preferences, while the standard model was trained with the remainder of cases. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the best criterion that separates the two case groups using the physician's single-side sparing prescription as ground truth. The final predictive model (combined model) takes into account the single-side sparing by switching between the standard and single-side sparing models according to the single-side sparing criterion. The models were tested with 20 additional cases. The significance of the improvement of prediction accuracy by the combined model over the standard model was evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Using the ROC analysis, the best single-side sparing criterion is (1) the predicted median dose of one parotid is higher than 24 Gy; and (2) that of the other is higher than 7 Gy. This criterion gives a true positive rate of 0.82 and a false positive rate of 0.19, respectively. For the bilateral sparing cases, the combined and the standard models performed equally well, with the median of the prediction errors for parotid median dose being 0.34 Gy by both models (p = 0.81). For the single-side sparing cases, the standard model overestimates the median dose by 7.8 Gy on average, while the predictions by the combined

  16. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  17. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Allah Verdi, M; Nikoofar, A

    2006-09-07

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 +/- 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 +/- 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 +/- 15.1 cGy, 9.15 +/- 3.89 cGy, 0.47 +/- 0.3 cGy and 0.53 +/- 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  18. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  19. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    SciTech Connect

    Anacak, Yavuz; Miller, Robert C.; Constantinou, Nikos; Mamusa, Angela M.; Epelbaum, Ron; Li Yexiong; Calduch, Anna Lucas; Kowalczyk, Anna; Weber, Damien C.; Kadish, Sidney P.; Poortmans, Philip; Kamer, Serra; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIE in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease-free survival.

  20. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report.

    PubMed

    Ismı, Onur; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature.

  1. Use of wireless phones and the risk of salivary gland tumours: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2012-11-01

    The last decades of increasing use of wireless phones, including mobile as well as cordless desktop phones, have led to concerns about the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Among the most exposed areas of the body when the phone is used for talking are the salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland, located in front of the ear. The objective of this case-control study was to assess whether the use of wireless phones is associated with an increased risk of tumour at this site. Sixty-nine patients with salivary gland tumours (63 with a parotid gland tumour) and 262 randomly recruited controls were included. Unconditional logistic regression - adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, year of diagnosis and socioeconomic index - was used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The use of wireless phones was not associated with an overall increased risk of salivary gland tumours, odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.5. Neither was there an increased risk for the different phone types when calculated separately nor was there an increased risk for different latencies or when cumulative use was divided into three groups (1-1000, 1001-2000 and >2000 h). The overall results were similar for the risk of parotid gland tumours. In conclusion, our data add to the evidence against there being an increased risk for parotid gland tumours associated with light-to-moderate use of wireless phones and for less than 10 years of use but offers little information on risk related to more prolonged and/or heavy use.

  2. Contact endoscopy for identifying the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A V; Brandão, L G; Dedivitis, R A

    2010-02-01

    Aim of this study was to analyse contact endoscopy as an auxiliary method for identifying parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery and to identify other variables that may interfere with this correlation. Overall, 125 patients underwent thyroid surgery between January 2004 and February 2006. The variables analysed were: the total duration of surgery; time taken to locate and identify parathyroid glands; improvement in identifying these; numbers of parathyroid glands located by the surgeon and confirmed by contact endoscopy; histopathological diagnosis; presence of thyroiditis; thyroid weight; number of parathyroid glands left in thyroid specimens; and number of parathyroid gland autotransplantations. A total of 331 parathyroid glands were observed by the surgeon. However, 282 glands were identified by contact endoscopy. Nine parathyroid glands (7.2%) were observed together with thyroid specimens (Kappa = 0.534). The longer the total duration of surgery (p = 0.03) and time taken to locate and identify (p = 0.00) the parathyroid glands by contact endoscopy, the lower the observed agreement. The second year of performing contact endoscopy led to better agreement between the results (p = 0.02). In conclusion, contact endoscopy is an efficient auxiliary method for identifying parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. During the period studied, association between total duration of surgery and time taken to locate and identify parathyroid glands was statistically significant.

  3. Surgical molecular navigation with a Ratiometric Activatable Cell Penetrating Peptide improves intraoperative identification and resection of small salivary gland cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Timon; Savariar, Elamprakash N.; Diaz-Perez, Julio A.; Messer, Karen; Pu, Minya; Tsien, Roger Y.; Nguyen, Quyen T.

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the use of intraoperative fluorescence guidance by enzymatically cleavable ratiometric activatable cell-penetrating peptide (RACPPPLGC(Me)AG) containing Cy5 as a fluorescent donor and Cy7 as a fluorescent acceptor for salivary gland cancer surgery in a mouse model. Methods Surgical resection of small parotid gland cancers in mice was performed with fluorescence guidance or white light (WL) imaging alone. Tumor identification accuracy, operating time and tumor free survival were compared. Results RACPP guidance aided tumor detection (positive histology in 90% (27/30) vs. 48% (15/31) for WL, p<0.001). A ~25% ratiometric signal increase as the threshold to distinguish between tumor and adjacent tissue, yielded >90% detection sensitivity and specificity. Operating time was reduced by 54% (p<0.001), tumor free survival was increased with RACPP guidance (p=0.025). Conclusions RACPP provides real-time intraoperative guidance leading to improved survival. Ratiometric signal thresholds can be set according to desired detection accuracy levels for future RACPP applications. PMID:25521629

  4. Assessment of salivary gland function in patients after successful kidney transplantation using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Orsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Keles, Mustafa; Ayan, Arif Kursad; Cankaya, Erdem; Ozkan, Ozalkan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic renal failure and its treatment can induce oral health problems and salivary glands dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary glands function in patients with kidney transplantation using technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) salivary glands scintigraphy. We prospectively studied 34 patients with kidney transplantation (30 males and 4 females,mean age 39.76±11.6 years) and 28 healthy controls (12 males and 16 females, mean age 36.1±9.5 years). Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed nearly 4.4±2.9 years after successful kidney transplantation. Dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy was performed during 25min after the intravenous administration of 185MBq of (99m)Tc-P. Time-activity curves and glands functional parameters were calculated for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation of the radionuclide, and excretion fraction. Statistical analysis of the functional parameters showed no significant differences between patients with kidney transplantation and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that using (99m)Tc-P salivary gland scintigraphy, salivary glands function of patients with successful kidney transplantation do not differ statistically from those in healthy controls.

  5. Identification of parathyroid glands: anatomical study and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Melo, Catarina; Pinheiro, Susana; Carvalho, Lina; Bernardes, António

    2015-03-01

    While performing thyroid surgery, the unintentional lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves results in a profound alteration in patient's quality of life. To minimize thyroid surgery morbidity, the surgeon must have an in-depth knowledge of the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck. This work intended to simulate total thyroidectomies using cadaver parts and isolate fragments that may correspond to parathyroid glands. The thyroid glands and "eventual" parathyroid glands were then submitted to histological study. Ninety-two cadaver parts were used for macroscopic dissection. A total of 242 fragments were isolated, 154 of which were confirmed through histological study to be parathyroid glands. In 36 cases, all "eventual" parathyroid glands isolated during dissection were confirmed through histological verification. In 40 cases, some glands were confirmed. In 16 cases, none of the "eventual" parathyroid glands was confirmed. The 92 thyroid glands isolated during dissection were also submitted to histological study. In 21 thyroid glands, 16 parathyroid glands were identified in the histological cuts: 8 sub-capsular, 8 extra-capsular, 6 intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical difference between the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid gland identification and preservation are sometimes a challenge during thyroid surgery, difficulty that has been demonstrated during dissection of cadaver parts.

  6. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  7. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... women; stimulates sperm production in men Prolactin - stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to produce important substances that have properties similar ...

  8. Bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of the media in an adolescent in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Mieliauskaite, Diana; Venalis, Algirdas; Graziene, Vida; Kirdaite, Gailute

    2007-07-01

    The elimination of censorship for the media in post-communist countries in transition has contributed to increases in the prevalence of several medical problems. Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the messages conveyed through the media, which influence their perceptions and behaviour. We describe a case of bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of self-prescribed diet in an adolescent. A 15-year-old girl reported to our institution under suspicion of Sjögren's syndrome for medical advice. Two months ago she developed persistent bilateral parotid enlargement and a dry mouth. Her medical history revealed a weight loss due to "self-prescribed" reduce diet. Social questioning clarified high use of the media and influence on the body concept and self image. On extra oral examination, a diffuse parotid enlargement was seen bilaterally. The examination of the mouth showed a low moisture level of the intraoral mucosa. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was 2 ml in 15 min. Laboratory findings evidenced anemia (107 g/l). The serum albumin concentration indicated a reduced level (28 g/l). Search for antinuclear antibodies, anti-SSA antibodies, anti-SSB, -Sm, -RNP and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies was negative. Evaluation for antibodies against hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection and HIV rendered negative results. A histopathologic examination of labial salivary gland biopsy revealed a picture of sialoadenosis. From the above investigations, a diagnosis of sialoadenosis due to malnutrition was made.

  9. Effects of dietary consistency and water content on parotid amylase secretion and gastric starch digestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1999-12-01

    The aim was to estimate the significance of oral sensation and mastication in inducing amylase secretion from the parotid gland and subsequent starch digestion in the stomach. Rats were fed three diets of similar chemical composition but different physical presentations. Two were solid, either pellets or powder, and one was liquid. Oral sensory activity would be greatest with the pellets and least with the liquid. Only the pellets would require significant mastication. Three criteria were used to estimate amylase secretion, amylase activity in the stomach, the depletion of glandular amylase activity and plasma amylase concentrations. Gastric starch digestion was estimated by measuring the concentration of reducing-sugars in the stomach contents. Parotid amylase secretion and gastric starch digestion were similar whether rats were fed pelleted or powdered solid food but much lower in rats fed a liquid diet. These findings support the view that it is the contact of dry food with the oral mucosa rather than the jaw movements involved in mastication that stimulates parotid amylase secretion.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Age Specific Variation in the Abundance of Human Female Parotid Salivary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Lu, Bingwen; Hagen, Fred K; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human saliva is a protein-rich, easily accessible source of potential local and systemic biomarkers to monitor changes that occur under pathological conditions; however little is known about the changes in abundance associated with normal aging. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomic profiling of pooled saliva collected from the parotid glands of healthy female subjects, divided into two age groups 1 and 2 (20–30 and 55–65 years old, respectively). Hydrophobic charge interaction chromatography was used to separate high from low abundant proteins prior to characterization of the parotid saliva using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Collectively, 532 proteins were identified in the two age groups. Of these proteins, 266 were identified exclusively in one age group, while 266 proteins were common to both groups. The majority of the proteins identified in the two age groups belonged to the defense and immune response category. Of note, several defense related proteins (e.g. lysozyme, lactoferrin and histatin-1) were significantly more abundant in group 2 as determined by G-test. Selected representative mass spectrometric findings were validated by western blot analysis. Our study reports the first quantitative analysis of differentially regulated proteins in ductal saliva collected from young and older female subjects. This study supports the use of high-throughput proteomics as a robust discovery tool. Such results provide a foundation for future studies to identify specific salivary proteins which may be linked to age-related diseases specific to women. PMID:19764810

  11. Salivary Gland Tumor: A Review of 599 Cases in a Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Flávia Aparecida; Duarte, Eliza Carla Barroso; Taveira, Cláudia Teixeira; Máximo, Aline Abreu; de Aquino, Érica Carvalho; Alencar, Rita de Cássia

    2009-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors consist of a group of heterogeneous lesions with complex clinicopathological characteristics and distinct biological behaviors. Worldwide series show a contrast in the relative incidence of salivary gland tumors, with some discrepancies in clinicopathological data. The main aim of this study was to describe demographic characteristics of 599 cases in a population from Central Brazil over a 10-year period and compare these with other epidemiological studies. Benign tumors represented 78.3% of the cases. Women were the most affected (61%) and the male:female ratio was 1:1.6. Parotid gland tumors were the most frequent (68.5% of cases) and patient age ranged from 1 to 88 years-old (median of 45 years old). The most frequent tumors were pleomorphic adenomas (68.4%) and benign tumors were significantly more frequent in the parotid (75.9%), while malignant tumors were more frequent in the minor salivary glands (40%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, women and the parotid gland were the most affected and pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent lesion, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma and Warthin’s tumor. PMID:20596844

  12. Optical Detection of Peripheral Nerve Bundles During Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-02

    Malignant Lymphoma of Lymph Nodes of Inguinal Region; Malignant Lymphoma of Lymph Nodes of Axillary; Malignant Lymphoma of Lymph Nodes of the Cervix; Carcinoma of Parotid Gland; Colon Rectal Cancer Tubulovillous Adenocarcinoma; Tumor of Soft Tissue of Head, Face and Neck

  13. Efficacy of Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation on Parotid Saliva Flow Rate in Relation to Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Manu; M Raju, Srinivasa; S Mohan, Raviprakash; Tomar, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Treatment with salivary substitutes and stimulation of salivary flow by either mechanical or pharmacologic methods has side effects and only provides symptomatic relief but no long-lasting results. Purpose To assess the effectiveness of extraoral transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) as a mean of stimulating salivary function in healthy adult subjects; as well as to determine the gender and age-dependent changes in salivary flow rates of unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva. Materials and Method Hundred patients were divided into two groups; Group I aged 20-40 and Group II aged ≥ 60 years. The TENS electrode pads were externally placed on the skin overlying the parotid glands. Unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva was collected for 5 minutes each by using standardized collection techniques. Results Eighty seven of 100 subjects demonstrated increased salivary flow when stimulated via the TENS unit. Ten experienced no increase and 3 experienced a decrease. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.01872 ml/min in Group I and 0.0088 ml/min in Group II. The mean stimulated salivary flow rate was 0.03084 ml/min (SD= 0.01248) in Group I, and 0.01556 ml/min (SD 0.0101) in Group II. After stimulation, the amount of salivary flow increased significantly in both groups (p< 0.001). Statistical comparison of the two groups revealed them to be significantly different (p< 0.001), with Group I producing more saliva. Gender-wise, no statistically significant difference was seen among the subjects in Group I (p = 0.148), and those in Group II (p= 0.448). Out of 12 subjects with 0 baseline flows, 7 continued to have no flow. Five subjects observed side effects, although minimal and transient. Conclusion The TENS unit was effective in increasing parotid gland salivary flow in healthy subjects. There was age-related but no gender-related variability in parotid salivary flow rate. PMID:27602390

  14. Sparing the region of the salivary gland containing stem cells preserves saliva production after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Luijk, Peter; Pringle, Sarah; Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali V.; Faber, Hette; Hovan, Allan; Baanstra, Mirjam; van der Laan, Hans P.; Kierkels, Roel G. J.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Witjes, Max J.; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wu, Jonn; Coppes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Each year, 500,000 patients are treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, resulting in relatively high survival rates. However, in 40% of patients, quality of life is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequent xerostomia (dry mouth). New radiation treatment technologies enable sparing of parts of the salivary glands. We have determined the parts of the major salivary gland, the parotid gland, that need to be spared to ensure that the gland continues to produce saliva after irradiation treatment. In mice, rats, and humans, we showed that stem and progenitor cells reside in the region of the parotid gland containing the major ducts. We demonstrated in rats that inclusion of the ducts in the radiation field led to loss of regenerative capacity, resulting in long-term gland dysfunction with reduced saliva production. Then we showed in a cohort of patients with head and neck cancer that the radiation dose to the region of the salivary gland containing the stem/progenitor cells predicted the function of the salivary glands one year after radiotherapy. Finally, we showed that this region of the salivary gland could be spared during radiotherapy, thus reducing the risk of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. PMID:26378247

  15. A pediatric case of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma within the parotid.

    PubMed

    Quattlebaum, S Craig; Roby, Brianne; Dishop, Megan K; Said, M Sherif; Chan, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described entity in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. It is notable for a characteristic t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation that results in a unique fusion protein, ETV6-NTRK3. While several studies have retrospectively identified this translocation in cases previously diagnosed as a different salivary malignancy, there have been relatively few cases where this translocation was identified on initial pathology results, and fewer still in a pediatric population. We present a case of a 15 year old female with a slowly enlarging, painless, left facial mass. MRI demonstrated a cystic mass extending into the deep lobe of the parotid, and she underwent parotidectomy. The tumor cells stained positive for S100 and CK19. ETV6 translocation was present, confirming the diagnosis. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently described tumor of the salivary glands, which often masquerades as more common primary salivary gland tumors and cysts. More research is needed to characterize the typical behavior of this neoplasm and the optimal treatment regimen. With identification of its characteristic translocation, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma can be easily differentiated from its more prevalent counterparts, and should therefore remain within the differential of the pathologist and head and neck surgeon.

  16. Facial extention of ear pathology: infected cholesteatoma causing a parotid abscess

    PubMed Central

    Tornari, Chrysostomos; Pal, Surojit; Lingam, Ravi Kumar; Kalan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A man in his early 30s presented with right-sided preauricular swelling and facial oedema. He had a history of acid injury to his right ear as a child resulting in pinna deformity and subsequent blind sac closure of the external auditory canal. Imaging showed abnormal ear anatomy and abnormal density of the right parotid gland. Antibiotic therapy prevented progression but did not resolve the symptoms. Therefore, the infected area was surgically drained. This showed an underlying cholesteatoma, a benign but locally destructive condition where keratinising squamous epithelium grows in the middle ear and mastoid. The infected region was drained and the cholesteatoma was excised. This led to full resolution of the infection. The patient is awaiting a follow-up diffusion-weighted MRI. This case was unusual as the disease had extended beyond the ear and we therefore wish to alert clinicians to cholesteatoma as a possible cause of facial swelling. PMID:25795747

  17. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  18. Dysgenetic Polycystic Disease of Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yellapurkar, Shweta; Baliga, Mohan; Sharma, Ankita; Dorai, Shakthi; Pai, Prajwal

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic (dysgenetic) disease of the salivary glands is a rare entity that has only recently been described in the literature. The disease is more commonly seen in females and majority of the cases have presented as bilateral parotid gland swellings. This case presenting in a 21-year-old male is the first of this unusual entity involving solely the minor salivary gland on the lower lip. This case report highlights the importance for the clinician to be aware of this differential diagnosis, when treating an innocuous lesion like a mucocele. PMID:28203473

  19. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid: Is preoperative cytological diagnosis possible?

    PubMed

    Oza, Nikita; Sanghvi, Kintan; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Menon, Santosh; Ramadwar, Mukta; Kane, Shubhada

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently recognized tumor of salivary gland with characteristic t(12;15)(q13;q25) that results in ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Distinguishing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma from other salivary gland tumors is important. Present study highlights cytologic findings in three cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid which facilitate preoperative diagnosis with the aid of ancillary diagnostic techniques. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parotid was performed on three cases after clinical examination. Immunocytochemistry for mammoglobin and S100 were performed. Parotidectomy was done in all cases. The corresponding hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and blocks of all cases were studied. Molecular analysis was done in one of the cases. Cases 1 and 3 revealed uniform atypical epithelial cells arranged in branching papillary pattern with few cells in microcystic pattern. Case 2 showed atypical cells arranged mainly in loose clusters and few singly dissociated. Individual cells revealed round nuclei, vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli and abundant finely vacuolated cytoplasm with metachromasia prominent in May-Grunwald-Giemsa smear (case 3). Characteristic hob-nail cells covering papillae were observed in cases 1 and 3. Immunocytochemistry showed strong positivity for mammoglobin and S100 thereby confirming the diagnosis of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma preoperatively. The diagnosis was in concordance with surgical specimen. Also, characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 translocation was confirmed in case 1. Increased awareness and high index of suspicion is necessary for the upfront diagnosis, more so for the papillary variant of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry aids in confirming this preoperative diagnosis, based on which treatment can be planned. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:519-525. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  1. Salivary Gland Tumors Treated With Adjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Jonathan D.; Sher, David J.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Balboni, Tracy A.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the recent single-institution experience of patients with salivary gland tumors who had undergone adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 salivary gland carcinoma patients treated primarily at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2005 and 2010 with surgery and adjuvant IMRT. The primary endpoints were local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival. The secondary endpoints were acute and chronic toxicity. The median follow-up was 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.2-2.8) among the surviving patients. Results: The histologic types included adenoid cystic carcinoma in 15 (43%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 6 (17%), adenocarcinoma in 3 (9%), acinic cell carcinoma in 3 (9%), and other in 8 (23%). The primary sites were the parotid gland in 17 (49%), submandibular glands in 6 (17%), tongue in 4 (11%), palate in 4 (11%), and other in 4 (11%). The median radiation dose was 66 Gy, and 22 patients (63%) received CRT. The most common chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin and paclitaxel (n = 14, 64%). A trend was seen for patients undergoing CRT to have more adverse prognostic factors, including Stage T3-T4 disease (CRT, n = 12, 55% vs. n = 4, 31%, p = .29), nodal positivity (CRT, n = 8, 36% vs. n = 1, 8%, p = .10), and positive margins (n = 13, 59% vs. n = 5, 38%, p = .30). One patient who had undergone CRT developed an in-field recurrence, resulting in an overall actuarial 3-year local control rate of 92%. Five patients (14%) developed distant metastases (1 who had undergone IMRT only and 4 who had undergone CRT). Acute Grade 3 mucositis, esophagitis, and dermatitis occurred in 8%, 8%, and 8% (1 each) of IMRT patients and in 18%, 5%, and 14% (4, 1, and 3 patients) of the CRT group, respectively. No acute Grade 4 toxicity occurred. The most common late toxicity was Grade 1 xerostomia (n = 8, 23%). Conclusions: Treatment of

  2. [Sialochemical studies of isolated secretions of the major salivary glands of the head].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Werner, E

    1994-09-01

    The sialochemical parameters total protein, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, amylase, sodium, potassium, calcium as well as flow rate were estimated in parotid saliva (PS) and submandibular saliva (SMS) in the course of differential diagnostics of salivary gland diseases. In addition to this the quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis based on 80 PS and 80 SMS normal secretions was performed. Sialochemistry was performed on parotid adenomas (29), carcinomas (9); sialadenosis (8); acute (8) and chronic (13) sialadenitis; dental caries (12 PS and 12 SMS); cystic fibrosis (21 PS and 12 SMS); diabetes mellitus (13 PS and 13 SMS); and hyperthyroilism (9 PS and 9 SMS). Our sialochemical analysis does not allow to distinguish between benign and malignant parotid neoplasms. The significant decrease of sodium in sialadenosis and increase of sodium and total protein in sialadenitis as well as interesting results in cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus and dental caries, are emphasised.

  3. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  4. Ca2+-activated K channels in parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Victor G; Thompson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Fluid secretion relies on a close interplay between Ca2+-activated Cl and K channels. Salivary acinar cells contain both large conductance, BK, and intermediate conductance, IK1, K channels. Physiological fluid secretion occurs with only modest (<500 nM) increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels but BK channels in many cell types and in heterologous expression systems require very high concentrations for significant activation. We report here our efforts to understand this apparent contradiction. We determined the Ca2+ dependence of IK1 and BK channels in mouse parotid acinar cells. IK1 channels activated with an apparent Ca2+ affinity of about 350 nM and a hill coefficient near 3. Native parotid BK channels activated at similar Ca2+ levels unlike the BK channels in other cell types. Since the parotid BK channel is encoded by an uncommon splice variant, we examined this clone in a heterologous expression system. In contrast to the native parotid channel, activation of this expressed “parslo” channel required very high levels of Ca2+. In order to understand the functional basis for the special properties of the native channels, we analyzed the parotid BK channel in the context of the horrigan-Aldrich model of BK channel gating. We found that the shifted activation of parotid BK channels resulted from a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage dependence of voltage sensor activation and channel opening and included a large change in the coupling of these two processes. PMID:20519930

  5. The lymphatic system of the major head and neck glands in rats.

    PubMed

    Dünne, Anja A; Steinke, Lars; Teymoortash, Afshin; Kuropkat, Christiane; Folz, Benedikt J; Werner, Jochen A

    2004-01-01

    Many studies concerning therapy and also investigations on lymphogenic metastatic spread of head and neck malignancies require animal models. This article completes the existing findings with regard to the lymphatic system of the head and neck region of the rat. Investigations (light microscopy, immuno-histochemistry, enzyme histochemistry, lympho-graphy) on architecture, distribution and density of the intraglandular lymphatic flow of the major head and neck glands (infraorbital lacrimal gland, extraorbital lacrimal gland, Harderian gland, parotid gland, major sublingual gland, mandibular gland and thyroid gland) in rats were performed. Architecture of the seven major head and neck glands in rats do not differ from other regions of the upper aerodigestive tract. While the Harderian gland shows the highest density of lymphatics, within the major sublingual gland only scare lymph vessels could be identified. Distribution and density of initial lymphatics influence directly the transmission of inflammatory and malignant diseases. The presented results are the morphologically and anatomically basis to initiate further investigations in the rat animal model emphasizing special questions concerning the lymphatic system of the major head and neck glands e.g. lymphatic drainage and new treatment concepts in cases of lymphogenic metastatic spread.

  6. A pathological study of the salivary glands of rabid dogs in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    BOONSRIROJ, Hassadin; MANALO, Daria Llenaresas; KIMITSUKI, Kazunori; SHIMATSU, Taichi; SHIWA, Nozomi; SHINOZAKI, Harumi; TAKAHASHI, Yurika; TANAKA, Naoto; INOUE, Satoshi; PARK, Chun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus. While the salivary glands are important as exit and propagation sites for the rabies virus, the mechanisms of rabies excretion remain unclear. Here, we investigated the histopathology of the salivary glands of rabid dogs and analyzed the mechanism of excretion into the oral cavity. Mandibular and parotid glands of 22 rabid dogs and three control dogs were used. Mild to moderate non-suppurative sialadenitis was observed in the mandibular glands of 19 of the 22 dogs, characterized by loss of acinar epithelium and infiltration by lymphoplasmacytic cells. Viral antigens were detected in the mucous acinar epithelium, ganglion neurons and myoepithelium. Acinar epithelium and lymphocytes were positive for anti-caspase-3 antibodies and TUNEL staining. In contrast, no notable findings were observed in the ductal epithelial cells and serous demilune. In the parotid gland, the acinar cells, myoepithelium and ductal epithelium all tested negative. These findings confirmed the path through which the rabies virus descends along the facial nerve after proliferation in the brain to reach the ganglion neurons of the mandibular gland, subsequently traveling to the acinar epithelium via the salivary gland myoepithelium. Furthermore, the observation that nerve endings passing through the myoepithelium were absent from the ductal system suggested that viral proliferation and cytotoxicity could not occur there, ensuring that secretions containing the virus are efficiently excreted into the oral cavity. PMID:26278996

  7. Studies on kallikrein in the duct systems of the salivary glands of the cat

    PubMed Central

    Shnitka, †T. K.; Maranda, B.; Rodrigues, J. A. A.; Schachter, M.; Weinberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    By correlating immunofluorescence light microscopy with electron microscope studies and with kallikrein concentrations under various conditions, we have made the following observations and conclusions about kallikrein in the submandibular and other salivary glands. 1. In the submandibular gland, specific immunofluorescence to kallikrein was observed in the luminal region of the striated ducts particularly, but also in the outer epithelial cells of the stratified epithelial collecting ducts. Sympathetic nerve stimulation resulted in a reduction in intensity of specific fluorescence and in its increased localization towards the lumen. The nearly complete elimination of kallikrein from the gland by duct obstruction for four days resulted in complete disappearance of specific fluorescence in the gland. Prolonged parasympathetic nerve stimulation at frequencies which did not reduce the kallikrein concentration of the gland failed to alter the specific immunofluorescence despite copious secretion of saliva. Our results failed to reveal evidence of secretion of kallikrein either into or towards the interstitium of the gland. The luminal layer of stratified epithelial cells in the collecting ducts contained small secretory granules closely resembling those in the striated ducts. Our results are not conclusive, but do suggest that kallikrein is located in these granules whence it is secreted into the lumen of the duct. 2. The parotid gland was found to contain much lower concentrations of kallikrein than the submandibular gland. This finding was associated with the presence of far fewer striated ducts in the parotid gland. Otherwise, specific fluorescence and the response to sympathetic nerve stimulation was like that of the submandibular gland. Small secretory granules in the striated and collecting ducts resembled those of the submandibular gland. 3. The sublingual gland, like the parotid, had a low concentration of kallikrein and very few striated ducts. These ducts were

  8. From four-parathyroid gland exploration to a minimally invasive technique. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy as a current approach in surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kobiela, Jarek; Łaski, Dariusz; Stróżyk, Aneta; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Stefaniak, Tomasz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Łachiński, Andrzej J; Śledziński, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Complete surgical resection of hyperfunctioning parathyriod tissue is essential for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. During recent years, minimally invasive surgery has been successfully applied in neck exploration, because of significant developments of guidance by intraoperative scans, the use of quick, intraoperative PTH assay, and also preoperative imaging procedures such as high resolution ultrasonography and sestamibi scintigraphy. The results of operations which are performed with minimally invasive techniques are comparable to those of conventional surgery, and provide advantages with regard to cosmetic result, length of hospitalisation, and reduced post-operative pain.

  9. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  10. Parasympathetic non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic mechanisms in reflex secretion of parotid acinar granules in conscious rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, J; Helander, H F; Tobin, G

    1993-01-01

    1. Female adult rats were subjected to sympathetic denervation of the parotid glands by bilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglion 10-12 days before acute experiments. The sympathectomy was in some of the experimental groups combined with either bilateral adrenal medullectomy, treatment with the sensory neurotoxin capsaicin or parasympathetic denervation of the gland by cutting the auriculotemporal nerve. 2. Food but not water was withheld for 29-32 h before acute experiments. All animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of phentolamine (2 mg kg-1) and propranolol (1 mg kg-1) and, when appropriate, also atropine (1 mg kg-1). Then the experimental animals were fed their ordinary food of hard chow for 60-90 min. Thereafter, these animals and their non-fed controls were killed, and the parotid glands were removed and used for either morphometric assessment or measurement of amylase activity. 3. In the atropinized rats subjected to sympathectomy alone, eating reduced the numerical density of acinar secretory granules by 50% and the total activity of amylase by 55%; the corresponding figures were, when sympathectomy was combined with adrenal medullectomy, 51 and 63%. Also, in atropinized animals subjected to sympathectomy and capsaicin pretreatment, eating reduced the numerical density of acinar granules and the total amylase activity, in this case by 45 and 35%, respectively. 4. In the atropinized rats subjected to sympathectomy and parasympathectomy, eating caused no change in the numerical density of acinar granules but reduced the total amylase activity by 35%. 5. In the non-atropinized rats subjected to sympathectomy alone, eating reduced the numerical density of acinar granules by 22%, while there was no change in the total amylase activity. 6. In conclusion, eating evoked a reflex activation of the sympathectomized parotid gland that engaged non-adrenergic non-cholinergic receptors of the acinar cells. The present results give weight to a

  11. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands.

  12. Clarification of the terminology of the major human salivary glands: acinus and alveolus are not synonymous.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Afolayan, Adebowale

    2014-08-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of the major human salivary glands often appear in anatomical textbooks and tend to adversely affect student's learning experience in Microscopic Anatomy. The main culprit is the inconsistent description of the morphology of these glands secretory end pieces where "acinus" and "alveolus" are used interchangeably. The correct terminology originated from Malpighi (1687), repeated by Kölliker (1854), but over the years has been misinterpreted by prominent authors as a result of the nature of specimen preparation. This commentary is based on etymology, current standard light microscopy, research studies and consultation with experts. The overall objective of this publication is to recommend that textbooks should endeavour to modify the relevant descriptions about this terminology in their future editions. The most appropriate terminology for the major human salivary glands would be: (1) the parotid gland, entirely serous, should be called compound acinar glands; (2) the submandibular glands are mixed glands; their serous components are compound acinar while some of the mucinous areas are tubular with serous, crescents or demilunes, as acinar end pieces hence they should be named compound tubuloacinar glands; (3) the sublingual glands, mainly mucous glands with tubular shape, with small acinar end pieces that are serous crescents thence they should be called compound tubuloacinar glands.

  13. Radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine and the adrenergic neurons of salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Jaques, S. Jr.; Sherman, P.; Fisher, S.; Mallette, S.; Meyers, L.; Mangner, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The handling of radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) by salivary glands was evaluated. In the submaxillary glands of rats, the uptake of 125I-MIBG was decreased after 1) nerve injury induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, 2) inhibition of the uptake-1 pathway by desmethylimipramine, and 3) surgical denervation. However, the reduction in 125I-MIGB uptake was less than that of 3H-norepinephrine (3H-NE) and of the endogenous content of NE in the glands. Yet, the sympathomimetic phenylpropanolamine displaced about the same fraction of 125I-MIBG as 3H-NE. These results suggest that 40% or more of 125I-MIBG resides in extraneuronal sites but that at least 30% and possibly more lies in the adrenergic nerve terminals. Fasting and feeding rats produced changes in the rates of disappearance of 125I-MIBG and 3H-NE from the submaxillary gland that were different, and the rates of loss of 125I-MIBG cannot be used as an index of adrenergic nerve activity. In man, the concentrations of 123I-MIBG in the salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland, are readily visible and measureable. Imipramine reduced the uptake of 123I-MIBG into parotid glands little or not at all; some of the 123I-MIBG may enter neurons via an imipramine-insensitive pathway, but a substantial fraction probably arrives in intraneuronal locations. Thus, phenylpropanolamine displaced over 50% of the parotid pool of 123I-MIBG. However, in only the most severe case of generalized autonomic neuropathy was the uptake of 123I-MIBG reduced.

  14. X-ray microanalysis of exocrine glands in animal models for cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.M.R.; Roomans, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Elemental distribution and ultrastructure of the submandibular gland, the parotid gland and the pancreas were investigated in three suggested animal models of the disease cystic fibrosis: the chronically reserpinized rat, the chronically isoproterenol-treated rat, and the chronically pilocarpine-treated rat. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of these treatments, chronic effects of specific alpha - and beta -adrenergic agonists, as well as acute effects of reserpine and various agonists were also investigated. Reserpine, isoproterenol, and pilocarpine cause an increase in the calcium concentration in submandibular gland acinar cells, due to an increased calcium content of the intracellular mucus. In the parotid gland, reserpine and isoproterenol cause a decrease of the calcium concentration in acinar cells, due to a lower calcium content of the zymogen granules. In the submandibular gland, a decreased cellular Na concentration was noted after chronic treatment with isoproterenol or pilocarpine, and after a single dose of reserpine or isoproterenol. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine glands investigated included excessive accumulation of intracellular secretory material and formation of abnormal uncondensed secretion granules. A common pattern in the animal models appears to be (1) inhibition of secretion resulting in intracellular accumulation of secretory material, (2) synthesis of secretory macromolecules with altered cation-binding properties.

  15. [Protein composition of human saliva under rest and stimulation and its changes in salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H

    1977-06-16

    In 153 probands the following parameters of normal parotid gland secretion were examined: flow-rate, total protein excretion, lysozyme, amylase, phosphatase, BAEE-esterase, immunglobulin A and trypsin-inhibitor. The results were compared with secretions of parotid glands with tumors (51 patients), sialadenitis (22 patients) and sialadenosis (12 patients). Thereby differential diagnosis in sialotumors was found possible. The mose important parameters are flow-rate, protein and immunglobulin A-concentrations, Moreover it is possible to differentiate in sialadenitis and sialadenosis: lysocym secretion gives besides flow--rate protein and immunglobulin A-concentration a good parameter in differentiating both pathological findings. Discelectrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic separations supplement the differential diagnosis in sialotumors, sialadenitis and sialadenosis. The results are discussed.

  16. The (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-stimulated ATPase of the rat parotid endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajah, P; Lim, S C

    1986-01-01

    A membrane fraction enriched in endoplasmic reticulum was prepared from rat parotid glands by using sucrose-gradient centrifugation. The fraction showed a 10-fold increase in specific activity of NADPH: cytochrome c reductase activity over that of tissue homogenates and minimal contamination with plasma membranes or mitochondria. The endoplasmic reticulum fraction possessed both Mg2+ -stimulated ATPase as well as Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase [( Ca2+ + Mg2+)-stimulated ATPase]activity. The Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase required 2-5 mM-Mg2+ for optimal activity and was stimulated by submicromolar concentrations of free Ca2+. The Km for free Ca2+ was 0.55 microM and the average Vmax. was 60 nmol/min per mg of protein. The Km for ATP was 0.11 mM. Other nucleotides, such as GTP, CTP or ADP, could not substitute for ATP in supporting the Ca2+-activated nucleotidase activity. Increasing the K+ concentration from 0 to 100 mM caused a 2-fold activation of the Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase. Trifluoperazine, W7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloronaphthalene-1-sulphonamide] and vanadate inhibited the enzyme. The concentration of trifluoperazine and vanadate required for 50% inhibition of the ATPase were 52 microM and 28 microM respectively. Calmodulin, cyclic AMP, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate had no effect on the ATPase. The properties of the Ca2+, Mg2+ -ATPase were distinct from those of the Mg2+-ATPase, but comparable with those reported for the parotid endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-transport system [Kanagasuntheram & Teo (1982) Biochem. J. 208, 789-794]. The results suggest that the Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase is responsible for driving the ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation by this membrane. PMID:2943271

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report

    PubMed Central

    GOULART, Maria Carolina Vaz; FREITAS-FARIA, Patrícia; GOULART, Gláuter Rodrigues; de OLIVEIRA, Adriano Macedo; CARLOS-BREGNI, Roman; SOARES, Cleverson Teixeira; LARA, Vanessa Soares

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-filled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation. PMID:21552721

  18. Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question so that general rules for treatment, based on clinical experience, cannot be given, particularly in view of the small number of cases of the different diseases. Swellings of the salivary glands may be caused by acute and chronic inflammatory processes, by autoimmune diseases, by duct translocation due to sialolithiasis, and by tumors of varying dignity. Clinical examination and diagnosis has also to differentiate between salivary gland cysts and inflammation or tumors. Conclusion Salivary gland diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence. Their pattern of incidence differs very much from that of adults. Acute and chronic sialadenitis not responding to conservative treatment requires an appropriate surgical approach. The rareness of salivary gland tumors is particularly true for the malignant parotid tumors which are more frequent in juvenile patients, a fact that has to be considered in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:20156335

  19. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  20. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  1. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  2. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-07

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  3. Clinical and radiological evidence to support superficial parotidectomy as the treatment of choice for chronic parotid sialadenitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Amin, M A; Bailey, B M; Patel, S R

    2001-10-01

    We present a retrospective series of 23 consecutive parotidectomies, over a 10-year period (1989-1999) for 22 patients with chronic sialadenitis unresponsive to conservative measures. There were 10 male and 12 female patients. Mean age was 52 years (range 12-72), and mean duration of symptoms 4.5 years (range 8 months-30 years). All patients had preoperative sialography and 2 had computed tomography to exclude a neoplasm. A complete superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the main duct was done in all cases. Fifteen patients developed temporary facial nerve weakness postoperatively and 7 developed Frey's syndrome. There were no cases of permanent facial nerve palsy. Nineteen patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms and 3 patients had mild persisting symptoms that did not necessitate any further treatment. Histologically there was evidence of sialadenosis in one case and benign lymphoepithelial lesion in another; the others showed evidence of chronic sialadenitis of varying degrees of severity. Fifteen patients had postoperative sialograms, of which 11 showed evidence of some filling of residual parotid gland parenchyma and in 8 patients there was filling of a normal-looking accessory lobe. In this series, superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the main duct was safe and effective, with minimal long-term complications, for most patients with chronic parotid sialadenitis that was unresponsive to conservative measures and, in some patients, it allowed some preservation of function. The potential damage to the facial nerve and the cosmetic problems associated with a total or near-total parotidectomy were avoided.

  4. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1-Mediated DNA Repair in Irradiated Salivary Glands Is Sirtuin-1 Dependent.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Chibly, A M; Burd, R; Limesand, K H

    2017-02-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of the most common cancer treatments; however, the treatment leads to a wide range of debilitating side effects. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), the surrounding normal salivary gland is extremely sensitive to therapeutic radiation, and damage to this tissue results in various oral complications and decreased quality of life (QOL). In the current study, mice treated with targeted head and neck radiation showed a significant increase in double-stranded breaks (DSB) in the DNA of parotid salivary gland cells immediately after treatment, and this remained elevated 3 h posttreatment. In contrast, mice pretreated with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) showed resolution of the same amount of initial DNA damage by 3 h posttreatment. At acute time points (30 min to 2 h), irradiated parotid glands had significantly decreased levels of the histone deactylase Sirtuin-1 (SirT-1) which has been previously shown to function in DNA repair. Pretreatment with IGF-1 increased SirT-1 protein levels and increased deacetylation of SirT-1 targets involved in DNA repair. Pharmacological inhibition of SirT-1 activity decreased the IGF-1-mediated resolution of DSB. These data suggest that IGF-1 promotes DNA repair in irradiated parotid glands through the maintenance and activation of SirT-1.

  5. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary gland with high-grade histology arising in hard palate, report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenyi; Lindley, Sarah W; Lindley, Peter H; Krempl, Gregory A; Seethala, Raja R; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland analog secretary carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland is typically a tumor of low histologic grade and behaves as a low-grade malignancy with relatively benign course. This tumor shares histologic features, immunohistochemical profile, and a highly specific genetic translocation, ETV6-NTRK3, with secretory carcinoma of breast. Histologically, it is often mistaken as acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, and other primary salivary gland tumors. Here we report a case of MASC with high-grade transformation and cervical lymph node metastases confirmed with ETV6-NTRK3 translocation arising in the hard palate of a 41 year-old adult. Interestingly, the metastatic carcinoma has lower grade than the original tumor which strongly support malignant transformation of the original tumor. Most commonly, MASC arises from the parotid gland and less often in minor salivary glands. Metastasis is relatively uncommon and high-grade histology has only been reported in four cases with three of them arising from the parotid gland and the location of the fourth one has not been reported. This is the first case with high grade histology that arise from minor salivary gland and it emphasizes the importance of molecular screening of salivary gland tumor with high-grade histology for ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. In our literature of 115 cases that includes the current case, MASC occurred predominantly in adult with only a few cases under 18 years of age and a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Parotid gland is more commonly affected but there is also significant occurrence in minor salivary glands. Except for the cases with high grade histology, the overall prognosis is good. PMID:25674280

  6. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paola; Aralla, Marina; Catorci, Andrea; Belardinelli, Carlo; Arrighi, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased.

  7. Does Leishmaniasis disease alter the parenchyma and protein expression in salivary glands?

    PubMed Central

    de Amorim Carvalho, Fernando A; de Oliveira Dantas, Weslany; Gomes, Luana CL; da Silva, Andrezza BS; de Sousa Cavalcante, Maria MA; de Oliveira, Ingrid M; de Deus Moura de Lima, Marina; Rizzo, Márcia dos Santos; de Carvalho Leite, Carla Maria; Moura, Selma Maria dos Santos; de Deus Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida; da Silva, Benedito B

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered a serious public health problem in several regions in Brazil and worldwide. This research aimed to perform a histopathological and proteomic study of parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi using histological, immunohistochemical and epifluorescence techniques. Twelve isogenic BALB/c male mice, around six- to eight-weeks old, were separated into two groups: the animals of the control group were injected with 0.15 ml of NaCl, while those in the experimental group were inoculated with 5 × 106 amastigote forms of Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi by the ip route. After 50 days, animals were euthanized and major salivary glands were collected to perform histological, immunohistochemical and epifluorescence techniques using anti-Caspase-2, anti-Ki-67 and anti-β-catenin antibodies, respectively. The histological and morphometric evaluation showed clusters of mononuclear inflammatory cells and a higher area and perimeter of the parotid gland. However, none of the salivary glands had morphophysiological impairment. There was no immunoreactivity to the anti-caspase-2 antibody and Ki67 expression in acinar and ductal cells in both groups. According to the immunofluorescence staining, the β-catenin antibodies did not show nuclear expression, suggesting no uncontrolled proliferation. The data obtained in this study showed population and morphological stability of major salivary glands after 50 days post-infection by Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi. PMID:26568331

  8. Intraductal injection as an effective drug delivery route in the management of salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Hui; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Tseng, Te-Ming; Tseng, How; Ding, Yi-Fang; Koch, Michael; Hung, Shih-Han

    2017-01-01

    While conservative approaches for chronic sialoadenitis are in current use, the utility of intraductal injection therapy remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to provide evidence that substances delivered through intraductal injection of the salivary gland are able to be effectively distributed throughout the gland. Methylene blue dye (0.1 %) was injected intraductally into a porcine parotid gland (5 ml) of one group and the porcine submandibular gland (1 or 2 ml, n = 6 for each preparation) of another group. After the injection, the ductal systems were evaluated, sectioned, and observed microscopically. Color area analysis was performed on submandibular gland sections, and the infiltration ratio of the dye was calculated. The papillae of both Stensen's and Wharton's duct openings were easily identified with intraductally delivered methylene blue dye. The dye infiltration began from the central ductal region of the gland and could be easily observed to gradually disperse to the peripheral regions in each acinar. There were no statistically significant differences in infiltration ratios between anterior, midline, and posterior section of the submandibular gland. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in the ratios between 1 and 2 ml injections at all the three section positions. This study demonstrated that desired substances can be evenly delivered throughout the salivary gland through intraductal injections. The use of intraductal injections might serve as a potential therapeutic procedure in the management of salivary gland diseases.

  9. Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose

  10. Immunohistochemical study of the lymphatic vessels in major salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Aiyama, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Kenichiro; Takada, Kiyomi; Ikeda, Rie; Sato, Sumie; Kuroki, Jyunya

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to examine whether lymphatic vessels are present in the lobules of major salivary glands in the rat. Immunostaining with an antibody against podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial cell marker, was performed on sections of the submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands. Light microscopy demonstrated podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels around the interlobular ducts and the interlobular arteries and veins in the interlobular connective tissue in all of the major salivary glands. No podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were found in the lobules. Electron microscopy also demonstrated lymphatic endothelial cells showing podoplanin expression only in the interlobular connective tissue. These findings suggest that the lymphatic system of the rat major salivary glands originates in the interlobular connective tissue, and not in the lobules.

  11. Electron microprobe analysis of human labial gland secretory granules in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Izutsu, K.; Johnson, D.; Schubert, M.; Wang, E.; Ramsey, B.; Tamarin, A.; Truelove, E.; Ensign, W.; Young, M.

    1985-06-01

    X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried labial gland cryosections revealed that Na concentration was doubled and the Ca/S concentration ratio was decreased in secretory granules of labial glands from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) when compared with glands from normal subjects. Other results suggested that the decrease in the Ca/S concentration ratio resulted from an increase in S concentration. These findings imply that mucous granules in labial saliva showed a CF-related increase in Na and S content, and such changes would be expected to affect the rheology of the mucus after exocytosis. In contrast with a previous study in human parotid glands, no evidence was found for CF-related changes in cytoplasmic or nuclear Na, K, and Ca concentrations. Significant elemental differences were found between secretory granules and nuclei and cytoplasm of control cells.

  12. [Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Dose constraint for salivary gland and mandible].

    PubMed

    Pointreau, Y; Lizée, T; Bensadoun, R-J; Boisselier, P; Racadot, S; Thariat, J; Graff, P

    2016-10-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the gold standard for head and neck irradiation. It allows better protection to the organs at risk such as salivary glands and mandible, and can reduce the frequency of xerostomia, trismus and osteoradionecrosis. At the time of treatment planning, the mean dose to a single parotid gland should be kept below 26Gy, the mean dose to a single submandibular gland below 39Gy, the mean dose to the mandible below 60 to 65Gy and the D2% to a single temporomandibular joint below 65Gy. These dose constraints could be further improved with data extracted from cohorts of patients receiving IMRT exclusively. The dose administered to the target volumes should not be lessened to spare the salivary glands or mandible.

  13. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  14. Effects of thyroxine and dexamethasone on rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Glucocorticoids and thyroxine are known to have a marked effect on the flow rate and protein composition of rat parotid saliva in hormonally intact animals. In the present study, the effects of a one-week treatment of male rats with dexamethasone and thyroxine were studied by electron microscopy and x-ray micro-analysis, and by measurement of the flow rate and determination of the chemical composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva. Thyroxine had the most extensive effects on the submandibular gland. The acinar cells were enlarged and filled with mucus; the cellular calcium concentration was significantly increased. The flow rate of the submandibular saliva was significantly reduced compared with that in saline-injected control animals. Thyroxine caused an increase in the concentrations of protein, total calcium, and potassium in the saliva. Dexamethasone had no significant effects on gland ultrastructure or on the elemental composition of the acinar cells; flow rate was not affected, but the concentrations of protein, calcium, and potassium were significantly increased. The effects of dexamethasone and thyroxine on the flow rate and protein composition of pilocarpine-induced rat submandibular saliva differ from those reported earlier for rat parotid saliva after simultaneous stimulation with pilocarpine and isoproterenol.

  15. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  16. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Salivary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Watson, Philip A.; Ho, Alan L.; Morris, Luc G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma. Successful treatment with anti-androgen therapy in other androgen receptor-positive malignancies such as prostate and breast cancer has inspired researchers to investigate this treatment in salivary gland cancer as well. In this review, we describe the prevalence, biology, and therapeutic implications of androgen receptor signaling in salivary gland cancer. PMID:28208703

  17. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  18. Pneumatosis Cystoides Intestinalis after Cetuximab Chemotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakos, Neofytou; Andreas, Ioannou; Konstantinos, Parpounas; Chrysanthos, Georgiou; Athanasios, Petrou; Pikoulis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatosis intestinalis, defined as gas in the bowel wall, is often first identified on abdominal radiographs or computed tomography (CT) scans. It is a radiographic finding and not a diagnosis, as the etiology varies from benign conditions to fulminant gastrointestinal disease. We report here a case of pneumatosis intestinalis associated with cetuximab therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. The patient underwent laparotomy based on the CT scan and the result was pneumatosis intestinalis without any signs of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:25802792

  19. Study of Preoperative Predictive Signs in Management of Facial Nerve in Parotid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    CHIRILA, Magdalena; MURESAN, Mihaela; BOLBOACA, Sorana D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find preoperative predictive signs for better surgical planning of the facial nerve in parotid tumors. Methods: Prospective study in patients with primary parotid malignancies. Patients with primary parotid malignant tumor were investigated for preoperative clinical signs in correlation with histological findings and surgical management of the facial nerve. Outcomes: The study included 47 patients. Several clinical findings as facial pain, paresthesia, and rapid growth of tumor might suggest the risk of malignancy. Paresis/palsy of the facial nerve was correlates with direct neural involvement. Conclusion: There are several predictive clinical signs that might suggest malignancy of a parotid tumor. PMID:25553124

  20. Primitive neuroectodermal adrenal gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y P; Lang, Brian H H; Tam, S C; Wong, K P

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, also called primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland, is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a woman with adult-onset primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland presenting with progressive flank pain. Computed tomography confirmed an adrenal tumour with invasion of the left diaphragm and kidney. Radical surgery was performed and the pain completely resolved; histology confirmed the presence of primitive neuroectodermal tumour, for which she was given chemotherapy. The clinical presentation of this condition is non-specific, and a definitive diagnosis is based on a combination of histology, as well as immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis. According to the literature, these tumours demonstrate rapid growth and aggressive behaviour but there are no well-established guidelines or treatment strategies. Nevertheless, surgery remains the mainstay of local disease control; curative surgery can be performed in most patients. Adjuvant chemoirradiation has been advocated yet no consensus is available. The prognosis of patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumours remains poor.

  1. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  2. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  3. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  4. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  5. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  6. [Variations in the parathyroid glands. Number, situation and arterial vascularization. Anatomical study and surgical application].

    PubMed

    Delattre, J F; Flament, J B; Palot, J P; Pluot, M

    1982-11-01

    The authors have made a study of the variations in the parathyroid glands, basing their report on 100 block dissections of the neck injected with latex. The results allow a better understanding of certain types of parathyroid insufficiency following surgery to the thyroid gland. In almost half the cases the vascular arrangement was sufficient to explain how hypoparathyroidism might come about following surgery to the thyroid gland.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okizaki, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n = 35) and a control group (group B, n = 36). We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P < 0.05). In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968. PMID:28042578

  8. Thyroid Gland Involvement in Carcinoma Larynx and Hypopharynx-Predictive Factors and Prognostic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Elizabeth Mathew; Jagad, Vijay; Varghese, Bipin T.; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraoperative management of thyroid gland in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer is controversial. Aim The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma, to assess predictive factors and to assess the prognosis in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion. Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty-three patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Surgical specimens were examined to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion and predictive factors were analysed. The recurrence rate and the survival in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion were also analysed. Results Out of the 133 patients with carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx who underwent surgery, histological thyroid gland invasion was observed in 28/133 (21%) patients. Significant relationship was found between histological thyroid gland invasion and preoperative evidence of thyroid cartilage erosion by CT scan and also when gross thyroid gland involvement observed during surgery. There is significant association between thyroid gland invasion when there is upper oesophageal or subglottic involvement. Conclusion After analysing the retrospective data from our study, we would like to suggest that thyroid gland need not be removed routinely in all laryngectomies, unless there is advanced disease with thyroid cartilage erosion and gross thyroid gland involvement or disease with significant subglottic or oesophageal involvement. PMID:27042568

  9. S-100 protein antibodies do not label normal salivary gland myoepithelium. Histogenetic implications for salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Stratis, M.; Parks, W. R.; DeNardi, F. G.; Kahn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Neoplastically modified myoepithelial cells have a key role in developing the histologic characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein expressed in certain of these tumors is suggested to support this role, as the principal component in the human salivary gland reported to be S-100 protein-positive is myoepithelium. Confirmation of such an important aspect is required. Immunoperoxidase staining of parotid salivary gland shows considerably different patterns obtained with antibodies to S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments compared with those for muscle-specific actin and cytokeratin 14; many more cells and their processes associated with acini and ducts are evident with the latter two antibodies. Double immunofluorescent staining with antibodies to either S-100 protein or neuron-specific enolase combined with muscle-specific actin does not reveal colocalization of these antigens in myoepithelial cells. The former localize only to nerve fibers adjacent to, but separate from, acini, and the latter only to myoepithelial cells. It is apparent that S-100 protein staining of the rich network of unmyelinated nerves in the interstitial tissues, evident ultrastructurally, has been misinterpreted as myoepithelium. This result has important implications for histogenetic classifications of salivary gland tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2000939

  10. Effect of age on immunoglobulin content and volume of human labial gland saliva.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Joshipura, K; Kent, R; Taubman, M A

    1992-12-01

    Stimulated lower labial (LLGF) and parotid salivary volumes and IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations were measured in 264 subjects whose ages ranged from 17 to 76 years. A significant (p < 0.001) age-related decline in LLGF output was observed for subjects over this age range. Sixty-three percent of the subjects in the 18-20-year-old group (n = 46) secreted at least 10 microL of labial saliva in a 7-10-minute period, while approximately 70% of the subjects in the two oldest groups (61-70 and 71-76 years old) secreted less than 1 microL of LLGF during this time period (n = 64). No significant gender-based differences occurred in the volumes of labial saliva secreted. Stimulated parotid salivary flow showed no age-related trend in these subjects. Lower labial gland salivary IgA concentrations in an older population (mean age +/- SD = 55.6 yr +/- 1.3) were significantly lower (p < 0.025) than IgA concentrations in a younger population (20.7 yr +/- 0.8), when IgA was expressed as microgram/mL LLGF collected. Immunoglobulin A concentrations in parotid saliva and IgG and IgM concentrations in labial and parotid saliva were not significantly different when the two age populations were compared. These data suggest that the physiological and immunological potential of labial gland saliva may decrease with age.

  11. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.

  12. Renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to salivary glands - a series of 9 cases: clinico-pathological study.

    PubMed

    Majewska, H; Skálová, A; Radecka, K; Stodulski, D; Hyrcza, M; Stankiewicz, C; Biernat, W

    2016-03-01

    Metastatic tumors involving salivary glands arising from the non-head and neck area are very rare. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known for its high propensity for metastasis to unusual localizations. RCC metastasis to the maxillofacial area is an uncommon event (16%), but metastasis to salivary glands is extremely rare. We report a series of 9 such cases retrieved from two institutions. The group included 6 females and 3 males. The age at diagnosis ranged from 60 to 97 years (mean 72.6 years). The tumors involved the parotid gland in 7 cases, and the submandibular and small salivary gland of the oral cavity in 1 case each. The size of tumors ranged from 0.4 to 5 cm. Total parotidectomy with selective neck dissection was performed in 4 cases, while superficial parotidectomy was performed in 1 case and simple resection in 3 cases. Histologically, all the tumors were clear cell renal cell carcinomas, and therefore the differential diagnosis mainly included clear cell variants of salivary gland carcinomas. The parotid gland was the initial manifestation of renal malignancy in 4 of the cases, while in the remaining 5 cases a history of RCC had been known. The salivary gland involvement developed from 11 months to 13 years after the time of diagnosis of the primary tumor. In 2 cases it was the first site of dissemination. Pathologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion for the possibility of metastasis when confronted with oncocytic or clear cell neoplasms developing in salivary glands. RCC, although rare, should be included in this differential diagnosis.

  13. Substrate specificity of fucosyltransferase purified from human parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, H; Iwakura, K; Amano, A; Shizukuishi, S; Tsunemitsu, A

    1987-03-01

    The purified fucosyltransferase from human parotid saliva was shown to transfer fucose from GDP-fucose onto the oligosaccharide chains containing the Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc or Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc/Glc sequences. Competition studies between asialotransferrin and either lacto-N-fucopentaose 1 or 2'-fucosyllactose provided evidence that both the substrates competed for a common enzyme active site. These results suggest that the fucosyltransferase activities for the three acceptors may be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  14. Complicated coexisting pyogenic and tuberculous otitis media affecting the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas: report of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Brar, Tripti; Mrig, Sumit; Passey, J C; Agarwal, A K; Jain, Shayma

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case in which a 28-year-old woman presented with a long-standing history of ear discharge, hearing loss, facial weakness with ipsilateral facial swelling and cellulitis, a postauricular fistula, and an abscess of the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas. The pus stained positive for bacteria and acid-fast bacilli, and culture was positive for Proteus vulgaris and mycobacteria. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media with complications was made. Computed tomography showed extensive destruction of the tympanic and mastoid part of the temporal bone, as well as lytic lesions in the skull. The patient was placed on antituberculosis drug therapy. Although her facial nerve palsy and hearing loss persisted, she otherwise responded well and did not require surgery.

  15. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  17. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF VON EBNER'S GLAND OF THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Arthur R.

    1970-01-01

    The fine structure of von Ebner's gland was studied in untreated rats and rats stimulated to secrete by fasting-refeeding or injection of pilocarpine. Cytological features were similar to those reported for pancreas and parotid gland. Abundant granular endoplasmic reticulum filled the basal portion of the cell, a well-developed Golgi complex was located in the vicinity of the nucleus, and the apical portion of the cell was filled with dense secretory granules. Dense heterogeneous bodies resembling lysosomes were closely associated with the Golgi complex. Coated vesicles were seen in the Golgi region and also in continuity with the cell membrane. Granule discharge occurred by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell membrane at the secretory surface. Successive fusion of adjacent granules to the previously fused granule formed a connected string of granules in the apical cytoplasm. Myoepithelial cells were present within the basement membrane, and nerve processes were seen adjacent to acinar and myoepithelial cells. Duct cells resembled the intercalated duct cells of the major salivary glands. PMID:5411078

  18. Papillary cystoadenoma lymphomatosum (Warthin-like) of minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Párraga-Linares, Laura; Aguirre-Urízar, Jose-María; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-11-01

    Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum is a benign salivary gland tumor most frequently located in the parotid gland (Warthin's tumor). Its presentation in other major, or in minor, salivary glands is rare. Clinically, it manifests as a slow growing tumor, fluctuant on palpation due to its cystic morphology. The treatment of choice is complete excision with wide tumor-free margins. We present a 73-year-old female patient with an asymptomatic tumor of 8 years evolution in the right posterior area of the hard palate. We performed surgical excision and a biopsy, which was reported as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum. During the post-operative examination carried out after 3 weeks, it was observed that the lesion had recurred. The lesion was re-operated, performing the excision with CO2 laser and including the periosteum to ensure complete resection of the tumor. At 10 months follow-up, there was no recurrence of the lesion. This article includes a review of this condition and discusses its most important clinical and pathologic features and therapeutic approaches.

  19. Expression of transcripts for cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) in the murine lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Haendler, B; Toda, I; Sullivan, D A; Schleuning, W D

    1999-03-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) represent a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins which may play a role in the innate immune system and are transcriptionally regulated by androgens in several tissues. Transcripts for all three members of the CRISP family have now been identified in the murine lacrimal gland. RT-PCR using primers able to discriminate between the related CRISP forms allowed the amplification of fragments with the expected length. DNA sequencing revealed a complete identity with the hitherto characterized epididymal CRISP-1, testicular CRISP-2, and salivary gland CRISP-3. An analysis of several mouse strains indicated that all expressed the three CRISP forms, but in differing amounts. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from acinar cells of lacrimal glands revealed that they expressed CRISP-1 and CRISP-2. Semiquantitative and quantitative analyses furthermore showed higher CRISP-1 and CRISP-3 mRNA levels in the lacrimal glands of male BALB/c and NOD mice when compared to females. Testosterone treatment of C3H/HeJ female mice was followed by an upregulation of the steady-state CRISP-1 but not CRISP-2 transcript levels. A comparable stimulation was observed for the mRNAs coding for parotid secretory protein (PSP), a factor previously shown to exhibit sexual dimorphism in the murine lacrimal gland. The expression of CRISP transcripts in the lacrimal gland is consistent with a function in the innate immune system.

  20. Retrospective study of 149 cases of salivary gland carcinoma in a Spanish hospital population

    PubMed Central

    Campo-Trapero, Julián; Cano-Sánchez, Jorge; García-Martín, Rosa; Ballestín-Carcavilla, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Background The clinical and histological characteristics of salivary gland tumors vary widely, complicating their diagnosis and management, and major differences have been recorded in the distribution of histopathological diagnoses among different countries. Material and Methods This retrospective study reviewed the demographic (age, sex) and clinicopathological (pathology diagnosis and localization) characteristics of cases diagnosed with primary SGC between June 1992 and May 2014 in the Pathology Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital of Madrid. Diagnoses were recorded according to the 2005 WHO classification. Results The study included 149 SCG patients, aged between 11 and 94 yrs, with mean age at onset of 55.56 yrs and peak incidence in the eighth decade of life. The male:female ratio was 1.01. The parotid gland was the most frequently involved (75.2%). The most frequent carcinoma was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (24.2%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (15.4%). Conclusions The demographic and histopathological characteristics of patients with salivary gland carcinomas in Spain, reported here for the first time, are broadly similar to those found in other countries. Key words:Salivary gland carcinomas, descriptive, salivary glands, salivary gland tumors, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, Spain. PMID:28160579

  1. Antioxidant enzymatic defense in salivary glands of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a temporal study.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Flavia Kazue; Simões, Alyne; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2010-08-01

    Hyperglycemia induces overproduction of superoxide and it is related to diabetic complications. In this study, we analyzed the antioxidant enzymatic defense and the lipid peroxidation of rat salivary glands in six different periods of diabetic condition. Ninety-six rats were divided into 12 groups: C7/14/21/28/45/60 (non-diabetic animals) and D7/14/21/28/45/60 (diabetic animals). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and the rats were euthanized after 7, 14, 21, 28, 45, or 60 days. Their parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) glands were removed soon after the sacrifice and the total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, as well as, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined. Twenty-one days after the diabetes induction, the SM glands showed an increase in SOD, CAT, and GPx activities, as well as, MDA concentration. Concerning the PA glands, an increase in the CAT activity and MDA content was observed throughout the observation period. The results suggest that diabetes can cause alterations on the salivary glands and that PA and SM glands react differently when exposed to diabetes condition. However, no impairment of antioxidant system was observed in the group whose diabetic condition had been induced 60 days earlier, herein named 60-day group.

  2. Distinct contributions by ionotropic purinoceptor subtypes to ATP-evoked calcium signals in mouse parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sumit; Verrill, Douglas S; Carbone, Kristopher M; Brown, Stefanie; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2012-01-01

    There is emerging consensus that P2X4 and P2X7 ionotropic purinoceptors (P2X4R and P2X7R) are critical players in regulating [Ca2+]i dynamics and fluid secretion in the salivary gland. In contrast, details regarding their compartmentalization and selective activation, contributions to the spatiotemporal properties of intracellular signals and roles in regulating protein exocytosis and ion channel activity have remained largely undefined. To address these concerns, we profiled mouse parotid acinar cells using live-cell imaging to follow the spatial and temporal features of ATP-evoked Ca2+ dynamics and exocytotic activity. Selective activation of P2X7Rs revealed an apical-to-basal [Ca2+]i signal that initiated at the sub-luminal border and propagated with a wave speed estimated at 17.3 ± 4.3 μm s−1 (n = 6). The evoked Ca2+ spike consisted of Ca2+ influx and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ channels. In contrast, selective activation of P2X4Rs induced a Ca2+ signal that initiated basally and propagated toward the lumen with a wave speed of 4.3 ± 0.2 μm s−1 (n = 8) that was largely independent of intracellular Ca2+ channel blockade. Consistent with these observations, P2X7R expression was enriched in the sub-luminal regions of acinar cells while P2X4R appeared localized to basal areas. In addition, we showed that P2X4R and P2X7R activation evokes exocytosis in parotid acinar cells. Our studies also demonstrate that the P2X4R-mediated [Ca2+]i rise and subsequent protein exocytosis was enhanced by ivermectin (IVR). Thus, in addition to furthering our understanding of salivary gland physiology, this study identifies P2X4R as a potential target for treatment of salivary hypofunction diseases. PMID:22451435

  3. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  4. A Prospective Study of Salivary Gland Function in Lymphoma Patients Receiving Head and Neck Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Neesha A.; Killion, Leah; Hickey, Gail; Silver, Barbara; Martin, Chrystalla; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the radiation dose-response relationship on salivary dysfunction and quality of life (QOL) over time in patients with lymphoma receiving radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck (H and N). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective study on salivary-gland function in lymphoma patients receiving RT to the H and N. Fifteen patients were enrolled on the study. Dose-volume histograms and mean doses to the salivary glands were generated. Radiation-related toxicities and H and N-specific QOL were assessed before treatment and at prespecified time points posttreatment. Factors predicting a decrement in QOL were explored using Fisher's exact test. Results: During RT, 47% of patients experienced Grade >= 2 acute toxicity of the salivary gland, mucous membrane, or both. QOL scores improved over time, but up to one third of patients continued to have persistent oral symptoms at 2 years. At 6 months, a mean dose to at least one of the parotids of > 31 Gy was significantly associated with persistent dry mouth (100% vs. 17%, p = 0.02) and sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04); a mean dose of > 11 Gy to the minor salivary glands was significantly associated with persistent sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04), although the difference was no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions: Limiting the mean parotid dose to <= 31 Gy and mean minor salivary gland dose to <= 11 Gy in lymphoma patients treated to the H and N may help reduce the risk of subacute xerostomia.

  5. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  6. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  7. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  8. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland: Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex ... Oxytocin – Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, ... disorder is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors are fairly common in adults. ...

  9. Treatment of Bartholin gland cyst with CO2 laser

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Boechat, Karol Pereira Ruela; dos Santos, Georgia Mouzinho Lima; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the results of treatment with CO2 laser for Bartholin gland cysts. Methods Thirty-one women with Bartholin gland cysts were treated with CO2 laser at an outpatient´s setting. Skin incision was performed with focused laser beam, the capsule was opened to drain mucoid content, followed by internal vaporization of impaired capsule. Results There were no complications. Five patients had recurrence of the cyst and were submitted to a second and successful session. Conclusion CO2 laser surgery was effective to treat Bartholin gland cysts with minimal or no complications, and can be performed at an outpatient´s setting. PMID:27074230

  10. [Acute neonatal suppurative parotiditis: about three clinical cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Isfaoun, Zineb; Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Azzaoui, Sihame; Knouni, Houria; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The following case study reports three cases of neonatal bacterial parotiditis observed over a period of seven months. Diagnosis is often based on patient's clinical features: they typically include hyperthermia, swelling, erythema, warmth as well as local tenderness and purulent discharge at Stensen duct during the massage of the parotid. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound and by culture of parotid purulent secretion. They are mainly of nosocomial origin and are generally caused by prematurity and dehydration. Early treatment improves patient outcome. Risk factors such as age should lead clinicians to start empiric antibiotic therapy first and then antibiotic therapy based on direct examination of pus extracted from Stensen duct. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Viridans and anaerobic germs are most commonly isolated. Acute parotiditis are extremely rare in the neonatal period: less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. We here report three rather peculiar cases. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of signs of local inflammation.

  11. [Superficial angiomyxoma of the parotid region and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Rosado Rodríguez, Pablo; de Vicente, Juan C; de Villalaín, Lucas; Blanco, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxoma (SA) is a rare benign cutaneous neoplasm first described by Allen et al in 1988. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of superficial angiomyxoma located in the parotid region. We also stress the importance of distinguishing this entity from other lesions that may be involved in this location such as cutaneous neoplasms, parotid tumours or cysts. We emphasise the need to rule out the Carney complex, which has been associated with these tumours.

  12. Bioactivity of diopside ceramic in human parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    De Aza, Piedad N; Luklinska, Zofia B; Anseau, Michel

    2005-04-01

    Diopside ceramic pellets with a nominal composition of 55.5 wt % SiO(2)-25.9 wt % CaO-18.0 wt % MgO were soaked in human parotid saliva (HPS) over different time intervals, to investigate the behavior of the material in a natural medium of high protein content. The results showed the formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA)-like layer on the surface of the ceramic, and suggested that the mechanism of HA-like layer formation in saliva was similar to that showed in vitro test by other silica-based materials. The HA-like layer formed at the interface was found to be compact, continuous, and composed of many small crystallites with ultrastructure similar to that of natural cortical bone and dentine. The study concluded that the high pH conditions (9.8) existing right at the ceramic/human parotid saliva interface promoted HA-like phase precipitation. At this stage of the study, it is possible to suggest that the diopside ceramic could be of interest in specific periodontal applications for bone restorative purposes. Morphology, structure, and composition of the interfacial reaction product were examined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques (SEM and TEM), combined with Energy Dispersive X-say Spectroscopy (EDS). Changes in ionic concentrations were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while the pH right at the interface of diopside/PHS were determined with an Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET-Meter) instruments.

  13. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands. A retrospective study of 51 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Canales, Janet O; Morales-Vadillo, Rafael; Guzmán-Arias, Guillermo; Cava-Vergiú, Carlos E; Guerra-Miller, Henry; Montes-Gil, Jaime E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to present the casuistic of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands in patients diagnosed at "Dr. Eduardo Cáceres Graziani" National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases, Lima, Perú. From January 2002 to December 2012, 51 cases were diagnosed as mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The number of female patients was higher, with 28 cases (54.9%), and regarding age distribution, 33.3% of the patients were under 30 years old. Pain was one of the main symptoms, and 74.5% of the mucoepidermoid carcinomas were located in the parotid gland. It is concluded that epidemiology regarding age and gender of the 51 cases analyzed was in the same range as other studies, and that most cases were located in major salivary glands, in agreement with reports on other populations. Other characte ristics showed a homogeneous distribution.

  14. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  15. PP2C phosphatase activity is coupled to cAMP-mediated pathway in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, N; Kobayashi, T; Tamura, S; Sugiya, H

    1995-07-01

    A 26 kDa particulate protein is phosphorylated during stimulation of amylase secretion by a beta-adrenergic agonist in the rat parotid gland. Previous study has shown that PP2C phosphatase is involved in dephosphorylation of this 26 kDa protein [Yokoyama, N. et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 200, 497-503]. In this study, immunotransblot analysis using anti-PP2C phosphatase antibody showed that PP2C phosphatase was found prominently in the cystolic fractions and less in secretory granule membranes. When cells were stimulated by isoproterenol, cytosolic PP2C phosphatase activity increased to 145% at 5 min and returned to basal level at 30 min. Forskolin increased PP2C phosphatase activity. H89 inhibited increase of PP2C phosphatase activity following beta-adrenergic stimulation. These results suggest that PP2C phosphatase activity is regulated by cAMP-mediated signaling following beta-adrenergic stimulation and participates in dephosphorylation of this 26 kDa protein.

  16. Gefitinib-associated vitiligo: report in a man with parotid squamous cell carcinoma and review of drug-induced hypopigmentation.

    PubMed

    Jalalat, Sheila Z; Cohen, Philip R

    2013-10-16

    Gefitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets and inhibits epidermal growth factor receptors. It was initially used to treat non-small cell lung cancer but has increasingly been used for other solid tumors such as those in the breast, colorectal sites, and head and neck, as in our patient. Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder that results in the destruction of melanocytes and subsequent skin depigmentation and hypopigmentation. Previously described mucocutanous side effects of gefitinib at 250-500 mg/day include alopecia, asteatotic dermatitis, desquamation, hyperpigmentation, papulopustular acneiform eruption, pruritus, seborrheic dermatitis, and skin fragility. A 54-year-old man with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid gland developed vitiligo within 1 month of starting gefitinib therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching: (1) gefitinib side effects, (2) drugs and (3) vitiligo. The patient with gefitinib-induced vitiligo continued to receive treatment with the drug during which time areas of skin hypopigmentation persisted and progressed. Etiology of drug-induced vitiligo includes alopecia areata therapies, anticonvulsants, antimalarials, antineoplastics, anti-Parkinson medications, and other miscellaneous drugs. No other individuals have been described with gefitinib-induced vitiligo. Albeit rare, gefitinib may be associated with the development of vitiligo.

  17. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed.

  18. Developmental salivary gland depression in the ascending mandibular ramus: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christine A.; Ahn, Yoonhee; Odell, Scott; Graham, David Mattew

    2016-01-01

    A static, unilateral, and focal bone depression located lingually within the ascending ramus, identical to the Stafne's bone cavity of the angle of the mandible, is being reported. During development of the mandible, submandibular gland inclusion may lead to the formation of a lingual concavity, which could contain fatty tissue, blood vessels, or soft tissue. However, similar occurrences in the ascending ramus at the level of the parotid gland are extremely rare. Similar cases were previously reported in dry, excavated mandibles, and 3 cases were reported in living patients. A 52-year-old African American male patient was seen for pain in the mandibular teeth. Panoramic radiography showed an unusual concavity within the left ascending ramus. Cone-beam computed tomography confirmed this incidental finding. The patient was cleared for the extraction of non-restorable teeth and scheduled for annual follow-up. PMID:27672619

  19. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face ...

  20. Expression and Localization of α-amylase in the Submandibular and Sublingual Glands of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Ryoko; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Nakata, Hiroki; Adthapanyawanich, Kannika; Kumchantuek, Tewarat; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Iseki, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    In the major salivary glands of mice, acinar cells in the parotid gland (PG) are known to be the main site for the production of the digestive enzyme α-amylase, whereas α-amylase production in the submandibular gland (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG), as well as the cell types responsible for α-amylase production, has been less firmly established. To clarify this issue, we examined the expression and localization of both the mRNA and protein of α-amylase in the major salivary glands of male and female mice by quantitative and histochemical methods. α-amylase mRNA levels were higher in the order of PG, SMG, and SLG. No sexual difference was observed in α-amylase mRNA levels in the PG and SLG, whereas α-amylase mRNA levels in the female SMG were approximately 30% those in the male SMG. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, signals for α-amylase mRNA and protein were found to be strongly positive in acinar cells of the PG, serous demilune cells of the SLG, and granular convoluted tubule (GCT) cells of the male SMG, weakly positive in seromucous acinar cells of the male and female SMG, and negative in mucous acinar cells of the SLG. These results clarified that α-amylase is produced mainly by GCT cells and partly by acinar cells in the SMG, whereas it is produced exclusively by serous demilune cells in the SLG of mice. PMID:25320406

  1. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  2. Histological and immunohistochemical findings of the action of botulinum toxin in salivary gland: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J B; Evêncio-Neto, J; Baratella-Evêncio, L

    2016-09-05

    The treatment of sialorrhea is necessary for the constant risks posed by hypersalivation. A new therapeutic option comes up with the application of botulinum toxin in salivary glands. However, little is known about its mechanism of action in glandular tissue. Based on the above, this work had the objective to systematically review the literature about the action of botulinum toxin on submandibular and parotid salivary glands tissues. Electronic search was performed in databases of great relevance for this study (PubMed, SciELO, HighWire, Crossref, Scopus, Science Direct, MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, Serials Database, NLM Catalog, LILACS and IBECS). Inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles were established, and a total number of 14 articles were selected and used. There are few publications that clarify how the salivary gland acini behave with application of botulinum toxin. Although, the immunohistochemical findings were consistent among authors, showing weak immunoreactivity in glands treated with botulinum toxin. Histometric data are divergent, requiring more detailed studies to answer the questions about the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin in salivary glands.

  3. Tumors of the salivary gland in Mexicans. A retrospective study of 360 cases

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Padilla, Marco A.; Gómez-Apo, Erick; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish distribution frequency and demographic characteristics of salivary gland tumours (SGT) i6n order to identify possible risk profiles. Design of study: The present report constitutes an eight year retrospective study (January 2000-August 2007). The archives of the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory (Graduate and Research Division, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico) as well as archives of the Surgical Pathology Service (General Hospital, Mexico City) were subject to revision in order to select all cases where SGT tumour diagnoses were emitted. Age and gender of patients as well as SGT topography were obtained from medical records. Selected cases were classified according to location of the lesion, histological lineage and biological behaviour. Results: 360 cases of SGT were included, 227 (67%) cases were benign tumours, while 83 cases (23%) were malignant tumours. SGT were most frequent in women with ages ranging from their 3rd to 5th decades of life. 275 tumours were located in major salivary glands, 78.9% of them were identified in the parotid gland. The most frequent location of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (33 cases, 38%) was found in the palatine glands. Tumours of epithelial lineage were the predominant histological type. The most frequent benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas (86.1%) and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (7.3%). The most frequent malignant tumours were adenoid cystic carcinomas (25%) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (23.6%) Conclusions: Salivary gland tumours in Mexican population appear principally in major salivary glands of women in their 3rd to 5th decade of life. Key words: Salivary glands tumours, epithelial tumours, pleomorphic adenoma, papillary cistadenoma lymphomatosum, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:22143697

  4. Lacrimal gland tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... B. Lacrimal gland tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... JA. Secondary orbital tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  5. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  6. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  7. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... In other cases, the doctor can perform a minor procedure in the office. During this procedure, the ... me?Is it safe for me to have sex? Last Updated: February 2014 Tags: bartholin, cyst, gland, ...

  8. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  9. Quantitative analysis of human salivary gland-derived intact proteome using top-down mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N; Tolić, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J; Pevzner, Pavel; Smith, Richard D; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2014-05-01

    There are several notable challenges inherent for fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, PTMs, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based LC-MS/MS approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of PTMs. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin. In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein. These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different proteoform profiles were resolved with high reproducibility between parotid secretion and submandibular/sublingual glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  10. Mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  11. Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Promote Formation of the Ex Vivo Niche for Salivary Gland Epithelial Cell Growth, Matrix Formation, and Retention of Differentiated Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin-Xian; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Lin, Alan L.; Wang, Hanzhou; Pilia, Marcello; Ong, Joo L.; Dean, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction often results from a number of causes, including the use of various medications, radiation for head and neck tumors, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and aging. Since treatments for this condition are lacking and adult salivary glands have little regenerative capacity, there is a need for cell-based therapies to restore salivary gland function. Development of these treatment strategies requires the establishment of a system that is capable of replicating the salivary gland cell “niche” to support the proliferation and differentiation of salivary gland progenitor cells. In this study, a culture system using three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds (SFS) and primary salivary gland epithelial cells (pSGECs) from rat submandibular (SM) gland and parotid gland (PG) was established and characterized. pSGECs grown on SFS, but not tissue culture plastic (TCP), formed aggregates of cells with morphological features resembling secretory acini. High levels of amylase were released into the media by both cell types after extended periods in culture on SFS. Remarkably, cultures of PG-derived cells on SFS, but not SM cells, responded to isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, with increased enzyme release. This behavior mimics that of the salivary glands in vivo. Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) formed by pSGECs in culture on SFS contained type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. These results demonstrate that pSGECs grown on SFS, but not TCP, retain important functional and structural features of differentiated salivary glands and produce an ECM that mimics the native salivary gland cell niche. These results demonstrate that SFS has potential as a scaffold for creating the salivary gland cell niche in vitro and may provide an approach for inducing multipotent stem cells to provide therapeutically meaningful numbers of salivary gland progenitor cells for regenerating these tissues in patients. PMID:25625623

  12. Membrane interactions between secretion granules and plasmalemma in three exocrine glands

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Y; De Camilli, P; Meldolesi, J

    1980-01-01

    Three types of membrane interactions were studied in three exocrine systems (the acinar cells of the rat parotid, rat lacrimal gland, and guinea pig pancrease) by freeze- fracture and thin-section electron microscopy: exocytosis, induced in vivo by specific pharmacological stimulations; the mutual apposition of secretory granule membranes in the intact cell; membrane appositions induced in vitro by centrifugation of the isolated granules. In all three glandular cells, the distribution of intramembrane particles (IMP) on the fracture faces of the luminal plasmagranule membrane particles (IMP) on the fracture faces of the lumenal plasmalemma appeared random before stimulation. However, after injection of secretagogues, IMP were rapidly clearly from the areas of granule- plasmalemma apposition in the parotid cells and, especially, in lacrimocytes. In the latter, the cleared areas appeared as large bulges toward the lumen, whereas in the parotid they were less pronounced. Exocytotic openings were usually large and the fracture faces of their rims were covered with IMP. In contrast, in stimulated pancreatic acinar cells, the IMP distribution remained apparently random after stimulation. Exocytoses were established through the formation of narrown necks, and no images which might correspond to early stages of membrane fusion were revealed. Within the cytoplasm of parotid and lacrimal cells (but not in the pancreas), both at rest and after stimulation, secretion granules were often closely apposed by means of flat, circular areas, also devoid of IMP. In thin sections, the images corresponding to IMP-free areas were close granule-granule and granule-plasmalemma appositions, sometimes with focal merging of the membrane outer layers to yield pentalaminar structures. Isolated secretion granules were forced together in vitro by centrifugation. Under these conditions, increasing the centrifugal force from 1,600 to 50,000 g for 10 min resulted in a progressive, statistically

  13. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...

  14. TU-AB-303-11: Predict Parotids Deformation Applying SIS Epidemiological Model in H&N Adaptive RT

    SciTech Connect

    Maffei, N; Guidi, G; Vecchi, C; Bertoni, F; Costi, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim is to investigate the use of epidemiological models to predict morphological variations in patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). The susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) deterministic model was applied to simulate warping within a focused region of interest (ROI). Hypothesis is to consider each voxel like a single subject of the whole sample and to treat displacement vector fields like an infection. Methods: Using Raystation hybrid deformation algorithms and automatic re-contouring based on mesh grid, we post-processed 360 MVCT images of 12 H&N patients treated with Tomotherapy. Study focused on parotid glands, identified by literature and previous analysis, as ROI more susceptible to warping in H&N region. Susceptible (S) and infectious (I) cases were identified in voxels with inter-fraction movement respectively under and over a set threshold. IronPython scripting allowed to export positions and displacement data of surface voxels for every fraction. A MATLAB homemade toolbox was developed to model the SIS. Results: SIS model was validated simulating organ motion on QUASAR phantom. Applying model in patients, within a [0–1cm] range, a single voxel movement of 0.4cm was selected as displacement threshold. SIS indexes were evaluated by MATLAB simulations. Dynamic time warping algorithm was used to assess matching between model and parotids behavior days of treatments. The best fit of the model was obtained with contact rate of 7.89±0.94 and recovery rate of 2.36±0.21. Conclusion: SIS model can follow daily structures evolutions, making possible to compare warping conditions and highlighting challenges due to abnormal variation and set-up errors. By epidemiology approach, organ motion could be assessed and predicted not in terms of average of the whole ROI, but in a voxel-by-voxel deterministic trend. Identifying anatomical region subjected to variations, would be possible to focus clinic controls within a cohort of pre-selected patients

  15. The effects of ductal ligation on the parenchyma of salivary glands of cat studied by enzyme histochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Garrett, J R

    1976-01-01

    Submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands of cat have been studied following periods of ductal ligation ranging from 1 day to 1 year. An increased prominence of granules of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase and E600-resistant esterase reaction products was sometimes seen in acinar cells and atropic striated ductal cells, and probably represents increased lysosomal enzymic activity, which may be of importance in the adapation of the parenchyma to the altered environment. Other reaction products often appeared to be at normal levels in parenchymal structures that were not very atrophic, and at reduced levels in those that were very atrophic, suggesting a reduction of functional activity in these structures.

  16. [Differential diagnosis betwen Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome and sialadenosis using quantitative scintigraphy of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Hermans, P; Hausler, R; Vischer, T L

    1977-02-01

    The symptoms of both Gougerot-Sjögren's syndrome and sialadenosis consist in a reduction of salive and tear production. Sialadenosis is either essential or secondary to the intake of certain drugs. As it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between the two diseases a new quantitative scintigraphic method is proposed, where the activity over the salivary glands is compared with a neutral zone. This method has been validated with control sialography and parotid biopsies and permits an easy differentiation between the two conditions.

  17. Tissue-specific expression of the tight junction proteins claudins and occludin in the rat salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Peppi, M; Ghabriel, M N

    2004-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are essential features of endothelial barrier membranes and of fluid-secreting epithelial cells, such as in the salivary glands. Novel integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of TJs, namely claudins and occludin. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of occludin and claudins in the large salivary glands of the rat. The parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands were harvested from adult Sprague–Dawley rats and cryostat sections were stained using immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in endothelial cells of microvessels and in short selected segments of the duct system. Claudin-3 was expressed principally in the acinar cells and intercalated ducts, while claudin-4 was principally expressed by the striated and interlobular ducts. Claudin-5 was specific to endothelial cells of microvessels. Occludin was ubiquitously detected in the duct system. Double labelling and confocal microscopy showed some co-localization of claudin-3 with claudin-4, and minimal co-localization of occludin with claudin-4, in the striated ducts. Claudin 2 was not detected in any of the salivary glands. The results indicate specificity of the chemical composition of tight junctions in the rat salivary glands, and may reflect different physiological roles for TJs in the glandular and duct epithelial cells, and in endothelial cells of salivary gland microvessels. PMID:15447685

  18. Pheromaxein, the pheromonal steroid-binding protein, is a major protein synthesized in porcine submaxillary salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Booth, W D; von Glos, K I

    1991-02-01

    Submaxillary salivary gland tissue from large White, Göttingen miniature and Meishan (Chinese) breeds of pig, and European wild boars, was incubated with [35S]methionine. The radiolabelled amino acid was incorporated into protein in all incubations as demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Specifically [35S]methionine was predominantly incorporated into the alpha- and beta-charge isomers of pheromaxein, a 16-androstene steroid-binding protein, as shown by SDS-PAGE in combination with vertical isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide slab gels. The synthesis of pheromaxein occurred in submaxillary gland tissue from both sexes, including tissues stored frozen at -70 degrees C for long periods. There was little evidence for pheromaxein synthesis in parotid gland tissue or skeletal muscle. Total protein, pheromaxein and total 16-androstenes were determined in the submaxillary gland cytosols of six mature Göttingen miniature boars and a positive correlation was found between these glandular constituents. The amounts of endogenous pheromaxein relative to total protein in the submaxillary gland cytosols (range 10.3-18.0%), together with the predominant synthesis of this protein in vitro, indicate that pheromaxein is a major protein produced in porcine submaxillary glands, particularly in those of the male.

  19. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  20. Sialadenosis of the major salivary glands in a patient with central diabetes insipidus--implications of aquaporin water channels in the pathomechanism of sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Mandic, R; Teymoortash, A; Kann, P H; Werner, J A

    2005-04-01

    Sialadenosis, also referred to as sialosis, is a disease of unknown aetiology. It regularly manifests itself as a massive swelling in both parotid regions involving the major salivary glands, preferably the parotid glands and is characterized by lack of any detectable, underlying pathologies. In this case report we describe a 24-year-old white female patient with diabetes insipidus who developed sialadenosis of the major salivary glands during a period of enhanced water requirement, which the patient tried to compensate for by more frequent nasal ADH application. Since ADH acts on aquaporins (AQPs) in the kidney, we were interested if AQP expression in the patients salivary glands was affected. Surprisingly, compared to normal control tissues we observed an extensively high signal for AQP5, which is the dominant AQP found in salivary acinar cells. Interestingly, previous studies on AQP5 knock out mice found AQP5 to be required for cell volume regulation. We therefore suggest that aquaporin water channels and antidiuretic hormone together with a disturbance in the body's water household are potential key-factors in the pathophysiological events leading to the development of the disease entity called sialadenosis.

  1. Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  2. Outpatient Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outpatient Surgery Share this Page Preparing For Surgery Effects of Anesthesia Children and Anesthesia Pregnancy and Anesthesia Seniors and Anesthesia Surgery Risks Anesthesia Awareness Obesity and Anesthesia Sleep Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery ...

  3. Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

  4. [Pheochromocytomas as adrenal gland incidentalomas].

    PubMed

    Cerović, Snezana; Cizmić, Milica; Milović, Novak; Ajdinović, Boris; Brajusković, Goran

    2002-07-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are a heterogeneous group of pathological entities, including benign or malignant adrenocortical or medullary tumors, hormonally active or inactive lesions, which are identified incidentally during the examination of nonadrenal-related abdominal complaints. About 1.5% to 23% of adrenal incidentalomas are pheochromocytomas. Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumour of adrenal medulla with divergente clinical course. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether pheochromocytoma and nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. Nonpheochromocytoma components found in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The biologic behavior of composite pheochromocytomas may be as difficult to predict as more traditional pheochromocytomas; based on the number of cases reported to date the presence of areas resembling ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma does not necessary indicate a poor prognosis. Some may behave in a malignant fashion with metastasis by a component of the tumour which has neural features. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are well-defined entities. Some of their nonsporadic associations and unusual morphological appearances are not universally appreciated. We report on a rare association of left adrenal CP, with typical right adrenal phochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and a review of literature. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical features in a 24-year-old woman with composite pheochromocytoma localized in the left adrenal gland and associated with blood pressure of 200/140 mmHg. Abdominal computed tomography and 131-J MIBG revealed a 65 x 60 mm mass in the right adrenal gland, but no revealed 45 x 40 mm retroperitoneal mass and 20 x 20 mm mass in the left adrenal region. Serum and urinary adrenaline levels were high, and catecholamine levels in the blood sample of

  5. Parotid sialolithiasis in a two-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hoon; Song, Woo Sun; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2013-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is caused by the obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct by the formation of calcareous concretions or sialoliths; this results in salivary ectasia and provokes subsequent dilation of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis is relatively common, accounting for 30% of salivary diseases; however, it is rarely observed in childhood. This case report describes a 2-year-old male patient who complained of a painful swelling over the right cheek, and presented with palpable stones and pus discharge from the orifice of the right Stensen's duct. Computerized tomography of the neck confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient received intravenous empiric antibiotics combined with intraoral sialolithotomy. We also provide a review of the spectrum of concepts regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sialolithiasis. PMID:24244214

  6. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Geza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  7. A modified device for long term sampling of parotid saliva in various experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, A; Nomura, T; Yamanaka, S; Takaesu, Y

    1995-05-01

    A parotid cup has been widely used as an intraoral device for the collection of parotid saliva. However, in long duration sampling, the cup tends to disconnect under circumstances such as mastication, sleep or physical exercise. We have designed a modified device of parotid cup for saliva collection to overcome these unfavorable conditions. The parotid cup was modified by fixing it to the bite-plate appliance which was adjusted individually to the occlusal plane in order to avoid disconnection of the cup under varying conditions. Using this device, we could measure salivary flow rate during mastication, sleep or physical exercise. Additional advantages of this device are that it is easy to make with acrylic resin and is inexpensive. The preliminary study using this device showed that flow rates of unstimulated parotid saliva varied from 0.06 +/- 0.04 ml/min. to 0.16 +/- 0.10 ml/min. (mean +/- s.d) from 7 a.m. to 12 p.m. in 7 subjects. In five subjects, the flow rate of parotid saliva during meal (lunch) was much higher than that of resting on a chair, playing table tennis, or sleeping at night for 6-8 hours. This might be considered due to the stimuli of the meal content. Flow rates of saliva were also examined with various stimuli. The results showed that salty pickled plum > sour lemon juice > 10% ascorbic acid > sweet milky candy > 1% ascorbic acid. These data suggest that our modified device is useful for various experiments in salivary research.

  8. Sialendoscopy and Combined Minimally Invasive Treatment for Large Parotid Stones

    PubMed Central

    Zavázalová, Šárka; Vorobiov, Olexii; Astl, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Sialendoscopy (SE) represents nowadays one of the standard diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the treatment of major salivary glands lithiasis. We know from experience that it is successful only in small percentage of patients, when used in monotherapy. However, it represents an indispensable part of all of the combined minimally invasive gland-preserving treatment techniques, the success rate of which is around 90%. In this work, we focused on the role of sialendoscopy in the treatment of patients with larger inflamed fixed stones in glandula parotis. We conducted a total of 364 sialendoscopy procedures in 332 patients on our site. We have confirmed lithiasis as a cause of salivary gland obstruction in 246 (74%) patients. In 9 patients there was larger, single, or multiple inflamed fixed lithiasis of glandula parotis. In this subgroup of patients endoscopically assisted sialolithectomy from external mini-incision has become the method of choice. In 9 of the 9 (100%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of stones, and in 8 of the 9 (89%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of complaints. Sialoendoscopically assisted sialolithectomy of glandula parotis from external mini-incision has proved to be highly effective technique to eliminate stones with minimal complications. PMID:27882318

  9. Sialendoscopy and Combined Minimally Invasive Treatment for Large Parotid Stones.

    PubMed

    Rotnágl, Jan; Zavázalová, Šárka; Vorobiov, Olexii; Astl, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Sialendoscopy (SE) represents nowadays one of the standard diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the treatment of major salivary glands lithiasis. We know from experience that it is successful only in small percentage of patients, when used in monotherapy. However, it represents an indispensable part of all of the combined minimally invasive gland-preserving treatment techniques, the success rate of which is around 90%. In this work, we focused on the role of sialendoscopy in the treatment of patients with larger inflamed fixed stones in glandula parotis. We conducted a total of 364 sialendoscopy procedures in 332 patients on our site. We have confirmed lithiasis as a cause of salivary gland obstruction in 246 (74%) patients. In 9 patients there was larger, single, or multiple inflamed fixed lithiasis of glandula parotis. In this subgroup of patients endoscopically assisted sialolithectomy from external mini-incision has become the method of choice. In 9 of the 9 (100%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of stones, and in 8 of the 9 (89%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of complaints. Sialoendoscopically assisted sialolithectomy of glandula parotis from external mini-incision has proved to be highly effective technique to eliminate stones with minimal complications.

  10. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  11. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  12. Parathyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and will remove the diseased glands with the instruments. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy: Your surgeon will make two or three small cuts in the front of your neck and one cut above the top of your collarbone. This reduces visible scarring, pain, and recovery time. This cut is less than ...

  13. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  14. Influence of altered CSF solute composition on parotid salivary secretion in goats.

    PubMed

    Olsson, K

    1976-06-01

    Infusions of hypertonic NaCl solution into the CSF of the lateral cerebral ventricle of the goat caused a marked reduction in parotid salivary flow concomitant with a rise in salivary [Na+]. Corresponding infusions of iso- or hypertonic glucose and glycerol solutions affected salivary secretion in the opposite direction. The possibility is discussed that a periventricular sodium-sensitive mechanism, which is of importance in the central control of fluid balance, also may participate in the regulation of parotid secretion in the goat. This interpretation of the results is to some extent obscured by the observation of a high incidence of intermittent rumination during the intraventricular infusions of glucose and glycerol solution.

  15. K+ transport and membrane potentials in isolated rat parotid acini

    SciTech Connect

    Nauntofte, B.; Dissing, S.

    1988-10-01

    42K+ transport properties of isolated rat parotid acini were characterized concomitant with measurements of membrane potentials (Em) by means of the fluorescent dye diSC3-(5). In unstimulated acini suspended in a 5 mM K+ buffer, Em was governed by the K+ and Cl- gradients and amounted to about -59 mV, a value that remained unaffected on cholinergic stimulation. In unstimulated acini, 42K+ influx was largely mediated by the Na+-K+ pump, and the residual influxes were mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component (cotransport system) and by K+ channels. Efflux of 42K+ was largely mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component and by K+ channels. In the unstimulated state, the cotransport system was mediating K+-K+ exchange without contributing to the net uptake of K+. Within 10 s after stimulation, a approximately 10-fold increase in the acinar K+ conductance (gK) occurred, resulting in a rapid net efflux of K+ that amounted to approximately 3.8 mmol.l cells-1.s-1. Measurements of 42K+ fluxes as a function of the external K+ concentration revealed that in the stimulated state gK increases when external K+ is raised from 0.7 to 10 mM, consistent with an activation of acinar gK by the binding of external K+ to the channel. 42K+ flux ratios as well as the effect of the K+ channel inhibitor from scorpion venom (LQV) suggest that approximately 90% of K+ transport in the stimulated state is mediated by ''maxi'' K+ channels.

  16. Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Paras, Constantine; Keller, Matthew; White, Lisa; Phay, John; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    A major challenge in endocrine surgery is the intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands during both thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies. Current localization techniques such as ultrasound and sestamibi scan are mostly preoperative and rely on an abnormal parathyroid for its detection. In this paper, we present near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence as a nonintrusive, real-time, automated in vivo method for the detection of the parathyroid gland. A pilot in vivo study was conducted to assess the ability of NIR fluorescence to identify parathyroid glands during thyroid and parathyroidectomies. Fluorescence measurements at 785 nm excitation were obtained intra-operatively from the different tissues exposed in the neck region in 21 patients undergoing endocrine surgery. The fluorescence intensity of the parathyroid gland was found to be consistently greater than that of the thyroid and all other tissues in the neck of all patients. In particular, parathyroid fluorescence was two to eleven times higher than that of the thyroid tissues with peak fluorescence occurring at 820 to 830 nm. These results indicate that NIR fluorescence has the potential to be an excellent optical tool to locate parathyroid tissue during surgery.

  17. Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paras, Constantine; Keller, Matthew; White, Lisa; Phay, John; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    A major challenge in endocrine surgery is the intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands during both thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies. Current localization techniques such as ultrasound and sestamibi scan are mostly preoperative and rely on an abnormal parathyroid for its detection. In this paper, we present near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence as a nonintrusive, real-time, automated in vivo method for the detection of the parathyroid gland. A pilot in vivo study was conducted to assess the ability of NIR fluorescence to identify parathyroid glands during thyroid and parathyroidectomies. Fluorescence measurements at 785 nm excitation were obtained intra-operatively from the different tissues exposed in the neck region in 21 patients undergoing endocrine surgery. The fluorescence intensity of the parathyroid gland was found to be consistently greater than that of the thyroid and all other tissues in the neck of all patients. In particular, parathyroid fluorescence was two to eleven times higher than that of the thyroid tissues with peak fluorescence occurring at 820 to 830 nm. These results indicate that NIR fluorescence has the potential to be an excellent optical tool to locate parathyroid tissue during surgery.

  18. Determination of parotid urea secretion in sheep by means of ultrasonic flow probes and a multifactorial regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Cirio, A; Méot, F; Delignette-Muller, M L; Boivin, R

    2000-02-01

    For determination of the dynamics of parotid urea secretion in conscious sheep, a previously standardized transit time ultrasonic flow metering system was used to measure bilateral parotid flow. Six ewes fed for ad libitum consumption were prepared under halothane anesthesia with ultrasonic probes around both parotid ducts; these ducts were also cannulated orally. After probe encapsulation (8 d), parotid flows were recorded during 24 h, and samples of saliva and blood for urea determination were obtained hourly. Jaw movements were recorded by means of a submandibular balloon to monitor feeding behavior. Urea concentration in parotid saliva was 60 to 74% of that in plasma (a positive linear correlation existed) and was poorly influenced by the parotid flow. The amount of urea secreted with parotid saliva was directly related to the salivation rate. To calculate the urea secretion in parotid saliva, a multiple linear regression model was developed from computer-calculated parotid flows over 1-min periods and plasma urea concentration. The model was accurate because the plot of calculated vs measured values was not significantly different from the line of identity. The daily parotid urea N varied from .35 to 1.02 g among ewes. The higher urea secretion rate found during rumination and eating (1.32+/-.42 and .98 +/-.33 mg/min, respectively) vs. during rest (.60+/-.39 mg/ min, P<.05) was due to higher salivation rates (5.17 +/-1.46, 3.56+/-.90, and 2.04+/-.52 mL/min, respectively, P<.05) rather than to changes in saliva urea concentrations (saliva:plasma urea ratio = .65+/-.04, .67+/-.04, and .68+/-.03, respectively). Of the daily parotid urea output, 40.8% was secreted during rest. The contribution of parotid urea N to the ruminal N pool was relatively small (1.2 to 3.7% of the N intake, which was 23.0 to 33.6 g/d). These techniques allowed direct and precise measurements of parotid urea secretion without disturbing the animal or altering the physiological regulation

  19. Radioguided Adrenal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Gil, Ismael; Suarez, Manuel; Salcini, José L.; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the procedure of choice for the treatment of adrenal hyperplasia and tumor lesions. However, some special situations may limit the use of this method due to the difficulty to locate the gland and perform the lesion excision. We analyze 2 patients of a left adrenal tumor, explaining how they have overcome the difficulties in both situations. The first case was a patient with a history of intra-abdominal surgery and the other patient suffered from severe obesity. We performed with the use of the gamma probe, and the 2 cases, was of great help to access and glandular localization. The help of gamma probe test was achieved in the surgical bed, that removal was complete. The use of the portable gamma probe facilitated the access to the left adrenal gland as well as conducting the glandular excision without delay, despite the difficulties due to the intra abdominal surgery caused by the previous surgery, and in the case of severe obesity. PMID:26426608

  20. Corticomedullary mixed tumor of the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, J A; Thompson, L D; Heffess, C S

    2001-10-01

    Corticomedullary mixed tumors of the adrenal gland are quite rare, with only five well-documented cases reported in the literature.(1-4) Herein, we report the light microscopic and immunohistochemical features of two cases of this rare tumor. Patient 1 is a 34-year-old woman who presented with hypertension, hair loss, and amenorrhea of 1-year duration. Patient 2 is a 52-year-old woman who presented with flank pain and what appeared to be a renal mass on arteriogram with no history of hypertension, Cushing's syndrome, or other endocrine abnormalities. At surgery, the tumor was noted to arise from the adrenal gland rather than the kidney and adrenalectomy was performed. In both cases, the surgically resected specimens consisted of a well-circumscribed, single adrenal mass surrounded by a rim of uninvolved adrenal cortical tissue. The tumors were composed of adrenal cortical cells intimately admixed with pheochromocytes. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted these two cellular components. The pheochromocytes were strongly reactive with chromogranin and the sustentacular cells with S-100 protein, whereas the adrenal cortical cells reacted specifically with inhibin. Thus, we report two additional cases of mixed corticomedullary tumor of the adrenal gland. Ann Diagn Pathol 5:304-308, 2001. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.

  1. Nonneoplastic enlargement of the pituitary gland in children.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Kristian; Boop, Frederick A

    2011-05-01

    Primary neoplasms of the pituitary gland are uncommon in children. Physiological enlargement of the gland, however, is universal and can sometimes be confused with a tumor. Due to widespread availability of MR imaging, the number of children referred to pediatric neurosurgeons with an enlarged pituitary associated with nonspecific symptoms, most commonly headache, is increasing. In this review, the authors illustrate two common causes of pituitary enlargement in children, namely physiological hypertrophy of puberty, more commonly seen in females, and secondary hyperplasia caused by hypothyroidism. The importance of early and accurate diagnosis, without recourse to extensive endocrine investigations or inappropriate surgery, is underscored.

  2. Role of FNAC in the Preoperative Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Clement R S; Khosla, Charu; George, Lovely; Katte, Namitha Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Background: The characteristic cytologic features of the common salivary gland lesions have been well-delineated in literature. However, there also exist cytologic pitfalls and overlapping features that make an accurate diagnosis difficult in few cases. The present study was designed to compare the cytologic findings of salivary gland lesions with the histologic diagnoses, in order to assess the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, with an emphasis on discordant cases. Materials and Methods: Patients with suspected salivary gland enlargements, who were referred for FNAC, were included in this study, which was done over a 3 year period in a medical college hospital. FNAC was performed by using the standard procedure. Smears were stained by using Papanicolaou’s and MGG stains. Cytologic diagnosis was compared with histopathologic diagnosis wherever it was available. Results: Eighty eight patients with salivary gland swellings were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 82 years, with the M:F ratio being 1.6:1. Out of 88 cases, 68 had swellings in parotid gland, 19 had them in submandibular gland and one had them in hard palate. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest neoplasm which was seen in our study. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the only malignant lesion seen in our study. One each of Warthin’s tumour (WT) and MEC were overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed respectively, the reason being squamous metaplasia in WT and subtle nature of malignant cells in low-grade MEC. Conclusion: WT and MEC can pose problems in cytologicdiagnosis. Sampling errors and interpretational errors can lead todiscordant diagnoses. PMID:25386436

  3. DNA quantification as prognostic factor in a case of acinar cell carcinoma of the parotid gland, diagnosed by FNA.

    PubMed

    Azúa-Romeo, Javier; Sánchez-Garnica, Juan Carlos; Azúa-Blanco, Javier; Tovar-Lázaro, Mayte

    2005-01-01

    Hereby we present a case of a 43-years-old male who complained of a three years history preauricular painful mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed, diagnosing of compatible with acinar cell carcinoma, thus DNA quantification by image cytometry was carried out. Biological parameters studied (ploidy, S-phase, 5-c exceeding rate) showed that it is a low grade of malignancy lesion. Total parotidectomy conservative of facial nerve was recommended, without regional lymphadenectomy. Patient remains, one year later, asymptomatic and free of disease.

  4. Effects of large pressure amplitude low frequency noise in the parotid gland perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; Mendes, João; da Fonseca, Jorge; Águas, Artur; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Em tecidos e órgãos expostos a ruído de baixa frequência de alta amplitude ocorre fibrose na ausência de sinais inflamatórios, que se pensa ser uma resposta protetora. No tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal da glândula parótida seguem artérias, veias e a árvore ductal. Crê-se que o tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal funcione como um estabilizador mecânico do tecido glandular.Material e Métodos: Para quantificar a proliferação de tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal em ratos expostos a ruído de baixafrequência de alta amplitude foram utilizados 60 ratos Wistar igualmente divididos em seis grupos. Um grupo mantido em silêncio, e os restantes 5 expostos a ruído de baixa frequência de alta amplitude continuamente: g1-168h (1 semana); g2-504h (3 semanas); g3-840h (5semanas); g4-1512h (9 semanas) e g5-2184h (13 semanas). Após a exposição, as parótidas foram removidas e o tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal foi medido em todos os grupos. Foi efectuada análise estatística com ANOVA por SPSS 13.0.Resultados: A tendência é um aumento global das áreas do tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal, que se desenvolve de forma linear e significativa com o tempo de exposição (p < 0,001).Discussão: Tem sido sugerido que a resposta biológica à exposição ao ruído de baixa frequência de alta amplitude está associada à necessidade de manter a integridade estrutural. O reforço estrutural seria conseguido através do aumento do tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal.Conclusões: Assim, estes resultados mostram que o tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal aumenta em resposta à exposição ao ruído de baixa frequência de alta amplitude.

  5. Changes in salivary gland function after radiotherapy of head and neck tumors measured by quantitative pertechnetate scintigraphy: Comparison of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy with and without Amifostine

    SciTech Connect

    Muenter, Marc W. . E-mail: m.muenter@dkfz.de; Hoffner, Simone; Hof, Holger; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Haberkorn, Uwe; Rudat, Volker; Huber, Peter; Debus, Juergen; Karger, Christian P.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare changes in salivary gland function after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (RT), with or without Amifostine, for tumors of the head-and-neck region using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods and Materials: A total of 75 patients received pre- and post-therapeutic QSGS to quantify the salivary gland function. In all, 251 salivary glands were independently evaluated. Changes in the maximum uptake ({delta}U) and relative excretion rate ({delta}F) both pre- and post-RT were determined to characterize radiation-induced changes in the salivary gland function. In addition, dose-response curves were calculated. Results: In all groups, maximum uptake and relative excretion rate were reduced after RT ({delta}U {<=}0 and {delta}F {<=}0). The reduction was significantly lower for IMRT than for conventional RT. For the parotid glands, the reduction was smaller for the IMRT-low than for the IMRT-high group. For the Amifostine-high and the conventional group the difference was significant only for one parameter ({delta}U, parotid and submandibular glands, p < 0.05). In contrast to this, the difference between the Amifostine-low and the conventional group was always significant or at least showed a clear trend for both changes in U and F. In regard to the endpoint 'reduction of the salivary gland excretion rate of more than 50%,' the dose-response curves yielded D{sub 50}-values of 34.2 {+-} 12.2 Gy for the conventionally treated group and 36.8 {+-} 2.9 Gy for the IMRT group. For the Amifostine group, an increased D{sub 50}-values of 46.3 {+-} 2.3 Gy was obtained. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated RT can significantly reduce the loss of parotid gland function when respecting a certain dose threshold. Conventional RT plus Amifostine prevents reduced salivary gland function only in the patient group treated with <40.6 Gy.

  6. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  7. The suitability of common metrics for assessing parotid and larynx autosegmentation accuracy.

    PubMed

    Beasley, William J; McWilliam, Alan; Aitkenhead, Adam; Mackay, Ranald I; Rowbottom, Carl G

    2016-03-08

    Contouring structures in the head and neck is time-consuming, and automatic seg-mentation is an important part of an adaptive radiotherapy workflow. Geometric accuracy of automatic segmentation algorithms has been widely reported, but there is no consensus as to which metrics provide clinically meaningful results. This study investigated whether geometric accuracy (as quantified by several commonly used metrics) was associated with dosimetric differences for the parotid and larynx, comparing automatically generated contours against manually drawn ground truth contours. This enabled the suitability of different commonly used metrics to be assessed for measuring automatic segmentation accuracy of the parotid and larynx. Parotid and larynx structures for 10 head and neck patients were outlined by five clinicians to create ground truth structures. An automatic segmentation algorithm was used to create automatically generated normal structures, which were then used to create volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans. The mean doses to the automatically generated structures were compared with those of the corresponding ground truth structures, and the relative difference in mean dose was calculated for each structure. It was found that this difference did not correlate with the geometric accuracy provided by several metrics, notably the Dice similarity coefficient, which is a commonly used measure of spatial overlap. Surface-based metrics provided stronger correlation and are, therefore, more suitable for assessing automatic seg-mentation of the parotid and larynx.

  8. Computer Assisted Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Cosío, F.; Padilla Castañeda, M. A.

    2003-09-01

    Computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems can provide different levels of assistance to a surgeon during training and execution of a surgical procedure. This is done through the integration of : measurements taken on medical images; computer graphics techniques; and positioning or tracking mechanisms which accurately locate the surgical instruments inside the operating site. According to the type of assistance that is provided to the surgeon, CAS systems can be classified as: Image guided surgery systems; Assistant robots for surgery; and Training simulators for surgery. In this work are presented the main characteristics of CAS systems. It is also described the development of a computer simulator for training on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) based on a computer model of the prostate gland which is able to simulate, in real time, deformations and resections of tissue. The model is constructed as a 3D mesh with physical properties such as elasticity. We describe the main characteristics of the prostate model and its performance. The prostate model will also be used in the development of a CAS system designed to assist the surgeon during a real TURP procedure. The system will provide 3D views of the shape of the prostate of the patient, and the position of the surgical instrument during the operation. The development of new computer graphics models which are able to simulate, in real time, the mechanical behavior of an organ during a surgical procedure, can improve significantly the training and execution of other minimally invasive surgical procedures such as laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.

  9. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  10. Polymer coated liposomes for dental drug delivery--interactions with parotid saliva and dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S; Hiorth, M; Rykke, M; Smistad, G

    2013-09-27

    The interactions between pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva and dental enamel were studied to investigate their potential to mimic the protective biofilm formed naturally on tooth surfaces. Different pectin coated liposomes with respect to pectin type (LM-, HM- and AM-pectin) and concentration (0.05% and 0.2%) were prepared. Interactions between the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were studied by turbidimetry and imaging by atomic force microscopy. The liposomes were adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HA) and human dental enamel using phosphate buffer and parotid saliva as adsorption media. A continuous flow was imposed on the enamel surfaces for various time intervals to examine their retention on the dental enamel. The results were compared to uncoated, charged liposomes. No aggregation tendencies for the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were revealed. This makes them promising as drug delivery systems to be used in the oral cavity. In phosphate buffer the adsorption to HA of pectin coated liposomes was significantly lower than the negative liposomes. The difference diminished in parotid saliva. Positive liposomes adsorbed better to the dental enamel than the pectin coated liposomes. However, when subjected to flow for 1h, no significant differences in the retention levels on the enamel were found between the formulations. For all formulations, more than 40% of the liposomes still remained on the enamel surfaces. At time point 20 min the retention of HM-pectin coated and positive liposomes were significantly higher. It was concluded that pectin coated liposomes can adsorb to HA as well as to the dental enamel. Their ability to retain on the enamel surfaces promotes the concept of using them as protective structures for the teeth.

  11. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in < 5 % of cases. Cervical lymphadenopathy may be the first symptom particularly of (micro) PTC. In contrast follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  12. A review of 413 salivary gland tumours in the head and neck region

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, Akinyele O.; Kolude, Bamidele; Adeyemi, Bukola F.; Olajide, Mofoluwaso A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Salivary gland tumours (SGTs) are a group of heterogeneous lesions with complex clinico-pathological characteristics and distinct biological behaviours. Previous studies have reported geographic variations in site distribution, incidence and histological types of SGTs. The aim of this study was to describe the demography of SGTs seen at a tertiary health centre and compare findings with previous studies. Study design: Data on SGTs from archives of the Department of Oral Pathology and the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital Ibadan were retrieved. Information about histological types, age, sex and location were analyzed using SPSS for Window (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Reactive and tumor-like lesions such as sialometaplasia, benign lymphoepithelial lesion, lymphoepithelial cyst, mucocele, mucous extravasation phenomenon, ranula, and sialosis were excluded from the study. Results: 413 SGTs consisting of 221 (53.5%) malignant and 192 (46.5%) benign lesions were seen. SGTs occurred more in females (50.6%) than males (49.4%) with a mean age of 43.7 (±16.9) years and peak age in the fifth decade of life. The parotid with 171 (41.4%) cases was the commonest site, followed by palate with 89 (21.5%) cases, while only 7(1.7%) cases were seen in sublingual gland. Pleomorphic adenoma with 169 (40.9%) was the most frequent SGT followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma with 93 (22.5%) cases which also was the most frequent malignant SGT while only 3 (0.7%) cases of Warthin’s tumour were seen. Conclusion: This report is one of few that showed a higher occurrence of malignant SGTs compared to their benign counterparts. The findings were essentially similar to findings in Africa but showed SGTs to be more common in females. The reason(s) for high occurrence of malignant SGTs in minor salivary glands and the rarity of Warthins tumour in this study and other African series compared to those from America needs further investigation. Key words

  13. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... or bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  14. Anatomy of thyroid and parathyroid glands and neurovascular relations.

    PubMed

    Mohebati, A; Shaha, A R

    2012-01-01

    Historically, thyroid surgery has been fraught with complications. Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, or the parathyroid glands may result in profound life-long consequences for the patient. To minimize the morbidity of the operation, a surgeon must have an in-depth understanding of the anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and be able to apply this information to perform a safe and effective operation. This article will review the pertinent anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the critical structures that lie in their proximity. This information should aid the surgeon in appropriate identification and preservation of the function of these structures and to avoid the pitfalls of the operation.

  15. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for metastasis to the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Kevin; Song, Andrew; Teh, Bin S; Ellis, Rodney J; Yao, Min; Mayr, Nina A; Huang, Zhibin; Sohn, Jason; Machtay, Mitchell; Lo, Simon S

    2012-12-01

    Many primary cancers can metastasize to the adrenal glands. Adrenalectomy via an open or laparoscopic approach is the current definitive treatment, but not all patients are eligible or wish to undergo surgery. There are only limited studies on the use of conventional radiation therapy for palliation of symptoms from adrenal metastasis. However, the advent of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) - also named stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for primary lung cancer, metastases to the lung, and metastases to the liver - have prompted some investigators to consider the use of SBRT for metastases to the adrenal glands. This review focuses on the emerging data on SBRT of metastasis to the adrenal glands, while also providing a brief discussion of the overall management of adrenal metastasis.

  16. [Sonography of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Rüeger, R

    2005-03-02

    In the abdominal ultrasonography, the representation of normal adrenal glands is frequently problematic, also for experienced practitioners in ultrasonography. During a seminary at the congress of the SGUM in Davos, in June 2004, it was specially entered to this problematic by anatomical illustrations and live demonstrations. These statements will be summarized in the following article. Also, the technics of examination of the adrenal glands will be explained, especially in comparison to anatomical cut-preparations. It will be entered to particular pathological statements of the adrenal glands. The proceeding will be described by the localisation of accidentally detected tumours of adrenal glands.

  17. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's)

    PubMed

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G

    1989-10-01

    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  18. [Method of detection of residual tissues in recurrent operations on the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Gostimskiĭ, A V; Romanchishen, A F; Zaĭtseva, I V; Kuznetsova, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    A search of residual tissues is complicated in recurrent operations on the thyroid gland. The Saint-Petersburg Centre of Surgery of the Endocrine System and Oncology developed the method of detection of residual tissues of the thyroid gland with the aim of preoperative chromothyroidolymphography under control of ultrasound. The method consisted of US performance during 15-20 minutes before the operation and an introduction of 1% sterile water solution of methylene blue in revealed residual tissues of the thyroid gland. The volume of injected coloring agent was 0.5-2 ml in the residual tissue volume smaller than 9 cm3 and 2-3 ml injected in case of more than 9 cm3. The residual tissues of the thyroid gland accurately visualized during the following operation. Described method gives the possibility to detect all regions of residual tissues which should be removed and at the same time it shortens a revision and surgery trauma.

  19. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, Liesl K.; Madden, Vicki; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2009-11-25

    Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BK virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.

  20. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  1. Pituitary gland metastasis from renal cell carcinoma presented as a non-functioning macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Caroline Kaercher; Ferreira, Nélson; Silveiro, Sandra Pinho; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Dora, José Miguel; Azevedo, Mirela Jobim de

    2010-01-01

    Metastatic tumors involving the pituitary gland are an uncommon finding and occur in up to 1% of all pituitary tumor resections. A 74-year-old man had progressive vision deterioration, over the 30 days prior to consultation. He did not complain of headache or polyuria, but referred to intestinal constipation. Five years ago, he underwent a right radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for lung and parotid metastases. On ophthalmologic examination, there was a left abducens nerve palsy and bitemporal hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a sellar mass with suprasellar cistern extension compressing the optic chiasm. Endocrinological evaluation revealed central adrenal and gonadal insufficiencies. The patient underwent a transsphenoidal tumor resection that revealed renal cell carcinoma. This case illustrates that metastatic pituitary lesions can mimic typical symptoms and signs of pituitary macroadenoma. Furthermore, clinical diabetes insipidus, a common finding of pituitary metastases, can be absent.

  2. Effect of reserpine on salivary gland radioiodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, H.A.; Park, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    Nine patients with thyroid cancer were treated with reserpine in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure to the salivary glands from 100-150 mCi doses of I-131 therapy to thyroid remnants or metastases. Three control patients were not treated with reserpine but did receive 100-150 mCi of I-131. Parotid/background ratios of activity after radioablative doses of I-131 in patients not treated with reserpine were significantly higher than the patients treated with reserpine, and this was also true seven days after the radioablative dose. Combined therapy with reserpine, chewing gum, lemon candies, and hydration is suggested for the prevention of sialadenitis and xerostomia due to large doses of radioiodine.

  3. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using a ... clot from the pulmonary artery ( pulmonary embolism ) Treat complications of tuberculosis Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be used to treat many of these ...

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of salivary gland lesions: A study with histologic comparison

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ritu; Gupta, Ruchika; Kudesia, Madhur; Singh, Sompal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed in pre-operative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions for many years. Various studies in the existing literature have shown a wide range of sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of cytologic diagnosis. This study was aimed at evaluating salivary gland FNAC for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This study included 80 patients who underwent pre-operative FNAC followed by surgical procedure and histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was considered as the gold standard. FNAC diagnosis was compared with the final histologic impression and concordance assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant lesions were calculated. Results: Of the 80 cases, majority (67.5%) involved the parotid gland. Eight cases (10%) were non-neoplastic lesions, comprised of sialadenitis, retention cyst and sialadenosis. Of a total of 72 neoplasms, 58 were benign and 14 were malignant salivary gland tumors. A cyto-histologic concordance of benign diagnosis was achieved in 85.7% of cases and for malignant lesions in 92.8% of the malignant tumors. FNAC showed a sensitivity of 92.8%, specificity of 93.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.2% and negative predictive value of 98.4% for malignant salivary gland tumors. There was one false-negative diagnosis and four false-positive cases diagnosed on FNAC. Conclusion: FNAC continues to be a reliable diagnostic technique in hands of an experienced cytopathologist. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant lesions is high, though the rate of tumor type-specific characterization is lower, due to variable cytomorphology. In difficult cases, histologic examination may be employed for accurate diagnosis. PMID:23599724

  5. Bilateral painful parotid lumps and a lump in the groin: An uncommon presentation of common Kikuchi's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mirgh, Sumeet Prakash; Satiya, Jinendra; Sorabjee, Jehangir Soli

    2016-01-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is an under-recognized disease most commonly presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and cytopenias in young females. Bilateral parotid enlargement is usually caused by infections (e.g., mumps) and autoimmune conditions (e.g., Sjogren syndrome). Parotid enlargement, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and pyrexia of unknown origin are uncommon presenting features of KFD and should be suspected in the appropriate setting. PMID:27843864

  6. New insight into benign tumours of major salivary glands by proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Elena; Giusti, Laura; Seccia, Veronica; Ciregia, Federica; da Valle, Ylenia; Dallan, Iacopo; Ventroni, Tiziana; Giannaccini, Gino; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Major salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms of the head and neck. The increase of precise pre-operative diagnosis is crucial for their correct management and the identification of molecular markers would surely improve the required accuracy. In this study we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of fine needle aspiration fluids of the most frequent benign neoplasms of major salivary glands, namely pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour, in order to draw their proteomic profiles and to point out their significant features. Thirty-five patients submitted to parotidectomy were included in the study, 22 were identified to have pleomorphic adenoma and 14 Warthin's tumour. Fine needle aspiration samples were processed using a two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry-based approach. A total of 26 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Ingenuity software was used to search the biological processes to which these proteins belong and to construct potential networks. Intriguingly, all Warthin's tumour up-regulated proteins such as Ig gamma-1 chain C region, Ig kappa chain C region and Ig alpha-1 chain C region and S100A9 were correlated to immunological and inflammatory diseases, while pleomorphic adenomas such as annexin A1, annexin A4, macrophage-capping protein, apolipoprotein E and alpha crystalline B chain were associated with cell death, apoptosis and tumorigenesis, showing different features of two benign tumours. Overall, our results shed new light on the potential usefulness of a proteomic approach to study parotid tumours and in particular up regulated proteins are able to discriminate two types of benign parotid lesions.

  7. Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands.

    PubMed

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Giuliano, S; Zampini, R; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M; Miceli, D C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct.

  8. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  9. [Drainage in thyroid surgery].

    PubMed

    Ardito, G; Revelli, L; Guidi, M L; Murazio, M; Lucci, C; Modugno, P; Di Giovanni, V

    1999-01-01

    Bleeding represents a rare complication of thyroid surgery but when it occurs it may be life-threatening. To prevent this complication drainage is widely used. However no study has demonstrated the drains' value and recent reports have questioned its benefits. Therefore we have analyzed our experience of a 10 year-period in which 1.217 thyroidectomies were performed by the same surgical team and prophylactic routine drainage was always adopted. In 13 patients (1.06%) a benign hematoma occurred with spontaneous remission. In 6 patients the bleeding was severe and compressive hematoma occurred; it required surgical re-exploration. Such a complication is unusual in the neck surgery (0.49% in the authors' series) performed by experienced surgeons and when life-threatening hematomas do occur they depend on various uncontrolled factors and drainage is often not helpful. Otherwise a meticulous haemostatic technique is necessary and patients should be observed very closely during the few first hours following surgery on the thyroid gland. Therefore on the basis of the analysis of their series, although it is not always possible to prove the benefit of the drainage, the authors suggest its indication in the neck surgery, as in other fields with dead space, to remove blood and secretions reducing postoperative complications. They have never observed wound infections and patients were discharged within 72 hours.

  10. The mouse proline-rich protein MP6 promoter binds isoprenaline-inducible parotid nuclear proteins via a highly conserved NFkB/rel-like site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S G; Layfield, R; McDonald, C J

    1991-10-11

    Proline-rich protein (PRP) gene MP6 was isolated from a mouse BALB/c genomic DNA library in lambda EMBL3, characterised by hybridisation and restriction mapping and the promoter region, from -162 to +72 around the PRP consensus cap-site, was sequenced. In gel shift assays this region formed complexes C1 and C2 with parotid nuclear proteins which were induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. DNA competition studies and direct binding assays of promoter subfragments showed that it was the sequence from -157 to -91 that was forming the isoprenaline-dependent complexes. All PRP genes conserve a 23bp. sequence, termed PRP Box1, with ets and NFkB/rel binding site-like elements, upstream of their promoters. In the MP6 promoter, PRP Box1 was within the region forming the complexes. Further gel shift assays using PRP Box1 oligonucleotides as competitors and targets indicated that the NFkB/rel binding site-like element was important in formation of the isoprenaline-inducible complexes. HeLa nuclear extracts also formed complexes with PRP Box1 similar to C1 and C2 but nuclear extracts from spleen, submandibular gland and liver did not. These complexes are thus candidate regulators for the isoprenaline-dependent and tissue-specific transcription of PRP genes.

  11. Calcium-linked increase in coupled cAMP synthesis and hydrolysis is an early event in cholinergic and. beta. -adrenergic stimulation of parotid secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, M.A.; Graeff, R.M.; Walseth, T.F.; Goldberg, N.D. )

    1988-11-01

    The dynamics and compartmental characteristics of cAMP metabolism were examined by {sup 18}O labeling of cellular adenine nucleotide {alpha} phosphoryls in rat parotid gland stimulated to secrete with {beta}-adrenergic and cholinergic agents. The secretory response occurred in association with a rapidly increased rate of cAMP hydrolysis apparently coordinated with an equivalent increase in the rate of cAMP synthesis, since the cellular concentration of cAMP remained unchanged. The magnitude of this metabolic response was equivalent to the metabolism of 10-75 times the cellular content of cAMP within the first minute of stimulation. This increased metabolic rate occurred only during the early (1-3 min) period of stimulation, in what appeared to be an exclusive cellular compartment distinguished by a unique distribution of {sup 18}O among adenine nucleotide {alpha} phosphoryls. This {sup 18}O distribution contrasted with that produced by forskolin, which increased cellular cAMP concentration and elicited only a delayed response missing the early secretory component. The early acceleration of cAMP metabolism appeared linked to a stimulus-induced increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, since the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore ionomycin produced the same metabolic response in association with secretion. These observations suggest that cAMP metabolism is involved in stimulus-secretion coupling by a Ca{sup 2+}-linked mechanism different from that in which cAMP plays the role of a second messenger.

  12. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  13. Tyrosine polysulfation of human salivary histatin 1. A post-translational modification specific of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Fanali, Chiara; Monteiro, Joana A; Amado, Francisco; Inzitari, Rosanna; Desiderio, Claudia; Scarano, Emanuele; Giardina, Bruno; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2007-07-01

    Histatin 1 (His-1) derivatives showing serial mass increases of 80.0 +/- 0.1 Da were detected in human saliva by HPLC-ESI-MS. The same derivatives were also found in granules of submandibular glands and secretions of submandibular/sublingual glands, but not in granules and secretions of parotid glands. Only one phosphate group was present in His-1 and its derivatives, since treatment with alkaline phosphatase provided an 80.0 Da mass decrease. His-1 derivatives were almost completely transformed into His-1 by treatment with 1 M HCl at 100 degrees C, suggesting the presence of O-sulfotyrosine, which is more labile than phospho-Tyr to acidic hydrolysis. CE-MS analysis of pronase extensive digestion of derivatives confirmed the presence of sulfotyrosine. Derivatives were digested by trypsin, proteinase K, and protease V-8 and analyzed by different MS strategies. The results allowed locating sulfation on the last four tyrosines (Tyr 27, 30, 34, and 36). This study is the first report of the gland-specific sulfation of a salivary phosphopeptide in vivo.

  14. Low prevalence of transfusion transmitted virus (TTV)-like DNA sequences in cystadenolymphoma and pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mathias; Klussmann, Jens P; Dirsch, Olaf; Rose, Vivienne A; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Theegarten, Dirk; Sudhoff, Holger; Linder, Roland

    2006-08-01

    Titers of transfusion transmitted virus (TTV)-like DNA in saliva samples have been reported 100-1,000 times higher than those of the corresponding sera, suggesting viral transmission by saliva droplets. The present study was conducted to determine whether TTV-like DNA sequence elements play a role in the pathogenesis of cystadenolymphoma or pleomorphic adenoma and if the parotid or the submandibular gland is a major source of TTV persistence. Sixty-two archival salivary gland samples (16 cystadenolymphomas, 13 pleomorphic adenomas, and 33 controls) and 23 corresponding saliva samples were examined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TTV DNA. All PCR products that displayed DNA bands were sequenced. Leder's stain and immunohistochemistry (anti-CD8, anti-CD20, anti-CD45R0, anti-CD68, and anti-Ki67/MiB1) were applied to detect possible changes associated with findings of TTV-like DNA sequences. Tissue displayed TTV-like DNA sequences in 8.1% (5/62; saliva: 47.8%, 11/23). Tissue that contained TTV-like DNA sequences was histologically indistinguishable from samples lacking such DNA. TTV appears to be only a bystander in cystadenolymphoma, pleomorphic adenoma, and other salivary gland affections. Neither of the glands seems to be a major source of TTV persistence.

  15. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  16. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J; Krishnan, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in salivary

  17. Organizing the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  18. Both IgA subclasses are reduced in parotid saliva from patients with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, F; Frøland, S S; Hvatum, M; Radl, J; Brandtzaeg, P

    1991-01-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA), the isotypes IgA1 and IgA2, and IgM were measured by ELISA in stimulated parotid saliva from patients with AIDS (n = 16), subjects with asymptomatic HIV infection (n = 28), and HIV-seronegative healthy controls (n = 19). SIgA was significantly reduced in the AIDS group (10.4 micrograms/ml) compared with the asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects (17.1 micrograms/ml) and the controls (23.0 micrograms/ml). This decrease comprised both IgA1 and IgA2 to a similar extent on a relative basis. The SIgA decrease in AIDS patients was in striking contrast to their serum IgA level, which was significantly increased (6.9 g/l) compared with the asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects (2.9 g/l) as well as the controls (2.8 g/l). Low parotid output of SIgA in patients with HIV infection was associated with low numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood as well as the presence of oral infections. The parotid output of IgM was similar in all groups. A low level of SIgA in the external secretions of patients with AIDS may well contribute to their frequent mucosal infections of opportunistic microorganisms. PMID:1899629

  19. Type I receptors in parotid, colon, and pituitary are aldosterone selective in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W. )

    1987-10-01

    Previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that type I receptors in the rat kidney are aldosterone selective, whereas those in the hippocampus do not appear to discriminate between aldosterone and corticosterone. The authors have injected mature rats with ({sup 3}H)aldosterone or ({sup 3}H)corticosterone plus 100-fold excess of RU 28362, with or without unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone, and compared type I receptor occupancy in two classic mineralocorticoid target tissues (parotid and colon) and in the pituitary. Mature rats were killed 10-180 min after tracer administration; ({sup 3}H)aldosterone was well taken up and retained in all tissues, whereas ({sup 3}H)corticosterone was significantly retained only in the pituitary 10 min after tracer administration. To assess a possible role for corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) in conferring aldosterone specificity on type I receptors, 10-day-old rats (with very low levels of CBG) were similarly injected. In the colon and parotid, ({sup 3}H)aldosterone binding was at least an order of magnitude higher than that of corticosterone; in the pituitary aldosterone binding was approximately three times that of corticosterone. They interpret these data as evidence that in the parotid and colon type I receptors are aldosterone selective by a non-CBG-requiring mechanism, whereas in the pituitary there appear to be both aldosterone-selective and nonselective type I sites.

  20. Microliths in the parotid of ferret investigated by electron microscopy and microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Asterios; Harrison, John D; Garrett, John R

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation is an attempt to determine the occurrence, elemental composition and formation of microliths in the parotid of ferret. Parotids from four normal ferrets were examined by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Crystalline microliths were found in phagosomes of acinar cells, which occasionally contained secretory material, and in phagosomes situated between mitochondria of striated ductal cells. Crystalline microliths and microliths that consisted of granular material either without crystals or mixed with a component of crystals were found in lumina, where they were often associated with cellular debris. The crystals contained calcium and phosphorus. Phagy and stagnation related to pockets of inefficient secretory activity have been previously found to be features of the parotid of ferret. Thus, possibly persistent degradation of redundant cellular material, particularly secretory granules, in phagosomes results in accumulation of calcium and leads to calcified microliths, whereas consolidation of stagnant debris extracellularly does not involve such accumulation and leads to non-calcified or mixed microliths. PMID:19659902