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Sample records for parotitis current prevalence

  1. [A treatment method for chronic parenchymatous parotitis].

    PubMed

    Ivasenko, P I; Lobastov, A Iu; Potashov, D A; Distergova, O V; Shadevskiĭ, V M; Krivinskiĭ, A K

    1993-01-01

    A method for therapy of chronic parenchymatous parotitis is suggested supplementing dimethyl sulfoxide. As reported, the parotid glands produce parotin, an insulin-like substance, whose production is reduced in chronic parotitis; hence, short-acting insulin administered in microdoses was chosen for therapy. To potentiate local insulin effect and increase the sensitivity of oral mucosa peripheral receptors to it a 5% calcium pantothenate solution was used. This method was used in the treatment of 42 patients with chronic parenchymatous parotitis aged 23 to 62. The method is effective, it can be easily used by the patients themselves, and there are virtually no contraindications against such therapy. The authors have applied for inventors' certificate, the priority certificate is No. 4836436/14 as of June 27, 1990. PMID:8236296

  2. Acute parotitis and hyperamylasemia following whole-brain radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cairncross, J.G.; Salmon, J.; Kim, J.H.; Posner, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    Parotitis, an infrequent, previously unreported complication of whole-brain radiation therapy, was observed in 4 patients. The acute symptoms, which include fever, dry mouth, pain, swelling, and tenderness, are accompanied by hyperamylasemia. Among 10 patients receiving whole-brain irradiation, 8 had serum amylase elevations without symptoms. Both acute parotitis and asymptomatic hyperamylasemia result from irradiation of the parotid glands.

  3. [Bacterial parotitis in an immunocompromised patient in adult ICU].

    PubMed

    Vassal, O; Bernet, C; Wallet, F; Friggeri, A; Piriou, V

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial parotitis is a common childhood disease with a favorable outcome. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently involved pathogen. Clinical presentation in adult patients can be misleading, Onset occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities, making diagnosis difficult--particularly in ICU. Different pathogens are found in adults with worse outcomes observed. We report here the case of a critically ill patient and discuss diagnosis and management of bacterial parotitis.

  4. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PAROTITIS (MUMPS)

    PubMed Central

    Wollstein, Martha

    1916-01-01

    Cats injected into the parotid gland and testicle with a bacterial sterile filtrate of the salivary secretion of children in the active stage of parotitis or mumps can be made to develop a pathological condition having several points of resemblance to the condition present in mumps in human beings. After an incubation stage of from five to eight days definite changes have been noted in the temperature, blood leukocytes, and inoculated organs. The temperature rise begins within twenty-four hours of the inoculations and reaches a maximum in from seven to fourteen days. The febrile rise fluctuates between 1° and 2.5° C. The white blood cells begin to increase on the second day following the inoculation. The first change is a polymorphonuclear leukocytosis which precedes the glandular swellings. This initial rise is followed by a decline, after which the lymphocytes increase. The increase is confined to the small lymphocytes, which increase to from 7 to 10 per cent of their initial number. The inoculated glands become swollen and tender. The swelling and tenderness become apparent from the fifth to the ninth days and persist for a variable period. The parotid changes are less constant or less obvious than are the testicular. The latter are constant and endure from eight to twelve days. The rise of temperature and the leukocytosis precede the glandular swelling, but all the changes reach the maximum at about the same time, after which they decline gradually. What may be regarded as normal conditions are reestablished in four weeks or less. The intraparotid and intratesticular injections of extracts of normal parotid gland and testicles may cause a mild rise of temperature and leukocytosis of brief duration, but swelling and tenderness are absent. The white cells increased are the polymorphonuclears and not the lymphocytes. The intraparotid and intratesticular injections of filtrates of normal saliva may cause a mild rise of temperature of very brief duration, but

  5. Immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells in chronic parotitis and malignant lymphomas of the parotid gland. Comparing immunocytochemical observations of frequency and localization.

    PubMed

    von Gumberz, C; Seifert, G

    1980-01-01

    IgA-containing plasma cells in the periductal gland tissue are part of the special secretory immune system of the salivary glands. The reaction of Ig-containing plasma cells (localization, frequency, specific Ig-content) was analyzed by the indirect immunoperoxidase method in chronic recurrent parotitis (9 cases), chronic myoepithelial parotitis (benign lymphoepithelial lesion, Sjögren's syndrome; 8 cases), and malignant lymphoma associated with chronic myoepithelial parotitis (11 cases). The following results were obtained: 1. In chronic recurrent parotitis, parallel to the increase in IgA in the salivary secretion, a marked multiplication of IgA-containing plasma cells was found in the inflammatory infiltrate and the remaining non-inflamed periductal parenchyma of the parotid gland. In the marginal zone of inflammation, a slight increase of IgG-containing plasma cells was also observed. 2. In chronic myoepithelial parotitis, the total plasma cellular infiltration was slightly less distinct than in chronic recurrent parotitis. The most remarkable increase in Ig-containing plasma cells developed in the marginal zones--away from the myoepithelial cellular islands--as well as in the area of ductular proliferations, and was characterized by a strong increase of IgG-containing plasma cells. At the same time, a slight increase of IgM-containing plasma cells was observed. No plasma cells were found in the myoepithelial cellular islands. 3. In the malignant lymphomas associated with myoepithelial parotitis, which were mainly highly differentiated lymphomas (immunocytomas, centrocytic-centroblastic lymphomas) and rarely poorly differentiated immunoblastic lymphomas, there was a distinct decrease of IgG-containing plasma cells when compared with the numbers in this group without lymphoma. The differing degrees of prevalence and Ig-content of the plasma cells partly describe the change taking place in the local secretory immune system of the parotid gland. The possible

  6. Pediatric Suppurative Parotitis in Cambodia 2007-2011

    PubMed Central

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin Elisabeth; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor Put; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. B. pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; one child developed a facial nerve palsy. PMID:22531239

  7. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  8. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  9. The Current Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Tseng-Shing

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been one of the commonly presented gastrointestinal disorders. It is of interest how commonly it presents in the society. Western studies indicated that most population-based IBS prevalences range 10%-15%. It is believed that IBS is prevalent in both East and West countries without a significant prevalence difference. Most recently, the Asia IBS prevalence has a higher trend in the affluent cities compared to South Asia. Since many Asia IBS prevalence studies have been published in the recent decade, we could compare the IBS prevalence data divided by various criteria in looking whether they were also comparable to this of West community. Summarized together, most Asia community IBS prevalences based on various criteria are usually within the range 1%-10% and are apparently lower than these of selected populations. Within the same population, the prevalence orders are first higher based on Manning criteria, then followed by Rome I criteria and finally reported in Rome II criteria. Overall, the median value of Asia IBS prevalences defined by various criteria ranges 6.5%-10.1%. With regard to gender difference, female predominance is usually found but not uniquely existed. For the IBS subtypes, the proportions of diarrhea predominant-IBS distribute widely from 0.8% to 74.0%, while constipation predominant-IBS proportion ranges 12%-77%. In conclusions, current Asia IBS prevalence is at least equal to the Western countries. Female predominant prevalence in Asia is common but not uniquely existed, while the proportions of IBS subtypes are too variable to find a rule. PMID:21103420

  10. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Umar, Aminu Mahmoud; Freemantle, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in Nigeria from prevalence studies. Methods A search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBase and WHO cardiovascular InfoBase from 1968 till date was conducted to identify studies which provide estimates of prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria. Results The search yielded a total of 1748 hits from which 45 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 0.1% (95%CI:-0.1 to 0.3) to 17.5% (95% CI: 13.6 to 21.4) in children and 2.1% (95%CI: 1.4 to 2.8) to 47.2% (95%CI: 43.6 to 50.8) in adults depending on the benchmark used for diagnosis of hypertension, the setting in which the study was conducted, sex and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.2% (95%CI: 4.0 to 8.4) to 48.9% (95%CI: 42.3 to 55.5) for men and 10% (95%CI: 8.1 to 12) to 47.3% (95%CI: 43 to 51.6%) for women. In most studies, prevalence of hypertension was higher in males than females. In addition, prevalence across urban and rural ranged from 9.5% (95%CI: 13.6 to 21.4) to 51.6% (95%CI: 49.8 to 53.4) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.9 to 6.7) to 43% (95%CI: 42.1 to 43.9) respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is high among the Nigerian population. Appropriate interventions need to be developed and implemented to reduce the preventable burden of hypertension especially at Primary Health Care Centres which is the first point of call for over 55% of the Nigerian population. PMID:26461923

  11. Function of the parotid gland in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-song; Pu, Yi-ping; Zheng, Ling-yan; Yu, Chuang-qi; Wang, Zhi-jun; Shi, Huan

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to find out how the parotid gland functions in 44 patients with juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to assess the value of measuring the serum amylase activity. Clinical and personal details were recorded, and all patients had their serum amylase activity measured together with sialography during the chronic phase. The function of the gland was classified by sialographic images. The chi square test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analyses. There was a significant association between the degree of glandular function and serum amylase activity (p=0.014). The patients with unilateral and bilateral disease differed significantly in their degree of glandular function (p=0.020), those with bilateral disease having poorer function. There were no significant correlations between other clinical variables and glandular function. Serum amylase activity is an important diagnostic variable in juvenile recurrent parotitis, and poor parotid function reflects the severity of the disease. PMID:26852271

  12. Effects of Huangqi and bear bile on recurrent parotitis in children: a new clinical approach*

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Huang, Mei-li; He, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Feng; Tao, Hai-biao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine, bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule, on recurrent parotitis in children. Methods: In this prospective, controlled, and randomized study, a total of 151 young children were divided into three groups: Group A included massaging the children’s parotid region and melting vitamin C in their mouth daily; Group B included swallowing bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule daily; and Group C included massages and vitamin C as prescribed in Group A, and traditional Chinese medicine as prescribed in Group B. Children were treated individually for one month and then a follow-up study was conducted for 1 to 3.5 years. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Ridit analysis were employed for statistical analysis. Results: The recurrence rate decreased in every group, but was significantly more in Groups B and C when compared to Group A. The recurrences significantly decreased (P<0.01) in Group B and their recovery rate was as high as 63%, significantly better than those of the other groups (P<0.01). Conclusions: Huangqi and bear bile could be a novel clinical approach for treating recurrent parotitis in children. PMID:23463769

  13. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults--United States, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-30

    Cigarette smoking is among the most important modifiable risk factors for adverse health outcomes and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among all adults aged ≥18 years has decreased 42.4% since 1965, but declines in current smoking prevalence have slowed during the past 5 years (declining from 20.9% in 2005 to 19.3% in 2010) and did not meet the Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objective to reduce cigarette smoking among adults to ≤12%. Targeted workplace tobacco control interventions have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke; therefore, CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2004-2010 to describe current cigarette smoking prevalence among currently working U.S. adults by industry and occupation. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, overall, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults was 19.6% and was highest among those with less than a high school education (28.4%), those with no health insurance (28.6%), those living below the federal poverty level (27.7%), and those aged 18-24 years (23.8%). Substantial differences in smoking prevalence were observed across industry and occupation groups. By industry, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults ranged from 9.7% in education services to 30.0% in mining; by occupation group, prevalence ranged from 8.7% in education, training, and library to 31.4% in construction and extraction. Although some progress has been made in reducing smoking prevalence among working adults, additional effective employer interventions need to be implemented, including health insurance coverage for cessation treatments, easily accessible help for those who want to quit, and smoke-free workplace policies.

  14. Concurrence of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Bilateral Parotitis after Minocycline Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jimi; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Tae-Heung; Choi, Deok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Pyeong; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2010-06-01

    Minocycline is an antibiotic of tetracycline derivatives that is commonly used in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. It has been reported to cause rare adverse events from mild cutaneous eruption to severe forms including drug-induced lupus, serum sickness-like reaction, and hypersensitivity reactions, etc. The risks of adverse events attributed to minocycline have not been ascertained reliably and there are concerns about the safety of minocycline which could possibly result in life-threatening events such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Here we demonstrate an unusual case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in conjunction with bilateral parotitis after the intake of minocycline in a Korean boy suggesting discreet use of the drug.

  15. Concurrence of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Bilateral Parotitis after Minocycline Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jimi; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Tae-Heung; Choi, Deok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Pyeong; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline is an antibiotic of tetracycline derivatives that is commonly used in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. It has been reported to cause rare adverse events from mild cutaneous eruption to severe forms including drug-induced lupus, serum sickness-like reaction, and hypersensitivity reactions, etc. The risks of adverse events attributed to minocycline have not been ascertained reliably and there are concerns about the safety of minocycline which could possibly result in life-threatening events such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Here we demonstrate an unusual case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in conjunction with bilateral parotitis after the intake of minocycline in a Korean boy suggesting discreet use of the drug. PMID:21103193

  16. Fistulectomy of the Parotid Fistula Secondary to Suppurative Parotitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Managutti, Anil; Tiwari, Saba; Prakasam, Michael; Puthanakar, Nagaraj

    2015-01-01

    A parotid fistula is a communication between the skin and a parotid duct or gland through which saliva is discharged. The most common cause of the parotid fistula is trauma. The major causes of parotid trauma in a civilian practice are penetrating injury to the parotid gland from an assault weapon or injury due to shattered glass after a motor vehicle accident. Acute suppurative parotitis can rarely produce a parotid fistula, and it will be difficult to manage successfully. In this article we have described diagnosis by fistulography, meticulous dissection, and complete excision of the fistulous tract with layered closure of the parotid fascia followed by application of a post-operative pressure bandage, use of anticholinergic agents and antibiotics contribute significantly to the successful management of this difficult clinical condition. PMID:25709371

  17. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Current Smoking among Adolescent Students in Thailand, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…

  18. Current prevalence and predictors of protein-energy malnutrition among schoolchildren in rural Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Surin, Johari; Atiya, A S; Ariffin, W A; Mahdy, A K Mohammed; Abdullah, H Che

    2008-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) among Orang Asli schoolchildren and to investigate the potential predictors of malnutrition. A total of 241 (120 males and 121 females) Orang Asli schoolchildren age 7-12 years living in remote areas of Pos Betau, Pahang participated voluntarily in this study. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were collected and the children were screened for intestinal parasitic infections. The overall prevalences of mild and significant underweight conditions were 52.3% and 37.3%, respectively, and the prevalences of mild stunting and wasting were 43.6% and 43.1%, respectively, while the prevalences of significant stunting and wasting were 43.6% and 5.6%, respectively. There was a significant association between gender (male) and malnutrition (p = 0.029). The results also showed a higher prevalence of stunting among children age < or = 10 years than in older children (p = 0.001). Other independent variables, including socioeconomic status and intestinal parasitic infections, had no significant associations with malnutrition indices. PEM is prevalent among schoolchildren in rural Malaysia and therefore of public health concern since PEM diminishes immune function and impairs cognitive function and educational performance. School-based programs of prevention through health education and interventions should be considered as an essential part of measures to improve the quality of life of schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

  19. The Lifetime Prevalence of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Dependence in Americans: Current Best Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Harrison G.; Kanayama, Gen; Athey, Alison; Ryan, Erin; Hudson, James I.; Baggish, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although various surveys have tracked the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use in American teenagers and young adults, no recent surveys have assessed the lifetime prevalence of AAS use in Americans overall. We therefore analyzed serial youth-survey data to derive estimates of the lifetime prevalence of AAS use in the current American general population. Methods We first determined the distribution of age of onset of AAS use, based on pooled data from nine studies. Using this distribution, we then developed equations to project the eventual lifetime prevalence of AAS use among young survey respondents, once they aged and completed the period of risk for initiating AAS. We similarly calculated the denominator of lifetimes of risk for AAS use in the total American population. We next applied these equations to four independent national youth datasets to derive current American general-population estimates for lifetime AAS use. Finally, using data from 10 pooled studies, we estimated the lifetime prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users. Results Age-of-onset studies consistently showed that AAS use begins later than most drugs, with only 22% of users (95% confidence interval: 19%–25%) starting before age 20. Applying the age-of-onset findings to national youth datasets, we estimated that among Americans currently age 13 to 50 years, 2.9–4.0 million have used AAS. Within this group, roughly 1 million may have experienced AAS dependence. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Although subject to various limitations, our estimation techniques suggest a surprisinigly high prevalence of AAS use and dependence among Americans. PMID:24112239

  20. Evaluation and management of juvenile recurrent parotitis in children from northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou-Alataki, E; Chatziavramidis, A; Vampertzi, O; Alataki, S; Konstantinidis, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis (JRP) is a recurrent parotid inflammation of childhood.  The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and imaging profile of children with JRP as well as to estimate the impact of siadendoscopy as a therapeutic tool in the clinical outcome of JRP. Methods: Twenty-three children with JRP aged 3.5-16 years, were investigated. Twelve of them underwent sialendoscopy: seven aged <8 years under general and five aged >8 years under local anesthesia. Results: The age at onset ranged from 2-15 years while the number of episodes from 2-8 per year. The autoantibody profile was negative in all patients, suggesting no evidence for autoimmune diseases.  Antibody deficiency was found in two children. The imaging studies reveal an overall parotid swelling and intraparotid lymph nodes while microabscesses were present in 31% of the patients. Twelve patients who underwent sialendoscopy had a significant improvement in their clinical outcome; the mean episodes of JRP before sialendoscopy was 3.9/year and reduced to 0.4 at the post-intervention year. Conclusion: Sialendoscopy represents an alternative and promising perspective in the management of JRP. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 356-359. PMID:27688702

  1. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of current smoking among adolescent students in Thailand, 2005.

    PubMed

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, René; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3 (U.S. seventh through ninth grades) students. Weighted prevalence estimates of the percentage of students who were current smokers (smoked on ≥ 1 day during the past 30 days) and noncurrent smokers were calculated for the sample and for each psychosocial variable. Separate logistic regression models were calculated for males and females to examine the independent association of the psychosocial correlates of current smoking. Significant correlates for both males and females included close peer smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, being offered a free cigarette by a tobacco industry representative, and belief that smoking is not harmful. These correlates are examined in the context of comprehensive tobacco control laws in Thailand.

  2. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI TEN YEARS AGO COMPARED TO THE CURRENT PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING UPPER ENDOSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    FRUGIS, Sandra; CZECZKO, Nicolau Gregori; MALAFAIA, Osvaldo; PARADA, Artur Adolfo; POLETTI, Paula Bechara; SECCHI, Thiago Festa; DEGIOVANI, Matheus; RAMPANAZZO-NETO, Alécio; D´AGOSTINO, Mariza D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Helicobacter pylori has been extensively studied since 1982 it is estimated that 50% of the world population is affected. The literature lacks studies that show the change of its prevalence in the same population over time. Aim: To compare the prevalence of H. pylori in 10 years interval in a population that was submitted to upper endoscopy in the same endoscopy service. Method: Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study comparing the prevalence of H. pylori in two samples with 10 years apart (2004 and 2014) who underwent endoscopy with biopsy and urease. Patients were studied in three consecutive months of 2004, compared to three consecutive months of 2014. The total number of patients was 2536, and 1406 in 2004 and 1130 in 2014. Results: There were positive for H. pylori in 17 % of the sample as a whole. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence from 19.3% in 2004 to 14.1% in 2014 (p<0.005). Conclusion: There was a 5.2% reduction in the prevalence of H. pylori comparing two periods of three consecutive months with 10 years apart in two equivalent population samples. PMID:27759776

  3. Determination of infectivity of transforming avian sarcoma virus and parotitis virus in fibrin-embedded monolayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Jandejsek, J; Spohr, P

    1982-09-01

    A sensitive and reproducible technique for titration of transforming avian sarcoma virus, Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), in chick embryo cell monolayers embedded between two layers of a solid fibrin coagulum was developed. The foci of RSV-transformed fibrinolysis-exhibiting cells locally attacked the surrounding fibrin and were identifiable as plaque-like cell-free areas of retraction easily scored against the background of cells stained with neutral red. In comparison to the conventional assay in agar, the assay in fibrin proved more sensitive and less time-consuming. The titration technique in fibrin was also used for plaquing a cytopathogenic virus, parotitis virus, but the titration by conventional plaque assay in agar and the technique in fibrin yielded similar results in this case.

  4. Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer; Xiao, Haijun; Stalgaitis, Carolyn; Vallone, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated market areas. We used adjusted logistic regression to identify correlates of noncombustible tobacco product use. Results. Of the sample, 96% were aware of at least 1 noncombustible tobacco product, but only 33% had used and 21% had purchased one. Noncombustible tobacco product use was associated with being male, non-Hispanic White, younger, and more nicotine dependent. Respondents used noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit cigarettes, but only snus was associated with a higher likelihood of making a quit attempt. Users of noncombustible tobacco products, particularly ENDS, were most likely to endorse the product as less harmful than cigarettes. Conclusions. Smokers may use noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit smoking. However, noncombustible tobacco product use was not associated with a reduction in cigarettes per day or cessation. PMID:24922154

  5. Epidemiology of dengue in Nepal: History of incidence, current prevalence and strategies for future control.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Dinesh; Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is now established as one of the most important arboviral infections. As the epidemic continues unabated globally, this Aedes mosquito-transmitted pathogen is considered a major re-emerging tropical disease and significant public health concern. Four well-established distinct serotypes of dengue virus, with a fifth one recently proposed, are responsible for causing a spectrum of clinical symptoms in humans ranging from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic manifestations. Indigenous cases of dengue were first recognised in Nepal, a Himalayan country bordered by India and China, just a decade ago in a cluster of tropical and subtropical areas. Subsequently, the range of infection has extended all over the country and now comprises not only low lying regions, but also hilly locations including the capital city Kathmandu. The two major epidemics to date, in 2010 and 2013, have demonstrated the capacity of infection outbreaks to be explosive and challenging to currently available disease control measures. There is a pressing need to undertake effective vector surveillance studies supported by provision of well-equipped diagnostic virology laboratories. However, sincere efforts are being made to map the nationwide prevalence and understand the epidemiology of dengue infection. Yet, the precise burden of dengue in Nepal remains unknown, since most reports are confined to economically affluent areas and do not account for regions of relative social deprivation in which disease is more likely to occur. This review presents a current overview of dengue in Nepal and discusses future prospects for control of this debilitating disease in the country.

  6. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries

    PubMed Central

    San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour. PMID:26500929

  7. Rescuers at risk: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of the worldwide current prevalence and correlates of PTSD in rescue workers

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Marques-Portella, Carla; Luz, Mariana Pires; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate the pooled current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers and to determine the variables implicated in the heterogeneity observed among the prevalences of individual studies. Methods A systematic review covering studies reporting on the PTSD prevalence in rescue teams was conducted following four sequential steps: (1) research in specialized online databases, (2) review of abstracts and selection of studies, (3) review of reference list, and (4) contact with authors and experts. Prevalence data from all studies were pooled using random effects model. Multivariate meta-regression models were fitted to identify variables related to the prevalences heterogeneity. Results A total of 28 studies, reporting on 40 samples with 20,424 rescuers, were selected. The worldwide pooled current prevalence was 10%. Meta-regression modeling in studies carried out in the Asian continent had, on average, higher estimated prevalences than those from Europe, but not higher than the North American estimates. Studies of ambulance personnel also showed higher estimated PTSD prevalence than studies with firefighters and police officers. Conclusions Rescue workers in general have a pooled current prevalence of PTSD that is much higher than that of the general population. Ambulance personnel and rescuers from Asia may be more susceptible to PTSD. These results indicate the need for improving pre-employment strategies to select the most resilient individuals for rescue work, to implement continuous preventive measures for personnel, and to promote educational campaigns about PTSD and its therapeutic possibilities. PMID:21681455

  8. Current trends in the prevalence of Cryptococcus gattii in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Kidd, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Cryptococcus gattii infections in both Canada and the United States (US) is provided in this literature review beyond the British Columbia (BC) outbreak (1999-2013). Based on a search of the literature, case reports of C. gattii human infections including the prevalent molecular genotypes causing these infections in both Canada and the US have been documented since the C. gattii outbreak in BC. The literature reveals that: i) although C. gattii infections continue to be reported in both countries, the preliminary overall number of confirmed C. gattii infections may be decreasing in both Canada and the US (~23 cases each in 2012 versus ~17 and 20 cases, respectively in 2013); ii) C. gattii genotype distribution is region-dependent; iii) C. gattii is more frequently isolated from infections in the immunocompromised host (including acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS] infection) than previously expected; iv) although pulmonary disease is higher than in C. neoformans infections, central nervous system disease is also reported among patients infected with C. gattii. PMID:25999744

  9. Current trends in the prevalence of Cryptococcus gattii in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Kidd, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Cryptococcus gattii infections in both Canada and the United States (US) is provided in this literature review beyond the British Columbia (BC) outbreak (1999–2013). Based on a search of the literature, case reports of C. gattii human infections including the prevalent molecular genotypes causing these infections in both Canada and the US have been documented since the C. gattii outbreak in BC. The literature reveals that: i) although C. gattii infections continue to be reported in both countries, the preliminary overall number of confirmed C. gattii infections may be decreasing in both Canada and the US (~23 cases each in 2012 versus ~17 and 20 cases, respectively in 2013); ii) C. gattii genotype distribution is region-dependent; iii) C. gattii is more frequently isolated from infections in the immunocompromised host (including acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS] infection) than previously expected; iv) although pulmonary disease is higher than in C. neoformans infections, central nervous system disease is also reported among patients infected with C. gattii. PMID:25999744

  10. Alcoholic pancreatitis and parotitis: utility of lipase and urinary amylase clearance determinations.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J L; Wilson, J A

    1986-07-01

    Acute alcoholic pancreatitis is a clinical diagnosis made in patients who have acute upper abdominal pain, emesis, and hyperamylasemia soon after ingesting alcohol. We sought to determine whether the clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis was supported by elevated serum levels of pancreatic isoamylase, currently the most specific test for pancreatitis. Serum lipase levels and urinary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios were examined for comparison with pancreatic isoamylase concentrations. Potential sources for salivary isoamylasemia were explored with technetium scans of the parotid glands. Of 19 patients with a clinical diagnosis of alcoholic pancreatitis, 16 had elevated levels of pancreatic isoamylase, and 17 had salivary hyperamylasemia. The diagnostic specificity of the serum lipase level or the urinary amylase/creatinine clearance ratio was excellent compared to that of the pancreatic isoamylase level. Three patients had elevated levels of salivary isoamylase only. Scans of the parotid glands in the study group revealed significantly higher uptake values than scans in nonalcoholic control subjects, suggesting one possible source of elevated levels of salivary isoamylase.

  11. Exonic Splicing Mutations Are More Prevalent than Currently Estimated and Can Be Predicted by Using In Silico Tools

    PubMed Central

    Soukarieh, Omar; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Hamieh, Mohamad; Drouet, Aurélie; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a causal mutation is essential for molecular diagnosis and clinical management of many genetic disorders. However, even if next-generation exome sequencing has greatly improved the detection of nucleotide changes, the biological interpretation of most exonic variants remains challenging. Moreover, particular attention is typically given to protein-coding changes often neglecting the potential impact of exonic variants on RNA splicing. Here, we used the exon 10 of MLH1, a gene implicated in hereditary cancer, as a model system to assess the prevalence of RNA splicing mutations among all single-nucleotide variants identified in a given exon. We performed comprehensive minigene assays and analyzed patient’s RNA when available. Our study revealed a staggering number of splicing mutations in MLH1 exon 10 (77% of the 22 analyzed variants), including mutations directly affecting splice sites and, particularly, mutations altering potential splicing regulatory elements (ESRs). We then used this thoroughly characterized dataset, together with experimental data derived from previous studies on BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and NF1, to evaluate the predictive power of 3 in silico approaches recently described as promising tools for pinpointing ESR-mutations. Our results indicate that ΔtESRseq and ΔHZEI-based approaches not only discriminate which variants affect splicing, but also predict the direction and severity of the induced splicing defects. In contrast, the ΔΨ-based approach did not show a compelling predictive power. Our data indicates that exonic splicing mutations are more prevalent than currently appreciated and that they can now be predicted by using bioinformatics methods. These findings have implications for all genetically-caused diseases. PMID:26761715

  12. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the first trimester of pregnancy and factors associated with current suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Pinto, Thatiana de Jesus Pereira; Teofilo, Marcella Martins Alves; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Vaz, Juliana dos Santos; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Kac, Gilberto

    2013-12-30

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and to identify the factors associated with Current Suicide Risk (CSR) in the first trimester of pregnancy. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) was employed to diagnose mental disorders in 239 women enrolled in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Serum lipids, leptin and socio-economic status were the independent variables. CSR, the dependent variable, was entered as binary (yes/no) variable into crude and adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variances. CSR was found to be the main psychiatric syndrome (18.4%), followed by agoraphobia (17.2%), major depressive disorder (15.1%) and generalized anxiety disorder (10.5%). Women with CSR showed higher mean levels of cholesterol (169.2 vs. 159.2; p=0.017), high density lipoprotein (50.4 vs. 47.7; p=0.031) and low density lipoprotein (102.8 vs. 95.6; p=0.022) when compared to women without CSR. The adjusted regression model showed a higher prevalence ratio (PR) of CSR among pregnant women with generalized anxiety disorder (PR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.36-5.37), with ≥ two parturitions (PR=2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.93), and with major depressive disorder (PR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.08-4.12). We have shown that generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and higher parity are associated with CSR in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  13. Current practices in managing acutely disturbed patients at three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil: a prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Huf, Gisele; da Silva Freire Coutinho, Evandro; Fagundes, Hugo M; Oliveira, Edmar S; Lopez, Jose Ramon RA; Gewandszajder, Marcio; da Luz Carvalho, Andreia; Keusen, Alexandre; Adams, Clive E

    2002-01-01

    Background The medical management of aggressive and violent behaviour is a critical situation for which there is little evidence. In order to prepare for a randomised trial, due to start in the psychiatric emergency rooms of Rio de Janeiro in 2001, a survey of current practice was necessary. Methods A seven day survey of pharmacological management of aggressive people with psychosis in the emergency rooms of all four public psychiatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results In one hospital data were not available. Of the 764 people with psychosis attending these ERs, 74 were given IM medication for rapid tranquillisation (9.7%, 2.1/week/100,000). A haloperidol-promethazine mix (with or without other drugs) was used for the majority of patients (83%). Conclusion The haloperidol-promethazine mix, given intramuscularly for rapid tranquilization, is prevalent in Rio, where it is considered both safe and efficient. However, scientific evaluation of all pharmacological approaches to rapid tranquilization of psychotic people is inadequate or incomplete and a randomized trial of IM haloperidol-promethazine is overdue. PMID:11860610

  14. Estimates of current and future incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the U.S. adult population.

    PubMed

    Colilla, Susan; Crow, Ann; Petkun, William; Singer, Daniel E; Simon, Teresa; Liu, Xianchen

    2013-10-15

    Estimates and projections of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the United States have been highly inconsistent across published studies. Although it is generally acknowledged that AF incidence and prevalence are increasing due to growing numbers of older people in the U.S. population, estimates of the rate of expected growth have varied widely. Reasons for these variations include differences in study design, covered time period, birth cohort, and temporal effects, as well as improvements in AF diagnosis due to increased use of diagnostic tools and health care awareness. The objective of this study was to estimate and project the incidence and prevalence of diagnosed AF in the United States out to 2030. A large health insurance claims database for the years 2001 to 2008, representing a geographically diverse 5% of the U.S. population, was used in this study. The trend and growth rate in AF incidence and prevalence was projected by a dynamic age-period cohort simulation progression model that included all diagnosed AF cases in future prevalence projections regardless of follow-up treatment, as well as those cases expected to be chronic in nature. Results from the model showed that AF incidence will double, from 1.2 million cases in 2010 to 2.6 million cases in 2030. Given this increase in incidence, AF prevalence is projected to increase from 5.2 million in 2010 to 12.1 million cases in 2030. The effect of uncertainty in model parameters was explored in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Variability in future trends in AF incidence and recurrence rates has the greatest impact on the projected estimates of chronic AF prevalence. It can be concluded that both incidence and prevalence of AF are likely to rise from 2010 to 2030, but there exists a wide range of uncertainty around the magnitude of future trends. PMID:23831166

  15. An epidemiologic critique of current microbial risk assessment practices: the importance of prevalence and test accuracy data.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Ian A

    2004-09-01

    Data deficiencies are impeding the development and validation of microbial risk assessment models. One such deficiency is the failure to adjust test-based (apparent) prevalence estimates to true prevalence estimates by correcting for the imperfect accuracy of tests that are used. Such adjustments will facilitate comparability of data from different populations and from the same population over time as tests change and the unbiased quantification of effects of mitigation strategies. True prevalence can be estimated from apparent prevalence using frequentist and Bayesian methods, but the latter are more flexible and can incorporate uncertainty in test accuracy and prior prevalence data. Both approaches can be used for single or multiple populations, but the Bayesian approach can better deal with clustered data, inferences for rare events, and uncertainty in multiple variables. Examples of prevalence inferences based on results of Salmonella culture are presented. The opportunity to adjust test-based prevalence estimates is predicated on the availability of sensitivity and specificity estimates. These estimates can be obtained from studies using archived gold standard (reference) samples, by screening with the new test and follow-up of test-positive and test-negative samples with a gold standard test, and by use of latent class methods, which make no assumptions about the true status of each sampling unit. Latent class analysis can be done with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and an example of their use in the evaluation of tests for Toxoplasma gondii in pigs is presented. Guidelines are proposed for more transparent incorporation of test data into microbial risk assessments.

  16. Measuring the prevalence of current, severe symptoms of mental health problems in a canadian correctional population: implications for delivery of mental health services for inmates.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Hirdes, John P; Fries, Brant E

    2015-01-01

    This study measured the prevalence of current, severe symptoms of a mental health problem in an adult population of inmates in Ontario, Canada. The Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health was used to measure the prevalence of symptoms among a sample of 522 inmates. Propensity score weighting was used to adjust for nonrandom selection into the sample. Prevalence estimates were derived for the total inmate population, remand and sentenced, males and females, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal inmates. It is estimated that 41.1% of Ontario inmates will have at least one current, severe symptom of a mental health problem; of this group, 13.0%, will evidence two or more symptoms. The number of symptoms is strongly associated with presence of a psychiatric diagnosis and level of mental health care needs. Female (35.1%) and Aboriginal (18.7%) inmates are more likely to demonstrate two or more current, severe symptoms. Greater efforts must be made to bridge the gap between correctional and mental health care systems to ensure inmates in correctional facilities can access and receive appropriate mental health care services.

  17. Current prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms in long-term care facilities in the Rhine-Main district, Germany, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hogardt, M; Proba, P; Mischler, D; Cuny, C; Kempf, V A; Heudorf, U

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) and in particular multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MRGN) are an increasing problem in hospital care. However, data on the current prevalence of MDRO in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are rare. To assess carriage rates of MDRO in LTCF residents in the German Rhine-Main region, we performed a point prevalence survey in 2013. Swabs from nose, throat and perineum were analysed for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), perianal swabs were analysed for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms, MRGN and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). In 26 LTCFs, 690 residents were enrolled for analysis of MRSA colonisation and 455 for analysis of rectal carriage of ESBL/MRGN and VRE. Prevalences for MRSA, ESBL/MRGN and VRE were 6.5%, 17.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. MRSA carriage was significantly associated with MRSA history, the presence of urinary catheters, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes and previous antibiotic therapy, whereas ESBL/MRGN carriage was exclusively associated with urinary catheters. In conclusion, this study revealed no increase in MRSA prevalence in LTCFs since 2007. In contrast, the rate of ESBL/MRGN carriage in German LTCFs was remarkably high. In nearly all positive residents, MDRO carriage had not been known before, indicating a lack of screening efforts and/or a lack of information on hospital discharge. PMID:26159310

  18. Current Scenario of Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ostensibly Healthy Indian Population: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Aditi; Raizada, Arun; Vinayak, Kamini

    2016-10-01

    25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vit D] deficiency is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub-continent. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of 25(OH) vit D in different age groups. The data of 25(OH) vit D assay of 26,346 ostensibly healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, over a period of 3 years, were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed extensively. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD) was defined as 25(OH) vit D < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency (VDI) as 25(OH) vit D between 20 and 40 ng/ml and 25(OH) vit D sufficiency (VDS) as 25(OH) D > 40 ng/mL. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD + VDI) was observed in 93 % of the subject population. Maximum number of the subjects belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. 59 % had frank 25(OH) vit D deficiency when cut off level was <20 ng/mL. Mean value of 25(OH) vit D in our subjects was 21.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL. Significant difference in 25(OH) vit D level was observed in between male and female subjects. Simultaneously 25(OH) vit D levels were significantly lower in the patient visited hospital in winter-spring season than the summer-autumn season (p > 0.001). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of 25(OH) vit D deficiency in an ostensibly healthy Indian population. There is a need for redefining our reference ranges according to our population and extensively improving the status of vitamin D. PMID:27605743

  19. Current Scenario of Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ostensibly Healthy Indian Population: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Aditi; Raizada, Arun; Vinayak, Kamini

    2016-10-01

    25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vit D] deficiency is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub-continent. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of 25(OH) vit D in different age groups. The data of 25(OH) vit D assay of 26,346 ostensibly healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, over a period of 3 years, were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed extensively. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD) was defined as 25(OH) vit D < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency (VDI) as 25(OH) vit D between 20 and 40 ng/ml and 25(OH) vit D sufficiency (VDS) as 25(OH) D > 40 ng/mL. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD + VDI) was observed in 93 % of the subject population. Maximum number of the subjects belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. 59 % had frank 25(OH) vit D deficiency when cut off level was <20 ng/mL. Mean value of 25(OH) vit D in our subjects was 21.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL. Significant difference in 25(OH) vit D level was observed in between male and female subjects. Simultaneously 25(OH) vit D levels were significantly lower in the patient visited hospital in winter-spring season than the summer-autumn season (p > 0.001). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of 25(OH) vit D deficiency in an ostensibly healthy Indian population. There is a need for redefining our reference ranges according to our population and extensively improving the status of vitamin D.

  20. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Győrke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Annoscia, Giada; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, Dirofilaria spp. infection in European dogs has rapidly spread from historically endemic areas towards eastern and northeastern countries, but little or no information is available from these geographical regions. The present study provides a picture of filarial infections in dogs from Romania and compares two tests for the diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis. From July 2010 to March 2011, blood samples were collected from 390 dogs from nine counties of Romania and serological SNAP tests were performed for the detection of D. immitis antigen. The remaining blood clots were subsequently used for DNA extraction followed by multiplex PCR for assessing filarioid species diversity (i.e. D. immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum). Based on molecular detection, an overall prevalence of 6.92 % (n = 27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.70-10.03 %) for D. repens, 6.15 % (n = 24; 95 % CI 4.07-9.14 %) for D. immitis and 2.05 % (n = 8; 95 % CI 0.96-4.16 %) for A. reconditum was recorded, with significant variations according to sampling areas. Coinfections of D. immitis and D. repens were recorded in 23.91 % (n = 11) positive dogs. A slightly higher prevalence for D. immitis was detected at the SNAP test (n = 28, 7.17 %; 95 % CI 4.91-10.33 %), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.66). However, only 53.57 % (n = 15) of antigen-positive dogs were confirmed by PCR, while other dogs (n = 9) PCR positive for D. immitis were negative at the serology. The present study shows that Dirofilaria species are endemic in the southern and southeastern areas of Romania, This article also provides, for the first time, an epidemiological picture of the distribution of A. reconditum in Romania.

  1. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  2. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  3. Rationalizing the dental curriculum in light of current disease prevalence and patient demand for treatment: form vs. content.

    PubMed

    Bertolami, C N

    2001-08-01

    The premise of this paper is that the form and content of dental education do not reinforce each other. What results is suboptimal learning; dissatisfied students; difficulty generating excitement among the brightest to consider careers in dental education; erosion of dentists' self-identity as men and women of science; and doubts over whether dental schools can continue as the primary providers of oral health education. A need for reform exists because dental curricula must be responsive to changes in current and projected disease demographics, to advances in science and technology, and to a changing societal culture affecting patient demand for treatment. Today's dilemma is that dental schools need to continue to graduate competent practitioners to meet present clinical needs while also preparing students for a radically different kind of practice in the future. Possible approaches to resolve this dilemma include: a shift between what constitutes general practice and what constitutes specialty practice; and, the implementation of an asynchronous-distributed model of dental education. Such changes will likely be independently accompanied by changes in the role of universities in society in general that could make feasible many, now-unthinkable, alternative vehicles for providing dental education. PMID:11518244

  4. Cocaine use disorder prevalence: From current DSM-IV to proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria with both a two and three severity level classification system.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Steven L; Kopak, Albert M; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a secondary analysis from a study investigating the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and previously proposed DSM-5 cocaine use disorder (CUD) criteria (S. L. Proctor, A. M. Kopak, & N. G. Hoffmann, 2012, Compatibility of current DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cocaine use disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 722-728). The current analyses examined the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and two sets of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for CUDs among adult male inmates (N = 6,871) recently admitted to the Minnesota Department of Corrections state prison system from 2000-2003. Initially proposed DSM-5 criteria (DSM-5.0) featured only two diagnostic designations (i.e., moderate and severe). A subsequent revision (DSM-5.1) included the addition of a mild designation and required a greater number of positive findings for the severe designation. A computer-prompted structured diagnostic interview was administered to all inmates as part of routine clinical assessments. The past 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV CUDs was 12.70% (Abuse, 3.78%, Dependence, 8.92%), while 10.98% met past 12-month DSM-5.1 criteria for a CUD (Mild [MiCUD], 1.72%; Moderate [MCUD], 1.12%; and Severe [SCUD], 8.14%). The vast majority of those with no diagnosis (99.6%) continued to have no diagnosis, and most of those with a dependence diagnosis (91.2%) met SCUD criteria of the proposed DSM-5.1. Most of the variation in DSM-5.1 diagnostic classifications was accounted for by those with a current abuse diagnosis. DSM-5.0 MCUD cases were most affected when DSM-5.1 criteria were applied. The proposed diagnostic changes might translate to reduced access to treatment for those individuals evincing symptoms consistent with DSM-IV cocaine abuse.

  5. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P<0.05) between farms where cows were positive or negative for liver fluke antibodies in (a) the total number of adult dairy cows in herds, (b) the number of adult dairy cows contributing to BTM samples, and (c) the size of the total area of grassland, with positive farms having larger numbers in each case. There was no difference (P>0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (P<0.001) between drainage statuses for GSL with farms on good drainage having longer GSL than moderately drained farms. The GSL for dairy cows on farms with good drainage was 11 days longer than for those with moderate drainage (P<0.001). The percentage of farmers that used an active ingredient during the non-lactating period against liver fluke, gastrointestinal nematodes, lungworm, and rumen fluke was 96%, 85%, 77% and 90%, respectively. Albendazole was the most frequently used active ingredient for treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes (57%), liver fluke (40%) and lungworm (47%), respectively. There was a difference

  6. Diagnosing acute and prevalent HIV-1 infection in young African adults seeking care for fever: a systematic review and audit of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Henrieke A.B.; Mugo, Peter; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander; Smith, Adrian; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Fever is a common complaint in HIV-1 infected adults and may be a presenting sign of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). We investigated the extent to which HIV-1 infection was considered in the diagnostic evaluation of febrile adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through a systematic review of published literature and guidelines in the period 2003–2014. We also performed a detailed audit of current practice for the evaluation of febrile young adults in coastal Kenya. Our review identified 43 studies investigating the aetiology of fever in adult outpatients in SSA. While the guidelines identified recommend testing for HIV-1 infection, none mentioned AHI. In our audit of current practice at nine health facilities, only 189 out of 1173 (16.1%) patients, aged 18–29 years, were tested for HIV-1. In a detailed record review, only 2 out of 39 (5.1%) young adults seeking care for fever were tested for HIV-1, and the possibility of AHI was not mentioned. Available literature on adult outpatients presenting with fever is heavily focused on diagnosing malaria and guidelines are poorly defined in terms of evaluating aetiologies other than malaria. Current practice in coastal Kenya shows poor uptake of provider-initiated HIV-1 testing and AHI is not currently considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24842982

  7. Risk Behaviors, Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Population Size of Current Injection Drug Users in a China-Myanmar Border City: Results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Background Injection drug use has been the major cause of HIV/AIDS in China in the past two decades. We measured the prevalences of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and their associated risk factors among current injection drug users (IDUs) in Ruili city, a border region connecting China with Myanmar that has been undergoing serious drug use and HIV spread problems. An estimate of the number of current IDUs is also presented. Methods In 2012, Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥18 years were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. Participants underwent interviews and serological testing for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Logistic regression indentified factors associated with HIV and HCV infections. Multiplier method was used to obtain an estimate of the size of the current IDU population via combining available service data and findings from our survey. Results Among 370 IDUs recruited, the prevalence of HIV and HCV was 18.3% and 41.5%, respectively. 27.1% of participants had shared a needle/syringe in their lifetime. Consistent condom use rates were low among both regular (6.8%) and non-regular (30.4%) partners. Factors independently associated with being HIV positive included HCV infection, having a longer history of injection drug use and experience of needle/syringe sharing. Participants with HCV infection were more likely to be HIV positive, have injected more types of drugs, have shared other injection equipments and have unprotected sex with regular sex partners. The estimated number of current IDUs in Ruili city was 2,714 (95% CI: 1,617–5,846). Conclusions IDUs may continue to be a critical subpopulation for transmission of HIV and other infections in this region because of the increasing population and persistent high risk of injection and sexual behaviours. Developing innovative strategies that can improve accessibility of current harm reduction services and incorporate more comprehensive

  8. The Current Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence in China May Have Resulted Mainly from an Officially Encouraged Plasma Campaign in the 1990s: a Coalescence Inference with Genetic Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Wangxia; Gu, Lin; Li, Chunhua; Lu, Teng; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated hepatitis C virus (HCV) molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics. Both E1 and NS5B sequences were characterized in 379 of 433 patients in southern China and classified into five major subtypes: 1b in 256 patients, 6a in 67 patients, 2a in 29 patients, 3a in 14 patients, and 3b in 13 patients. Using the E1 sequences obtained, along with those from other studies using samples from China, we inferred the HCV epidemic history by means of coalescence strategies. Five Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) were estimated for the five subtypes. They concurrently highlighted the rapid growth in the HCV-infected population size from 1993 to 2000, followed by an abrupt slowing. Although flanked on both sides by variable population sizes, the plots showed distinct patterns of rapid HCV growth. Coincidently, 1993 to 2000 was a period when contaminated blood transfusions were common in China due to a procedural error in an officially encouraged plasma campaign. The abrupt slowing in 1998 to 2000 corresponded to the central government outlawing paid blood donations in 1998. Using a parametric model, the HCV population growth rates were estimated during 1993 to 2000. It was revealed that the 6a rate was the highest, followed by those of 1b, 2a, 3b, and 3a. Because these rates differed significantly (P < 1e−9) from each other, they may help explain why 6a is increasingly prevalent in southern China and 1b is predominant nationwide. These rates are approximately 10-fold higher than those reported elsewhere. These findings suggested that during the plasma campaign, certain barriers to efficient viral transmission were removed, allowing wide HCV dissemination. PMID:23986603

  9. Current State of and Needs for Hepatitis B Screening: Results of a Large Screening Study in a Low-Prevalent, Metropolitan Region

    PubMed Central

    Bottero, Julie; Boyd, Anders; Lemoine, Maud; Carrat, Fabrice; Gozlan, Joel; Collignon, Anne; Boo, Nicolas; Dhotte, Philippe; Varsat, Brigitte; Muller, Gerard; Cha, Olivier; Valin, Nadia; Nau, Jean; Campa, Pauline; Silbermann, Benjamin; Bary, Marc; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Lacombe, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background In low hepatitis B virus (HBV)-prevalent countries, most HBV-infected persons are unaware of their status. We aimed to evaluate whether (i) previous HBV-testing, (ii) physicians decision to screen, and (iii) CDC's recommendations identified infected individuals and which risk-factor groups needing testing. Methods During a mass, multi-center HBV-screening study from September 2010-August 2011, 3929 participants were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs and anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBcAb). Questions on HBV risk-factors and testing practices were asked to participants, while participants' eligibility for HBV-testing was asked to study medical professionals. Results 85 (2.2%) participants were HBsAg-positive, while 659 (16.8%) had either resolved HBV infection or isolated anti-HBcAb. When comparing practices, HBV-testing was more likely to occur in HBV-infected participants if Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations were used (Sensitivity = 100%, 95%CI: 95.8–100) than physicians' discretion (Sensitivity = 87.1%, 95%CI: 78.0–93.4) or previous HBV-test (Sensitivity = 36.5%, 95%CI: 26.3–47.6) (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, many non-infected individuals would still have been screened using CDC-recommendations (Specificity = 31.1%, 95%CI: 29.6–32.6). Using multivariable logistic regression, HBsAg-positive status was significantly associated with the following: males, originating from high HBV-endemic region, contact with HBV-infected individual, without national healthcare, and intravenous-drug user (IDU). Of these risk-factors, physician's discretion for testing HBV was not significantly associated with participants' geographical origin or IDU. Conclusions Missed opportunities of HBV-screening are largely due to underestimating country of origin as a risk-factor. Applying CDC-recommendations could improve HBV-screening, but with the disadvantage of many tests. Further development of

  10. [Current status and the changing pattern of the prevalence of clonorchiasis in the inhabitants in Sanchong-gun, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea].

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Lee, W J; Kim, T S; In, T S; Kim, W S; Kim, S K

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current endemicity and the transition mode of the Clonorchis infection in Sanchong-gun Kyongsangnam-do. The areas of investigation, villages and schools surveyed, method and techniques used in this study were the same as in 1984. The egg positive rate of clonorchiasis in the general population of Sanchong-gun was 37.6% out of 837 examined persons. In the schoolchildren, the rate was 9.7% out of 145 persons examined. In the intensity of the infection among the cases, the mean EPG (Egg per gram of feces) in the inhabitants and schoolchildren were 3,310 (male 4,221, female 1,978) and 711 (male 620, female 833), respectively. Of the inhabitants with clonorchiasis, the cases of light infection (EPG < 1,000) and moderate infection (1,000 < EPG < 10,000) were 93.9%. The proportion with experience of eating raw freshwater-fish was 90.5% among the infecteds. Out of 138 inhabitants examined in both 1984 and 1992, the number of the positives by both examinations was 31 (22.5%), positive to negative conversion was 35 (25.4%), negative to positive conversion was 22 (15.9%). The present results reveal that there are no changes of the egg positive rate of clonorchiasis among inhabitants in Sanchong and the eating habit of raw freshwater-fish persists there. In this community, the eating habit is the most important problem to be solved for control of this endemic disease.

  11. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by “in-house” real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78–5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21–4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32–7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51–48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21–59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine. PMID:25464979

  12. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-05-01

    During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by "in-house" real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78-5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21-4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32-7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51-48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21-59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine. PMID:25464979

  13. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-05-01

    During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by "in-house" real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78-5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21-4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32-7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51-48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21-59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine.

  14. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    PubMed

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of low bone mineral density and fragility fractures among HIV-infected patients at one Italian center after universal DXA screening: sensitivity and specificity of current guidelines on bone mineral density management.

    PubMed

    Mazzotta, Elena; Ursini, Tamara; Agostinone, Adriana; Di Nicola, Angelo Domenico; Polilli, Ennio; Sozio, Federica; Vadini, Francesco; Pieri, Alessandro; Trave, Francesca; De Francesco, Valerio; Capasso, Lorenzo; Borderi, Marco; Manzoli, Lamberto; Viale, Pierluigi; Parruti, Giustino

    2015-04-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is frequent in HIV infection regardless of the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Uncertainties remain, however, as to when in HIV infection BMD screening should be performed. We designed a prospective study to estimate the efficacy of universal BMD screening by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Since April 2009 through March 2011, HIV patients attending our Center were offered femoral/lumbar DXA to screen BMD. Low BMD for chronological age, that is significant osteopenia, was defined as a Z-score ≤ -2.0 at femur and lumbar spine. Nontraumatic bone fractures (NTBFs) were evaluated. The final sample included 163 patients. A Z-score ≤ -2.0 at any site was observed in 19.6% of cases: among these, 18.8% had no indication to DXA using current Italian HIV guidelines for BMD screening. A lower femoral Z-score was independently associated with lower BMI, AIDS diagnosis, HCV co-infection, antiretroviral treatment, and NTBFs; a lower lumbar Z-score with age, BMI, Nadir CD4 T-cell counts, and NTBFs. Prevalence of NTBFs was 27.0%, predictors being male gender, HCV co-infection, and lower femoral Z-scores. Our results suggest that measuring BMD by DXA in all HIV patients regardless of any further specification may help retrieving one-fifth of patients with early BMD disorders not identified using current criteria for selective screening of BMD.

  16. Contraceptive prevalence in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Morris, L; Anderson, J E; Monteith, R S; Kriskovich, R; Schoemaker, J; Frutos, O

    1978-01-01

    Contraceptive use, source of contraception, history of abortion, current pregnancy intention, and fertility rates are evaluated for a national sample of women using data from the Paraguay Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, conducted in 1977. The survey found that 15.5 percent of all women aged 15--44 and 23.6 percent of ever-married women were using effective contraceptive methods. The urban/rural difference in contraceptive use paralleled fertility differentials: over 40 percent of ever-married women were using contraception in Greater Asuncion and other urban areas compared with 15 percent in rural areas. Overall, the data indicate that high-parity rural women have the greatest need for family planning services in Paraguay.

  17. Changes in prevalence, aetiology, age at detection, and associated disabilities in preschool children with hearing impairment born in Göteborg.

    PubMed

    Darin, N; Hanner, P; Thiringer, K

    1997-12-01

    The prevalence of hearing impairment (HI) in preschool children born in Göteborg in 1980 to 1984 was 2.0 per 1000. This was significantly lower than the 3.8 per 1000 found in a previous study for 1970 to 1974. The decrease took place in the moderate to severe range of HI, while deafness and mild HI remained unchanged during the period. The cause was considered to be prenatal in 58% with heredity in 33% as the main causative factor. Following the introduction of the MPR (Morbilli-Parotitis-Rubella) vaccination programme in Sweden, no cases of rubella- or mumps-induced HI could be found. The number of HI of perinatal origin decreased by half, in spite of the fact that the figures for preterm baby survival almost doubled during the period. Associated disabilities were diagnosed in 62% of the children with HI; speech retardation in 33%, visual abnormalities in 30%, mental retardation in 12% and neuropsychiatric disorders in 9% of the cases. The importance of collaborative efforts between the otolaryngologist and the neurologically and neuropsychiatrically interested paediatrician in the complete evaluation of additional difficulties in the HI child is emphasized.

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with unmet need for family planning among the currently married reproductive age women in Shire-Enda- Slassie, Northern West of Tigray, Ethiopia 2015: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gebre, Gelawdiwos; Birhan, Nigussie; Gebreslasie, Kahsay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unmet family planning is one of the common causes for low contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries including Ethiopia. Thus, this study designed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of unmet need in Shire Endaslassie town, Northern west of Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study design was employed. Multistage sampling technique was employed and data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire by interviewer administered technique. Questionnaires were reviewed and checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. Reviewed data were entered to Epi info 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 statistical software. Variables with P-value of less than 0.2 in bivariate analyses were entered for multivariate analysis and AOR at 95% CI with p-value of less than 0.05 were considered as significant variables. Results The overall unmet need for family planning in the study area was 109(21.4%). 74(14.5%) for spacing and 35(6.9%) for limiting. Age group of 35-39 and >=40 (AOR= 2.7,95%CI:1.1,6.5), (AOR = 2.65, 95%CI:1.10, 6.40) respectively, decided numbers of desired children more than five (AOR = O.48, 95%CI: 0.28, 0.80), discussions of client with heath care providers (AOR = 6.32, 95%CI: 2.56, 15.58), previous use of modern family planning (AOR = 2.29, 95%CI, 1.20, 4.34) were significantly associated with unmet need for family planning. Conclusion Unmet need for family planning in the study area was high, so continuous discussion on modern family planning with community health workers and encouraging of women to decide desired numbers of children of less than five in general are better to be strengthened. PMID:27347284

  19. Developmental dyscalculia: prevalence and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Shalev, R S; Auerbach, J; Manor, O; Gross-Tsur, V

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia (DC) in the school population ranges from 3-6 %, a frequency similar to that of developmental dyslexia and ADHD. These studies fulfilled the criteria for an adequate prevalence study, i.e., were population based, using standardized measures to evaluate arithmetic function. Although the variation in prevalence is within a narrow range, the differences are probably due to which definition of dyscalculia was used, the age the diagnosis was made and the instrument chosen to test for DC. The relative predominance of girls with DC may reflect a greater vulnerability to environmental influences alone or in addition to a biological predisposition. DC is not only encountered as a specific learning disability but also in diverse neurological disorders, examples of which include ADHD, developmental language disorder, epilepsy, treated phenylketonuria and Fragile X syndrome. Although the long-term prognosis of DC is as yet unknown, current data indicate that DC is a stable learning disability persisting, at least for the short term, in about half of affected children. The long-term consequences of DC and its impact on education, employment and psychological well-being have yet to be determined. PMID:11138905

  20. Hyperemesis gravidarum: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Greene, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complex condition with a multifactorial etiology characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting. Despite a high prevalence, studies exploring underlying etiology and treatments are limited. We performed a literature review, focusing on articles published over the last 10 years, to examine current perspectives and recent developments in hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:25125986

  1. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  2. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  3. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level. PMID:25174731

  4. Dementia in Ontario: Prevalence and Health Services Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranmer, J. E.; Croxford, R.; Coyte, P. C.

    2003-01-01

    To understand the impact of ongoing reform of mental health and dementia care in Ontario, an examination of prevalence and health services utilization rates is needed. However, there exists a gap in current prevalence and health services research specific to dementia care in Ontario. The objective of this study was to address these concerns using…

  5. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  6. Prevalence of obesity in Bombay.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhar, N V; Kulkarni, P R

    1992-05-01

    Obesity has been reported in developed as well as developing countries. However, data on a large sample of the Indian population are lacking. This study analysed the prevalence of obesity among 1,784 adults in Bombay from various sections of society. Since the prevalence of obesity depends upon the criteria used, prevalence was judged by three criteria viz. percentage excess of body weight, body mass index, and body fat content. The data were classified and analysed according to occupation, age group, income, diet type, and also with respect to family history of obesity. The three methods gave a different prevalence of obesity. In general, the criterion of body mass index under-estimated, and body fat content over-estimated the prevalence as compared to that obtained by percentage excess body weight. An extremely high prevalence of obesity was found in all sub-groups of the sample. As judged by a body mass index of 25 and above, male students had the lowest (10.7%) and male medical doctors had the highest (53.1%) prevalence of obesity. Prevalence was highest for the age group 31-50 years for males and females, and declined on either side of this age range. Prevalence was directly proportional to financial income, and subjects with a family history of obesity had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to those without. This study indicates the gravity of the problem of obesity in Bombay, and provides directions for nutritional planning in the future.

  7. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in the Chinese populations: a meta-analysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaodong; Xu, Yong; Nie, Hongwei; Lei, Ting; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Minjie

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dementia and its major subtypes in China. Forty-eight eligible studies were included in this review. The pooled prevalence for the population aged 60 years and older of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was 1.9%, vascular dementia (VaD) was 0.9%, and total dementia was 3.0%. The prevalence of VaD was significantly higher in Northern China than in Southern China. The prevalence of VaD was significantly higher in urban compared to rural areas. The prevalence of dementia and prevalence of AD increased with age in both males and females, and a higher prevalence of AD than VaD was observed in all age groups. AD has become more common than VaD in China since 1990. The current prevalence of dementia in China may be similar to that of developed countries.

  8. Is asthma prevalence still increasing?

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, Bo; Backman, Helena; Lötvall, Jan; Rönmark, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of asthma in society and altered diagnostic practices makes evaluation of data on prevalence change difficult. In most parts of the world the asthma prevalence seems to still be increasing. The increase is associated with urbanization and has been documented particularly among children and teenagers in urban areas of middle- and low-level income countries. Use of validated questionnaires has enabled comparisons of studies. Among adults there are few studies based on representative samples of the general population which allow evaluation of time trends of prevalence. This review focuses mainly on studies of asthma prevalence and symptoms among adults. Parallel with increased urbanization, we can assume that the increase in asthma prevalence in most areas of the world will continue. However, in Australia and North-West Europe studies performed, particularly among children and adolescents, indicate that the increase in asthma prevalence may now be leveling off. PMID:26610152

  9. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed.

  10. Trends in the prevalence of dementia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Hiroko H; Buracchio, Teresa J; Fisher, Gwenith G; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Tanizaki, Yumihiro; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1) summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2) compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3) assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus vascular dementia (VaD) over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes.

  11. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  12. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  13. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  14. Prevalence of ataxia in children

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Cristina T.; Marasigan, Rhul; Jenkins, Mary E.; Konczak, Jürgen; Morton, Susanne M.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of childhood ataxia resulting from both genetic and acquired causes. Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement. Five databases were searched for articles reporting a frequency measure (e.g., prevalence, incidence) of ataxia in children. Included articles were first grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) regions and subsequently classified according to etiology (genetic, acquired, or mixed). Each article was assessed for its risk of bias on the domains of sampling, measurement, and analysis. Incidence values were converted to prevalence estimates whenever possible. European prevalence estimates for different etiologies of ataxia were summed to gauge the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia. Results: One hundred fifteen articles were included in the review. More than 50% of the data originated from the Europe WHO region. Data from this region also showed the least susceptibility to bias. Little data were available for Africa and Southeast Asia. The prevalence of acquired ataxias was found to vary more greatly across regions than the genetic ataxias. Ataxic cerebral palsy was found to be a significant contributor to the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia across WHO regions. The prevalence of childhood ataxias in Europe was estimated to be ∼26/100,000 children and likely reflects a minimum prevalence worldwide. Conclusions: The findings show that ataxia is a common childhood motor disorder with a higher prevalence than previously assumed. More research concerning the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood ataxia is warranted. PMID:24285620

  15. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  16. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  17. Prevalence effect in haptic search

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Ken; Takaoka, Yutaka; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kita, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the ratio of target-present to target-absent trials has important effects on miss rates. In this study, we examined whether the target prevalence effect occurs in a haptic search task by using artificial tactile maps. The results indicated that target prevalence has effects on miss rates, sensitivity, and criterion. Moreover, an increase in miss rates in the low-prevalence condition (10%) was strongly correlated with a decrease in search termination times (target-absent reaction times). These results suggest that the prevalence effect on haptic search is caused by a decrease in the search termination time and a shift in decision criterion and a decrease in sensitivity. PMID:23145300

  18. The effects of local prevalence and explicit expectations on search termination times

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Shinichi; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the relative proportions of target-present and -absent trials have important effects on behavior. Miss error rates rise as target prevalence decreases (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, Nature 435, 439–440, 2005). At the same time, search termination times on target-absent trials become shorter (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology 20, 121–124, 2010). These effects must depend on some implicit or explicit knowledge of the current prevalence. What is the nature of that knowledge? In Experiment 1, we conducted visual search tasks at three levels of prevalence (6%, 50%, and 94%) and analyzed performance as a function of “local prevalence,” the prevalence over the last n trials. The results replicated the usual effects of overall prevalence but revealed only weak or absent effects of local prevalence. In Experiment 2, the overall prevalence in a block of trials was 20%, 50%, or 80%. However, a 100%-valid cue informed observers of the prevalence on the next trial. These explicit cues had a modest effect on target-absent RTs, but explicit expectation could not explain the full prevalence effect. We conclude that observers predict prevalence on the basis of an assessment of a relatively long prior history. Each trial contributes a small amount to that assessment, and this can be modulated but not overruled by explicit instruction. PMID:22006528

  19. Prevalence and Clustering of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Cheng, Xinqi; Qiu, Ling; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Jianhua; Xia, Liangyu; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Chinese population. Although general prevalence estimates of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are available for Chinese adults, prevalence estimates covering all adult age groups by race/ethnicity have not been reported. The aim of this study is to estimate the current prevalence and clustering of major CVRFs in Chinese adults, including a plurality of ethnic minorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 23,010 adults aged 18 years and older from 2007 to 2011. Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed, and fasting blood was collected for laboratory measurements. The prevalence of traditional CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking, were determined. The prevalence of the major CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking were 24.3%, 4.3%, 49.3%, 32.0%, and 21.7%, respectively. These risk factors were significantly associated with sex, age, region, ethnicity, and education levels. Overall, 70.3%, 40.3%, and 16.7% of Chinese adults had ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs, respectively. Men, northern and rural residents were more likely to have clustered CVRFs compared with women, southern and urban residents, respectively. Compared with Han residents, Hui and Mongolian residents were more likely, and Tujia and Miao residents were less likely, to have ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence of Chinese women having ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs decreased with increasing levels of education. The prevalence and clustering of CVRFs is still high in Chinese adults ≥18 years old, especially in men and in individuals living in the northern and rural areas. Of note, there are differences in cardiovascular risk among different ethnic groups. Therefore, targeted and enhanced intervention measures are required to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the

  20. Current Titles

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  1. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Merchant, Anwar T

    2005-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool

  2. The Prevalence and Practices of Academic Library Journal Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Philip; Vilelle, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Increased mention of journal clubs in the library literature and the recent creation of clubs at the authors' institutions sparked curiosity about how widespread they are in academic libraries. An online survey announced on library listservs assessed their prevalence and practices. Library journal clubs promote current awareness, analysis skills,…

  3. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  4. Current titles

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  5. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.

  6. Challenging Behaviours: Prevalence and Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…

  7. Prevalence, Diagnosis, Treatment and Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Singapore and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neik, Tina Ting Xiang; Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min; Chia, Noel Kok Hwee; Chua, Arnold Chee Keong

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of autism is increasing globally. While most of the published works are done in the Western and European countries, the trend in autism research is shifting towards the Asian continent recently. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in…

  8. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  9. Prevalence of Myopia in France

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Emilie; Ingrand, Pierre; Pelen, François; Bentaleb, Yacine; Weber, Michel; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Souied, Eric; Leveziel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Refractive error (RE), particularly myopia, is the first cause of visual impairment throughout the world. This study aimed to depict the prevalence of myopia in a multicentric series of French individuals. This cross-sectional analysis was carried out between January 2012 and November 2013 in eye clinics dedicated to REs. Data collection included age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity, RE, and any relevant medical history involving laser refractive surgery and cataract surgery. Exclusion criteria consisted of monophthalm patients or those with incomplete demographic data. Prevalences in the overall population, by gender and by age groups were reported for mild myopia (−0.50 to −2.75 diopter [D]), moderate myopia (−3 to −5.75 D), high myopia (less than −6 D), and very high myopia (less than −10 D). The analysis included 100,429 individuals, mean age 38.5 years (± 16.9). Overall prevalence of myopia was 39.1% (95% CI 38.8-39.4). Prevalences of mild, moderate, high and very high myopia were respectively 25.1% (95% CI 25.4-24.9), 10.6% (95% CI 10.4-10.8), 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.48-0.57). Even if possible bias occurred in recruitment, our results are similar to RE data collected in nationally representative samples of Caucasians in other studies. This is to our knowledge, one of the largest European series of individuals dedicated to myopia prevalences in different age groups. These results confirm the importance of myopia as a major health issue in Western countries. PMID:26559276

  10. HIV-1 prevalence in selected Tijuana sub-populations.

    PubMed Central

    Güereña-Burgueño, F; Benenson, A S; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1991-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus) infection among high-risk populations in Tijuana, Mexico, HIV-1 antibody status was determined and information on risk behavior was obtained from 1,069 individuals in three high-risk groups. The prevalence of HIV-1 among 415 prostitutes was 0.5 percent; 410 prisoners, 1.2 percent; 233 homosexual/bisexual men, 11.6 percent; and 106 intravenous drug abusers, 1.9 percent. The potential for spread of HIV-1 exists in Tijuana despite the current relatively low seroprevalence of HIV-1. PMID:2014864

  11. Poor Mental Health and Reduced Decline in Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.; Li, Yunqing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although smoking prevalence has been declining for smokers without mental illness, it has been static for those with mental illness. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in smoking rates and trajectories of smoking prevalence in the often-overlooked population of smokers with poor mental health, compared with those with better mental health. Methods Data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2001 to 2010 to examine the relationship between poor mental health and current, daily, and intermittent tobacco use in New Jersey. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results During 2001–2010, current, daily, and intermittent smoking prevalence was higher in participants with poor mental health than those with better mental health. In addition, with the exception of 2 years, prevalence rates remained unchanged in this 10-year period for those with poor mental health while they significantly decreased for those with better mental health. Conclusions The disparity in which smokers with poor mental health are more likely to be current smokers and less likely to be never smokers as compared with those with better mental health has increased over time. These data suggest the need to more closely examine tobacco control and treatment policies in smokers with behavioral health issues. It is possible that tobacco control strategies are not reaching those with poor mental health, or, if they are, their messages are not translating into successful cessation. PMID:26071864

  12. Economic grand rounds: Income inequality and depression prevalence across the United States: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Messias, Erick; Eaton, William W; Grooms, Amy N

    2011-07-01

    Research has shown a relationship between income inequality and poor health. This column reports findings from a state-level study of the relationship between income inequality and the prevalence of depression. Estimates of depression prevalence by state, obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, were linked with Gini coefficients for U.S. household income, obtained from the Census Bureau. The current prevalence of depression was significantly associated with income inequality--the more unequal, the higher the depression prevalence. The association persisted after adjustment for income per capita, percentage of the population with a college degree, and percentage over age 65 years.

  13. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  14. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Shakarchi, Faiz I

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications. PMID:26648690

  15. Short-term predictions of HIV prevalence and AIDS incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, J. C.; Medley, G. F.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Van Griensven, G. J.; Bindels, P. J.; Coutinho, R. A.; Van Druten, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of AIDS cases in Amsterdam up to February 1990 were used to make predictions of future cases up to 1993. Two published methods were applied, which make extrapolations from current cases and simultaneously estimate the extent of delay in reporting. The choice of the exact model greatly influenced the predictions, as did predictions for distinct transmission groups. We present results for the homo/bisexual male group, and the total population of Amsterdam. The AIDS case predictions are used to predict the HIV prevalence using the ratio of HIV prevalence to AIDS incidence and through 'back calculation'. We suggest that the ratio is a simple technique that may be used to estimate HIV prevalence. The estimated number of cumulative HIV infected homo/bisexual males in Amsterdam in January 1990 was between 2100 and 4100 in a total of 2200-4600 infected people. PMID:1499669

  16. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in bovines in Bangalore district, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D'

    2016-09-01

    The study was undertaken to know the current status of prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of cattle and buffaloes in Bangalore, Karnataka. An overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among cattle (75.2 %) and buffalos (76.8 %) was determined by coprological examination. The gastrointestinal parasites detected in cattle and buffalo were Strongyle (39.8 and 29.1 %), followed by Amphistome (24.4 and 23.1 %), Moniezia spp. (5.3 and 5.9 %), Fasciola spp. (4.1 and 15.6 %), Trichuris spp. (1.4 and 2.9 %), Buxtonella spp. (36.6 and 37.3 %) and Eimeria spp. (26.7 and 29.8 %) respectively. The percentage prevalence of mixed helminth and protozoan infections was 20.2 and 26.1 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. PMID:27605757

  17. Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for morbidity and premature mortality in the United States, yet information about smoking prevalence and trends is not routinely available below the state level, impeding local-level action. Methods We used data on 4.7 million adults age 18 and older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1996 to 2012. We derived cigarette smoking status from self-reported data in the BRFSS and applied validated small area estimation methods to generate estimates of current total cigarette smoking prevalence and current daily cigarette smoking prevalence for 3,127 counties and county equivalents annually from 1996 to 2012. We applied a novel method to correct for bias resulting from the exclusion of the wireless-only population in the BRFSS prior to 2011. Results Total cigarette smoking prevalence varies dramatically between counties, even within states, ranging from 9.9% to 41.5% for males and from 5.8% to 40.8% for females in 2012. Counties in the South, particularly in Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, as well as those with large Native American populations, have the highest rates of total cigarette smoking, while counties in Utah and other Western states have the lowest. Overall, total cigarette smoking prevalence declined between 1996 and 2012 with a median decline across counties of 0.9% per year for males and 0.6% per year for females, and rates of decline for males and females in some counties exceeded 3% per year. Statistically significant declines were concentrated in a relatively small number of counties, however, and more counties saw statistically significant declines in male cigarette smoking prevalence (39.8% of counties) than in female cigarette smoking prevalence (16.2%). Rates of decline varied by income level: counties in the top quintile in terms of income experienced noticeably faster declines than those in the bottom quintile. Conclusions County-level estimates of cigarette

  18. Prevalences of overweight, obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in the Gulf: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alhyas, Layla; McKay, Ailsa; Balasanthiran, Anjali; Majeed, Azeem

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of risk factors for diabetes and its complications in the Co-operation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) region. Design Systematic review. Setting Co-operation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait). Participants Residents of the GCC states participating in studies on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Main outcome measures Prevalences of overweight, obesity and hyperglycaemia, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Results Forty-five studies were included in the review. Reported prevalences of overweight and obesity in adults were 25–50% and 13–50%, respectively. Prevalence appeared higher in women and to hold a non-linear association with age. Current prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was estimated to be 10–20%. Prevalence appears to have been increasing in recent years. Estimated prevalences of hypertension and dyslipidaemia were few and used varied definitions of abnormality, making review difficult, but these also appeared to be high and increasing, Conclusions There are high prevalences of risk factors for diabetes and diabetic complications in the GCC region, indicative that their current management is suboptimal. Enhanced management will be critical if escalation of diabetes-related problems is to be averted as industrialization, urbanization and changing population demographics continue. PMID:21847437

  19. Smoking Prevalence Increases following Canterbury Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Background. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. Aim. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Methods. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. Results. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. Conclusion. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers. PMID:24311978

  20. Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Krisin; Asih, Puji; Sekartuti; Dewi, Rita M; Coutrier, Farah; Rozy, Ismail E; Susanti, Augustina I; Elyazar, Iqbal RF; Sutamihardja, Awalludin; Rahmat, Agus; Kinzer, Michael; Rogers, William O

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan and assess local malaria control efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia, there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. Methods Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Results Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26) in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90) in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0–34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal. Conclusion Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed. PMID:19134197

  1. Prevalence of malnutrition in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ngare, D K; Muttunga, J N

    1999-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence, severity, regional differences and age-sex distribution of malnutrition in Kenya. About 6419 children (3294 males and 3125 females) from 14 districts in Kenya were examined using two anthropometric measurements: weight and height. The three nutritional status indicators used were stunting, wasting, and underweight, with an overall prevalence of 36%, 6%, and 27%, respectively. Findings indicated that stunting was lowest among the 6-12 month age group and highest among the 12-23 month age group, with a prevalence 15 times higher among boys. On the other hand, both growth stunting and wasting were most serious between 12 and 23 months of age, similar to previous reports. The most pressing form of malnutrition in Kenya is protein-energy malnutrition, which largely affects infants, preschool, and school children. Regional disparities in malnutrition were also observed, with a low malnutrition rate in Kiambu (22.6%) and a high malnutrition rate in Kwale (56.5%) districts. This study, as well as the results of previous findings, confirms the seriousness of malnutrition in Kenya. This paper suggests the implementation and development of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess the impact of implemented program activities, particularly in districts with high malnutrition rates.

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Kenya, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kathleen N; Kim, Andrea A; Umuro, Mamo; Drobenuic, Jan; Williamson, John M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry S; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2016-08-01

    Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI was 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4-3.1%), corresponding to approximately 398,000 (CI = 261,000-602,000) with CHBI. CHBI is a major public health problem in Kenya, affecting approximately 400,000 persons. Knowing the HBV infection prevalence at baseline is important for planning and public health policy decision making and for monitoring the impact of viral hepatitis prevention programs.

  3. Associations between national gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates within Europe.

    PubMed

    Planzer, Simon; Gray, Heather M; Shaffer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers and other interested stakeholders currently are seeking information about the comparative effectiveness of different regulatory approaches to minimising gambling-related harm. This study responds to this research gap by exploring associations between gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates. We gathered information about gambling policies for thirty European jurisdictions and past-year prevalence rates for disordered gambling for twelve of these jurisdictions. We present policy trends and prevalence rates and then describe the level of association between policy and prevalence. We observe one statistically significant association between policy and prevalence: rates of sub-clinical (i.e., Level 2) disordered gambling were higher within environments that mandated less strict regulation of advertising for online gambling. Finally, we discuss the implications of our research in the context of the current process regarding the pan-European regulation of gambling. Our findings do not offer evidence for certain assumptions made in the past by the European judiciary. PMID:24370209

  4. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  5. Trends in cancer prevalence in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Louchini, Rabia; Beaupré, Michel; Demers, Alain A; Goggin, Patricia; Bouchard, Clermont

    2006-01-01

    Cancer prevalence is of prime interest in public health because of its use in estimating the disease's burden on the heath care system. This study's objective was to estimate five-year prevalence of tumours from 1989 to 1999 and ten-year prevalence of tumours from 1994 to 1999 in the Province of Quebec (Canada). Five-year prevalence was used to represent tumours for which people are more likely to obtain primary treatment; ten-year prevalence included those tumours in addition to tumours that can be considered cured but still need follow-up. Information was extracted from the Quebec Cancer Registry. Prostate cancer was the most prevalent malignancy among males (25 percent, five-year prevalent tumours), while breast cancer was most prevalent among females (38 percent, five-year prevalent tumours). For both sexes, the greatest observed prevalence increase was for endocrine glands. On average, five-year prevalence proportions were 16 percent higher in men than in women; those of ten year were 14 percent higher in men. Furthermore, the largest differences were observed for bladder and lung cancer. The change in cancer prevalence in Quebec was dependent on the tumour site. PMID:17306062

  6. Converging seasonal prevalence dynamics in experimental epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Regular seasonal changes in prevalence of infectious diseases are often observed in nature, but the mechanisms are rarely understood. Empirical tests aiming at a better understanding of seasonal prevalence patterns are not feasible for most diseases and thus are widely lacking. Here, we set out to study experimentally the seasonal prevalence in an aquatic host-parasite system. The microsporidian parasite Hamiltosporidium tvärminnensis exhibits pronounced seasonality in natural rock pool populations of its host, Daphnia magna with a regular increase of prevalence during summer and a decrease during winter. An earlier study was, however, unable to test if different starting conditions (initial prevalence) influence the dynamics of the disease in the long term. Here, we aim at testing how the starting prevalence affects the regular prevalence changes over a 4-year period in experimental populations. Results In an outdoor experiment, populations were set up to include the extremes of the prevalence spectrum observed in natural populations: 5% initial prevalence mimicking a newly invading parasite, 100% mimicking a rock pool population founded by infected hosts only, and 50% prevalence which is commonly observed in natural populations in spring. The parasite exhibited similar prevalence changes in all treatments, but seasonal patterns in the 100% treatment differed significantly from those in the 5% and 50% treatments. Populations started with 5% and 50% prevalence exhibited strong and regular seasonality already in the first year. In contrast, the amplitude of changes in the 100% treatment was low throughout the experiment demonstrating the long-lasting effect of initial conditions on prevalence dynamics. Conclusions Our study shows that the time needed to approach the seasonal changes in prevalence depends strongly on the initial prevalence. Because individual D. magna populations in this rock pool metapopulation are mostly short lived, only few

  7. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  8. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  9. Specific Learning Disorder: Prevalence and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed. PMID:25072465

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US immigrants: results of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Young

    2012-12-01

    This study estimates the prevalence patterns of overweight and obesity of new immigrants in the US. The 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) was used to generate representative estimates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity among new immigrants overall and by place of origin subgroup. More than 45% of new immigrants are either overweight or obese. Overall, the higher prevalences of both overweight and obesity were found in Latin/Caribbean immigrants, older age group, those with longer years of US residence, and current residents of the West region. Men have a higher overweight prevalence and women have a slightly higher obesity prevalence. The overweight prevalence was higher for immigrants living above the poverty level, but there was not much difference in the obesity prevalence by poverty level. There was notable heterogeneity in overweight and obesity prevalences within and across place of origin groups by age, poverty level, years of US residence, and current resident regions. The study suggests further investigation on the determinants of weight status by place of origin and the importance of tailored interventions for each group.

  11. Disparity in Smoking Prevalence by Education: Can We Reduce It?

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Hebert, Kiandra K.; Wong, Shiushing; Cummins, Sharon E.; Gamst, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Can an intervention program that is highly effective in reducing the prevalence of an unhealthy behavior in the general population also reduce the disparity among its subgroups? That depends on what measure of disparity is used. Using simple algebraic models, this study demonstrates that disparity measured in terms of relative difference between two groups tends to increase when the prevalence of the behavior is in decline. The study then shows an empirical example, by analyzing the effects of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence of two education groups, the lowest (<12 years) and the highest (16+ years). It examines the data from four California Tobacco Surveys covering the years 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005. The effects of three components of the tobacco control program known to be effective in decreasing prevalence (media, worksite policy, and price) on the two education groups are assessed. The smoking prevalence for the two groups is obtained from these four surveys and a regression line is computed for each education group from 1996 to 2005. Results show that the California program is effective with both low education and high education groups and that the rate of decline in smoking prevalence from 1996 to 2005 is no smaller for the low education group than for the high education group. The paper then discusses that an analysis of disparity based on relative difference, however, could result in misleading recommendations that an intervention like the California tobacco program needs to change from its current whole-population approach to one that focuses on targeting subgroups because it has not reduced disparity. It proposes that research should focus more on increasing the rate of change among less advantaged groups and less on the relative disparity compared to some other group. PMID:20595352

  12. Unexpectedly high prevalence of sarcoidosis in a representative U.S. Metropolitan population.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Barbaros S; Clymer, Bradley D; Yildiz, Vedat O; Julian, Mark W; Crouser, Elliott D

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the United States is unknown, with estimates ranging widely from 1 to 40 per 100,000. We sought to determine the prevalence of sarcoidosis in our health system compared to other rare lung diseases and to further establish if the prevalence was changing over time. We interrogated the electronic medical records of all patients treated in our health system from 1995 to 2010 (1.48 million patients) using the common ICD9 codes for sarcoidosis (135), lung cancer (162), and several other lung diseases characterized, like sarcoidosis, as "rare lung diseases". The patient demographic information (race, gender, age) was further analyzed to identify signature data patterns. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in our health system increased steadily from 164/100,000 in 1995 to 330/100,000 in 2010, and this trend could not be ascribed simply to changes in patient demographics or patient referral patterns. We further estimate that the prevalence of sarcoidosis exceeds 48 per 100,000 in Franklin County, Ohio, the demographic profile of which is nearly identical to that of the U.S. Sarcoidosis prevalence increased over time relative to lung cancer, a benchmark disease with stable disease prevalence, and exceeded that of other rare lung diseases. We postulate that the observed 2-fold increase in sarcoidosis disease prevalence in our health system is primarily related to improved detection and diagnostic approaches, and we conclude that the actual prevalence of sarcoidosis in central Ohio greatly exceeds current U.S. estimates.

  13. The Increasing Prevalence of Diabetes in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kelly J.; Schuller, Kelly L.

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS We review studies published in the past 10 years that examine the prevalence and trends in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The prevalence of GDM in a population is reflective of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in that population. In low-risk populations, such as those found in Sweden, the prevalence in population-based studies is lower than 2% even when universal testing is offered, while studies in high-risk populations, such as the Native American Cree, Northern Californian Hispanics and Northern Californian Asians, reported prevalence rates ranging from 4.9% to 12.8%. Prevalence rates for GDM obtained from hospital-based studies similarly reflect the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population with a single hospital-based study in Australia reporting prevalences ranging from 3.0% in Anglo-Celtic women to 17.0% in Indian women. Finally, of the eight studies published that report on trends in the prevalence of GDM, 6 studies report an increase in the prevalence of GDM across most racial/ethnic groups studied. In summary, diabetes during pregnancy is a common and increasing complication of pregnancy. PMID:17572266

  14. Microbial prevalence in domestic humidifiers.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Solomon, W R; Boise, J R

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of viable thermophilic bacteria and actinomycetes and mesophilic fungi was examined in 145 samples from 110 domestic humidifiers. A total of 72 and 43% of furnace and console humidifier samples, respectively, contained viable thermophilic bacteria, whereas 60 and 72% of these samples produced mesophilic fungal growth. Thermophilic actinomycetes were recovered from seven humidifier samples. Efforts to detect thermophilic actinomycete antigens in 15 humidifier fluid samples were not successful. Antifoulants added to humidifier fluid reservoirs had no apparent effect on microbial frequency. Airborne microbial recoveries did not reflect patterns of humidifier contamination with respect to either kinds or numbers of microorganisms in 20 homes in which volumetric air samples were obtained during humidifier operation. PMID:7377779

  15. Prevalence of Meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hom, M M; Martinson, J R; Knapp, L L; Paugh, J R

    1990-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and to determine which patient profile factors might be associated with the syndrome. Patients were randomly selected, apparently normal patients presenting for routine vision examinations. Of the 398 patients for whom Meibomian gland expression was performed and a detailed history obtained, 155 patients or 38.9% exhibited MGD based on the principal clinical criterion of an absent or cloudy Meibomian gland secretion upon expression. Patient profile factors of gender, age, allergy occurrence, and contact lens wear were analyzed for correlation with MGD. Age was found to be the only significant correlating factor (positive correlation, p less than 0.0001).

  16. Prevalence of helminthic infections among inhabitants of Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of helminthic infections was surveyed on a total of 6,178 residents (males 2,549 and females 3,629) in 102 villages of 9 provinces in Lao PDR between 2007 and 2011 under the project of Korea-Laos Collaborative Project for Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections in Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and Stoll's egg counting techniques. The overall liver/intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 71.9% with a single or mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF), Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp., echinostomes, Taenia spp., and others. Ov/MIF revealed the highest prevalence (55.6%) followed by hookworms (27.8%) and T. trichiura (6.5%). The endemic regions with the highest prevalence of Ov/MIF were Savannakhet, Khammouane, Vientiane (Nam Ngum), Champasak (Khong Island), and Saravane Province. High prevalences of A. lumbricoides (33.8%), hookworms (47.8%), and T. trichiura (32.6%) were observed in Phongsaly, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane (Nam Ngum) areas, respectively. The results of this study highlight helminth parasites of current public health significance in different areas of Lao PDR. PMID:24623882

  17. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented.

  18. Prevalence of alternative splicing choices in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Around 14% of protein-coding genes of Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the TAIR9 genome release are annotated as producing multiple transcript variants through alternative splicing. However, for most alternatively spliced genes in Arabidopsis, the relative expression level of individual splicing variants is unknown. Results We investigated prevalence of alternative splicing (AS) events in Arabidopsis thaliana using ESTs. We found that for most AS events with ample EST coverage, the majority of overlapping ESTs strongly supported one major splicing choice, with less than 10% of ESTs supporting the minor form. Analysis of ESTs also revealed a small but noteworthy subset of genes for which alternative choices appeared with about equal prevalence, suggesting that for these genes the variant splicing forms co-occur in the same cell types. Of the AS events in which both forms were about equally prevalent, more than 80% affected untranslated regions or involved small changes to the encoded protein sequence. Conclusions Currently available evidence from ESTs indicates that alternative splicing in Arabidopsis occurs and affects many genes, but for most genes with documented alternative splicing, one AS choice predominates. To aid investigation of the role AS may play in modulating function of Arabidopsis genes, we provide an on-line resource (ArabiTag) that supports searching AS events by gene, by EST library keyword search, and by relative prevalence of minor and major forms. PMID:20525311

  19. Domestic violence. Incidence and prevalence in a northern emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jane; Bota, Gary W.; Carter, Mary; Bretzlaff-Michaud, Jennifer A.; Sahai, Vic; Rowe, Brian H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) against women presenting to emergency departments. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study to determine health status and exposure to DV. SETTING: Hospital emergency department in urban northern Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of women older than 16 presenting to the emergency department for any reason. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic variables, exposure to DV. RESULTS: Of 1800 potential subjects, 577 (32%) did not fit inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 1223, 983 (80%) agreed to participate. Mean age was 41, 135 of participants (14%) were aboriginal, and 546 (56%) were married. Overall, 725 (74%) had current partners. Incidence of DV resulting in emergency department presentation on the day of assessment was 2%. Of women with partners, 66 (9%) had previously been threatened or injured by those partners. Lifetime prevalence of DV was 51%; physical DV was experienced by 40%. One-year prevalence was 26%. CONCLUSION: Incidence of DV was lower than expected; prevalence of DV was high. PMID:14761109

  20. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among school teachers in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death worldwide, and nearly 80% of all smokers live in low to middle income countries. Previous research has suggested that smoking rates vary by occupation, with relatively low rates commonly seen among educators. Despite this fact, little is known about the smoking habits of teachers in Botswana. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school teachers in Botswana. Results The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Botswana was found to be relatively low. Of the 1732 participants in the study, only 3.2% reported being current smokers, 5.3% were ex-smokers and 91.5% had never smoked. Smoking was more common among male teachers when compared to females, being 10.8% and 0.4%, respectively. Factors such as school level, marital status and body mass index were found to be positively associated with tobacco smoking, whereas age, length of employment and weekly working hours were not. Conclusion This study suggests that Botswana school teachers have a low prevalence of tobacco smoking. While this result may be attributed to tobacco control measures that have been put in place, there is still need to put in place systems to monitor compliance and programs to help those who want to quit smoking. Such protocols would represent a major step forward in further reducing the prevalence of smoking in the education profession. PMID:24283758

  1. Quantifying the extent to which random plasma glucose underestimates diabetes prevalence in the Nauruan population.

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Dowse, G K; Collins, V R; Zimmet, P Z

    1990-10-01

    The extent to which random plasma glucose levels underestimate the true prevalence of diabetes has been determined in Micronesian Nauruans. In 337 individuals who were screened on the basis of their random plasma glucose levels, the age-standardised prevalence based on a cut-off of 11.1 mmol/l underestimated the population prevalence based on a complete oral glucose tolerance test by 42% in males and 63% in females. At a cut-off level of 7.8 mmol/l the true age-standardised prevalence was underestimated by 16 and 38%, in males and females, respectively. The use of random plasma glucose concentrations to determine the prevalence of diabetes, as currently defined, seems inappropriate. Performing oral glucose tolerance tests on smaller representative population samples should provide more accurate data at less expense than through large-scale screening utilizing random glucose levels.

  2. Geographical variations in the prevalence of HIV infection among drug users receiving ambulatory treatment in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lardelli, P; de la Fuente, L; Alonso, J M; López, R; Bravo, M J; Delgado-Rodríguez, M

    1993-04-01

    To identify the factors responsible for the regional differences in HIV-positive serostatus among drug users in Spain receiving outpatient treatment, the 17 autonomous regions into which Spain is divided were classified as high (mean 52%) or low prevalence groups (mean 34%) depending on the prevalence of seropositivity. In regions where the prevalence of positive serostatus was high, unemployment was more markedly associated with HIV infection than in low prevalence regions, while other potential risk factors yielded the same strength of association. Even so, adjustment for all the factors only accounted for 13% of the total difference in HIV+ prevalence between regions. The current distribution of risk factors among the two groups of autonomous regions does not explain these differences.

  3. [Colombia. Prevalence, Demography and Health Survey 1990].

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    Colombia's 1990 Survey of Prevalence, Demography, and Health (EPDS) was intended to provide data on the total population and on the status of women's and children's health for use in planning and in formulating health and family planning policy. 7412 household interviews and 8647 individual interviews with women aged 15-49 years were completed. This document provides a brief description of the questionnaire, sample design, data processing, and survey results. More detailed works on each topic are expected to follow. After weighing, 74.8% of respondents were urban and 25.2% rural. 3.2% were illiterate, 36.6% had some primary education, 50.2% had secondary educations, and 9.9% had high higher educations. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 98.2% and 997% knew some contraceptive method, 94.1% and 97.9% knew some source of family planning, 57.6% and 86.0% had ever used a method, and 39.9% and 66.1% were currently using a method. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 52.2% and 78.9% had ever used a modern method and 33.0% and 54.6% were currently using a modern method. Among women in union, 14.1% currently used pills, 12.4% IUDs, 2.2% injectables, 1.7% vaginal methods, 2.9% condoms, 20.9% female sterilization, .5% vasectomy, 11.5% some tradition method, 6.1% periodic abstinence, 4.8% withdrawal, and .5% others. Equal proportions of rural and urban women were sterilized. The prevalence of female sterilization declined with education and increased with family size. Modern methods were used by 57.5% of urban and 47.7% of rural women, 44.0% of illiterate women, 51.8% of women with primary and 57.8% with secondary educations. Among women in union, 10.9% wanted a child soon, 19.7% wanted 1 eventually, 3.6% were undecided, 42.6% did not want 1, 21.4% were sterilized, and 1.2% were infertile. Among women giving birth in the past 5 years, the proportion having antitetanus vaccinations increased from 39% in 1986

  4. Marijuana: current concepts(†).

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Hawver, Elizabeth K; Greydanus, Megan M; Merrick, Joav

    2013-10-10

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  5. Current Opinions on Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Goff, Caroline Le; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional ”treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Key points The word “tendinopathy ”is the correct term for the clinical diagnosis of pain accompanied by impaired performance, and sometimes swelling in the tendon. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be a multi-factorial process, involving promoting factors that are intrinsic or extrinsic, working either alone or in combination. US (with color Doppler) and MRI are usually prescribed when tendinopathy is unresponsive to treatment and entails lingering symptoms. Eccentric training is currently considered to be the

  6. Prevalence of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Thongudomporn, U; Freer, T J

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of dental anomalies including agenesis, crown shape, tooth position, root shape, and invagination were examined in 111 orthodontic patients; 74.77 per cent of the patients exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Invagination was found to be the most prevalent anomaly, whereas supernumerary teeth and root dilaceration were the least frequent anomalies. Dental invagination and short or blunt roots were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Implications for orthodontic treatment planning are discussed. PMID:9973708

  7. [The prevalence of dementia in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kasper; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-11-24

    The exact prevalence of dementia in Denmark is unknown. Based on epidemiological data we have calculated possible estimates for the present Danish prevalence of dementia and prevalence projections through to 2030. The discrepancy between estimates based on epidemiological studies and the number of dementia diagnoses in registers indicates that dementia may be underdiagnosed. Even though results from recent epidemiological studies point to a possible decline in incidence we expect the future prevalence of dementia to increase due to an expected increase of the elderly population.

  8. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojing; Meng, Zhen; Huang, Guifeng; Fan, Jingyuan; Zhou, Wenwen; Ling, Weijun; Jiang, Juan; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders (ADs) have been recognized as one of the most prevalent mental disorders in mainland China, the prevalence of ADs has not been reported until now. The lack of a consolidated and comparable review on the prevalence of ADs in mainland China necessitated this meta-analysis to measure the prevalence. To identify the relevant studies on ADs for the analysis, we searched published studies in electronic databases up to July 2015. The pooled prevalence in the overall population and the prevalences by gender and location were estimated. A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled current/lifetime prevalences of ADs, generalized AD, non-specific AD, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were 24.47‰/41.12‰, 5.17‰/4.66‰, 8.30‰/6.89‰, 1.08‰/3.44‰, 0.70‰/4.11‰, 0.19‰/2.15‰, 0.63‰/19.61‰, 0.49‰/1.83‰, and 0.90‰/3.17‰, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that compared with males, females had a consistently significantly higher prevalence of ADs. However, no difference was observed between those in urban and rural areas. The pooled prevalence of ADs was relatively lower than those of some other countries. A higher prevalence of ADs in women than in men was commonly observed, whereas the prevalences in urban and rural areas were nearly the same. PMID:27306280

  9. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojing; Meng, Zhen; Huang, Guifeng; Fan, Jingyuan; Zhou, Wenwen; Ling, Weijun; Jiang, Juan; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders (ADs) have been recognized as one of the most prevalent mental disorders in mainland China, the prevalence of ADs has not been reported until now. The lack of a consolidated and comparable review on the prevalence of ADs in mainland China necessitated this meta-analysis to measure the prevalence. To identify the relevant studies on ADs for the analysis, we searched published studies in electronic databases up to July 2015. The pooled prevalence in the overall population and the prevalences by gender and location were estimated. A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled current/lifetime prevalences of ADs, generalized AD, non-specific AD, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were 24.47‰/41.12‰, 5.17‰/4.66‰, 8.30‰/6.89‰, 1.08‰/3.44‰, 0.70‰/4.11‰, 0.19‰/2.15‰, 0.63‰/19.61‰, 0.49‰/1.83‰, and 0.90‰/3.17‰, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that compared with males, females had a consistently significantly higher prevalence of ADs. However, no difference was observed between those in urban and rural areas. The pooled prevalence of ADs was relatively lower than those of some other countries. A higher prevalence of ADs in women than in men was commonly observed, whereas the prevalences in urban and rural areas were nearly the same. PMID:27306280

  10. Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan B R

    2012-11-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either "typical" or "atypical". In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  11. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan BR

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either “typical” or “atypical”. In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  12. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-05-31

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued.

  13. The comorbidity of substance use disorders and eating disorders in women: prevalence, etiology, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Erin N; Marlatt, G Alan

    2010-05-01

    Substance use disorders often co-occur with eating disorders in female populations. This review addresses the prevalence and etiology of this comorbidity in women. Thirteen peer-reviewed journal articles are reviewed. Conclusions are drawn concerning prevalence rates, theory, and implications for treatment. Current research supports distinct etiologies and growth trajectories for both disorders. Thus, comorbidity presents with unique challenges, and often, worse outcomes. Though comorbidity rates are high, little research has been done concerning treatment. Given the high prevalence rates of these comorbid disorders, a specific treatment needs to be developed that targets both disorders simultaneously.

  14. Smoking habits among university students in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Khader, Y S; Alsadi, A A

    2008-01-01

    Questionnaires were completed by 712 university students in north Jordan to estimate their prevalence of smoking. The reported prevalence of current smoking was 35.0% (56.9% for males and 11.4% for females). About 80% were cigarettes smokers. The majority (86.3%) of smokers smoked daily. Male sex, higher income, lower academic attainment and higher number of friends or family members who smoke were associated with increased prevalence of smoking. Those in the faculty of religion and law were less likely to smoke compared to those in other faculties. The results suggest that policy-makers need to initiate antismoking programmes in Jordanian universities.

  15. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  16. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  17. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation. PMID:27536165

  18. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  19. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation. PMID:27536165

  20. Superconducting fault current controller/current controller

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Yung S.

    2004-06-15

    A superconducting fault current controller/current controller employs a superconducting-shielded core reactor (SSCR) with a variable impedance in a secondary circuit to control current in a primary circuit such as an electrical distribution system. In a second embodiment, a variable current source is employed in a secondary circuit of an SSCR to control current in the primary circuit. In a third embodiment, both a variable impedance in one secondary circuit and a variable current source in a second circuit of an SSCR are employed for separate and independent control of current in the primary circuit.

  1. The Prevalence of Standard Large Modules in Thermoelectric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J.; Bierschenk, J.

    2015-06-01

    The thermoelectric industry serves a broad range of applications using, mainly, a few standard module designs. This paper first briefly describes types of modules and two types of thermoelectric material used by the industry, after which the focus is on selected features of the standard designs and reasons for their prevalence. Whereas cost reduction and the need to maximize reliability drive the adoption of standard modules, other factors contribute to shaping the particular features of the standard thermoelectric cooling modules. These factors include the magnitude of heat loads, heat-sink performance, durability and performance expectations, and relative ease of manufacture. This discussion of the features and prevalence of standard modules relates to broader aspects of both the production and implementation of thermoelectric modules, and an estimate of current thermoelectric industry output is included.

  2. Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

  3. Cheating Perceptions and Prevalence across Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honz, Kelly; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Yang, Ya-Shu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated high school students' perceptions of cheating and its prevalence. Students were administered the Academic Honesty Survey to determine their perceptions and prevalence of cheating across three academic settings: tests, homework, and report writing. Overall, students had traditional perceptions of what constitutes cheating.…

  4. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  5. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). Design Questionnaire and population based observational study. Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusions EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity

  6. Prevalence of Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sarki, Ahmed M.; Nduka, Chidozie U.; Stranges, Saverio; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Uthman, Olalekan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of hypertension prevalence, and to examine the pattern of this disease condition across different socio-demographic characteristics in low-and middle-income countries. We searched electronic databases from inception to August 2015. We included population-based studies that reported hypertension prevalence using the current definition of blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used random-effects meta-analyses to pool prevalence estimates of hypertension, overall, by World Bank region and country income group. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. A total of 242 studies, comprising data on 1,494,609 adults from 45 countries, met our inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 32.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.4–35.3), with the Latin America and Caribbean region reporting the highest estimates (39.1%, 95% CI 33.1–45.2). Pooled prevalence estimate was also highest across upper middle income countries (37.8%, 95% CI 35.0–40.6) and lowest across low-income countries (23.1%, 95% CI 20.1–26.2). Prevalence estimates were significantly higher in the elderly (≥65 years) compared with younger adults (<65 years) overall and across the geographical regions; however, there was no significant sex-difference in hypertension prevalence (31.9% vs 30.8%, P = 0.6). Persons without formal education (49.0% vs 24.9%, P < 0.00001), overweight/obese (46.4% vs 26.3%, P < 0.00001), and urban settlers (32.7% vs 25.2%, P = 0.0005) were also more likely to be hypertensive, compared with those who were educated, normal weight, and rural settlers respectively. This study provides contemporary and up-to-date estimates that reflect the significant burden of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries, as well as evidence that hypertension remains a major public health issue

  7. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

  8. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Lindsey A.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PMID

  9. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Among Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096

  10. Socioeconomic factors and prevalence of endemic goitre.

    PubMed

    Joshi, D C; Mishra, V N; Bhatnagar, M; Singh, R B; Garg, S K; Chopra, H

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 2611 school children of a rural area of Meerut, with the objectives to find out the prevalence and distribution of endemic goitre and the socioeconomic variables associated with the distribution of the endemic goitre. Grading of goitre was done as per the criteria laid down by the WHO-1979 (1). The overall prevalence rate of endemic goitre was 50.1%, the prevalence was more among females (55.1%) as compared to males (47.2%). Maximum number of goitre cases were having grade Ia enlargement (46.9%) followed by grade Ib (34.1%), grade 2(15.0%) and grade 3 (4.0%). Prevalence increased with increase in age. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of endemic goitre in relation to different religions and caste groups, different occupations of the parents/guardians of children and types of houses used for the purpose of living. PMID:8138288

  11. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 4: Celiac disease in Canada. Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Richard N; Switzer, Connie M; Bridges, Ron J

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning celiac disease. PMID:22720277

  12. Prevalence of Asthma, COPD, and Chronic Bronchitis in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Varmaghani, Mehdi; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sharifi, Farshad; Rashidian, Arash; Moin, Mostafa; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis on the results of eligible studies to estimate the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and Chronic bronchitis in Iran. International and Iranian databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Iranmedex, and scientific information database (SID) were searched for population-based studies that had reported the prevalence of asthma and COPD from 1990 to 2015. We conducted the meta-analysis using metaprop application of Stata statistical software. I-Squared was used for calculating heterogeneity among the studies. To determine causes of heterogeneity, subgroup analysis and meta-regression method were used. Based on the results of random effect method, the overall prevalence of asthma ever was 4.56% (3.76%-5.36%) among men while it was 4.17% (3.42%-4.91%) among women. Pooled prevalence of current asthma was 7.95% while confidence interval changed from 5.85% to 10.06% (men 5.83% (2.75%-8.92%), women 9.13% (3.35%-14.94%)). Also based on the results of random effect model pooled prevalence of chronic bronchitis of five studies was 5.57%. It seems that the total crude prevalence of current asthma in Iran is less than many other countries such as Kuwait, Lebanon, Thailand, Japan, Australia and Germany and is higher than some other countries such as Oman, Pakistan, South Korea, India, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Spain, Russia, and Greece. On the other hand, Iran is in middle situation in terms of the prevalence current asthma. Our results can fill the information and knowledge gaps about the status of the prevalence of respiratory diseases in Iran.

  13. Prevalence of Asthma, COPD, and Chronic Bronchitis in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Varmaghani, Mehdi; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sharifi, Farshad; Rashidian, Arash; Moin, Mostafa; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis on the results of eligible studies to estimate the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and Chronic bronchitis in Iran. International and Iranian databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Iranmedex, and scientific information database (SID) were searched for population-based studies that had reported the prevalence of asthma and COPD from 1990 to 2015. We conducted the meta-analysis using metaprop application of Stata statistical software. I-Squared was used for calculating heterogeneity among the studies. To determine causes of heterogeneity, subgroup analysis and meta-regression method were used. Based on the results of random effect method, the overall prevalence of asthma ever was 4.56% (3.76%-5.36%) among men while it was 4.17% (3.42%-4.91%) among women. Pooled prevalence of current asthma was 7.95% while confidence interval changed from 5.85% to 10.06% (men 5.83% (2.75%-8.92%), women 9.13% (3.35%-14.94%)). Also based on the results of random effect model pooled prevalence of chronic bronchitis of five studies was 5.57%. It seems that the total crude prevalence of current asthma in Iran is less than many other countries such as Kuwait, Lebanon, Thailand, Japan, Australia and Germany and is higher than some other countries such as Oman, Pakistan, South Korea, India, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Spain, Russia, and Greece. On the other hand, Iran is in middle situation in terms of the prevalence current asthma. Our results can fill the information and knowledge gaps about the status of the prevalence of respiratory diseases in Iran. PMID:27090362

  14. Prevalence of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Persian related cats in France.

    PubMed

    Barthez, P Y; Rivier, P; Begon, D

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has been estimated in the USA, Australia, UK, and Germany, but no data are available to date in France. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of PKD in Persian and Persian related breeds of cats in France. Medical records of all healthy cats presented for ultrasonographic screening of PKD between December 2000 and April 2002 were analysed from two centres (ENVL and ENVA). Cats were classified as positive when at least one anechoic cavity was found in at least one kidney. Prevalence of PKD was compared between the two screening centres, between different breeds evaluated, and between male and female using Chi-square test. A total of 310 cats were examined, including 92 at ENVL (57 Persians, 22 Exotic Shorthairs, 7 Chartreux, 4 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 2 Abyssins) and 218 at ENVA (163 Persians, 42 Exotic Shorthairs, 4 Chartreux, 4 British Shorthairs, 2 American Whirehairs, 2 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 1 American Shorthair). Prevalence of PKD was 41.8% in Persian cats and 39.1% in Exotic Shorthair. No PKD was detected in cats from other breeds. There was no significant difference between prevalence of PKD found in ENVL and ENVA, between prevalence of PKD in Persians and in Exotic Shorthairs, and prevalence of PKD in male and in female. Prevalence of PKD in Persians and Exotic Shorthair cats in France is currently high but is similar to prevalence in other parts of the world. Selection based on ultrasonographic detection of cysts should decrease prevalence of PKD in the future. PMID:14623204

  15. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in a German psychiatric inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Kollei, Ines; Martin, Alexandra; Rein, Katharina; Rotter, Andrea; Jacobi, Andrea; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-08-30

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. Only a few studies have examined BDD prevalence in psychiatric settings. Prevalence rates vary widely and most studies have been conducted in outpatient samples. In the current study, we examined 155 adult psychiatric inpatients. Diagnostic criteria of BDD were assessed with the BDD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The prevalence of lifetime BDD was 2.6% (95% CI=0.1-5.1%). Currently 1.9% of the patients suffered from BDD (95% CI=0.0-4.0%). None of these patients were diagnosed with BDD on admission or during hospitalization. The BDD rates found in this study are considerably lower than lifetime and current prevalence rates reported by two other studies conducted in adult psychiatric inpatient settings (Grant et al., 2001; Conroy et al., 2008). The differences may be explained by divergent sample compositions and variation in diagnostic measures. The findings of the current study underline the need for further studies examining BDD prevalence in psychiatric settings and suggest using a combination of screening questionnaire and follow-up interview to diagnose BDD.

  16. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Manes, Harvey R

    2012-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is prevalent in patients who have a repetitive motion, vibration, or pressure exerted on the wrist joint for an extended period of time. The prevalence of this condition in the general population is approximately 5%. Motorcyclists subject themselves to high levels of vibration from the road and use their wrists to control the motorcycle's brakes, gas intake, and gears via the handlebars. Under these conditions, the author hypothesized that an increased prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome would be observed in this population.

  17. Prevalence of Chiari I Malformation and Syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Elyne N; Muraszko, Karin M; Maher, Cormac O

    2015-10-01

    Chiari I malformation (CM) is a common neurosurgical diagnosis and spinal cord syrinx is frequently found in patients with CM. Asymptomatic CM is a common imaging finding. Symptomatic CM is less common. Variation in prevalence estimates may be attributed to differences in sensitivity of CM detection between studies as well as differences in the populations being analyzed. The prevalence of low tonsil position and CM on MRI is higher in children and young adults compared with older adults. Studies that include a large number of older adults find a lower prevalence compared with analyses of children.

  18. Prevalence of substance-related disorders in heart transplantation candidates.

    PubMed

    Sirri, L; Potena, L; Masetti, M; Tossani, E; Grigioni, F; Magelli, C; Branzi, A; Grandi, S

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse cessation is one of the leading factors in determining the eligibility for the heart transplantation waiting list, as noncompliance with this issue may seriously endanger posttransplantation outcomes. Yet, the prevalence of substance-related disorders among candidates for heart transplantation has not been evaluated enough. Eighty three heart transplantation candidates were assessed for prior or current substance-related disorders through the Structured Clinical Interview for mental disorders according to DSM-IV. A prior history of at least one substance-related disorder was found in 64% of patients, with nicotine dependence as the most prevalent diagnosis (61.4% of the sample). Ten subjects were currently smokers, despite heart failure. A prior history of alcohol abuse and caffeine intoxication was found in 9.6% and 2.4% of patients, respectively. Substance abuse or dependence behaviors should be monitored during all the phases of heart transplantation program. Early identification of current substance-related disorders may allow better allocation of organ resources and proper lifestyle modification programs provision. A prior history of substance-related disorders should alert physicians to assess patients for possible relapse, especially after transplantation. The inclusion of a specialist in the assessment and treatment of substance-related disorders in the heart transplantation unit may reduce the risk of unsuccessful outcomes due to noncompliance with an adequate lifestyle.

  19. Anorectal human papillomavirus: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Assi, Roland; Reddy, Vikram; Einarsdottir, Hulda; Longo, Walter E

    2014-12-01

    Increased anorectal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is related to the recent trends in sexual behavior in both homosexual and heterosexual groups and prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Clinical presentation and natural history depend on the serotype involved. HPV 6 and 11 are found in the benign wart. Local control can be achieved with a wide selection of surgical and topical techniques. HPV 16, 18, and 31 are found in dysplastic lesions and have the potential to progress to invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma. Recognition and early management of dysplastic lesions is crucial to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with anal cancer. While low-grade lesions can be closely observed, high-grade lesions should be eradicated. Different strategies can be used to eradicate the disease while preserving anorectal function. Studies on the efficacy of vaccination on anorectal HPV showed promising results in select population groups and led to the recent expansion of current vaccination recommendations.

  20. Prevalence of Parental Misconceptions About Antibiotic Use

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Kenneth P.; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Dutta-Linn, M. Maya; Nahill, Chelsea; Hellinger, James; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differences in antibiotic knowledge and attitudes between parents of Medicaid-insured and commercially insured children have been previously reported. It is unknown whether understanding has improved and whether previously identified differences persist. METHODS: A total of 1500 Massachusetts parents with a child <6 years old insured by a Medicaid managed care or commercial health plan were surveyed in spring 2013. We examined antibiotic-related knowledge and attitudes by using χ2 tests. Multivariable modeling was used to assess current sociodemographic predictors of knowledge and evaluate changes in predictors from a similar survey in 2000. RESULTS: Medicaid-insured parents in 2013 (n = 345) were younger, were less likely to be white, and had less education than those commercially insured (n = 353), P < .01. Fewer Medicaid-insured parents answered questions correctly except for one related to bronchitis, for which there was no difference (15% Medicaid vs 16% commercial, P < .66). More parents understood that green nasal discharge did not require antibiotics in 2013 compared with 2000, but this increase was smaller among Medicaid-insured (32% vs 22% P = .02) than commercially insured (49% vs 23%, P < .01) parents. Medicaid-insured parents were more likely to request unnecessary antibiotics in 2013 (P < .01). Multivariable models for predictors of knowledge or attitudes demonstrated complex relationships between insurance status and sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Misconceptions about antibiotic use persist and continue to be more prevalent among parents of Medicaid-insured children. Improvement in understanding has been more pronounced in more advantaged populations. Tailored efforts for socioeconomically disadvantaged populations remain warranted to decrease parental drivers of unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. PMID:26195539

  1. Obesity prevalence from a European perspective: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Berghöfer, Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Reinhold, Thomas; Apovian, Caroline M; Sharma, Arya M; Willich, Stefan N

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity has been recognised as an important contributing factor in the development of various diseases, but comparative data on this condition are limited. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in European countries. Methods We identified relevant published studies by means of a MEDLINE search (1990–2008) supplemented by information obtained from regulatory agencies. We only included surveys that used direct measures of weight and height and were representative of each country's overall population. Results In Europe, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) in men ranged from 4.0% to 28.3% and in women from 6.2% to 36.5%. We observed considerable geographic variation, with prevalence rates in Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe being higher than those in Western and Northern Europe. Conclusion In Europe, obesity has reached epidemic proportions. The data presented in our review emphasise the need for effective therapeutic and preventive strategies. PMID:18533989

  2. Type 2 diabetes among Asian Americans: Prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam H; Nguyen, Thuc-Nhi; Fischer, Taylor; Ha, Won; Tran, Thanh V

    2015-05-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing problem among Asian Americans. Based on the Centers for Disease Control, the age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM for Asian Americans is 9%, placing them at "moderate risk". However differential patterns of disease burden emerge when examining disaggregated data across Asian American ethnic groups; with Filipino, Pacific Islander, Japanese, and South Asian groups consistently described as having the highest prevalence of T2DM. Disentangling and strengthening prevalence data is vital for on-going prevention efforts. The strongest evidence currently available to guide the prevention of T2DM in the United States comes from a large multicenter randomized clinical control trial called the Diabetes Prevention Program, which targets individual lifestyle behavior changes. It has been translated and adopted for some Asian American groups, and shows promise. However stronger study designs and attention to several key methodological considerations will improve the science. Increased attention has also been directed toward population level downstream prevention efforts. Building an infrastructure that includes both individual and population approaches is needed to prevent T2DM among Asian American populations, and is essential for reducing health disparities.

  3. Prevalence of silicosis at death in underground coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Green, F.H.; Althouse, R.; Weber, K.C. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was initiated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Bureau of Mines (BOM) to determine the prevalence and pathological features of silicosis in coal miners. The population base was 3,365 autopsied underground miners whose records were submitted to the U.S. National Coal Workers' Autopsy Study between 1971 and 1980. This program is voluntary and covers an estimated 10% of all coal workers who die. The mean age at death of the population was 62 years, of whom 75% were current or ex-smokers at the time of death. The average work tenure was 26 years. Lung sections from all cases were reviewed and the type and severity of pneumoconiosis documented. These findings were correlated with years of mining, job history, and geographic location of mine. Classical silicotic nodules were found in 12.5% of the population. There was a significant relationship between length of underground mining and prevalence and severity of silicosis consistent with a dose-response effect. The study also showed that job category and geographic location of the mine were important determinants of silicosis prevalence and that silicosis was strongly associated with higher categories of coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

  4. The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangfang; Huang, Yinxing; Ding, Chenyu; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Shousen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPMAs) is not well known, and hyperprolactinemia caused by a NFPMA is currently associated with diagnostic uncertainty. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs. Methods: A meta-analysis of all existing articles in PubMed was conducted. The search string was designed as “(non-functioning pituitary tumor OR non-functioning pituitary tumor OR non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas OR non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas OR non-functioning pituitary adenomas OR non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and hyperprolactinemia”. References of the articles found were also reviewed. Study selection and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 software (StataCorp LP, USA). The fixed effects model was used to evaluate these studies. Results: The search identified 57 published studies, seven of which were accepted for the final meta-analysis. The authors found an overall estimated 40.2% prevalence of (95% CI, 36.6%-43.7%) hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs. Conclusions: Given the high frequency of hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs, a diagnosis of NFPMA or prolactinoma should be made more carefully. PMID:26770524

  5. [Raynaud's phenomenon: pathogenesis and prevalence].

    PubMed

    Mikulska, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is defined as occasional ischemia of the distal parts of the extremities. Ischemia may be idiopathic as in primary Raynaud's disease or instigated by a comorbidity as in Raynaud's syndrome. Opinions on the etiopathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon have changed during recent years. Research has shown that enhanced vascular reactivity is attributable more to local factors and less to abnormalities in the central nervous system. Local factors are classified as vascular, nervous, and intravascular. Changes in our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon have resulted in modified therapeutic guidelines. The present work reviews current opinions on the etiopathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon.

  6. Social-structural indices and between-nation differences in HIV prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Judy Y; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Pratto, Felicia; Rosenthal, Lisa; Kalichman, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Research emphasises the role that social structures play in shaping national HIV prevalence. This study examined how social, economic, and political contexts that may represent the confluence of individual capabilities and environmental affordances or constraints are associated with national HIV prevalence. Based on social-ecological perspectives, we examined social-structural dimensions in relation to national HIV prevalence. The study identified six publicly available nation-level social, political, and economic indices and examined their associations with national 2009 HIV prevalence across 225 nations. National indices, (a) education expenditures, (b) unemployment rate, (c) homicide rate, (d) freedom of religion, and (e) women’s social rights, altogether explained 43% of the variability in national HIV prevalence. Education expenditures, homicide rate, and freedom of religion were significant predictors of national HIV prevalence in the multivariate analysis. The present study identified nation-level factors that capture social, economic, and political contexts to explain between-nation differences in HIV prevalence. Findings extend current literature on the social-structural foundation of HIV-risk and the relationship between human rights and health. National safeguards that afford individuals the power to promote general quality of life and protection from structural violence may be most important to lowering overall rates of HIV transmission. PMID:24700198

  7. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis based on the SACRA questionnaire among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors and asthma and rhinitis are related, relatively few studies have investigated the prevalence of occupational rhinitis based on occupation, and knowledge of occupational rhinitis in Japan is currently limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma. A postal survey was conducted from October to December 2013 using translated versions of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey for the prevalence of asthma and State of the Impact of Allergic Rhinitis on Asthma Control questionnaire for the prevalence of rhinitis. Of 4,634 Japanese nursing professionals, 497 subjects had asthma, and 270 of these 497 subjects had allergic rhinitis (54.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49.7-58.7). Latex allergy was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.21-2.60). There was no relationship between employment period and prevalent allergic rhinitis. The results of this study provide fundamental information regarding occupational health among Japanese nursing professionals, including the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma and latex allergy as a potential risk factor for prevalent allergic rhinitis.

  8. Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

    2014-11-15

    Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human

  9. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among instrumental musicians at a center for performing arts in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ajidahun, Adedayo T; Phillips, Julie

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) is high in various countries of the world, but there is a paucity of literature in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMDs among instrumentalists in South Africa, with specific objectives in determining the distribution, symptoms, and pain severity. The self-administered Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect information from the participants regarding the lifetime and current prevalence and the distribution of PRMD symptoms. A visual analog scale was used to collect information on the severity of pain, while the questionnaire designed by Blackie, Stone, and Tiernan (1999) was used to collect information on the symptoms of the PRMDs. Twenty participants took part in this study, and the respondents reported a lifetime prevalence (over a period of 12 months) of PRMDs as 14 out of 17 and the current prevalence (in the last 7 days) as 4. Pain severity was mostly mild, and the most affected region was in the upper extremities, with the shoulders being the most affected. Tightening and soreness were the most reported symptom of PRMDs. The prevalence of PRMDs among this population was high, although severity was mild, with the upper extremities being the most affected area.

  10. [Current epidemiology of gout].

    PubMed

    Ankli, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in adults nowadays. Prevalence has risen over the last decades. Patients over 65 years are disproportionally affected. A male/female ratio of 4:1 is diminishing after menopause (still 3:1). The relative risk of developing gout increases in a linear progression with the serum uric acid level. Other risk factors beside hyperuricemia are genetic predisposition, age, male gender, adipositas, lifestyle modification, chronic kidney disease and intake of diuretics. Many gout patients suffer from comorbidities. The metabolic syndrome is associated with gout. Two fifths of patients with gout had also chronic kidney disease. Reasons for the rise in prevalence are longevity, dietary habits and the high prevalence of patients with chronic kidney disease in the general population.

  11. [Current epidemiology of gout].

    PubMed

    Ankli, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in adults nowadays. Prevalence has risen over the last decades. Patients over 65 years are disproportionally affected. A male/female ratio of 4:1 is diminishing after menopause (still 3:1). The relative risk of developing gout increases in a linear progression with the serum uric acid level. Other risk factors beside hyperuricemia are genetic predisposition, age, male gender, adipositas, lifestyle modification, chronic kidney disease and intake of diuretics. Many gout patients suffer from comorbidities. The metabolic syndrome is associated with gout. Two fifths of patients with gout had also chronic kidney disease. Reasons for the rise in prevalence are longevity, dietary habits and the high prevalence of patients with chronic kidney disease in the general population. PMID:27008443

  12. Sample size estimation in prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ravindra; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-11-01

    Estimation of appropriate sample size for prevalence surveys presents many challenges, particularly when the condition is very rare or has a tendency for geographical clustering. Sample size estimate for prevalence studies is a function of expected prevalence and precision for a given level of confidence expressed by the z statistic. Choice of the appropriate values for these variables is sometimes not straight-forward. Certain other situations do not fulfil the assumptions made in the conventional equation and present a special challenge. These situations include, but are not limited to, smaller population size in relation to sample size, sampling technique or missing data. This paper discusses practical issues in sample size estimation for prevalence studies with an objective to help clinicians and healthcare researchers make more informed decisions whether reviewing or conducting such a study. PMID:22562262

  13. Arsenic and diabetes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Fa; Chen, Ya Wen; Yang, Ching Yao; Tsai, Keh Sung; Yang, Rong Sen; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2011-09-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metalloid of global concern. Many studies have indicated a dose-response relationship between accumulative arsenic exposure and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan and Bangladesh, where arsenic exposure occurs through drinking water. Epidemiological researches have suggested that the characteristics of arsenic-induced DM observed in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan and Mexico are similar to those of non-insulin-dependent DM (Type 2 DM). These studies analyzed the association between high and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water and the development of DM, but the effect of exposure to low to moderate levels of inorganic arsenic on the risk of DM is unclear. Navas-Acien et al. recently proposed that a positive association existed between total urine arsenic and the prevalence of Type 2 DM in people exposed to low to moderate levels of arsenic. However, the diabetogenic role played by arsenic is still debated upon. An increase in the prevalence of DM has been observed among residents of highly arsenic-contaminated areas, whereas the findings from community-based and occupational studies in low-arsenic-exposure areas have been inconsistent. Recently, a population-based cross-sectional study showed that the current findings did not support an association between arsenic exposure from drinking water at levels less than 300 μg/L and a significantly increased risk of DM. Moreover, although the precise mechanisms for the arsenic-induced diabetogenic effect are still largely undefined, recent in vitro experimental studies indicated that inorganic arsenic or its metabolites impair insulin-dependent glucose uptake or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Nevertheless, the dose, the form of arsenic used, and the experimental duration in the in vivo studies varied greatly, leading to conflicting results and ambiguous interpretation of these data with respect to human exposure

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported violence of Osaka and Seattle male youths.

    PubMed

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non-Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Harazi, Talal; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abd; Othman, Hidayatulfathi

    2013-12-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among the Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia. The overall intestinal protozoan infection rate was 85% (261 out of 307). The highest prevalence rates were due to Entamoeba coli (24.4%), Giardia lamblia (21.8%), Blastocystis hominis (21.2%) and Entamoeba histolytica (15.0%). The prevalence of Iodamoeba butschlii was only 2.9%. Among the positive samples, mixed infection with B. hominis and E. histolytica was 3.3%, B. hominis and G. lamblia was 2.9%, G. lamblia and E. histolytica was 2.0% and triple infections (B. hominis, G. lamblia and E. histolytica) was 1.0 %. The prevalence of the infection was high in all age groups (6-14 years old). Thus, we can conclude that intestinal protozoan infections are still representing a serious public health problem in aboriginal communities, especially among children.

  16. Prevalence and Severity of Symptoms in a Sample of African Americans and White Participants.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Indu; So, Suzanna; Stewart, Julian M; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), African Americans have a substantially greater prevalence of a range of health conditions when compared to other racial or ethnic groups. Many of these conditions have been attributed to the historical and contemporary social and economic disparities faced by the African American community. While many health conditions occur at a higher rate in African Americans, it is unclear whether there are specific symptom clusters that may also be more prevalent in African Americans as a result of these disparities. Potential differences in symptomology have not been thoroughly examined between African Americans and White populations. The current study compares the prevalence and pain severity of symptoms among a sample of African Americans and White participants. Significant differences in symptom prevalence were found in disturbed sleep and reproductive areas. African Americans also experience more pain due to symptoms related to orthostatic intolerance. Implications of this finding are discussed.

  17. Prevalence and Severity of Symptoms in a Sample of African Americans and White Participants

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Indu; So, Suzanna; Stewart, Julian M.; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), African Americans have a substantially greater prevalence of a range of health conditions when compared to other racial or ethnic groups. Many of these conditions have been attributed to the historical and contemporary social and economic disparities faced by the African American community. While many health conditions occur at a higher rate in African Americans, it is unclear whether there are specific symptom clusters that may also be more prevalent in African Americans as a result of these disparities. Potential differences in symptomology have not been thoroughly examined between African Americans and White populations. The current study compares the prevalence and pain severity of symptoms among a sample of African Americans and White participants. Significant differences in symptom prevalence were found in disturbed sleep and reproductive areas. African Americans also experience more pain due to symptoms related to orthostatic intolerance. Implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:26245010

  18. The current catalog--how current?

    PubMed

    Sargent, C W

    1968-07-01

    NLM's Current Catalog has recently come in for some criticism. To be useful as a tool in acquisition and cataloging, currency in receipt of the Current Catalog is necessary. A survey of 263 titles with 1967 imprints, which were received by the Library of the Medical Sciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, was made to determine the correlation between the receipt of these books in the library and their appearance in the Current Catalog. PMID:5695111

  19. Prevalence and socioeconomic associations of asthma and allergic rhinitis in northern [corrected] Africa.

    PubMed

    Georgy, V; Fahim, H I; El-Gaafary, M; Walters, S

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the current study were to ascertain the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in Cairo, Egypt (northern Africa), and to elucidate the socioeconomic factors associated with symptom prevalence and severity. A translated and adapted version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 2,645 11-15-yr-olds in state and fee-paying schools in Cairo. The overall prevalences of wheeze ever, wheeze during the last year and physician-diagnosed asthma were 26.5% (697 out of 2,631), 14.7% (379 out of 2,570) and 9.4% (246 out of 2,609), respectively. The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 15.3% (399 out of 2,616). Asthma symptoms were independently associated with attendance at a state school, parental asthma, age, history of rhinitis and owning a pet cat. Rhinoconjunctivitis was independently associated with attendance at a state school, father's education, parental history of asthma, asthma symptoms and owning a pet cat. In spite of a higher prevalence of severe asthma symptoms in state schools prevalence of physician diagnosis of asthma was the same in both school types, suggesting inequalities in access to healthcare. In conclusion, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma in Cairo was 9.4%, while the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 15.3%. There is a higher prevalence and increased severity of asthma symptoms in children of lower socioeconomic groups, as defined by state school attendance in Cairo.

  20. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses. Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43–54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20–34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13–27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10–14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6–15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12–24) and 11% (95% CI 7–15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2–6). High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  1. Spatial analysis of global prevalence of multiple sclerosis suggests need for an updated prevalence scale.

    PubMed

    Wade, Brett J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an unknown aetiology. MS has a geographic pattern of prevalence with high prevalence rates between 45 degrees and 65 degrees north. In much of the northern hemisphere, there exists a prevalence gradient, with increasing prevalence from south to north. While genetics may partially explain the latitudinal gradient, it is not strong enough to exclude exogenous variables. Kurtzke initially came up with a three-zone scale for low, medium, and high prevalence zones. He defined high as 30 or more per 100,000, medium as 5-29 per 100,000, and low as less than 5 per 100,000. In this study, 131 geographic datasets (geocases) were spatially analyzed to determine whether the existing global prevalence scale needed to be updated. The mean prevalence rate was 67.83/100,000 with rates ranging from 350/100,000 to 0/100,000. The results of this study suggest that the commonly referenced scale for global MS prevalence needs to be updated with added zones to reflect significantly higher prevalence rates in some areas of the world. We suggest a five-zone scale: very high (170-350), high (70-170), medium (38-70), low (13-38), and very low (0-13).

  2. Prevalence and Clustering of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in China: A Recent Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Cheng, Xinqi; Qiu, Ling; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Jianhua; Xia, Liangyu; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Chinese population. Although general prevalence estimates of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are available for Chinese adults, prevalence estimates covering all adult age groups by race/ethnicity have not been reported. The aim of this study is to estimate the current prevalence and clustering of major CVRFs in Chinese adults, including a plurality of ethnic minorities.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 23,010 adults aged 18 years and older from 2007 to 2011. Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed, and fasting blood was collected for laboratory measurements. The prevalence of traditional CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking, were determined.The prevalence of the major CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking were 24.3%, 4.3%, 49.3%, 32.0%, and 21.7%, respectively. These risk factors were significantly associated with sex, age, region, ethnicity, and education levels. Overall, 70.3%, 40.3%, and 16.7% of Chinese adults had ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs, respectively. Men, northern and rural residents were more likely to have clustered CVRFs compared with women, southern and urban residents, respectively. Compared with Han residents, Hui and Mongolian residents were more likely, and Tujia and Miao residents were less likely, to have ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence of Chinese women having ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs decreased with increasing levels of education.The prevalence and clustering of CVRFs is still high in Chinese adults ≥18 years old, especially in men and in individuals living in the northern and rural areas. Of note, there are differences in cardiovascular risk among different ethnic groups. Therefore, targeted and enhanced intervention measures are required to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the corresponding

  3. Prevalences of asthma and rhinitis among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil: temporal changes *

    PubMed Central

    de Luna, Maria de Fátima Gomes; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; de Luna, João Rafael Gomes; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; de Almeida, Paulo César; Chiesa, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions. RESULTS: Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 2006-2007 period (p < 0.01 for all). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed rhinitis was significantly lower in 2010 (p = 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences between the two periods regarding cumulative rhinitis, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. In both periods, dry cough at night, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (p < 0.01 for all). Also in both periods, active asthma, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were more prevalent in private school students than in public school students (p < 0.01 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis symptoms remain high among 13- and 14-year-olds in Fortaleza, predominantly among females and private school students. PMID:23670497

  4. Amblyopia: prevalence, natural history, functional effects and treatment.

    PubMed

    Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne

    2005-11-01

    Amblyopia, defined as poor vision due to abnormal visual experience early in life, affects approximately three per cent of the population and carries a projected lifetime risk of visual loss of at least 1.2 per cent. The presence of amblyopia or its risk factors, mainly strabismus or refractive error, have been primary conditions targeted in childhood vision screenings. Continued support for such screenings requires evidence-based understanding of the prevalence and natural history of amblyopia and its predisposing conditions, and proof that treatment is effective in the long term with minimal negative impact on the patient and family. This review summarises recent research relevant to the clinical understanding of amblyopia, including prevalence data, risk factors, the functional impact of amblyopia and optimum treatment regimes and their justification from a vision and life skills perspective. Collectively, these studies indicate that treatment for amblyopia is effective in reducing the overall prevalence and severity of visual loss from amblyopia. Correction of refractive error alone has been shown to significantly reduce amblyopia and less frequent occlusion can be just as effective as more extensive occlusion. Occlusion or penalisation in amblyopia treatment can create negative changes in behaviour in children and impact on family life, and these factors should be considered in prescribing treatment, particularly because of their influence on compliance. Ongoing treatment trials are being undertaken to determine both the maximum age at which treatment of amblyopia can still be effective and the importance of near activities during occlusion. This review highlights the expansion of current knowledge regarding amblyopia and its treatment to help clinicians provide the best level of care for their amblyopic patients that current knowledge allows. PMID:16329744

  5. Adolescent Literacy: Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Elizabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that since educators can no longer assume that secondary students have the literacy skills needed for successful learning, educators need to systematically integrate instruction in reading strategies into all classes. Considers how to break the cycle of learned helplessness and disengagement from literacy that is all too prevalent among…

  6. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  7. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  8. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  9. Prevalence and Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Blake J; Gasson, Natalie; Loftus, Andrea M

    2016-09-21

    The current study examined the prevalence and subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an Australian sample of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Seventy participants with PD completed neuropsychological assessments of their cognitive performance, using MDS Task Force Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. A cut-off score of less than one standard deviation (SD) below normative data determined impaired performance on a neuropsychological test. Of 70 participants, 45 (64%) met Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. Among those with PD-MCI, 42 (93%) were identified as having multiple domain impairment (28 as amnestic multiple domain and 14 as nonamnestic multiple domain). Single domain impairment was less frequent (2 amnestic/1 nonamnestic). Significant differences were found between the PD-MCI and Normal Cognition groups, across all cognitive domains. Multiple domain cognitive impairment was more frequent than single domain impairment in an Australian sample of people with PD. However, PD-MCI is heterogeneous and current prevalence and subtyping statistics may be an artifact of variable application methods of the criteria (e.g., cut off scores and number of tests). Future longitudinal studies refining the criteria will assist with subtyping the progression of PD-MCI, while identifying individuals who may benefit from pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions.

  10. Diabetes mellitus statistics on prevalence and mortality: facts and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Zimmet, Paul; Alberti, K George; Magliano, Dianna J; Bennett, Peter H

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important public health challenges of the twenty-first century. Until the past decade, it has been seriously underrated as a global health threat. Major gaps exist in efforts to comprehend the burden nationally and globally, especially in developing nations, due to a lack of accurate data for monitoring and surveillance. Early attempts to obtain accurate data, discussed in this article, seem to have been cast aside so, at present, these needs remain unmet. Existing international efforts to assemble information fall far short of requirements. Current estimates are imprecise, only providing a rough picture, and probably underestimate the disease burden. The methodologies that are currently used, and that are discussed in this Perspectives article, are inadequate for providing a complete and accurate assessment of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. International consensus on uniform standards and criteria for reporting national data on diabetes mellitus prevalence as well as for common complications of diabetes mellitus and mortality need to be developed.

  11. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in early stages of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Rundell, J R; McManis, S E; Kendall, S N; Zachary, R; Temoshok, L

    1992-01-01

    As part of a military universal HIV screening program, 442 men were assessed for the presence of DSM-III-R defined psychiatric disorders and symptoms of anxiety and depression after notification of HIV seroconversion. Of them, 84.4% were in the earliest, asymptomatic stages of disease at the time of interview (96% did not have AIDS). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales were used. Relevant comparisons were made to Epidemiologic Catchment Area prevalence data. HIV seropositive men were more likely than age-matched men in the community to have current diagnoses of major depression (ages 18-44) and anxiety disorders (ages 25-44). Higher lifetime rates of major depression and alcohol use disorder, and high current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (21.7%) were noted. We conclude that men who become HIV seropositive have high rates of mood and substance use disorders prior to knowledge of seroconversion, and that early in the course of HIV infection men are at risk for developing major depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders of sexual desire. PMID:1438661

  12. Prevalence and Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Blake J; Gasson, Natalie; Loftus, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an Australian sample of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Seventy participants with PD completed neuropsychological assessments of their cognitive performance, using MDS Task Force Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. A cut-off score of less than one standard deviation (SD) below normative data determined impaired performance on a neuropsychological test. Of 70 participants, 45 (64%) met Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. Among those with PD-MCI, 42 (93%) were identified as having multiple domain impairment (28 as amnestic multiple domain and 14 as nonamnestic multiple domain). Single domain impairment was less frequent (2 amnestic/1 nonamnestic). Significant differences were found between the PD-MCI and Normal Cognition groups, across all cognitive domains. Multiple domain cognitive impairment was more frequent than single domain impairment in an Australian sample of people with PD. However, PD-MCI is heterogeneous and current prevalence and subtyping statistics may be an artifact of variable application methods of the criteria (e.g., cut off scores and number of tests). Future longitudinal studies refining the criteria will assist with subtyping the progression of PD-MCI, while identifying individuals who may benefit from pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. PMID:27650569

  13. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  14. Online child sexual exploitation: prevalence, process, and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kloess, Juliane A; Beech, Anthony R; Harkins, Leigh

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of current knowledge and understanding of the process of sexual grooming and exploitation of children via the Internet. Specifically, the prevalence of online sexual grooming and exploitation is explored as well as associated challenges relating to the identification of its occurrence. This is complemented by a detailed outline and discussion of the process, both online and in the physical world, and legal responses to this phenomenon. A number of factors are examined to provide an explanation of the facilitating and contributing role they may play in offense processes online. Finally, current typologies are discussed in relation to characteristics of Internet offenders in general and "groomers"/chat room offenders specifically. This review concludes by offering suggestions for future research.

  15. Online child sexual exploitation: prevalence, process, and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kloess, Juliane A; Beech, Anthony R; Harkins, Leigh

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of current knowledge and understanding of the process of sexual grooming and exploitation of children via the Internet. Specifically, the prevalence of online sexual grooming and exploitation is explored as well as associated challenges relating to the identification of its occurrence. This is complemented by a detailed outline and discussion of the process, both online and in the physical world, and legal responses to this phenomenon. A number of factors are examined to provide an explanation of the facilitating and contributing role they may play in offense processes online. Finally, current typologies are discussed in relation to characteristics of Internet offenders in general and "groomers"/chat room offenders specifically. This review concludes by offering suggestions for future research. PMID:24608540

  16. Predicting individual affect of health interventions to reduce HPV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Corley, Courtney D; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R; Sanfilippo, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and HPV is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials, and it is currently available in the USA. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step toward automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a text's affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age- and gender-targeted vaccination schemes.

  17. Learned helplessness and learned prevalence: exploring the causal relations among perceived controllability, reward prevalence, and exploration.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Kinneret; Erev, Ido

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to uncontrollable outcomes has been found to trigger learned helplessness, a state in which the agent, because of lack of exploration, fails to take advantage of regained control. Although the implications of this phenomenon have been widely studied, its underlying cause remains undetermined. One can learn not to explore because the environment is uncontrollable, because the average reinforcement for exploring is low, or because rewards for exploring are rare. In the current research, we tested a simple experimental paradigm that contrasts the predictions of these three contributors and offers a unified psychological mechanism that underlies the observed phenomena. Our results demonstrate that learned helplessness is not correlated with either the perceived controllability of one's environment or the average reward, which suggests that reward prevalence is a better predictor of exploratory behavior than the other two factors. A simple computational model in which exploration decisions were based on small samples of past experiences captured the empirical phenomena while also providing a cognitive basis for feelings of uncontrollability.

  18. Current mapping of obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

  19. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Tian, Yongfeng; Yan, Wenhua; Kong, Yue; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Anping; Dou, Jingtao; Liang, Ping; Mu, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years) from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001). The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001), and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007). There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015) and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001). The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.039 (1.034–1.044), p < 0.001), the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097)), Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034)), and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483)) were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and BMI

  20. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Tian, Yongfeng; Yan, Wenhua; Kong, Yue; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Anping; Dou, Jingtao; Liang, Ping; Mu, Yiming

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years) from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001). The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001), and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007). There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015) and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001). The Cochran-Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.039 (1.034-1.044), p < 0.001), the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527-2.097)), Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.019 (1.005-1.034)), and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046-1.483)) were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and BMI are

  1. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels. PMID:26427264

  2. Prevalence of Chronic Headache in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vuković-Cvetković, Vlasta; Lovrenčić-Huzjan, Arijana

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chronic headache describes the presence of headache for >15 days per month on average for >3 months and fulfills the rest of the IHS criteria. The prevalence of chronic headache is within the range of 0.5–7.3% worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the 1-year prevalence of chronic headache in adult Croatian population. Methods. The data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of an adult population (>18 years of age) sample. Randomly selected patients from the general population in four Croatian cities were asked to fulfill a self-completed questionnaire. The prevalence of chronic headache was calculated in the sample representing 3 383 769 Croatian adults. Results. The total sample included 1542 responders among which 616 were with headache. The 1-year prevalence of chronic headache was 2.4%, and 0.9% of responders declared having headache 30 days per month. According to these results, 81 192 adult inhabitants in Croatia suffer from chronic headache. Conclusions. The prevalence of chronic headache in Croatia is comparable to other countries worldwide. These patients require special attention and should be offered multidisciplinary medical support. PMID:24078925

  3. Prevalence and clinical profile of fungal rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Dayanand; Zacharias, George; Palaninathan, Sengottaiah; Vishwanathan, Ravisankar; Venkatraman, Vaidyanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. Objective: To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. Methods: This was a prospective study in which evaluation of 100 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis was done. Specimens collected were subjected to both microbiology and pathologic examination; data collected, including clinical and radiologic features, were analyzed by the Pearson χ2 test and Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis in our study was 30% (n = 30). Mucor was the most commonly isolated species (n = 15 [50%]) of fungus. Pathologic examination had a higher sensitivity (76.67%) compared with microbiology tests (50%) in the diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. Fungus ball (n = 14 [46.6%]) was the most prevalent entity in the spectrum of fungal rhinosinusitis. Forty percent of cases (n = 12) were of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis was higher among individuals who were immunocompetent (n = 17 [56.6%]). Of patients who were immunocompromised, 84.6% (n = 11) had mucormycosis. Conclusions: Unilateral involvement of paranasal sinuses was more in favor of fungal etiology. Complications were more common in fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Mucor species. Mucormycosis, a rare clinical entity, in subjects who were immunocompetent, had a high prevalence in our study. PMID:27349695

  4. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Lina; Mackenzie, Ian R; Förstl, Hans; Kurz, Alexander; Diehl-Schmid, Janine

    2014-01-01

    The term frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) refers to a group of progressive brain diseases, which preferentially involve the frontal and temporal lobes. Depending on the primary site of atrophy, the clinical manifestation is dominated by behavior alterations or impairment of language. The onset of symptoms usually occurs before the age of 60 years, and the mean survival from diagnosis varies between 3 and 10 years. The prevalence is estimated at 15 per 100,000 in the population aged between 45 and 65 years, which is similar to the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in this age group. There are two major clinical subtypes, behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia. The neuropathology underlying the clinical syndromes is also heterogeneous. A common feature is the accumulation of certain neuronal proteins. Of these, the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), the transactive response DNA-binding protein, and the fused in sarcoma protein are most important. Approximately 10% to 30% of FTLD shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, with mutations in the genes for MAPT, progranulin (GRN), and in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) accounting for more than 80% of familial cases. Although significant advances have been made in recent years regarding diagnostic criteria, clinical assessment instruments, neuropsychological tests, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and brain imaging techniques, the clinical diagnosis remains a challenge. To date, there is no specific pharmacological treatment for FTLD. Some evidence has been provided for serotonin reuptake inhibitors to reduce behavioral disturbances. No large-scale or high-quality studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of non-pharmacological treatment approaches in FTLD. In view of the limited treatment options, caregiver education and support is currently the most important component of the clinical management. PMID:24600223

  5. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Incarcerated Males in County Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina J.; Ross, Michael W.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Williams, Mark L.; Carvajal, Raul I.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse in a jailed-based population. Methodology: A retrospective, self-reported survey was administered over an 8-week period to a random sample of 100 men who were incarcerated in a county jail in Southeastern Texas. The survey included questions about…

  6. Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

  7. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Prevalence in Somali and Non-Somali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Amy; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Hamre, Kristin; Esler, Amy N.; Punyko, Judy; Reichle, Joe; Gulaid, Anab A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents results from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) public health surveillance project conducted in Minneapolis. The study was designed to compare ASD prevalence in Somali children (ages 7-9) to that of non-Somali children. The study adapted methodology used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and…

  9. High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…

  10. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  11. Prevalence of Hepatitis Virus Infections in an Institution for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Bradley A.; Vazquez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 1,235 residents of Sonoma Developmental Center found 3 residents had hepatitis C virus infections, and 633 had past or current hepatitis B virus infections. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection rose rapidly with longer residence in institutions. Hepatitis A virus infection had occurred in 494 residents. (Contains…

  12. Are Somatic Symptoms and Related Distress More Prevalent in Hispanic/Latino Youth? Some Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    This article comments on the current status of the anxiety literature involving Latino children and adolescents. As the 2 articles that focus on Hispanic/Latino youth in this special section independently found somatic symptoms to be more prevalent in Latino youth than other racial/ethnic groups (Pina & Silverman, this issue; Varela et al., this…

  13. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  14. Pattern and prevalence of smoking among students at King Faisal University, Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohamed, H I; Amin, T T

    2010-01-01

    The study describes the prevalence of different forms of smoking, and the correlates of current smoking, by male students of King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A random sample of 1382 students at 9 colleges answered a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey plus the modified Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. The prevalence of current smoking was 28.1% (21.6% for cigarettes, 14.6% for waterpipe). Of current smokers, 41.4% were living in homes where others smoke and 17.0% initiated smoking below age 12 years. In logistic regression analysis older age, living away from home, smoking by family and close friends and exposure to tobacco promotion were predictors of current smoking status.

  15. Appendicectomy prevalences in South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Duvenhage, A; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J; Segal, I

    1982-01-01

    From questioning 16,939 South African pupils of 16-18 years, in 56 high schools, mean prevalences of appendicectomies in representative segments of ethnic groups were found to be: rural Blacks 0.6%; urban Blacks 0.7%; Indians, 2.9%; Coloureds (Eur-African-Malay), 1.7%; Whites, 10.5%. Percentages in the sexes were similar. Only those of Indian and Coloured pupils appear to be increasing. Blacks and Whites, respectively, have high and low intakes of fibre-containing foods, which are negatively correlated with appendicectomy prevalences. However, although intakes of fibre-containing foods are slightly higher in Indians and Coloureds than in Whites, the former's appendicectomy prevalences are lower than would be dietarily expected. PMID:6292030

  16. Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Lynn

    2008-12-01

    This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.

  17. The Prevalence of Limited Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Parker, Ruth M; Gazmararian, Julie A; Nielsen-Bohlman, Lynn T; Rudd, Rima R

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To systematically review U.S. studies examining the prevalence of limited health literacy and to synthesize these findings by evaluating demographic associations in pooled analyses. DESIGN We searched the literature for the period 1963 through January 2004 and identified 2,132 references related to a set of specified search terms. Of the 134 articles and published abstracts retrieved, 85 met inclusion criteria, which were 1) conducted in the United States with ≥25 adults, 2) addressed a hypothesis related to health care, 3) identified a measurement instrument, and 4) presented primary data. The authors extracted data to compare studies by population, methods, and results. MAIN RESULTS The 85 studies reviewed include data on 31,129 subjects, and report a prevalence of low health literacy between 0% and 68%. Pooled analyses of these data reveal that the weighted prevalence of low health literacy was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22% to 29%) and of marginal health literacy was 20% (95% CI, 16% to 23%). Most studies used either the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) or versions of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). The prevalence of low health literacy was not associated with gender (P =.38) or measurement instrument (P =.23) but was associated with level of education (P =.02), ethnicity (P =.0003), and age (P =.004). CONCLUSIONS A pooled analysis of published reports on health literacy cannot provide a nationally representative prevalence estimate. This systematic review exhibits that limited health literacy, as depicted in the medical literature, is prevalent and is consistently associated with education, ethnicity, and age. It is essential to simplify health services and improve health education. Such changes have the potential to improve the health of Americans and address the health disparities that exist today. PMID:15836552

  18. Migraine prevalence, socioeconomic status, and social causation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jason; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the known higher prevalence of migraine in lower household (HH) income groups is explained by a higher incidence rate or a lower remission rate. Methods: We used data from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study, a US national sample of 132,674 females (with a 64.3% response rate) and 124,665 males (with a 62.0% response rate) 12 years of age and older. Data were previously collected on migraine symptoms, onset age, and demographics. Previously validated methods applied to the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study data were used to simulate a cohort study. Incidence and remission rates were estimated within 3 sex-specific HH income groups (<$22,500, $22,500–$59,999, and ≥$60,000). The χ2 test was used to determine whether the incidence or remission rates differed by HH income group as an explanation for differences in migraine prevalence by HH income. Results: Migraine prevalence increased as HH income decreased for females (χ2, p < 0.01) and males (χ2, p < 0.01). Differences were not explained by race and other known confounders. Variation in prevalence was explained, in large part, by a higher incidence rate in the lower HH income groups for both females (χ2, p < 0.01) and males (χ2, p < 0.01). Migraine remission rates did not differ by HH income. Conclusions: The higher incidence of migraine in lower HH income groups is compatible with the social causation hypothesis. Once initiated, migraine remission is independent of HH income. Onset and remission may have etiologically distinct causes. PMID:23990405

  19. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  20. Prevalence of hypodontia and hyperdontia in paedodontic and orthodontic patients in Budapest.

    PubMed

    Gábris, Katalin; Fábián, Gábor; Kaán, Miklós; Rózsa, Noémi; Tarján, Ildikó

    2006-06-01

    Various publications have reported the prevalence of accessory teeth to be between 1 and 3%. In contrast, hypodontia has a much higher prevalence. In the current work, the authors studied OP radiographs on 2,219 patients aged 6 to 18 years who presented at the Department of Paedodontics and Orthodontics at Semmelweis University in Budapest (patients with systemic disease were excluded). The examined radiographs revealed a prevalence of accessory teeth of 1.53%. The sequence of prevalence was as follows: mesiodens > second incisor > first incisor. 77.5% of the accessory teeth were located in the upper jaw, with 97.5% of those being present in the incisor region. Hypodontia was detected in 326 patients (14.69%); missing wisdom germs were not considered. The sequence of prevalence of missing germ was as follows: upper second incisor > lower second premolar > upper second premolar > lower first incisor. Hypodontia in the molar region was observed in 15 cases (0.68%). The prevalence of oligodontia was 1.04%. PMID:16800362

  1. The Prevalence of Mental Illnesses in U.S. State Prisons: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with mental illnesses are understood to be overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system, and estimates of the prevalence of mental illnesses in corrections settings are crucial for planning and implementing preventive and diversionary policies and programs. Despite consistent scholarly attention, two federal self-report surveys are typically cited, and these may not represent the extent of relevant data. This systematic review identifies studies that assess the prevalence of mental illnesses in U.S. state prisons, in order to develop a broader picture of prison prevalence and identify methodological challenges to obtaining accurate and consistent estimates. Methods Medline, PsycInfo, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts were searched. Studies were included if they were published between 1989 and 2013; focused on U.S. state prisons; reported prevalence of diagnoses/symptoms of DSM Axis I disorders; and identified screening/assessment strategies. Results Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria. Estimates of current and lifetime prevalence of mental illnesses varied widely; however, the range of prevalence estimates for particular disorders was much greater—and tended to be higher—in prisons than community samples. Conclusions Operationalizations of mental illnesses, sampling strategies, and case ascertainment strategies likely contributed to inconsistency in findings. Other reasons for study heterogeneity are discussed, and implications for public health are explored. PMID:24686574

  2. Comparing the prevalence of smoking in pregnant and nonpregnant women, 1985 to 1986.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F; Serdula, M K; Kendrick, J S; Binkin, N J

    1989-01-01

    The 1990 health objectives for the nation state that pregnant women should be only half as likely to smoke as nonpregnant women. To assess progress toward meeting this objective, we used cross-sectional data from the 26 states in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 1985 and 1986. We compared the prevalence of self-reported smoking among pregnant (N = 836) and nonpregnant (N = 18,025) women aged 18 to 45 years. Overall, pregnant women were 70% as likely to be current smokers as nonpregnant women (prevalence ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 0.8), while blacks showed the largest pregnancy-associated reduction in the prevalence of smoking (prevalence ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 0.9). Most of the difference in smoking prevalence occurred not because pregnant women were less likely to have ever smoked, but because pregnant women were more likely to have quit smoking than nonpregnant women. However, unmarried pregnant white women were 40% more likely to smoke than their nonpregnant counterparts (prevalence ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.7). We conclude from this analysis that the 1990 health objective for smoking among pregnant women is unlikely to be achieved. Clinicians providing care to pregnant women need to pay increased attention to smoking cessation.

  3. Lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in two American Indian reservation populations.

    PubMed

    Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M; Croy, Calvin; Klein, Suzell A; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M

    2013-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be more common among American Indian populations than among other Americans. A complex diagnosis, the assessment methods for PTSD have varied across epidemiological studies, especially in terms of the trauma criteria. Here, we examined data from the American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP) to estimate the lifetime prevalence of PTSD in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, using two formulas for calculating PTSD prevalence. The AI-SUPERPFP was a cross-sectional probability sample survey conducted between 1997 and 2000. Southwest (n = 1,446) and Northern Plains (n = 1,638) tribal members living on or near their reservations, aged 15-57 years at time of interview, were randomly sampled from tribal rolls. PTSD estimates were derived based on both the single worst and 3 worst traumas. Prevalence estimates varied by ascertainment method: single worst trauma (lifetime: 5.9% to 14.8%) versus 3 worst traumas (lifetime, 8.9% to 19.5%). Use of the 3-worst-event approach increased prevalence by 28.3% over the single-event method. PTSD was prevalent in these tribal communities. These results also serve to underscore the need to better understand the implications for PTSD prevalence with the current focus on a single worst event.

  4. Lifetime Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Two American Indian Reservation Populations

    PubMed Central

    Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M.; Croy, Calvin; Klein, Suzell A.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be more common among American Indian populations than among other Americans. A complex diagnosis, the assessment methods for PTSD have varied across epidemiological studies, especially in terms of the trauma criteria. Here, we examined data from the American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP) to estimate the lifetime prevalence of PTSD in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, using two formulas for calculating PTSD prevalence. The AI-SUPERPFP was a cross-sectional probability sample survey conducted between 1997 and 2000. Southwest (n = 1,446) and Northern Plains (n = 1,638) tribal members living on or near their reservations, aged 15–57 years at time of interview, were randomly sampled from tribal rolls. PTSD estimates were derived based on both the single worst and 3 worst traumas. Prevalence estimates varied by ascertainment method: single worst trauma (lifetime: 5.9% to 14.8%) versus 3 worst traumas (lifetime, 8.9% to 19.5%). Use of the 3-worst-event approach increased prevalence by 28.3% over the single-event method. PTSD was prevalent in these tribal communities. These results also serve to underscore the need to better understand the implications for PTSD prevalence with the current focus on a single worst event. PMID:23900893

  5. Regional Epidemiologic Assessment of Prevalent Periodontitis Using an Electronic Health Record System

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Amit; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Waring, Stephen C.; Miller, Aaron W.; Fuehrer, Jay T.; Nycz, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    An oral health surveillance platform that queries a clinical/administrative data warehouse was applied to estimate regional prevalence of periodontitis. Cross-sectional analysis of electronic health record data collected between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, was undertaken in a population sample residing in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Eligibility criteria included: 1) residence in defined zip codes, 2) age 25–64 years, and 3) ≥1 Marshfield dental clinic comprehensive examination. Prevalence was established using 2 independent methods: 1) via an algorithm that considered clinical attachment loss and probe depth and 2) via standardized Current Dental Terminology (CDT) codes related to periodontal treatment. Prevalence estimates were age-standardized to 2000 US Census estimates. Inclusion criteria were met by 2,056 persons. On the basis of the American Academy of Periodontology/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method, the age-standardized prevalence of moderate or severe periodontitis (combined) was 407 per 1,000 males and 308 per 1,000 females (348/1,000 males and 269/1,000 females using the CDT code method). Increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis was noted with increasing age. Local prevalence of periodontitis was consistent with national estimates. The need to address potential sample selection bias in future electronic health record–based periodontitis research was identified by this approach. Methods outlined herein may be applied to refine oral health surveillance systems, inform dental epidemiologic methods, and evaluate interventional outcomes. PMID:23462966

  6. Prevalence of dieting among working men and women: the healthy worker project.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, R W; Adlis, S A; Forster, J L

    1991-01-01

    Examined dieting to lose weight in a population of 2,107 men and 2,540 women employed in 32 worksites in the upper Midwest. Lifetime prevalence of this behavior was estimated to be 47% in men and 75% in women, and point prevalence was reported as 13% and 25% in men and women, respectively. Lifetime prevalence of participation in organized weight-loss programs was 6% in men and 31% in women; current prevalence was 1% in men and 6% in women. The strongest correlate of dieting behavior was relative body weight. In logistic regression analyses, dieting tended to be associated positively with education and occupational status and, in men only, was more prevalent among those with a history of hypertension. Dieters reported lower food intakes than nondieters, but the two groups did not differ consistently in reported physical activity. Overall, dieting appears to be a pervasive behavioral U.S. phenomenon that may contribute in part to population differences in the prevalence of obesity.

  7. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain in Radiotherapy Oncology Units

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, Ana; Monroy, Jose Luis; Ramos, Avelino Alia; Cano, Carmen; Lopez-Gomez, Vanessa; Masramon, Xavier; Perez, Maria

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: Neuropathic pain (NP) in cancer patients severely impacts quality of life. Radiotherapy (RT) may cause NP, and at the same time, cancer patients visit RT units for pain relief. NP prevalence at these sites and current analgesic treatment should be assessed to improve management. Methods and Materials: This epidemiological, prospective, multicenter study was undertaken to assess NP prevalence, according to Douleur Neuropathique 4 questions questtionaire (DN4) test results, and analgesic management in cancer pain patients visiting RT oncologic units. Secondary analyses assessed NP etiology and pain intensity (using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form) and impact (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study [MOS] for Sleep, and the Health Survey Short Form-12). Results: A total of 1,098 patients with any kind of pain were registered. NP prevalence was 31.1% (95% confidence interval, 28.4%--33.9%); 291 NP patients (mean age, 62.2 {+-}12.5 years and 57.7% men) were eligible for study; 49% of patients were overweight. The most frequent tumors were those of breast and lung, and stage IIIB was the most common cancer stage. The tumors caused 75% of NP cases. Anxiety, sleepiness, and depression were common. At 8 weeks, pain intensity and interference with daily activities decreased significantly for 50.8% of responders. Depression and anxiety (p < 0.0001) scores on the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary measures (p < 0.0001) and all MOS-Sleep subscales, except for snoring, improved significantly. The percentage of satisfied patients increased from 13.8% to 87.4% (p < 0.0001) with the current analgesic treatment, which meant a 1.2- and 6-fold increase (p < 0.0001) in narcotic analgesics and anticonvulsants, respectively, compared to previous treatment. Conclusions: NP is highly prevalent at RT oncology units, with sleepiness, anxiety, and depression as frequent comorbidities. There is a need to improve

  8. The prevalence of occupational dermatitis in the UK printing industry

    PubMed Central

    Livesley, E; Rushton, L; English, J; Williams, H

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To quantify occupational ill health resulting from dermatitis in the UK printing industry and to explore links with particular processes and activities. Methods: Approximately 2600 members of the Graphical, Paper and Media Union living in Nottinghamshire were sent a self completion questionnaire. A sample of respondents, both those who reported current skin problems and those who did not, were invited for a short dermatological examination. Results: The overall response rate was 62%. A total of 1189 respondents were directly involved in the printing industry and categorised according to work in pre-press (25%), printing (46%), or finishing (42%) processes. A total of 490 respondents (41%) self reported having a skin complaint at some time. Prevalence was highest in males (43%) and those working in printing (49%), in particular those who cleaned rollers and cylinders or who came into contact with substances containing isocyanates on a daily basis. The most commonly affected areas reported were the fingers and webs between the fingers. Twenty six per cent of the 490 reported a current problem on the hand. Reported symptoms included itching (61%), rash (58%), and dry skin (56%). Although certain printing industry substances were thought by respondents to aggravate their condition, constant washing and friction was most often cited. Reported use of protective equipment and cleansing products was generally high, particularly by printers. Clinical examination confirmed the high self reported prevalence and also identified a substantial proportion of mild cases which were not reported. The overall prevalence of occupationally related skin complaints is estimated to be 40%. Conclusions: A much higher prevalence of dermatitis has been identified than from routine surveillance schemes. The use of good quality records from unions with high membership facilitated access to workers across a range of company sites and printing processes. Validation of self reported

  9. Diagnosis, prevalence, pathways, consequences & treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2010-02-01

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent sleep disorder that frequently occurs in its acute form and occurs at a rate of approximately 10 per cent in its chronic form in many countries. There is a high prevalence of insomnia in a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions for which insomnia often serves as a risk factor. The aetiology and pathophysiology of insomnia is such that several factors may predispose individuals for or precipitate and/or perpetuate the condition. Both sedative-hypnotic and cognitivebehavioural interventions exist for insomnia and each type of intervention have substantial levels of empirical support for their efficacy.

  10. Lifetime and five-year prevalence of homelessness in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Link, B G; Susser, E; Stueve, A; Phelan, J; Moore, R E; Struening, E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Intense debate exists concerning the number of homeless people in the United States. Previous studies, counting currently homeless people, have provided point-prevalence estimates of homelessness but have been criticized on methodological grounds. This study reports lifetime and 5-year prevalence estimates of homelessness using a different methodological approach. METHODS. Random-digit dialing was used to interview 1507 adults living in households with telephones in the 48 contiguous states in the fall of 1990. Respondents were asked whether they had ever been homeless and if so, where they had slept while homeless. RESULTS. Lifetime and 5-year prevalence of all types of homelessness combined were 14.0% (26 million people) and 4.6% (8.5 million people), respectively. Lifetime "literal homelessness" (sleeping in shelters, abandoned buildings, bus and train stations, etc.) was 7.4% (13.5 million people). Five-year (1985 through 1990) prevalence of self-reported homelessness among those who had ever been literally homeless was 3.1% (5.7 million people). CONCLUSIONS. The magnitude of the problem of homelessness is much greater than most previous attempts to enumerate homeless people have led us to believe. This finding requires reconsideration of inferences about the causes of homelessness that were derived from point-prevalence studies of currently homeless people. PMID:7998628

  11. Emergence of Neoteric Serotypes Among Multidrug Resistant Strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae Prevalent in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Bahy, Rehab H; Hamouda, Hayam M; Shahat, Amal S; Yassin, Aymen S; Amin, Magdy A

    2016-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalent serotype distribution had shown variation along different studies conducted at different time intervals. In order to efficiently assess the epidemiology of the diseases for effective preventive and treatment strategies, serotype prevalence need to be periodically reassessed. Objectives Conducting a reassessment of the prevalent S. pneumoniae serotypes in Egypt as an essential step in the search for a regional vaccine. In addition, monitoring the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal strains currently causing infections as an evaluation of therapeutic strategies applied. Materials and Methods A total of 100 specimens of different sources were collected in Cairo, Egypt, from 2011 to 2013, representing almost all different types of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae such as meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. Conventional and molecular identification methods were performed, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were assessed and serotyping was done using PCR assays to identify the most prevalent types. In addition, detection of certain virulence genes for the most prevalent serotypes was carried out. Results Our results revealed that in Egypt, currently, the most prevalent serotypes were serogroup 6 and serotype 19F as they represented 58% of all isolates. High rates of resistance were found to different antibiotic classes. The lytA and psaA genes were found to be more sensitive for S. pneumoniae identification than ply. Conclusions Our study illustrates the importance of constantly monitoring the prevalent serotypes in any region in order to aid in the development of more effective vaccines. PMID:27303614

  12. Disparate geographic prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema among adolescents in five Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yu; Pizzichini, Marcia M M; Becker, Allan B; Duncan, Joanne M; Ferguson, Alexander C; Greene, Justina M; Rennie, Donna C; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Taylor, Brett W; Sears, Malcolm R

    2010-08-01

    To assess concordance of prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema symptoms among adolescents in five Canadian cities. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase 3 written questionnaires were answered by 8334 adolescents aged 13 to 14 in Vancouver, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Hamilton and Halifax, Canada. Prevalence rates of current symptoms ranged from 13.7-33.0% for wheezing, 14.6-22.6% for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and 8.2-10.4% for atopic eczema. Using Hamilton as reference, the prevalence of wheezing was significantly higher in Halifax (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.36-1.84) and Saskatoon (1.27; 1.07-1.50) and significantly lower in Vancouver (0.51; 0.44-0.59). In contrast, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis was significantly more prevalent in Winnipeg (1.39; 1.16-1.68) and Halifax (1.36; 1.14-1.61) and trended lower in Saskatoon (0.81; 0.66-1.00). Atopic eczema was significantly more prevalent in Winnipeg (1.31; 1.01-1.69) and Vancouver (1.28; 1.04-1.58). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed the region of residence, being born in Canada, recent use of acetaminophen and heavy exposure to traffic exhaust were significantly associated with all three allergic conditions, while obesity and having two or more smokers at home was only associated with increased risk for wheezing. Chinese ethnicity decreased that risk. Among five Canadian centres, the highest prevalence rates of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic eczema were not observed in the same regions as the highest prevalence rates of wheezing. This disparity in regional variations in the prevalence rates suggests dissimilar risk factors for the development or expression of wheezing (asthma), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema.

  13. Model-Based Geostatistical Mapping of the Prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Simon J.; Slater, Hannah C.; Cheke, Robert A.; Boatin, Boakye A.; Coffeng, Luc E.; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Boussinesq, Michel; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background The initial endemicity (pre-control prevalence) of onchocerciasis has been shown to be an important determinant of the feasibility of elimination by mass ivermectin distribution. We present the first geostatistical map of microfilarial prevalence in the former Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) before commencement of antivectorial and antiparasitic interventions. Methods and Findings Pre-control microfilarial prevalence data from 737 villages across the 11 constituent countries in the OCP epidemiological database were used as ground-truth data. These 737 data points, plus a set of statistically selected environmental covariates, were used in a Bayesian model-based geostatistical (B-MBG) approach to generate a continuous surface (at pixel resolution of 5 km x 5km) of microfilarial prevalence in West Africa prior to the commencement of the OCP. Uncertainty in model predictions was measured using a suite of validation statistics, performed on bootstrap samples of held-out validation data. The mean Pearson’s correlation between observed and estimated prevalence at validation locations was 0.693; the mean prediction error (average difference between observed and estimated values) was 0.77%, and the mean absolute prediction error (average magnitude of difference between observed and estimated values) was 12.2%. Within OCP boundaries, 17.8 million people were deemed to have been at risk, 7.55 million to have been infected, and mean microfilarial prevalence to have been 45% (range: 2–90%) in 1975. Conclusions and Significance This is the first map of initial onchocerciasis prevalence in West Africa using B-MBG. Important environmental predictors of infection prevalence were identified and used in a model out-performing those without spatial random effects or environmental covariates. Results may be compared with recent epidemiological mapping efforts to find areas of persisting transmission. These methods may be extended to areas where

  14. An estimate of the prevalence of dementia in Africa: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    George-Carey, Rhiannon; Adeloye, Davies; Chan, Kit Yee; Paul, Abigail; Kolčić, Ivana; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of non–communicable diseases is growing, particularly in developing countries. The greatest economic burden is due to dementia, the prevalence of which is rising with increasing longevity. In Africa, where the rate of increase of elderly persons is the fastest in the world, dementia is normally dismissed as a part of normal ageing. The lack of awareness means that many patients are suffering undiagnosed. This review aims to assess the information on the prevalence of dementia in Africa in order to estimate the current burden. Methods A parallel search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health limited to post–1980 found only 10 relevant studies. Data on prevalence and risk factors were extracted and analysed. We modelled the available information and used the UN population figures for Africa to determine the age–specific and overall burden of dementia. Results The overall prevalence of dementia in adults older than 50 years in Africa was estimated to be about 2.4%, which translates to 2.76 million people living with a disease in 2010. About 2.10 millions of them live in Sub–Saharan Africa. Prevalence was the highest among females aged 80 and over (19.7%) and there was little variation between regions. Alzheimer disease was the most prevalent cause of dementia (57.1%) followed by vascular dementia (26.9%). The main risk factors were increasing age, female sex and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Information on dementia prevalence in Africa is very limited. Further research will not only provide a more reliable estimate of prevalence, and consequently the burden of disease, but will also raise awareness of the problem. This is critical in promoting help–seeking behaviour and generating the political commitment to make dementia a public health priority in Africa. PMID:23289076

  15. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  16. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  17. Infectious Diseases (ID) Learning Unit: How Rapidly to Evaluate for Active Tuberculosis Disease in Low-Prevalence Settings

    PubMed Central

    Chida, Natasha; Shah, Maunank

    2016-01-01

    With declining tuberculosis (TB) incidence in low-prevalence settings, many clinicians are likely unaware that the approach to diagnosing active TB is evolving with newer technologies. Rapid molecular assays are commercially available, and more are likely to enter the market in the coming years. These tests, such as the Xpert MTB/RIF, which can detect TB and drug-resistance in 2 hours, are increasingly used in settings with higher TB prevalence; however, uptake has been slower in low-prevalence settings. Newer algorithms incorporating rapid TB diagnostics have the ability to alter current clinical and infection control practice patterns. In this learning unit, we review current and newly available tests for the detection of active TB disease and their usage in low-prevalence settings. PMID:27186583

  18. The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious cancer that is naturally transmitted between dogs by the allogeneic transfer of living cancer cells during coitus. CTVT first arose several thousand years ago and has been reported in dog populations worldwide; however, its precise distribution patterns and prevalence remain unclear. Results We analysed historical literature and obtained CTVT prevalence information from 645 veterinarians and animal health workers in 109 countries in order to estimate CTVT’s former and current global distribution and prevalence. This analysis confirmed that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide across all inhabited continents. CTVT is estimated to be present at a prevalence of one percent or more in dogs in at least 13 countries in South and Central America as well as in at least 11 countries in Africa and 8 countries in Asia. In the United States and Australia, CTVT was reported to be endemic only in remote indigenous communities. Comparison of current and historical reports of CTVT indicated that its prevalence has declined in Northern Europe, possibly due to changes in dog control laws during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analysis of factors influencing CTVT prevalence showed that presence of free-roaming dogs was associated with increased CTVT prevalence, while dog spaying and neutering were associated with reduced CTVT prevalence. Our analysis indicated no gender bias for CTVT and we found no evidence that animals with CTVT frequently harbour concurrent infectious diseases. Vincristine was widely reported to be the most effective therapy for CTVT. Conclusions Our results provide a survey of the current global distribution of CTVT, confirming that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide. Additionally, our analysis highlights factors that continue to modify CTVT’s prevalence around the world and implicates free-roaming dogs as a reservoir for the disease. Our analysis

  19. Estimating Contraceptive Prevalence Using Logistics Data for Short-Acting Methods: Analysis Across 30 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Marc; Brown, Niquelle; Sacher, Suzy; Hatch, Benjamin; Inglis, Andrew; Aronovich, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is a vital indicator used by country governments, international donors, and other stakeholders for measuring progress in family planning programs against country targets and global initiatives as well as for estimating health outcomes. Because of the need for more frequent CPR estimates than population-based surveys currently provide, alternative approaches for estimating CPRs are being explored, including using contraceptive logistics data. Methods: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 30 countries, population data from the United States Census Bureau International Database, and logistics data from the Procurement Planning and Monitoring Report (PPMR) and the Pipeline Monitoring and Procurement Planning System (PipeLine), we developed and evaluated 3 models to generate country-level, public-sector contraceptive prevalence estimates for injectable contraceptives, oral contraceptives, and male condoms. Models included: direct estimation through existing couple-years of protection (CYP) conversion factors, bivariate linear regression, and multivariate linear regression. Model evaluation consisted of comparing the referent DHS prevalence rates for each short-acting method with the model-generated prevalence rate using multiple metrics, including mean absolute error and proportion of countries where the modeled prevalence rate for each method was within 1, 2, or 5 percentage points of the DHS referent value. Results: For the methods studied, family planning use estimates from public-sector logistics data were correlated with those from the DHS, validating the quality and accuracy of current public-sector logistics data. Logistics data for oral and injectable contraceptives were significantly associated (P<.05) with the referent DHS values for both bivariate and multivariate models. For condoms, however, that association was only significant for the bivariate model. With the exception of the CYP

  20. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  1. Prevalence of malocclusion in urban libyan preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional observational study aimed at quantifying primary dentition parameters and exploring differences in those parameters between included age groups. Materials and Methods: The examined sample comprised 800 preschool children, 3- to 5-year-old in Benghazi city, of which 500 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Primary canine relationship, spacing/crowding, overjet (OJ) and overbite (OB), occlusal relationship was carried out using Federation Dentaire Internationale (1973), modified to the primary dentition. Results: The prevalence of bilateral Class I, Class II, and Class III canine relationship was 69.6%, 22.4%, and 4.4%, respectively. The prevalence of asymmetric canine relationship was 3.6% with no significant difference between gender and age groups. Spacing, closed dentition, and crowding were observed in: 81.6%, 13,4% and 5% respectively in the upper arch, and 58.5%, 24.8%, and 16.7% correspondently in the lower arch. OJ and OB ranging between 1 and 3 mm were found in 82.6% and 56.5%, respectively. An OJ and OB of >3 mm was observed in 11.4% and 35%, respectively, and of edge to edge incisal relationship anteroposteriorly and vertically in 4.6% and 6% in this order. Anterior crossbite and anterior openbite were noted in 1.4% and 2.6%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between OJ and OB and age (P≥0.241). Additionally, there was no significant sex difference in the value of OJ (P=0.561). But, the mean OB value in boys was significantly greater than in girls. Conclusions: The current findings provide an insight into the prevalence of occlusal traits in urban Libyan preschool children and highlight the significance of early detection of malocclusion to assist in achieving effective and individualized long-term treatment planning. PMID:24987642

  2. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  3. Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: prevalence, frequency, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

    2014-06-01

    The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family.

  4. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Background Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal issues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria. Objectives One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult population in Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking among those who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods A random sample of 228 healthy individuals aged 18–60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking. Results The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants). It was 10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.07). Conclusion This study has shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and the potential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and prompt management of the condition. PMID:21483553

  5. Fifteen Prevalent Myths Concerning Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines 15 common myths about adolescent suicide, presenting the actual facts corresponding to each. The myths relate to such issues as prevalence, warning signs, education about suicide, differences between males and females, common methods of adolescent suicide, mental illness and suicide, suicide prevention, genetic factors, poverty and…

  6. Trends in Autism Prevalence: Diagnostic Substitution Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coo, Helen; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Kasmara, Liza; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    There has been little evidence to support the hypothesis that diagnostic substitution may contribute to increases in the administrative prevalence of autism. We examined trends in assignment of special education codes to British Columbia (BC) school children who had an autism code in at least 1 year between 1996 and 2004, inclusive. The proportion…

  7. Munchausen syndrome by proxy: diagnosis and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Schreier, H A; Libow, J A

    1993-04-01

    A review of the literature and a survey of pediatric neurologists and gastroenterologists yield data indicating that the prevalence of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is greater than is generally estimated. This possibility is further supported by follow-up data on siblings of victims, together with wide variability among practitioners in case identification.

  8. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…

  9. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  10. Detection and Prevalence of Motor Skill Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolic, Snezana J.; Ilic-Stosovic, Danijela D.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to establish the prevalence, form of manifestation, level and kind of motor skill disorders in three area of motor development functioning: neuromaturation, coordination and balance. The sample included 1165 children, between 6.5 and 11 years of age. The protocol was constructed and contained tests for the…

  11. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  12. [[Prevalence of induced abortion in Korea

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Lee, S; Bae, H

    1989-07-01

    The authors analyze recent trends in the prevalence of induced abortions in South Korea. They attempt to determine motivations for abortion, examine its side effects, and investigate the impact of induced abortions on infertility. The focus is on creating recommendations for population policy and maternal and child health care. Data are from the 1988 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. Prevalence of Combined Reading and Arithmetic Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Evelien; Spyer, Ginny; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Sonneville, Leo

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of combined reading and arithmetic disabilities in 799 Dutch schoolchildren using standardized school achievement tests. Scores of arithmetic, word recognition, reading comprehension, and spelling of children in fourth and fifth grade were used. The main interest involved the co-occurrence of word recognition and…

  14. Insomnia: definition an prevalence in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dornberger, Sherrie

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of insomnia in the long-term care setting. This condition needs to be addressed because insomnia affects the quality of life of the resident. It is important for practitioners to differentiate between primary and secondary insomnia so the proper treatment can be given to residents.

  15. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  16. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Disorders in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold; Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study examined the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among school children in Arkansas for the purpose of helping school districts plan appropriate educational interventions. The ADHD Survey was mailed to all 311 school superintendents; 128 surveys were returned. Findings revealed that, overall, 3 percent of…

  17. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  18. The prevalence of dementia in Girona.

    PubMed

    López Pousa, S; Llinás Regla, J; Vilalta Franch, J; Lozano Fernández de Pinedo, L

    1995-05-01

    To provide a preliminary assessment of the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in a rural area. From a total of 2,469 people over 65 who were not committed to any institution, 273 were randomly chosen and stratified by age and sex. Of these 273 individuals, 244 (89.4%) took part in the study. Family doctors administered the miniexamen cognoscitivo (MEC), a Spanish version of the Mini Mental State Exam to screen all individuals taking part in the first phase. Enrolled in the second phase were all those whose scores on the MEC were below the cut-off point, plus a similar number of individuals whose scores were above this level and who were used as controls. The CAMDEX was the instrument used for diagnosis by clinical psychologists. The overall prevalence of dementia in the area under study was 13.93 +/- 4.34%. This prevalence includes the three levels of diagnosis certainty for CAMDEX (definitive, probable and possible) and the three levels of severity (minimum, mild, moderate, and severe) defined by the instrument. The number of individuals with dementia increased with age. Females showed more dementia than males in all age groups. The distribution of dementia by subtypes was 41.18% for both Alzheimer's type senile and presenile forms, and for vascular dementia, and 17.64% for mixed dementia. Our results show a prevalence of dementia that is higher than rates observed in other studies using similar materials and methods.

  19. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24404364

  20. Magnetic current sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  1. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome: a community survey

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Roberts, Lesley; Roalfe, Andrea; Bridge, Pam; Singh, Sukhdev

    2004-01-01

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common health problem affecting a substantial proportion of the population. Many individuals with symptoms of IBS do not seek medical attention or have stopped consulting because of disillusionment with current treatment options. Such patients may choose to re-consult with the advent of new therapies with a resulting impact on health services. Aim: To generate reliable estimates of the prevalence of IBS by age, sex and symptom group. Design of study: Postal survey. Setting: Patients selected from registers of eight general practices in north and west Birmingham. Method: Eight thousand six hundred and forty-six patients aged ≥18 years were randomly selected from practice lists. Selected patients received a questionnaire, which included diagnostic criteria for IBS. A second questionnaire, seeking more detailed information, was sent to those whose responses indicated the presence of IBS symptoms. Results: Of the 8386 patients surveyed 4807 (57.3%) useable replies were received. The community-based prevalence of IBS was 10.5% (6.6% of men and 14.0% of women). Overall the symptom profiles were characterised by diarrhoea (25.4%), constipation (24.1%) and alternating symptoms (46.7%). Over half (56%) of all patients had consulted their general practitioner within the past 6 months and 16% had seen a hospital specialist. A quarter of patients consulted more than twice and 16% were referred to secondary care; almost half were on prescribed medication. However, the majority of patients were self-treated. Less than half of those currently reporting symptoms of IBS according to the Rome II criteria had received a diagnosis of IBS. Reduced quality of life and a previous diagnosis of a stomach ulcer were identified as predictors of consultation. Conclusion: Quality of life was significantly reduced in patients with IBS. There is a substantial burden on primary healthcare services despite over half of those with symptoms also self

  2. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

    2006-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill

  3. Caring for children with autism spectrum disorder. Part I: prevalence, etiology, and core features.

    PubMed

    Inglese, Melissa Dodd; Elder, Jennifer Harrison

    2009-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 150 children and has been gaining national attention over the past decade. Given the prevalence of this disorder, there is a high probability that pediatric nurses will care for a child with ASD, regardless of the setting in which they work. Children with ASD traverse the primary care outpatient setting, schools, subspecialty clinics, and inpatient units. A basic understanding of the current issues regarding prevalence and etiology, coupled with knowledge of the core features of ASD, will help pediatric nurses in all settings and at various practice levels better care for these children.

  4. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  5. Controlled current inductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaler, S.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic permeability and shape of special core inserts are varied to produce desired changes in saturation characteristics of current dependent inductor, thus improving its inductance-to-current properties. Materials and saturation levels of the core pieces are selected to permit a wide variety of relationships between inductance and current.

  6. [Prevalence of bulimia among secondary school students in Casablanca].

    PubMed

    Ghazal, N; Agoub, M; Moussaoui, D; Battas, O

    2001-01-01

    During the two last decades, several epidemiological studies have been conducted on bulimia nervosa. According to recent studies, prevalence rates were estimated to be 1%. There are a very few studies on eating behaviour conducted in Arab countries. The aims of the current study were to assess prospectively the prevalence of Bulimia Nervosa and its characteristics in a Moroccan context in a randomly selected and representative sample of students attending six secondary schools in Casablanca. A second group composed of the students of the French secondary school of Casablanca was included in the survey in order to verify the influence of socio-cultural factors. Subjects completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE), a 33-item self-report measure of both the symptoms and severity of bulimia nervosa. A score of 25 or higher suggests a bulimic syndrome; 2,044 subjects returned their questionnaires (participation rate = 75.8%). The group of Moroccan school included 1,887 subjects and the French school 157 subjects. Females were preponderant (59%). The mean age was 18.3 +/- 1.2 years (15-22 years). For the first group, at least one substance was taken by 290 (15.3%) students: 12.7% were addicted to tobacco and 5.7% consumed occasionally alcohol. 16.3% reported a familial history of disturbed eating behaviour. According to the BITE, the overall prevalence of bulimia was 0.8% (1.2% in female and 0.1 in male subjects). The mean age of bulimic subjects was 18.6 +/- 1.7 years (16-24 years). The only male case in our sample was aged 24 years, without personal nor familial psychiatric history, consumed regularly tobacco and alcohol. His BITE symptoms score was 20 and severity score was 17, the highest score in our sample. Analyses of correlates of bulimia nervosa in the Moroccan sample showed that the group of bulimic subjects did not differ from the non bulimic with regard to any sociodemographic characteristics except sex

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Use among a Sample of Nigerian Semirural Community Dwellers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lasebikan, Victor Olufolahan; Ola, Bolanle Adeyemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among a sample of Nigerian semirural community dwellers in Nigeria. Methods. In a single arm nonrandomized intervention study, the assessment of baseline hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated risk factors was conducted in two semirural local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria, with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Participants included 1203 subjects 15 years and older, recruited between October 2010 and April 2011. ASSIST score of 0-10 was classified as lower risk scores, 11-26 as moderate risk, and 27+ as high risk. Results. Prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 57.9% and current alcohol use was 23.7%. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among the younger age group p = 0.02, male gender p = 0.003, unmarried p < 0.01, low educational level p = 0.003, low socioeconomic class p = 0.01, unemployed p < 0.001, and the Christians p < 0.01. Of the current drinkers, the majority (69.1%) were at either moderate or high health risk from alcohol use. Conclusion. Alcohol consumption is prevalent in semirural communities in Nigeria and the majority of these drinkers are at moderate or high health risk. Screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment for unhealthy alcohol use should be integrated into community care services in Nigerian rural communities. PMID:27195170

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Use among a Sample of Nigerian Semirural Community Dwellers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among a sample of Nigerian semirural community dwellers in Nigeria. Methods. In a single arm nonrandomized intervention study, the assessment of baseline hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated risk factors was conducted in two semirural local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria, with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Participants included 1203 subjects 15 years and older, recruited between October 2010 and April 2011. ASSIST score of 0–10 was classified as lower risk scores, 11–26 as moderate risk, and 27+ as high risk. Results. Prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 57.9% and current alcohol use was 23.7%. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among the younger age group p = 0.02, male gender p = 0.003, unmarried p < 0.01, low educational level p = 0.003, low socioeconomic class p = 0.01, unemployed p < 0.001, and the Christians p < 0.01. Of the current drinkers, the majority (69.1%) were at either moderate or high health risk from alcohol use. Conclusion. Alcohol consumption is prevalent in semirural communities in Nigeria and the majority of these drinkers are at moderate or high health risk. Screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment for unhealthy alcohol use should be integrated into community care services in Nigerian rural communities. PMID:27195170

  9. Prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in opioid abusers in a community syringe exchange program.

    PubMed

    Kidorf, Michael; Disney, Elizabeth R; King, Van L; Neufeld, Karin; Beilenson, Peter L; Brooner, Robert K

    2004-05-10

    The present study evaluates the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in male and female intravenous opioid abusers participating at a community needle exchange program (NEP). All participants (n = 422) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) for Axis I disorders and antisocial personality disorder (APD). Psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidity were highly prevalent. Major depression was the most common current and lifetime Axis I non-substance use disorder (6 and 21% of the sample, respectively); 37% were diagnosed with APD. Over 50% of the sample was diagnosed with at least one non-substance use Axis I disorder or APD. In addition to opioid dependence, cocaine dependence was the most prevalent current and lifetime substance use disorder (68 and 78% of the sample, respectively), followed by alcohol and cannabis dependence. Overall, participants reported a mean of over one current and over three lifetime substance use disorders in addition to opioid dependence. Women reported higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while men were more likely diagnosed with APD. Presence of a psychiatric disorder was associated with increased prevalence of substance use disorder for all drug classes. The high rates of comorbidity observed in this sample suggest that the harm reduction efforts of NEPs can be significantly enhanced through referral of participants to programs that treat substance use and/or other psychiatric disorders.

  10. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B; Backer, V

    2009-04-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise. Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use of asthma medication (15%) than all other athletes (P<0.01). Athletes participating in endurance sports have a higher prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medication. The frequency of asthma medication is lower than the prevalence of current asthma indicating that there is no overuse of asthma medication among Danish elite athletes.

  11. [The prevalence of nicotine-dependency in some populations: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable morbidity-mortality around the world. Nicotine dependence (ND) explains why people continue to smoke even though the harmful outcome associated with tobacco use is well-known. The object of this review was to establish current and one-year prevalence of ND among adults from the general population. Ebsco, Embase, Lilacs, Ovid, Proquest, and PubMed were systematically reviewed. The key words used were: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, nicotine, dependence, adults, general population and cross-sectional study. Only research carried out in English, Portuguese and Spanish was reviewed. A descriptive analysis of six articles was made. Current ND prevalence ranged from 27.8% to 55% (44.7% weighted average) and annual prevalence from 26% to 46.9% (37.7% weighted average). ND was independent of gender and higher amongst heavy smokers. It was concluded that ND prevalence is close to 45% amongst current regular smokers and affected 38% of smokers during the last year. More research is needed. PMID:16703966

  12. The prevalence of childhood asthma in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, M; Bustamante, M; Gutierrez, I; Hanson, L A; Strannegård, I L; Karlberg, J

    1994-12-01

    The prevalence of asthma in children between the ages of 5 and 17 years in Costa Rica was determined using a large sample (n = 2682). The definition of asthma was based on a combination of a physician's diagnosis and a symptom score, using information from a questionnaire given to the parents. An overall asthma prevalence as high as 23.4% was found. Sex, age, urban/rural location, or rain precipitation did not show any association with the diagnosis of asthma. The presence of smokers in the home was found to be an important risk factor (odds ratio = 1.6). Another identified risk factor was a high yearly average outside temperature, i.e. above 25 degrees C (odds ratio = 1.8). Furthermore, the proportion of children with more than four upper respiratory infections during the preceding year was found to be significantly increased in children with asthma (odds ratio = 4.3). The non-asthma group seemed to use equal amounts of drugs for the treatment of asthma as the asthma group. For a country like Costa Rica with limited economic resources the current work indicates two important issues for consideration in the future; firstly, to try to define the cause(s) of asthma and secondly, to continuously inform the physicians about the best way of diagnosing and treating asthmatic patients to ensure optimal handling of this large patient group. PMID:7889426

  13. Prevalence of recent immunisation in children with febrile convulsions

    PubMed Central

    Motala, Leya; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of recent immunisation amongst children under 7 years of age presenting for febrile convulsions. METHODS This is a retrospective study of all children under the age of seven presenting with febrile convulsions to a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. A total of 78 cases occurred in the period January 2011 to July 2012 and were included in the study. Data was extracted from medical records to provide a retrospective review of the convulsions. RESULTS Of the 78 total cases, there were five medical records which contained information on whether or not immunisation had been administered in the preceding 48 h to presentation to the emergency department. Of these five patients only one patient (1.28% of the study population) was confirmed to have received a vaccination with Infanrix, Prevnar and Rotavirus. The majority of cases reported a current infection as a likely precipitant to the febrile convulsion. CONCLUSION This study found a very low prevalence of recent immunisation amongst children with febrile convulsions presenting to an emergency department at a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. This finding, however, may have been distorted by underreporting of vaccination history.

  14. [On the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Puche, Rodolfo C

    2015-01-01

    Between 1987 and the date of the present issue, 10 reports have been published on the prevalence of the vitamin D deficit in Argentina. These studies were done investigating new born babies, children, adolescents, and healthy and institutionalized adults, living in southern, middle or northern cities of Argentina. The weighed prevalence of vitamin D deficit in those reports was 43.3% (436/1007). This figure may be lower than reality because it is not known whether the stratification (age and location of residence) of the sum of samples agree with that of the national population. Taking into account the obvious difficulties in carrying out such a research two areas for further research are suggested: a) an investigation on the solar exposure in summer needed to obviate (or not) the oral supplementation of vitamin D in winter, b) to determine the success of the schema of administration taking into account the current controversy between dose and optimum plasma levels of 25(HO)D3. In both instances, the end point should include some of the physiological functions alluded to in this editorial.

  15. Prevalence and genetics of patellar luxation in Kooiker dogs.

    PubMed

    Wangdee, C; Leegwater, P A J; Heuven, H C M; van Steenbeek, F G; Meutstege, F J; Meij, B P; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of patellar luxation (PL) and genetic factors potentially involved in the disorder were investigated in Dutch Kooiker dogs. A cohort of 842 Kooiker dogs, the offspring of 195 sires and 318 dams, was screened for PL from 1994 to 2011. The cohort was included in a pedigree of 1737 Kooiker dogs comprising nine generations. PL was present in 24% of screened dogs, with unilateral and bilateral luxation being observed equally frequently. Medial PL was more common (61%) than lateral PL (32%) or bidirectional PL (7%). The frequency of PL was similar in male and female dogs, with a female:male relative risk of 1.15 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.90-1.48). The heritability of PL in the screened population was 0.27 ± 0.07. Since the start of the screening programme, the prevalence of PL decreased from 28% to 19%. A genome-wide association study of PL with 48 cases and 42 controls suggested the possible involvement of a region on chromosome 3 (Praw = 1.32 × 10(-)(5), Pgenome = 0.142), but the involvement of this region could not be confirmed in a validation group. Breeding programmes for complex diseases, such as PL, would benefit from combining pedigrees, phenotypes and genotypes, i.e. from genomic selection, as is currently the method of choice for breeding of production animals.

  16. Food allergy prevalence: new possibilities for therapy and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy is an important clinical problem of increasing prevalence worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses are the most widely recognized form of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy is influenced by country, age, culture, and dietary habits. Strategies for the prevention of food allergy have been extensively studied. There is currently no standard treatment for food allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy has been hindered by severe side effects in the past. A mutated recombinant major apple allergen is clinically hypoallergenic, which paves the way toward safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest medical practices in the world. A Chinese Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has been used as a therapy for food allergy patients. FAHF-2 was shown to be remarkably effective against food anaphylaxis in an animal model and in human clinical trial with the potential to be a long-lasting therapy.

  17. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages and associated factors among Israeli Bedouins.

    PubMed

    Na'amnih, Wasef; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Kabaha, Ahmed; Rubin, Liza Pollack; Bilenko, Natalya; Jaber, Lutfi; Honovich, Mira; Shohat, Tamy

    2014-10-01

    The Bedouin population in Israel is a semi-nomadic traditional patriarchal society. Consanguineous marriages are very common, contributing to high rates of congenital malformations and genetic diseases, resulting in high infant mortality. Data on consanguineous marriages among Bedouins in Israel are limited. This study examined the current prevalence of consanguineous marriages and their determinants among Israeli Bedouins. One thousand two hundred ninety Bedouin women who delivered in the maternity wards of the only hospital serving the Bedouin population were interviewed between November 2009 and January 2010. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 44.8 %. The most common type of spousal relationship was first cousins (65.7 % of all consanguineous marriages). The mean inbreeding coefficient was 0.0238. Factors significantly associated with consanguinity were less years of schooling (OR 0.94, 95 % CI (0.88-0.99), p = 0.02) and younger age at marriage of the wife (OR 0.90, 95 % CI (0.80-0.96), p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the rate of consanguineous marriages among Bedouins is very high, making this population at risk for congenital malformations and genetic diseases. Efforts should be directed at better education and provision of premarital and prenatal counseling on the health consequences of consanguineous marriages and the possibilities to lower those risks.

  18. Prevalence of recent immunisation in children with febrile convulsions

    PubMed Central

    Motala, Leya; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of recent immunisation amongst children under 7 years of age presenting for febrile convulsions. METHODS This is a retrospective study of all children under the age of seven presenting with febrile convulsions to a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. A total of 78 cases occurred in the period January 2011 to July 2012 and were included in the study. Data was extracted from medical records to provide a retrospective review of the convulsions. RESULTS Of the 78 total cases, there were five medical records which contained information on whether or not immunisation had been administered in the preceding 48 h to presentation to the emergency department. Of these five patients only one patient (1.28% of the study population) was confirmed to have received a vaccination with Infanrix, Prevnar and Rotavirus. The majority of cases reported a current infection as a likely precipitant to the febrile convulsion. CONCLUSION This study found a very low prevalence of recent immunisation amongst children with febrile convulsions presenting to an emergency department at a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. This finding, however, may have been distorted by underreporting of vaccination history. PMID:27610346

  19. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  20. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  1. Atrial fibrillation: review of current treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Joshua; Luc, Jessica G. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia in modern clinical practice, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5–2%. The prevalence of AF is expected to double in the next decades, progressing with age and increasingly becoming a global medical challenge. The first-line treatment for AF is often medical treatment with either rate control or anti-arrhythmic agents for rhythm control, in addition to anti-coagulants such as warfarin for stroke prevention in patient at risk. Catheter ablation has emerged as an alternative for AF treatment, which involves myocardial tissue lesions to disrupt the underlying triggers and substrates for AF. Surgical approaches have also been developed for treatment of AF, particularly for patients requiring concomitant cardiac surgery or those refractory to medical and catheter ablation treatments. Since the introduction of the Cox-Maze III, this procedure has evolved into several modern variations, including the use of alternative energy sources (Cox-Maze IV) such as radiofrequency, cryo-energy and microwave, as well as minimally invasive thoracoscopic epicardial approaches. Another recently introduced technique is the hybrid ablation approach, where in a single setting both epicardial thoracoscopic ablation lesions and endocardial catheter ablation lesions are performed by the cardiothoracic surgeon and cardiologist. There remains controversy surrounding the optimal approach for AF ablation, energy sources, and lesion sets employed. The goal of this article is review the history, classifications, pathophysiology and current treatment options for AF. PMID:27747025

  2. Prevalence survey and first molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in France.

    PubMed

    Umhang, G; Richomme, C; Boucher, J-M; Hormaz, V; Boué, F

    2013-04-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease) caused by the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm continues to be a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. France is still considered as endemic area, but the current infestation by E. granulosus of intermediate hosts in France remains currently unknown due to the absence of official data reporting for the last 20 years. A 1-year prevalence survey was conducted in the 24 slaughterhouses of ten departments of the South of France. We demonstrate that the E. granulosus parasite is still currently present at low prevalence at slaughterhouses in the study area (4 cases for 100,000 sheep and 3 cases for 100,000 cattle). In addition, we assess the presence of genotype G1 in infected animals and identify for the first time in France genotypes G2 and G3 of E. granulosus sensu stricto.

  3. Prevalence of heroin markers in urine for pain management patients.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julie; Puet, Brandi L; DePriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Hild, Cheryl; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2014-10-01

    Surveys of current trends indicate heroin abuse is associated with nonmedical use of pain relievers. Consequently, there is an interest in evaluating the presence of heroin-specific markers in chronic pain patients who are prescribed controlled substances. A total of 926,084 urine specimens from chronic pain patients were tested for heroin/diacetylmorphine (DAM), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), 6-acetylcodeine (6AC), codeine (COD), and morphine (MOR). Heroin and markers were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Opiates were analyzed following hydrolysis using LC-MS-MS. The prevalence of heroin use was 0.31%, as 2871 were positive for one or more heroin-specific markers including DAM, 6AM, or 6AC (a known contaminant of illicit heroin). Of these, 1884 were additionally tested for the following markers of illicit drug use: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine (MAMP), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetracannabinol (THCCOOH), and benzoylecgonine (BZE); 654 (34.7%) had positive findings for one or more of these analytes. The overall prevalence of heroin markers were as follows: DAM 1203 (41.9%), 6AM 2570 (89.5%), 6AC 1082 (37.7%). MOR was present in 2194 (76.4%) and absent (Prevalence of combinations for specimens containing MOR were as follows: DAM only 13 (0.59%), 6AM only 1140 (52.0%), 6AC only 24 (1.1%), DAM/6AM/6AC 710 (32.4%), 6AM/6AC 188 (8.6%), DAM/6AM 113 (5.2%), DAM/6AC 6 (0.27%). Importantly, the prevalence of combinations for specimens without MOR were as follows: DAM only 161 (23.8%), 6AM only 217 (32.1%), 6AC only 92 (13.6%), DAM/6AM/6AC 50 (7.4%), 6AM/6AC 7 (1.0%), DAM/6AM 145 (21.4%), DAM/6AC 5 (0.74%). Unexpected patterns of excretion were observed, such as the presence of DAM and 6AC in the absence of 6AM and MOR; therefore, multiple heroin markers may be useful to assess for

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Chinese Schizophrenia Inpatients Receiving Antipsychotic Mono-Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Min; Chen, Hong-Hui; Li, Fu; Deng, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Hai-Chen; Qi, Li-Guo; Guo, Jin-Hong; Liu, Tie-Bang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence rate of cigarette smoking and its socio-demographic and clinical correlates in Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy. Methods This study was a cross-sectional, two-site, hospital-based survey. Four hundred and twenty-nine schizophrenia patients (male/female: 66.9% vs. 33.1%) were consecutively recruited from psychosis inpatient wards of two large specialty psychiatric hospitals in mainland China. Patients were assessed using a cigarette smoking questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, the Simpson Angus Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Socio-demographic and other clinical data were also collected. We calculated the prevalence of current smoking in our sample as well as its indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR) using data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey in China. Results The prevalence rate of current smoking was 40.6% in our sample, and 57.5% in males and 6.3% in females. The ISPRs of all patients, men and women were 1.11(95%CI: 0.95∼1.29), 1.07(95%CI = 0.91∼1.24) and 4.64(95%CI = 2.12∼8.82), respectively. The overall and male-specific prevalence of current smoking did not differ significantly between patients and the general population. In multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, older age, poor marital status, alcohol use, use of first-generation antipsychotics, longer duration of illness, more frequent hospitalizations, and more severe negative symptoms were independently associated with current smoking. Conclusion Male Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia who received a mono-therapy of antipsychotics were not more likely to smoke than the general population. Cigarette smoking is more common in schizophrenia patients with more severe illness. PMID:24520390

  5. Malaria in pregnancy: current issues.

    PubMed

    Brabin, B

    1997-01-01

    Though not known why, pregnant women are far more susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum malaria during their first pregnancies. Therefore, in sub-Saharan African countries endemic for malaria, almost half of all primigravidae will be parasitemic at their first antenatal visit. Some estimate that up to half of all low birth weight babies born to primigravidae in malaria-endemic areas may be attributable to malaria. Intrauterine growth in the context of maternal parasitemia therefore has major adverse implications for child survival. For the mothers, the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women is greatly increased in malarious areas, and iron-deficiency anemia in pregnant women in developed countries has been associated with pre-term birth and low birth weight. These adverse health and developmental consequences of malaria infection among mothers and their babies is compounded by the absence of any widely-applied recommendation for malaria control in pregnant women in Africa. Current control strategies are nonetheless described. The influence of HIV infection in relation to the effectiveness of malaria drug control during pregnancy has not been assessed.

  6. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  7. Misuse of "study drugs:" prevalence, consequences, and implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Miller, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Background Non-medical/illegal use of prescription stimulants popularly have been referred to as "study drugs". This paper discusses the current prevalence and consequences of misuse of these drugs and implications of this information for drug policy. Results Study drugs are being misused annually by approximately 4% of older teens and emerging adults. Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications. Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education. Conclusion Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts. PMID:16764722

  8. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

    PubMed

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. PMID:22700108

  9. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

    PubMed

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population.

  10. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095

  11. Prevalence of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, P E

    1989-04-01

    The point prevalence at birth of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in a subregion of Denmark was estimated by a study of all children born January 1970 through December 1983. Two cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case of thanatophoric dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of achondrogenesis type III, and three cases of achondrogenesis type IV were found. Two cases were unclassifiable due to lack of radiographs. In total, the point prevalence at birth was 15.4 per 100,000. Thus lethal osteochondrodysplasias seem to be more common than is generally assumed. The clinical and radiographic findings in micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull are discussed in relation to thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis type IV. PMID:2789000

  12. Birth prevalence rates of skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Roth, M P; Alembik, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias which can be diagnosed in the perinatal period or during pregnancy. Using a population-based register of congenital anomalies, a prevalence rate of 3.22 0/000 was observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.64 0/000, 1/15,000 births), thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis (0.28 0/000). The mutation rate for achondroplasia was higher in our material than in the other studies: 3.3 x 10(-5) per gamete per generation. Our study demonstrates that prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible in some skeletal dysplasias. PMID:2785882

  13. The effects of chronic exposure to aircraft noise on the prevalence of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Kim, Hae-Young; Roh, Sang-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2008-04-01

    Exposure to environmental noise has been suggested to increase the prevalence of hypertension. The present study investigated whether or not chronic exposure to military aircraft noise is related to an increased prevalence of hypertension. The study population consisted of 137 subjects (mean age 60+/-14 years) who lived within 5 km of a helicopter airbase and 486 subjects (58+/-16 years) living within 5 km of a fighter-jet airbase. A control group consisted of 252 subjects (58+/-16 years) not exposed to aircraft noise. Overall, the subjects exposed to military aircraft noise had a higher prevalence of hypertension than those in the control group (p=0.037). However, whereas those exposed to helicopter noise had a higher prevalence than the control group (p=0.020), those exposed to fighter-jet noise did not (p=0.094). The prevalence of known hypertension in the helicopter group was higher than in the control group (p=0.024). The prevalence odds ratio for hypertension adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, current smoking, alcohol intake, diabetes, and regular exercise was 1.62 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02-2.59) for the subjects exposed to helicopter noise, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.87-1.74) for those exposed to fighter-jet noise. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to military aircraft noise may be associated with hypertension. The difference in the effects between helicopter and fighter-jet noise implies that different kinds of noise will have different influences on the prevalence of hypertension.

  14. Smoking cessation attempts among adolescent smokers: a systematic review of prevalence studies

    PubMed Central

    Bancej, Christina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Platt, Robert W; Paradis, Gilles; Gervais, André

    2007-01-01

    Objective To synthesise estimates of the prevalence of cessation attempts among adolescent smokers generally, and according to age and level of cigarette consumption. Data sources PubMed, ERIC, and PsychInfo databases and Internet searches of central data collection agencies. Study selection National population‐based studies published in English between 1990 and 2005 reporting the prevalence, frequency and/or duration of cessation attempts among smokers aged ⩾10 to <20 years. Data extraction Five reviewers determined inclusion criteria for full‐text reports. One reviewer extracted data on the design, population characteristics and results from the reports. Data synthesis In total, 52 studies conformed to the inclusion criteria. The marked heterogeneity that characterised the study populations and survey questions precluded a meta‐analysis. Among adolescent current smokers, the median 6‐month, 12‐month and lifetime cessation attempt prevalence was 58% (range: 22–73%), 68% (range 43–92%) and 71% (range 28–84%), respectively. More than half had made multiple attempts. Among smokers who had attempted cessation, the median prevalence of relapse was 34, 56, 89 and 92% within 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year, respectively, following the longest attempt. Younger (age<16 years) and non‐daily smokers experienced a similar or higher prevalence of cessation attempts compared with older (age ⩾16 years) or daily smokers. Moreover, the prevalence of relapse by 6 months following the longest cessation attempt was similar across age and smoking frequency. Conclusions The high prevalence of cessation attempts and relapse among adolescent smokers extends to young adolescents and non‐daily smokers. Cessation surveillance, research and program development should be more inclusive of these subgroups. PMID:18048598

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis D in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Neda; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Kabir, Ali; Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Saiedi Hosseini, Seyed Yasser; Rizzetto, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) causes the most threatening form of chronic viral hepatitis. To date, there is no overall estimation of HDV prevalence in the Eastern Mediterranean Region Office of WHO (EMRO) countries. Objectives To provide a clear estimation of HDV prevalence in the aforementioned region. Patients and Methods In the current systematic review, databases such as PubMed, Embase, Web of sciences and Google scholar were searched Until December 2010. The summary estimate of HDV prevalence in the EMRO region was calculated as an average of the pooled infection prevalence of each country weighted by the ratio of the country’s HBV population to the study’s sample size in the survey data analysis. Results We included 62 eligible studies. The weighted mean of HDV prevalence in the EMRO region was 14.74% (95% CI: 14.73 – 14.77), 27.8% (95% CI: 27.78 – 27.82), 36.57% (95% CI: 36.55 – 36.59) and 16.44%. (95% CI: 16.42 – 16.46) in asymptomatic HBsAg positive carriers, chronic hepatitis patients, cirrhosis/ hepatocellular carcinoma, and high risk group, respectively. Among the asymptomatic HBsAg positive group, HDV prevalence was increased by years in older patients in Saudi Arabia but its prevalence was decreased in Iran. No specific pattern was seen according to chronological analysis during years among the EMRO countries. Conclusions HDV infection is endemic in the EMRO countries and it is more common among patients with severe forms of hepatitis. Due to the high HDV infection rates in the EMRO countries, we recommend blood screening for HDV infection in this region. PMID:23554822

  16. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p<0.05) in cattle (1076/1475; 72.9%) than in buffaloes (957/2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies. PMID:19782414

  17. Bioclimatic distribution and prevalence maps for Fasciola hepatica in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis affects different ruminant species and leads to great economic losses for cattle farmers worldwide. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate bovine fasciolosis prevalence in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, using slaughter maps provided by slaughterhouses and verifying the origin of cattle. Methods A map was created based on analysis of epidemiological data. The ArcGIS/ArcINFO 10.1 software was employed in order to elaborate updated bioclimatic maps that displayed the fasciolosis prevalence within the state – per city– between 2009 and 2011. Results According to the bioclimatic map it was clear that 52.24% of the state’s total area comprise regions considered favorable for the development and survival of Fasciola hepatica. According to the data provided by slaughterhouses, the parasite was more frequent in the cities of Atílio Vivácqua, Itapemirim and Anchieta with respective prevalence of 28.41, 25.50 and 24.95%. Although the northern portion of the state is also favorable for the disease maintenance (reaching rates above 90%), several cities presented prevalence of only 0.99 and 1.94% respectively. These findings indicate that climatic and environmental factors only cannot be considered preponderant to fasciolosis occurrence. Regarding the slaughterhouse located in Anchieta city, the higher prevalence was registered in the cities of Jerônimo Monteiro, Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, with mean prevalence of 1.21, 1.07 and 2.09% respectively. Conclusion Although the present findings suggest a pattern for the prevalence of fasciolosis, records of the cities for the occurrence of the disease usually do not reflect the true origin of animals. PMID:25101121

  18. Tsunami currents in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends.

  19. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  20. Tsunami currents in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends. PMID:26392622

  1. Validation of a chart to estimate true Schistosoma mansoni prevalences from simple egg counts.

    PubMed

    De Vlas, S J; Engels, D; Rabello, A L; Oostburg, B F; Van Lieshout, L; Polderman, A M; Van Oortmarssen, G J; Habbema, J D; Gryseels, B

    1997-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni egg counts by faecal examination vary considerably and are not very sensitive, so prevalences are underestimated. The distribution of egg counts can adequately be described by a stochastic model which distinguishes variation in counts between persons and variation in repeated counts within a person. Based on this model a pocket chart has been developed which predicts the proportion of individuals harbouring at least 1 S. mansoni worm pair-the 'true prevalence'-from a simple single survey prevalence and geometric mean egg count (using common duplicate 25 mg Kato-Katz smears). The current paper describes the validation of this chart by comparing predicted true prevalences with prevalences observed after 5-7 repeated Kato-Katz faecal examinations (Burundi), by examination of a large quantity of stool using the Visser filter (Brazil) or a selective sedimentation-filtration method (Surinam). Because 5-7 repeated examinations do not suffice to measure all infections, predictions have been made of the cumulative proportion positives over 5-7 surveys-the 'approximate true prevalence'-as well. After dividing the data into age groups, 12 different subsets were considered for validation. In all 12 cases, predicted true prevalences (or approximate true prevalences for the Burundi data) agree well with those observed. The overall agreement depends only slightly on the assumed relationship between worm numbers and mean egg counts, with a good fit for a productivity between 0.8 and 4.4 eggs per gramme faeces (EPG) per worm pair (WP). This interval includes the most plausible value from the literature, i.e. 1.0 EPG/WP, which has been applied in the initial pocket chart. These findings support the validity of the chart to predict true prevalences for a wide range of productivity assumptions, and reinforces the applicability of its underlying stochastic model to describe egg count variation. However, as predictions appear to vary importantly when using only part

  2. Association between direct and indirect smoking and osteoarthritis prevalence in Koreans: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyungrae; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between smoking patterns and knee and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older with focus on knee OA. Design Cross-sectional study using nationally representative data. Setting Data were collected at portable Health Examination Centres in Korea. Participants Data of 9064 participants of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012) aged 50 years or older who received knee or hip joint X-rays out of 31 596 total surveyees were analysed. Primary outcome measures OA prevalence by smoking behaviour (current smoking, past smoking, indirect smoking and non-smoking). Secondary outcome measures Estimated risk of OA by smoking amount, period, pack-years and indirect smoking exposure time to assess the association between smoking-related factors and knee OA by calculating ORs and adjusting for covariates in a complex sampling design. A multinomial logistic regression analysis and backward elimination method was used. Results OA prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older was 13.9%, with prevalence about 3.5 times higher in women (men 5.7%, women 20.1%). ORs for knee and hip joint OA prevalence by smoking behaviour in male indirect-smokers were lower than those in non-smokers in age and sex (OR 0.271; 95% CI 0.088 to 0.828), and selective adjustments (OR 0.314; 95% CI 0.102 to 0.966). All other analyses for smoking behaviour and total OA prevalence, and knee OA prevalence were not significantly different. Associations between smoking amount, period, pack-years and knee OA prevalence were non-significant in ever-smokers. Associations between indirect smoking exposure time and knee OA prevalence were also non-significant. Conclusions This study found that though direct and previous smoking and OA prevalence were not associated, there was a weak relationship between indirect smoking and OA. PMID:26892791

  3. Cribra orbitalia: Prevalence in contemporary populations.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Maryna; Voeller, Sarah; Botha, Deona; Ross, Ann H

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of cribra orbitalia (CO) is often used as an indicator of the general health status of past populations. Although debates as to its exact etiology are still ongoing, cribra is generally accepted to be the result of an anemic condition. Cribra has been reported to be declining in modern populations or even to be absent. The aim of this study was to compare modern, historic, and prehistoric prevalences of CO to assess whether it has changed through time and if it still occurs in contemporary populations. CO in skeletons (n = 844) from two widely different regions, the northeastern US and the central Gauteng area of South Africa, were compared in order to evaluate temporal trends. The sample comprised 245 prehistoric, 381 historic, and 218 modern skeletons. In adult skeletons the prevalence was found to be lower in historic South Africans (2.23%) than in historic North Americans (6.25%). It was lower in modern North Americans than in modern South Africans (12.35 and 16.8%, respectively). Its prevalence in prehistoric North Americans (11.86%) was also not much different from that of modern North Americans (12.35%). The frequency of CO in historic South African juveniles was higher (10.71%) than in historic North American juveniles (1.35%). Modern South African children had a lower frequency (25.14%) than modern American juveniles (40%), although the sample in the North American group was small. It seems that CO is still present in modern populations, and that health may indeed have declined for some groups in recent times. Clin. Anat. 29:823-830, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prevalence of dental caries in dentistry students.

    PubMed

    Pavleova, G; Vesela, S; Stanko, P

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates dental caries prevalence in dentistry students. They represent a sample of individuals with good dental status, socio-economical level and access to dental care. The values of teeth number with decay and filling and values of surfaces of teeth with decay and filling indices in group with lower caries incidence give the information as to what could be achieved by systemic care and prevention of dental caries in whole population (Tab. 4. Ref. 25).

  5. Prevalence of antipituitary antibodies in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Federica; Caturegli, Patrizio; Salvatori, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder due to an excessive production of growth hormone (GH), typically caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Anti-pituitary antibodies (APAs) are often seen in patients with different kinds of pituitary pathologies. Because GH has been proposed as a possible antigen recognized by such antibodies, the prevalence of APAs may be higher in conditions characterized by excessive GH secretion. The primary aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of APAs in patients with acromegaly and in controls with other types of pituitary tumors and healthy subjects. Secondary aim was to characterize the pituitary cells targeted by the APAs. Thirty eight acromegaly patients and 215 controls, including 38 patients with prolactinomas, 64 with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), and 113 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects were tested for APAs using indirect immunofluorescence. Target cells recognized by APAs were identified by double staining immunofluorescence. APAs were significantly more prevalent in acromegaly cases than in healthy controls (10.5% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). This prevalence was similar to that found in patients with prolactinomas (7.9%) and NFPA (12.5%). Among APAs-positive subjects, antibodies recognizing somatotrope cells were more common in acromegaly cases than in healthy controls (3/4 vs. 0/113, P < 0.0001), but had similar frequencies in NFPA (2/8) and prolactinomas (1/3). APAs are more frequently found in patients with pituitary adenomas than healthy subjects, with no significant difference among the tumor types studied. GH-secreting cells could represent a target of the autoimmune response. PMID:22002711

  6. Prevalence of celiac disease in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a common systemic disease related to a permanent intolerance to gluten and is often associated with different autoimmune and neurological diseases. Its mean prevalence in the general population is 1-2% worldwide. Our aim was to study the prevalence of celiac disease in a prospective series of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients and their first-degree relatives. Methods We analyzed the prevalence of serological, histological and genetic CD markers in a series of 72 MS patients and in their 126 first-degree relatives, compared to 123 healthy controls. Results Tissue IgA-anti-transglutaminase-2 antibodies were positive in 7 MS patients (10%), compared to 3 healthy controls (2.4%) (p < 0.05). OR: 5.33 (CI-95%: 1.074-26.425). No differences were found in HLA-DQ2 markers between MS patients (29%) and controls (26%) (NS). We detected mild or moderate villous atrophy (Marsh III type) in duodenal biopsies, in 8 MS patients (11.1%). We also found a high proportion of CD among first-degree relatives: 23/126 (32%). Several associated diseases were detected, mainly dermatitis 41 (57%) and iron deficiency anemia in 28 (39%) MS patients. We also found in them, an increased frequency of circulating auto-antibodies such as anti-TPO in 19 (26%), ANA in 11 (15%) and AMA in 2 (3%). Conclusions We have found an increased prevalence of CD in 8 of the 72 MS patients (11.1%) and also in their first-degree relatives (23/126 [32%]). Therefore, increased efforts aimed at the early detection and dietary treatment of CD, among antibody-positive MS patients, are advisable. PMID:21385364

  7. Observing the Birkeland currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    When the supersonic solar wind hits the Earth's magnetic field, a powerful electrical connection occurs with Earth's field, generating millions of amperes of current that drive the dazzling auroras. These so-called Birkeland currents connect the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and channel solar wind energy to Earth's uppermost atmosphere. Solar storms release torrential blasts of solar wind that cause much stronger currents and can overload power grids and disrupt communications and navigation.

  8. Prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fenton, W S

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous abnormal involuntary movements phenomenologically identical to neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia have been described in schizophrenia for over a century. Because at present nearly all patients with schizophrenia are exposed to neuroleptic medications, information about the prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia is obtained from accounts from the preneuroleptic era, evaluations of first-episode patients before neuroleptic treatment, and the identification and assessment of drug-naive patients in developing countries. In this report, data from 14 studies of neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia are used to generate age-adjusted estimates of the prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia. While the precision of this estimate is limited by the difficulty of obtaining large, untreated samples, available data suggest a spontaneous dyskinesia rate of approximately 4% in first-episode schizophrenic patients, 12% for patients ill several years but below age 30 years, 25% for those aged between 30 and 50 years, and 40% for those aged 60 years or older. Relative to the incidence and accrued prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia expected during the natural history of untreated schizophrenia, the cumulative impact of treatment with new neuroleptic agents has yet to be determined.

  9. Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jessica; Burri, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction While problems related to desire, arousal, and orgasm have been subject to extensive epidemiologic research, women's postcoital reactions and feelings, and postcoital dysphoria (PCD) remains under‐researched. Aim The study examined the association between women's attachment anxiety and avoidance, differentiation of self, and the experience of PCD symptoms. Methods Two hundred and thirty female university students completed an online survey. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Index, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the Differentiation of Self Inventory‐Revised, and study specific questions. Results Forty‐six percent of respondents reported experiencing PCD symptoms at least once in their lifetime with 5.1% experiencing PCD symptoms a few times within the past 4 weeks. A small but significant inverse correlation was found between lifetime prevalence of PCD and sexual functioning (r = −0.16). While the regression model accounted for 22% of variance in lifetime prevalence of PCD, attachment and differentiation of self variables did not account for significant variance. Conclusions The findings confirm that PCD is under‐recognized and under‐researched. There appears to be no relationship between PCD and intimacy in close relationships. Further research is necessary to understand the subjective experience of PCD and to inform the development of a reliable measure. Schweitzer RD, O'Brien J, and Burri A. Postcoital dysphoria: Prevalence and psychological correlates. Sex Med 2015;3:229–237. PMID:26797056

  10. Prevalence of arsenicosis in terai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Makhan; Shrestha, Roshan R; Ahmad, S Akhtar; Watanabe, Chiho; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2006-06-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of surveys on arsenicosis cases conducted during 2001-2004 in terai, Nepal, by governmental and non-governmental organizations in their respective project areas and by some national and international institutes. Studies were conducted in six arsenic-contaminated districts of terai, namely Nawalparasi, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Rupandehi, and Kapilvastu. In these districts, arsenic contamination in tubewells varied from 2.1% to 25.7%. The prevalence of arsenicosis was, on average, 2.2% and varied from 0.7% in Kapilavastu district to 3.6% in Nawalparasi district. In the community-based study, the highest prevalence (18.6%) of arsenicosis was found in Patkhouli village of Nawalparasi, where 95.8% of tubewells were contaminated with arsenic. The prevalence of arsenicosis was higher in older age-groups (>50 years) of both the sexes. Males suffered more from arsenicosis than females (odds ratio: 2.50, 95% confidence interval 1.80-3.47). Skin manifestations, such as melanosis and keratosis, were the common symptoms of arsenicosis. Most patients were identified in the early or mild stage of the disease. They are expected to recover if further exposure to arsenic could be avoided by providing arsenic-safe drinking-water through intervention measures. PMID:17195566

  11. Prevalence of arsenicosis in terai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Makhan; Shrestha, Roshan R; Ahmad, S Akhtar; Watanabe, Chiho; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2006-06-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of surveys on arsenicosis cases conducted during 2001-2004 in terai, Nepal, by governmental and non-governmental organizations in their respective project areas and by some national and international institutes. Studies were conducted in six arsenic-contaminated districts of terai, namely Nawalparasi, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Rupandehi, and Kapilvastu. In these districts, arsenic contamination in tubewells varied from 2.1% to 25.7%. The prevalence of arsenicosis was, on average, 2.2% and varied from 0.7% in Kapilavastu district to 3.6% in Nawalparasi district. In the community-based study, the highest prevalence (18.6%) of arsenicosis was found in Patkhouli village of Nawalparasi, where 95.8% of tubewells were contaminated with arsenic. The prevalence of arsenicosis was higher in older age-groups (>50 years) of both the sexes. Males suffered more from arsenicosis than females (odds ratio: 2.50, 95% confidence interval 1.80-3.47). Skin manifestations, such as melanosis and keratosis, were the common symptoms of arsenicosis. Most patients were identified in the early or mild stage of the disease. They are expected to recover if further exposure to arsenic could be avoided by providing arsenic-safe drinking-water through intervention measures.

  12. Prevalence of child maltreatment in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Euser, Eveline M; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-02-01

    The first nationwide prevalence study of child maltreatment in The Netherlands (NPM-2005) was designed as a replication of the National Incidence Studies (NISs) conducted in the United States. Child maltreatment cases were reported by 1,121 professionals from various occupational branches, trained in a detailed registration system of six types of abuse and neglect. In addition, cases registered by the Dutch Child Protection Services (CPS) were analyzed. For 2005, the overall prevalence rate was estimated to be 107,200 (95% CI 102,054-112,882) maltreated children aged 0-18 years, or 30 cases per 1,000 children. Neglect was the most prevalent type (56% of all cases) and sexual abuse had the lowest rate (4%). Of the maltreated children, 47% experienced more than one type of maltreatment. Major risk factors were very low parental education and unemployment. It is worrisome that CPS agencies only see the tip of the iceberg as only 12.6% of all maltreatment cases were reported to the CPS. Training of professionals in observing and reporting child maltreatment is badly needed. The absence of a legal obligation to report in The Netherlands needs reconsideration. PMID:19729577

  13. RF current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  14. Prevalence and diagnostic correlates of DSM-IV pathological gambling in psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2006-06-01

    Studies of the prevalence of pathological gambling (PG) in psychiatric and substance abusing patients suggest that the disorder is not rare. Most studies have been of substance abusers in treatment, and the rate of PG has been found to be several times higher than the rate found in community based epidemiological surveys. However, only one study has examined the prevalence of PG in a heterogeneous sample of patients, and this was a study of psychiatric inpatients. We are not aware of any prior study of the prevalence of PG in a psychiatric outpatient sample. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnosis and Services (MIDAS) project we examined the current and lifetime prevalence of PG in 1,709 psychiatric outpatients interviewed with a semi-structured diagnostic interview that included a module to diagnose DSM-IV PG. Forty (2.3%) patients had a lifetime history of DSM-IV PG, all of whom had at least one other DSM-IV axis I disorder. Patients with PG had significantly more axis I disorders than patients without PG, and had significantly higher rates of bipolar disorder, social phobia, panic disorder with agoraphobia, alcohol use disorder, and other impulse control disorders. Possible reasons for the low prevalence of PG in our sample are discussed.

  15. Decreasing prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius: questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Helen S; Williams, Joanne W; de Courten, Maximilian P; Chitson, Pierrot; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Zimmet, Paul Z

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To describe changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius from 1987 to 1998, and to relate these changes to legislative and health promotion efforts over the same period. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean with a population of about 1.2 million (about 70% south Asian, 2% Chinese, and 28% Creole). Participants Data were obtained from 5072 participants in 1987, 6573 in 1992, and 6281 in 1998. Main outcome measures Prevalence of current smoking in 1987, 1992, and 1998, sales of cigarettes in Mauritius, and information on activities for control of tobacco. Results Self reported cigarette smoking has been decreasing in Mauritius since 1987, with the largest decrease between 1987 and 1992. From 1987 to 1998 smoking prevalence decreased by 23% in men and 61% in women. Smoking decreased across all age and ethnic groups and across different levels of income and education. Sales of cigarettes also decreased in line with smoking prevalence. Conclusions The introduction of cigarette taxes, a limited health promotion programme, and the absence of massive promotional campaigns by the sole tobacco company on Mauritius have led to a striking and continued decrease in smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption on the island. PMID:10926592

  16. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  17. Using a Hybrid Model to Forecast the Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lingling; Xia, Jing; Yu, Lijing; Wang, Ying; Shi, Yun; Cai, Shunxiang; Nie, Shaofa

    2016-01-01

    Background: We previously proposed a hybrid model combining both the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and the nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NARNN) models in forecasting schistosomiasis. Our purpose in the current study was to forecast the annual prevalence of human schistosomiasis in Yangxin County, using our ARIMA-NARNN model, thereby further certifying the reliability of our hybrid model. Methods: We used the ARIMA, NARNN and ARIMA-NARNN models to fit and forecast the annual prevalence of schistosomiasis. The modeling time range included was the annual prevalence from 1956 to 2008 while the testing time range included was from 2009 to 2012. The mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were used to measure the model performance. We reconstructed the hybrid model to forecast the annual prevalence from 2013 to 2016. Results: The modeling and testing errors generated by the ARIMA-NARNN model were lower than those obtained from either the single ARIMA or NARNN models. The predicted annual prevalence from 2013 to 2016 demonstrated an initial decreasing trend, followed by an increase. Conclusions: The ARIMA-NARNN model can be well applied to analyze surveillance data for early warning systems for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. PMID:27023573

  18. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  19. MISR Current Project Quality

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-10-01

    ... by older software versions may be of different quality than current products. It is important, therefore, to note that dates on quality ... Links to older quality statements are available from the current Quality Statement pages. For a thorough description of MISR software ...

  20. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  1. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  2. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  3. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease, Germany, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dirk; de Roux, Andrés; Diel, Roland; Hohmann, David; Hickstein, Lennart; Welte, Tobias; Rademacher, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed routine statutory health insurance claim data to determine prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in Germany. Documented prevalence rates of this nonnotifiable disease increased from 2.3 to 3.3 cases/100,000 population from 2009 to 2014. Prevalence showed a strong association with advanced age and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27191473

  4. ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  6. The prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa, Turkey (A western city from a country bridging Asia and Europe).

    PubMed

    Sakar, Aysin; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Dinc, Gonul; Yuksel, Hasan; Celik, Pinar; Dagyildizi, Lale; Coskun, Evsen; Kaya, Ece; Ozyurt, Beyhan; Ozcan, Cemil

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa city center, Turkey, to evaluate the determinants effective on those values, and to review the prevalence rates reported from different parts of the country. Data were collected from 610 households and complete interviews were conducted with 1,336 adults over 18 years of age by using European Community Respiratory Health Survey-ECRHS questionnaire. The prevalences of current asthma, cumulative asthma and asthma-like symptoms were found in 1.2, 1.0 and 25.0%, respectively, of the 20-44 years age group and the prevalences of allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and family atopy were found in 14.5, 10.9, and 15.2%, respectively, in all age group. Wheezing with breathlessness, wheezing without cold, woken up with shortness of breath and woken up with cold were reported by 9.1%, 6.9%, 6% and 16.1% of the study population, respectively. Gender, age, active or passive smoking, family atopy and home condition effect on prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms. In this study prevalence of asthma correlated with the studies reporting low prevalence rates of Turkey.

  7. Prevalence of Unprotected Anal Intercourse among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: An Updated Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yifei; Jia, Yujiang; Su, Yingying; Cui, Huixia; Liu, Huixin; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this review was to assess the prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted including online databases like “Wanfang”, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed and manual searches. Analyses using random-effects models were performed to estimate the prevalence of UAI among MSM in China. Results Sixty-two articles reporting eighty-two studies were selected. The pooled prevalence rates of UAI with any male partner, with regular male partners, with non-regular male partners, with casual male partners, and with commercial male partners among MSM were 53%(95%CI: 51–56%), 45%(95%CI: 39–51%), 34%(95%CI: 24–45%), 33%(95%CI: 30–36%), 12% (95%CI: 5–26%), respectively. A cumulative meta-analysis found that the pooled UAI prevalence decreased over time. Conclusions Although the prevalence of UAI with male partners among MSM in China presents a decreasing trend over the past decade, the concomitant rise in HIV prevalence and incidence indicates that current prevention intervention efforts are insufficient to effectively contain the spread of HIV. Therefore, the persistently high prevalence of risky sexual behaviors underscores the need for innovative and effective prevention strategies among MSM. PMID:24874882

  8. The Prevalence of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Distribution of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Atrophy, Dysplasia, and Cancer in Its Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Olmez, Sehmus; Aslan, Mehmet; Erten, Remzi; Sayar, Suleyman; Bayram, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is frequently encountered and is considered a precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. In the Van region of Turkey, gastric adenocarcinoma incidence is high but the prevalence of gastric IM is not known. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a main factor leading to atrophy, IM, and cancer development in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of IM and its subtypes and the prevalence of H. pylori infection, atrophy, dysplasia, and cancer in gastric IM subtypes. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 560 IM among the 4050 consecutive patients who were undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsy between June 2010 and October 2014. Clinical records and endoscopic and histopathologic reports of patients with IM were analyzed. Results. The prevalence of gastric IM was 13.8%. The prevalence of incomplete IM was statistically significantly higher than complete IM. Type III IM was the most frequent subtype. Conclusions. Gastric IM is a common finding in patients undergoing EGD with biopsy in this region. High prevalence of incomplete type IM, especially type III, can be associated with the high prevalence of gastric cancer in our region. PMID:26635875

  9. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %).

  10. Decreases in Smoking Prevalence in Asian Communities Served by the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Project

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.; Chen, Roxana; Foo, Mary Anne; Garvin, Cheza C.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas; Liang, Sidney; McPhee, Stephen; Nguyen, Tung T.; Tran, Jacqueline H.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined trends in smoking prevalence from 2002 through 2006 in 4 Asian communities served by the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) intervention. Methods. Annual survey data from 2002 through 2006 were gathered in 4 REACH Asian communities. Trends in the age-standardized prevalence of current smoking for men in 2 Vietnamese communities, 1 Cambodian community, and 1 Asian American/Pacific Islander (API) community were examined and compared with nationwide US and state-specific data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results. Prevalence of current smoking decreased dramatically among men in REACH communities. The reduction rate was significantly greater than that observed in the general US or API male population, and it was greater than reduction rates observed in the states in which REACH communities were located. There was little change in the quit ratio of men at the state and national levels, but there was a significant increase in quit ratios in the REACH communities, indicating increases in the proportions of smokers who had quit smoking. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence decreased in Asian communities served by the REACH project, and these decreases were larger than nationwide decreases in smoking prevalence observed for the same period. However, disparities in smoking prevalence remain a concern among Cambodian men and non–English-speaking Vietnamese men; these subgroups continue to smoke at a higher rate than do men nationwide. PMID:20299646

  11. Snacking Is Prevalent in Mexico123

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snacking has increased globally, but little is known about how Mexicans consume foods outside meals. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of snacking behavior among Mexicans. Methods: We used data from children and adults (aged ≥2 y; n = 9937) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 to examine the prevalence of snacking as well as amount (kcal) and contribution of snacks to total energy intake per day. Snacking was defined as eating outside of the 3 main meals. We calculated per capita (among the total population) and per consumer (“snackers”) estimates of the number of snacks per day, kilocalories per snack, kilocalories per day from snacks, and the percentage of energy from snacks. Top foods consumed during snack occasions were also examined for the NHNS 2012. All results were weighted to account for survey design and to be nationally representative. Results: In 2012, an estimated 73% of the population consumed snacks on a given day, with estimates ranging from 70% among ≥59 y olds to 77% among 2–11 y olds. An average of 1.6 snacks/d were consumed by the population. This value was slightly higher (2.1 snacks/d) among snackers. Snacks provided an average of 343 kcal/d per snacker (17% of total energy/d). Fruit was the most commonly consumed snack food by all ages except for 12–18 y olds. Salty snacks, sweet snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and milk were frequently in the top 5 categories across age groups. Differences were observed between age groups. Conclusions: Snacking is prevalent in the Mexican population. Many, but not all, of the foods consumed during snack occasions are foods considered “foods to limit” in the United States. PMID:25332484

  12. Prevalence of Simple Renal Cysts in Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Takahashi, Michiko; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Suda, Kentaro; Bando, Hironori; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective Various organs are known to be affected by the comorbidities of acromegaly. However, the involvement of renal structural comorbidities, such as cysts, has so far remained largely unknown. In this single-center study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with simple renal cysts in Japanese patients with acromegaly. Methods A total of 71 consecutive patients with acromegaly were analyzed, who all underwent abdominal ultrasonography at diagnosis between 1986 and 2012 at Kobe University Hospital. Results Of these 71 patients, 23 (32.4%) exhibited simple renal cysts. Acromegalic patients with renal cysts tended to be significantly older, had a higher prevalence of smoking- and higher nadir growth hormone (GH) levels during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than did those without renal cysts. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed age, smoking, and nadir GH to be independent factors associated with renal cysts. Interestingly, the number of renal cysts positively correlated with both the basal GH levels and nadir GH levels during OGTT (r=0.66, p<0.05 and r=0.70, p<0.05, respectively). In addition, the mean diameter of renal cysts positively correlated with the systolic blood pressure (r=0.84, p<0.005). Conclusion This is the first report to show the prevalence of simple renal cysts in patients with acromegaly. Elevated nadir GH levels during OGTT were found to be associated with an increased risk of simple renal cysts. Therefore, an excessive secretion of GH may be related to the development of renal cysts. PMID:27374666

  13. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Saskatchewan Farmers.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Michelle; Trask, Catherine; Dosman, James; Hagel, Louise; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    The extent of the musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) problem is not well understood among Canadian farmers, and little too is known about their epidemiology. The purpose of this study was therefore to (1) determine the prevalence of MSDs among farmers in one Canadian province; and (2) describe the types and severities of these disorders and patterns in their occurrence. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline survey data from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study. Reports of MSDs, demographic and health-related variables, reports of farm-related injuries, and economic conditions of individual farms were available for 2595 adult participants from 1212 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Relationships between MSDs and time spent doing farm work were investigated using tests of association. The participation rate was 48.8%. Most (85.6%) of participants reported having musculoskeletal pain in at least one body part over the past year. The lower back was most frequently affected (57.7%), followed by shoulders (44.0%), and neck (39.6%). More serious pain prevented 27.9% of respondents from performing regular work activities. MSD prevalence did not vary by sex, commodity type, or by total hours of farm work completed; prevalence was significantly (P < .05) related to time spent performing biomechanically demanding tasks such as heavy lifting and working with arms overhead. The most common MSD site in farmers was the low back, followed by the upper and then lower extremities. Although this study aimed to identify high-risk groups, lack of differences between demographic groups suggests that the majority of farmers are at risk for MSDs. PMID:26237719

  14. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Faria Neto, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents - 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil's North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil's North and Northeast regions, must be

  15. Chronic pain in Australia: a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Blyth, F M; March, L M; Brnabic, A J; Jorm, L R; Williamson, M; Cousins, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study reports chronic pain prevalence in a randomly selected sample of the adult Australian population. Data were collected by Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) using randomly generated telephone numbers and a two-stage stratified sample design. Chronic pain was defined as pain experienced every day for three months in the six months prior to interview. There were 17,543 completed interviews (response rate=70.8%). Chronic pain was reported by 17.1% of males and 20.0% of females. For males, prevalence peaked at 27.0% in the 65--69 year age group and for females, prevalence peaked at 31.0% in the oldest age group (80--84 years). Having chronic pain was significantly associated with older age, female gender, lower levels of completed education, and not having private health insurance; it was also strongly associated with receiving a disability benefit (adjusted OR=3.89, P<0.001) or unemployment benefit (adjusted OR=1.99, P<0.001); being unemployed for health reasons (adjusted OR=6.41, P<0.001); having poor self-rated health (adjusted OR=7.24, P<0.001); and high levels of psychological distress (adjusted OR=3.16, P<0.001). Eleven per cent of males and 13.5% of females in the survey reported some degree of interference with daily activities caused by their pain. Prevalence of interference was highest in the 55--59 year age group in both males (17.2%) and females (19.7%). Younger respondents with chronic pain were proportionately most likely to report interference due to pain, affecting 84.3% of females and 75.9% of males aged 20--24 years with chronic pain. Within the subgroup of respondents reporting chronic pain, the presence of interference with daily activities caused by pain was significantly associated with younger age; female gender; and not having private health insurance. There were strong associations between having interfering chronic pain and receiving disability benefits (adjusted OR=3.31, P<0.001) or being unemployed due to health reasons

  16. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions

  17. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control

  18. Current control circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S.

    2005-03-15

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor (30), a servo device (40), and a current source (50). The servo device (40) is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor (30) by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base (32b). The current source (150) is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor (30). A first device (24) provides an input signal to an electrical node (70) positioned between the emitter (32e) of the transistor (30) and the current source (50). A second device (26) receives an output signal from the collector (32c) of the transistor (30).

  19. Maxwell currents under thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.; Musser, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Time variations observed in thunderstorm electric fields may be interpreted in terms of a total Maxwell current density, varying slowly with time in the intervals between lightning discharges, which can be used to estimate and map thunderstorms. Using the quasi-static behavior of the Maxwell current density, an expression is derived for the field-dependent current density under a thunderstorm during the field recovery following a lightning discharge. Values of air conductivity under the small storm which range from 2 to 6 x 10 to the -13th mho/m are inferred. Data are presented which indicate that the area-average Maxwell current is not usually affected by lightning, and instead varies slowly throughout the evolution of the storm. In light of this, it is suggested that cloud electrification processes probably do not depend on the cloud electric field as much as on the more slowly varying storm dynamics and meteorological structure.

  20. Current concepts in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tracy, T; Weber, T R

    1992-01-01

    With the fund of knowledge presented here, clinical practice can begin to apply what basic science has discovered. New approaches to immunotherapy and genetic engineering will supplant the current surgical tools for our fight against this tumor.

  1. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  2. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  3. Wave - current interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugan, I.; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2012-04-01

    The problem of wave interaction with current is still a big challenge in physical oceanography. In spite of numerous numbers of papers devoting to the analysis of the phenomenon some very strong effects are still waiting for its clear description. One of the problems here is the Benjamin-Feir instability in the presence of variable current. Modulation instability is one of the most ubiquitous types of instabilities in nature. In modern nonlinear physics, it is considered as a basic process that classifies the qualitative behavior of modulated waves (``envelope waves'') and may initialize the formation of stable entities such as envelope solitons. We theoretically describe the explosion instability of waves on the adverse blocking current and corresponding frequency downshifting. Waves can be blocked only partly and overpass the opposite current barrier at the lower side band resonance frequency. Theoretical results are compared with available experiments.

  4. Self-injury among trans individuals and matched controls: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Davey, Amanda; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline; Bouman, Walter Pierre

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence rate of current non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among trans individuals, in comparison with a control sample of non-trans adults. It also aims to compare those with current NSSI and those with no history of NSSI in terms of psychological well-being, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social support and demographic factors. Participants were 97 adults, diagnosed with transsexualism (ICD-10, F64.0), attending a national gender clinic in the United Kingdom, and a matched control group. Clinical participants were all engaged on the treatment pathway. Participants completed the following self-report measures: Self-Injury Questionnaire - Treatment Related (SIQ-TR), Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The results showed that the trans participants had a significantly higher prevalence of current NSSI behaviour than the non-trans group, with 19% currently engaging in NSSI. Current NSSI was also significantly more prevalent among trans men than trans women. Compared with both trans and non-trans participants with no history of NSSI, trans participants with current NSSI had significantly higher scores on SCL; significantly lower scores on RSE, HBDS and MSPSS; and were younger in age. The study concludes that trans men, specifically, are more at risk of NSSI than trans women and the general population, even when on the treatment pathway. Those who currently self-injure have greater psychopathology, lower body satisfaction, lower self-esteem, lower social support and tend to be younger, than those who do not engage in NSSI. PMID:25929212

  5. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Dennis R.; Tingen, Martha S.; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Christine C.; Joseph, Christine C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention while the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. Objective To compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. Methods The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. Results In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared to 1514 (60.0%) in GA. Average population density in high school ZIP codes was 5628 people/mi2 in Detroit and 45.1 people/mi2 in GA. The percent of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and GA were similar: 15.0% (95% CI 14.1–15.8), and 13.7% (CI 12.0–17.1) (p=.22), respectively. Undiagnosed asthma prevalence in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in GA (p=.56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit while those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Conclusions Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Clinical Implications Asthma prevalence was as common among African American high school students in rural Georgia as among students in urban Detroit, Michigan. Asthma is more likely related to poverty than urban residence. PMID:25825215

  6. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Shawn D; Gershon, Andrea S; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Jenna; Whitmore, GA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain to be investigated.

  7. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Shawn D; Gershon, Andrea S; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Jenna; Whitmore, GA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain to be investigated. PMID:27698561

  8. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  9. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  10. Fiber optic current probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, G.; Fox, R.

    1984-02-01

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 research into a new type of Fiber Optic Current probe, suitable for high voltage, high current applications. The probe uses a stabilized two frequency HeNe laser to read the magnitude and sign of magnetic field induced circular birefringence in an optical fiber wound around a conductor. Measurements of both alternating and direct currents were demonstrated with a breadboard system. The system was tested at low voltages with currents of up to 4500 amperes peak and with up to 28 turns of optical fiber around the conductor. The response was found to increase linearly with the number of fiber turns. Experimental determinations of the system's frequency response and dynamic range were not possible due to our inability to generate large, fast current transients. The predicted frequency response is 100 kHz with an ability to read transient amplitudes of 300 times the nominal line current. Several single-mode fibers were used to form transducers, and the optimum fiber for further development was identified. The 2-frequency interrogation technique described worked entirely as predicted, and should be applicable to magnetic field measurements in general (i.e., charged particle beams, Tokamaks, antenna patterns, EMP testing, etc.).

  11. How should prevalence of alcohol use disorders be assessed globally?

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol is a major risk factor for global burden of disease, and alcohol use disorders make up a considerable portion of this burden. Up to now, prevalence of alcohol use disorders has been estimated based on general population surveys with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) as the gold standard for assessment. However, three major problems have been identified with the current conceptualization of alcohol use disorders and its measurement via CIDI: cultural specificity of key criteria measured such as loss of control; lack of convergence of diagnoses identified by CIDI with clinically relevant diagnoses in primary health care; and impact of stigma on measurement. As a solution, it is proposed to measure alcohol use disorders via heavy drinking over time, with thresholds taken from the European Medicines Agency (60 and more grams on average per day of pure alcohol for men, and 40+ grams for women). Current data on level of drinking (per capita consumption) assessed via taxation and other means allow for a measure of less bias. If these thresholds are considered too low and there is more emphasis on need for specialized treatment, then thresholds for very heavy drinking can be taken as alternatively (100+, and 60+ grams per day pure alcohol for men and women, respectively). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27133364

  12. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28

  13. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  14. Prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis in adults and neonates

    PubMed Central

    McAnena, L; Knowles, S J; Curry, A; Cassidy, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC) presenting to a tertiary referral maternity hospital (NMH) and a tertiary referral ophthalmic hospital (RVEEH) from 2011 to 2013 and describe the demographics, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ocular infections. Methods Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were collected from patients with laboratory confirmed GC. Results There were 27 556 live births at NMH during the study period, and no case of neonatal GC was identified. Fourteen cases of GC were identified at RVEEH in this period, representing a prevalence of 0.19 cases per 1000 eye emergency attendees. Antibiotic susceptibility data were available on nine cases, of which, all were ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin sensitive. 64.3% of patients were male, with a mean age of 18 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days. All patients presented with unilateral conjunctival injection and purulent discharge. Eight cases had visual impairment at presentation and their mean visual acuity was 6/15. Corneal involvement was present in 25% of patients. Uveitis was not detected. On receipt of positive culture and/or PCR results, treatment was altered in two thirds of patients. All patients were referred for full STI screening and all patients showed a full clinical recovery 1 week posttreatment. Conclusion We observed that GC presented in young adults with a male predominance and was rare in neonates. In cases of unilateral purulent conjunctivitis, there should be a high clinical suspicion of GC, early swab for PCR and culture, and knowledge of current CDC-recommended antibiotic guidelines. PMID:25907207

  15. Smoking among Lebanese medical students: Prevalence and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Chidiac, Amanda; Tamim, Hani; Kanso, Mohamad; Tfayli, Arafat

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The tobacco epidemic is a major public health threat facing the world. Tobacco dependence is recognized as the greatest preventable cause of disease and death. Medical students are in key position influencing future tobacco cessation programs. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of smoking among medical students across Lebanon and their smoking attitudes. It also investigates their attitude toward smoking, showing where they really stand on this major public health issue. This study helps better tackle anti-smoking campaigns among both physicians and patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to currently enrolled medical students at all seven medical schools in Lebanon. The 32-item questionnaire was used, comprised three sections assessing sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, and attitudes toward smoking among Lebanese medical students. The questionnaire was launched online on Limesurvey to retain anonymity. The data were then transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences for analysis. Data were expressed as percentages for discrete variables and as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-three complete responses remained of the 182 obtained responses. Forty-two of the total 163 students identified themselves as either daily or occasional smokers yielding a prevalence of 25.8%. Smokers were less likely to ask patients about their smoking habit and to counsel them about smoking cessation. Almost one-third of smokers felt that they had no obligations toward the society. CONCLUSION: Approximately 1 in 4 Lebanese medical students is a smoker. Students who smoke are less likely to ask patients about their smoking habits and to counsel them on smoking cessation. This is a major drawback in the fight against tobacco. This calls for better education of our future doctors on smoking cessation to decrease the

  16. [Hallucinations and dementia. Prevalence, clinical presentation and pathophysiology].

    PubMed

    Fénelon, G; Mahieux, F

    2004-04-01

    Hallucinations are a common feature of certain degenerative diseases with a risk of dementia such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Obtaining valid epidemiological data is nevertheless quite difficult because of methodological problems. As a rule, hallucinations are more prevalent in Lewy body disease than Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. The prevalence in parkinsonian dementia is about the same as in Lewy body disease. Complex visual hallucinations predominate, auditory or tactile hallucinations are more exceptional. Minor forms (illusions, sensation of presence) are also observed. Recurrence is common, mainly in the evening or at night. Patients with advanced mental impairment generally take the hallucinations for reality. The hallucinations can be associated with psychological and behavioral disorders such as delusionnal idea or identification disorders. It is important to search for other causes of hallucinations such as drugs, ocular disorders, or depression, but many of these disorders are common comorbidities in elderly patients with degenerative disease. There is no unique model fitting all the hypothesized pathogenic mechanisms. Complex visual hallucinations most likely arise from abnormal activation of the extra-striat temporal associative regions, but only hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed. Genetic studies and functional imaging have not provided convincing evidence. Current focus is placed on an imbalance between deficient cholinergic transmission and preserved or augmented monoaminergic transmission at the cortical level, but other neurotransmission systems could be involved. The dream dysregulation mechanism proposed in Parkinson's disease cannot be generalized. The link between cognitive disorders and hallucination is also poorly understood: hallucinations are associated with more severe cognitive impairments or more rapid cognitive deline in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but the

  17. Strongyloidiasis—An Insight into Its Global Prevalence and Management

    PubMed Central

    Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Boddu, Swapna; Li, Yiji; Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Juan; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal parasitic nematode, infects more than 100 million people worldwide. Strongyloides are unique in their ability to exist as a free-living and autoinfective cycle. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. The most common risk factors for these complications are immunosuppression caused by corticosteroids and infection with human T-lymphotropic virus or human immunodeficiency virus. Even though the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is improved by advanced instrumentation techniques in isolated and complicated cases of hyperinfection or dissemination, efficient guidelines for screening the population in epidemiological surveys are lacking. Methodology and Results In this review, we have discussed various conventional methods for the diagnosis and management of this disease, with an emphasis on recently developed molecular and serological methods that could be implemented to establish guidelines for precise diagnosis of infection in patients and screening in epidemiological surveys. A comprehensive analysis of various cases reported worldwide from different endemic and nonendemic foci of the disease for the last 40 years was evaluated in an effort to delineate the global prevalence of this disease. We also updated the current knowledge of the various clinical spectrum of this parasitic disease, with an emphasis on newer molecular diagnostic methods, treatment, and management of cases in immunosuppressed patients. Conclusion Strongyloidiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease and is probably an underdiagnosed parasitic disease due to its low parasitic load and uncertain clinical symptoms. Increased infectivity rates in many developed countries and nonendemic regions nearing those in the most prevalent endemic regions of this parasite and the increasing transmission potential to immigrants, travelers, and immunosuppressed populations are

  18. Hepatitis B screening and prevalence among resettled refugees - United States, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kevin C; Taylor, Eboni M; Mamo, Blain; Herr, Nathaniel D; Cronkright, Peter J; Yun, Katherine; Altshuler, Marc; Shetty, Sharmila

    2015-06-01

    Globally, more than two billion persons have been infected at some time with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and approximately 3.5 million refugees have chronic HBV infection. The endemicity of HBV varies by region. Because chronic hepatitis B is infectious and persons with chronic infection benefit from treatment, CDC recommends screening for HBV among all refugees who originate in countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; a marker for acute or chronic infection) is ≥2% or who are at risk for HBV because of personal characteristics such as injection drug use or household contact with an individual with HBV infection. Currently, almost all refugees are routinely screened for hepatitis B. However, prevalence rates of HBV infection in refugee populations recently resettled in the United States have not been determined. A multisite, retrospective study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of past HBV infection, current infection, and immunity among refugees resettled in the United States; to better characterize the burden of hepatitis B in this population; and to inform screening recommendations. The study incorporated surveillance data from a large state refugee health program and chart reviews from three U.S. sites that conduct medical screenings of refugees. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past as determined by available titer levels) varied among refugees originating in different countries and was higher among Burmese refugees than among refugees from Bhutan or Iraq. Current or past HBV infection was also higher among adults (aged >18 years) and male refugees. These data might help inform planning by states and resettlement agencies, as well as screening decisions by health care providers.

  19. Hepatitis B screening and prevalence among resettled refugees - United States, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kevin C; Taylor, Eboni M; Mamo, Blain; Herr, Nathaniel D; Cronkright, Peter J; Yun, Katherine; Altshuler, Marc; Shetty, Sharmila

    2015-06-01

    Globally, more than two billion persons have been infected at some time with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and approximately 3.5 million refugees have chronic HBV infection. The endemicity of HBV varies by region. Because chronic hepatitis B is infectious and persons with chronic infection benefit from treatment, CDC recommends screening for HBV among all refugees who originate in countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; a marker for acute or chronic infection) is ≥2% or who are at risk for HBV because of personal characteristics such as injection drug use or household contact with an individual with HBV infection. Currently, almost all refugees are routinely screened for hepatitis B. However, prevalence rates of HBV infection in refugee populations recently resettled in the United States have not been determined. A multisite, retrospective study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of past HBV infection, current infection, and immunity among refugees resettled in the United States; to better characterize the burden of hepatitis B in this population; and to inform screening recommendations. The study incorporated surveillance data from a large state refugee health program and chart reviews from three U.S. sites that conduct medical screenings of refugees. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past as determined by available titer levels) varied among refugees originating in different countries and was higher among Burmese refugees than among refugees from Bhutan or Iraq. Current or past HBV infection was also higher among adults (aged >18 years) and male refugees. These data might help inform planning by states and resettlement agencies, as well as screening decisions by health care providers. PMID:26042647

  20. Caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Methods Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permanent and lower-case letters to primary teeth) and decayed, missed, and filled surfaces (DMFS), as well as the significant caries index (SiC). Results The median DMFT and DMFS of all children were 3 and 4, respectively. The median DMFT and DMFS of 12-year-old children were 4 and 5, respectively. The highest median DMFT score of 7 was found among 14-year-old children. There was a significant difference between age groups (7-10 years and 11-14 years) in DMFT and DMFS. Among 8-year-old children, the median dmft index was the highest (5.5) and SiC index was 7.4. As far as the location of caries on the surface of the first permanent molar is concerned, caries occurred mostly in the central occlusal surface (27.6%). Conclusion Our results showed a high caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, indicating a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care. PMID:22180264

  1. Rubella prevalence and its transmission in children.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Anita; Jain, Manisha

    2006-01-01

    Rubella is a major cause of birth defects among the TORCH group of agents causing congenital anomalies. Almost all the symptomatic infected infants have long-term neurological sequelae & many asymptomatic infants also develop deafness or psychomotor retardation later in life. In India need for rubella prevention & control is being recognized. Before formulating any kind of rubella vaccination policies, data on the burden of disease is important. Hence the prevalence of rubella in children and their transmission was evaluated. Paired sera of 146 babies with suspected intra uterine infection and their mothers from lower socioeconomic strata was tested for IgM antibodies by commercially available Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) was confirmed in babies presenting with rubella compatible defects with positive IgM antibodies against rubella. It was seen that out of 146-paired samples evaluated, 15-paired samples (10.27%) were positive for IgM antibodies. The transmission rate of rubella virus from mother to child when the mother was infected was around 55.55% according to this study. CRS prevalence of 10.27% among symptomatic infants is significant as a large majority of rubella infection remains undetected and hence the actual burden of the disease may be higher. Since the disease is preventable by an effective vaccination, strategies for rubella immunization should be developed and enhanced. PMID:16625980

  2. Prevalence of Pneumoconiosis in Cornish Kaolin Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sheers, Geoffrey

    1964-01-01

    In 1961, 553 Cornish china clay workers had been exposed to kaolin dust for periods exceeding five years, and evidence of kaolinosis was seen in 48 (9%). No kaolinosis was found in men who had been exposed for less than five years. Workers in the more heavily exposed jobs of milling, bagging, and loading showed a prevalence rising from 6% in those with between five and 15 years' exposure to 23% in those exposed for more than 15 years. Men who had been intermittently and less heavily exposed in the older, out-dated drying plants needed 25 years' exposure before reaching the highest prevalence of 17%. Massive fibrosis has been observed in two cases in the industry and also in two men who have left the industry. Six men needed anti-tuberculous chemotherapy, but none had a positive sputum. Preventive measures now include pre-employment chest examination, but the problems of dust control have not yet been satisfactorily solved. Images PMID:14180481

  3. Developmental dyscalculia: prevalence and demographic features.

    PubMed

    Gross-Tsur, V; Manor, O; Shalev, R S

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and forty-three 11-year-old children with development dyscalculia, from a cohort of 3029 students, were studied to determine demographic features and prevalence of this primary cognitive disorder. They were evaluated for gender, IQ, linguistic and perceptual skills, symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), socio-economic status and associated learned disabilities. The IQs of the 140 children (75 girls and 65 boys) retained in the study group (three were excluded because of low IQs) ranged from 80 to 129 (mean 98.2, SD 9.9). 26 per cent of the children had symptoms of ADHD, and 17 per cent had dyslexia. Their socio-economic status was significantly lower than that of the rest of the cohort, and 42 per cent had first-degree relatives with learning disabilities. The prevalence of dyscalculia in the original cohort was 6.5 per cent, similar to that of dyslexia and ADHD. However, unlike these other learning disabilities, dyscalculia affected the two sexes in about the same proportions. PMID:8606013

  4. Prevalence of hypertension in bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Ragland, D R; Winkleby, M A; Schwalbe, J; Holman, B L; Morse, L; Syme, S L; Fisher, J M

    1987-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional study conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in 1500 black and white male bus drivers from a large urban transit system in the US. Data for this study were compiled from the files of an occupational health clinic which conducts biennial medical examinations for drivers' license renewal. To test whether prevalence of hypertension was higher among bus drivers than among employed individuals in general, drivers were compared to three groups: individuals from both a national and local health survey and individuals undergoing baseline health examinations prior to employment as bus drivers. After adjustment for age and race, hypertension rates for bus drivers were significantly greater than rates for each of the three comparison groups. These findings support previous results from international studies of bus drivers suggesting that exposure to the occupation of driving a bus may carry increased health risk. This research has expanded into an on-going study which has the goals of clarifying the extent of hypertension in bus drivers and identifying specific behavioural and occupational factors that may be responsible for increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  5. The prevalence of mental subnormality*†

    PubMed Central

    Tizard, J.

    1953-01-01

    The criteria of mental subnormality are complex, uncertain, and not self-consistent. Confusion arises because of errors of measurement, faulty standardization of tests and measurements, differences in growth patterns, environmental influences, and lack of agreement between the different criteria for diagnosis. Fluctuations in the threshold of community tolerance make the term “mental subnormality” only a relative one, useful mainly for administrative purposes. There is evidence to suggest that mild subnormality is not an irreversible condition. Surveys of prevalence have been of three main sorts: psychometric, clinical, and follow-up. Some of the main findings from each of these are summarized. Since mild subnormality is to a large extent a culturally determined disability, it follows that cultural changes can do much to diminish its occurrence. In particular, better maternal and child health services, more adequate educational provision, social welfare, vocational guidance and training services, and a condition of full employment would together greatly reduce the prevalence of this, the commonest form of mental subnormality. PMID:13106707

  6. Dispersing hemipteran vectors have reduced arbovirus prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy T.; Brown, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in managing vector-borne zoonotic diseases in human and wildlife populations is predicting where epidemics or epizootics are likely to occur, and this requires knowing in part the likelihood of infected insect vectors dispersing pathogens from existing infection foci to novel areas. We measured prevalence of an arbovirus, Buggy Creek virus, in dispersing and resident individuals of its exclusive vector, the ectoparasitic swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius), that occupies cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) colonies in western Nebraska. Bugs colonizing new colony sites and immigrating into established colonies by clinging to the swallows’ legs and feet had significantly lower virus prevalence than bugs in established colonies and those that were clustering in established colonies before dispersing. The reduced likelihood of infected bugs dispersing to new colony sites indicates that even heavily infected sites may not always export virus to nearby foci at a high rate. Infected arthropods should not be assumed to exhibit the same dispersal or movement behaviour as uninfected individuals, and these differences in dispersal should perhaps be considered in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as arboviruses. PMID:24694692

  7. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Robert S; Strathdee, Steffanie; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Remis, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP). Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955) men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744) and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232) contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community. PMID:16375771

  8. Prevalence of obesity in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Garg, C; Khan, S A; Ansari, S H; Garg, M

    2010-02-01

    Comparison of two major studies conducted by National family health survey (NFHS-2) in 1998-1999 and NFHS-3 in 2005-2006 shows that prevalence of obesity among Indian women has elevated from 10.6% to 12.6% (increased by 24.52%). The prevalence is more profound in the women of age between 40-49 years (23.7%), residing in cities (23.5%), having high qualification (23.8%), belonging to Sikh community (31.6%) and households in the highest wealth quintile (30.5%). Highest percentage of obese women is found in Punjab (29.9%). Although this number seems small in the international perspective, it is significant because of the sheer size of population in India. While the problem of under-nutrition still exists in many parts of India, the additional burden of obesity due to increasing sedentary lifestyle, junk food habits in some urban and economically sound areas is really alarming. Prevention and control of this serious problem through awareness programmes to adopt diversified nutritional food and healthy lifestyle are strongly recommended.

  9. A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Food Animals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that T. gondii is one of three pathogens (along with Salmonella and Listeria), that together account for >70% of all deaths due to foodborne illness in the United States. Food animals are reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. Based on limited population-based data, the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization estimated that approximately 22% of human T. gondii infections are meatborne. The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to provide a precise estimation of T. gondii infection prevalence in food animals produced in the United States. Four databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Prevalence was estimated in six animal categories (confinement-raised market pigs, confinement-raised sows, non-confinement-raised pigs, lamb, goats, and non-confinement-raised chickens) by a quality-effects model. A wide variation in prevalence was observed in each animal category. Animals raised outdoors or that have outdoor access had a higher prevalence as compared with animals raised indoors. T. gondii prevalence in non-confinement-raised pigs ranked the highest (31.0%) followed by goats (30.7%), non-confinement-raised chickens (24.1%), lambs (22.0%), confinement-raised sows (16.7%), and confinement-raised market pigs (5.6%). These results indicate that T. gondii-infected animals are a food safety concern. The computed prevalence can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to further predict public health burden. PMID:26854596

  10. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitits B surface antigen among staff in an Edinburgh hospital.

    PubMed

    Burrell, C J; Tonkin, R W; Proudfoot, E; Leadbetter, G; Cowan, P; Lockerbie, L; Gore, S; Lutz, W; Marmion, B P

    1977-02-01

    Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen was detected by radioimmunoprecipitation in 74 (5-5%) of 1336 staff members in a large general hospital in Edinburgh, in 14 (2-9%) of 480 volunteer blood donors in the area, and in 12 (6-1%) of 197 pregnant women attending for the first time at the ante-natal clinic in the hospital. Rates of antibody prevalence rose with age in the sample of hospital staff and in that of the blood donors, particularly among males. On the other hand, in the ante-natal patients antibody prevalence declined with age. The rates in hospital staff were higher than those in blood donors of comparable age and sex, and high titres of antibody were more common in the staff group. However, no association was found between antibody prevalence and a history of clinical hepatitis, blood transfusion, or recognized contact with cases of hepatitis. Staff who had previously worked in an infectious disease hospital did not show increased antibody prevalence, indicating that simple isolation measures have been adequate to minimize exposure to hepatitis B. No particular prevalence of infection was seen in physicians and surgeons, in the nursing staff, or in workers in clinical diagnostic laboratories, hospital administration or other areas. One group clearly showing increased antibody prevalence was staff currently working, or who had worked, in the Haemodialysis Unit; this correlated with the outbreak of dialysis-associated hepatitis in 1969--70. However, no evidence suggested that significant dissemination of infection had occurred to other defined groups of hospital staff. Elevated rates were also observed in a small sample of kitchen and portering staff, and in obstetric medical and nursing staff; the latter observation indicate a need for further investigation to identify unsuspected exposure to hepatitis B virus.

  11. A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Food Animals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that T. gondii is one of three pathogens (along with Salmonella and Listeria), that together account for >70% of all deaths due to foodborne illness in the United States. Food animals are reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. Based on limited population-based data, the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization estimated that approximately 22% of human T. gondii infections are meatborne. The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to provide a precise estimation of T. gondii infection prevalence in food animals produced in the United States. Four databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Prevalence was estimated in six animal categories (confinement-raised market pigs, confinement-raised sows, non-confinement-raised pigs, lamb, goats, and non-confinement-raised chickens) by a quality-effects model. A wide variation in prevalence was observed in each animal category. Animals raised outdoors or that have outdoor access had a higher prevalence as compared with animals raised indoors. T. gondii prevalence in non-confinement-raised pigs ranked the highest (31.0%) followed by goats (30.7%), non-confinement-raised chickens (24.1%), lambs (22.0%), confinement-raised sows (16.7%), and confinement-raised market pigs (5.6%). These results indicate that T. gondii-infected animals are a food safety concern. The computed prevalence can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to further predict public health burden.

  12. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    PubMed

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation. PMID:22675810

  13. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in Piemonte, Italy: results from a second regional prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) was previously performed in the Piemonte region in 2000. In the decade following the survey, many studies were performed at both the regional and hospital levels, and training courses were developed to address issues highlighted by the survey. In 2010, a second regional prevalence study was performed. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the second prevalence study and discuss them within the context of the HAI prevention and control programmes that have been implemented in the decade since the original survey was conducted. Methods The study involved all public hospitals in the Piemonte region. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the main risk factors associated with HAIs, including both overall and site-specific infections. Results A total of 7841 patients were enrolled: 6.8% were affected by at least one HAI. The highest prevalence of HAIs was found in intensive care units (18.0%, 95% CI 14.0-22.6), while UTIs presented the highest relative frequency (26.7%), followed by respiratory tract infections (21.9%). The age of the patient, hospital size and urinary and central venous catheter status were significantly associated with HAIs. Conclusions The study results showed an increase in HAI prevalence, despite prevention and control efforts, as well as training implemented after the first regional survey. Nevertheless, these data are consistent with the current literature. Furthermore, despite its limits, the prevalence approach remains an important means for involving healthcare workers, emphasising HAIs and revealing critical problems that need be addressed. PMID:24899239

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder post Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence among military subgroups.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-09-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD.

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Post Iraq and Afghanistan: Prevalence Among Military Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; FFPH; Wessely, Simon; FMedSci; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD. PMID:25569079

  16. Ethnic differences in prevalence of asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in New Zealand schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Pattemore, P K; Asher, M I; Harrison, A C; Mitchell, E A; Rea, H H; Stewart, A W

    1989-01-01

    Maoris and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand have a higher asthma mortality and hospital admission rates than Europeans. To determine whether difference in asthma prevalence is the major factor underlying these differences in mortality, 2053 Auckland children aged 7-10 years (European 1084, Maori 509, Pacific Islander 460) were randomly sampled from school classes in the Auckland Urban Area, and studied by questionnaire (completed by parents) and histamine inhalation challenge to assess the provocative dose of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20). Maoris had the highest prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms, and Europeans had rates similar to Pacific Islanders. For "any current wheeze" for example, the prevalence in Maoris was 22.2% compared with 16.1% and 16.3% in the Europeans and Pacific Islanders. The prevalence of diagnosed asthma was similar in the three groups. When bronchial hyperresponsiveness (defined as a PD20 less than or equal to 7.8 mumol histamine) was considered, Europeans had the highest rates (20%), followed by Maoris (13%), and then Pacific Islanders (8.7%). These differences were not accounted for by differences in socioeconomic status, rates of smoking in the home, age, gender, or height. It is concluded that differences in asthma prevalence do not satisfactorily explain the mortality and admission rate differences, although the higher symptom prevalence in the Maoris could be relevant to the higher mortality rate. Maori and Pacific Island children with symptoms of asthma were less likely to be taking prophylactic medication than European children. It is proposed that differences in management are important factors relevant to the increased mortality and morbidity from asthma in Polynesians. PMID:2705146

  17. Prevalence of asthma and allergy in Hong Kong schoolchildren: an ISAAC study.

    PubMed

    Leung, R; Wong, G; Lau, J; Ho, A; Chan, J K; Choy, D; Douglass, C; Lai, C K

    1997-02-01

    Asthma and allergic disease in children is increasing in many Western countries but such trend has not been well-defined in Chinese populations. This paper aims to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in Hong Kong schoolchildren and compare it with previous data to identify a changing trend. We studied 4,665 schoolchildren aged 13-14 yrs using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol to determine prevalence rates for asthma, wheeze, respiratory symptoms, rhinitis and eczema in 1994-1995. Additional questions on education levels of the parents and smoking status were also asked. Concordance between responses to the written and video questionnaires was good (76% for wheeze ever, 80% for current wheeze). Prevalence rates for asthma ever, wheeze ever, and current wheeze were 11, 20 and 12%, respectively, and were greater in boys (p < 0.05). Rhinitis affected slightly over half of the subjects (52%), and eczema was reported by a sixth (15%), whilst current rhinitis and current eczema were present in 44% and 3.6% of children, respectively. In multiple logistic regression: odds ratio male sex (OR) 1.47; (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-1.86); current rhinitis (OR 3.00; 95% CI 2.36-3.81); current eczema (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.40-3.93); and active smoking (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.38-2.89) were associated with current wheeze; whilst severe wheezing attack was associated with: current rhinitis (OR 2.72; 95% CI 1.47-5.02); current eczema (OR 6.13; 95% CI 2.82-13.33); and active smoking (OR 4.62; 95% CI 2.43-8.76). Age, parental education and passive smoking were not important factors. When compared to previous epidemiological data obtained in 1992, the prevalence rates for asthma ever and wheeze ever had increased by 71 and 255%, respectively, in Hong Kong schoolchildren. The severity of asthma and respiratory symptoms showed a similar increasing trend. Further studies should aim to identify the role of the environment in the

  18. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%–11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%–16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12–3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15–2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11–4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54–2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56–2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65–4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals. PMID:26690187

  19. Million hearts: prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors--United States, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Matthew D; Wall, Hilary K; Gillespie, Cathleen; George, Mary G; Jamal, Ahmed

    2014-05-30

    Each year, approximately 1.5 million U.S. adults have a heart attack or stroke, resulting in approximately 30 deaths every hour and, for nonfatal events, often leading to long-term disability. Overall, an estimated 14 million survivors of heart attacks and strokes are living in the United States. In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with nonprofit and private organizations, launched Million Hearts (http://www.millionhearts.hhs.gov), an initiative focused on implementing clinical and community-level evidence-based strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and prevent a total of 1 million heart attacks and strokes during the 5-year period 2012-2016. From 2005-2006 to the period with the most current data, analysis of the Million Hearts four "ABCS" clinical measures (for aspirin, blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking) showed 1) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention (53.8% in 2009-2010), 2) an increase to 51.9% in the prevalence of blood pressure control (in 2011-2012), 3) an increase to 42.8% in the prevalence of cholesterol management (in 2011-2012), and 4) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of smoking assessment and treatment (22.2% in 2009-2010). In addition, analysis of two community-level indicators found 1) a decrease in current tobacco product smoking (including cigarette, cigar, or pipe use) prevalence to 25.1% in 2011-2012 and 2) minimal change in mean daily sodium intake (3,594 mg/day in 2009-2010). Although trends in some measures are encouraging, further reductions of CVD risk factors will be needed to meet Million Hearts goals by 2017.

  20. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%-11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%-16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12-3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15-2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11-4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54-2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56-2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65-4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals. PMID:26690187

  1. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  2. The Agulhas Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, Will P. M.

    2008-03-01

    Many people in the United States know about the Gulf Stream, the impressive boundary current along the eastern U.S. coast that carries large amounts of heat poleward and, after separation from the coast, across the North Atlantic. Its impact on warming the eastern United States and the North Atlantic region including western Europe is also well known to the general public. But who in the United States knows about the Agulhas Current? This warm, western boundary current of the southern Indian Ocean flows southward along the continental slope of the African continent and is about as large as the Gulf Stream. It brings heat and moisture to the coastal regions of southeastern Africa. Variations in its transport lead to significant rainfall anomalies over this region. On a larger scale, its influence may even extend as far as the North Atlantic.

  3. Liver transplantation: current concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, W J

    1988-01-01

    In this decade liver transplantation has been established as the preferred treatment for children and adults with irreversible end-stage liver disease. Biliary atresia in children and nonalcoholic cirrhosis in adults are the most common indications for the procedure. Transplantation currently plays only a minor role in the treatment of hepatic malignant disease. Blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is preferred, but histocompatibility matching (tissue typing) currently has no significant role in the selection of recipients. Approximately 70% of recipients survive for 1 year, and these patients have an excellent prospect of long-term survival. The emerging evidence indicates that the quality of life and rehabilitation of most liver recipients are good. The current success of liver transplantation can be attributed to critical selection of recipients, modern anesthetic and surgical techniques, improved perioperative care, accurate diagnosis of rejection and superior immunosuppression with cyclosporine. PMID:3289710

  4. Current concepts in psychodermatology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2014-06-01

    Several diagnoses in the new DSM-5 chapter on 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' directly relate to psychodermatology. The new excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) both manifest as recurrent body-focused repetitive behaviors that have compulsive and dissociative features, the latter being more prevalent in TTM than SPD. The DSM-5 refers to SPD and TTM occurring without full awareness or preceding tension, however does not specifically mention the possible role of dissociation. This has important treatment implications, as patients with high dissociative symptoms are not likely to respond to the standard treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which is frequently associated with cutaneous body image (CBI) dissatisfaction, is present in 9%-15% of dermatology patients. Treatment guidelines in dermatology are increasingly considering the psychosocial morbidity related to CBI in their treatment outcome measures. The presence of BDD, if unrecognized, may therefore directly affect the dermatologic treatment regimens offered to the patient. PMID:24740235

  5. Perioperative hypertension due to undiagnosed aortic coarctation: are current standards of care adequate?

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael; Murrell, David

    2004-04-01

    A 12-year-old male presented for a superficial parotidectomy for chronic parotitis. The patient had an unremarkable past medical history and was admitted on the day of surgery for his procedure without further anaesthetic or surgical review. During the patient's intraoperative course, higher than expected blood pressures were noted and treated with clonidine. After further high blood pressure readings in the postoperative care unit, close surveillance of blood pressures for the following 24 h was arranged. The hypertension was ongoing, and further examination and investigation confirmed the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. We examine the possible reasons for failure to diagnose this patient's hypertension preoperatively and suggest that there is a need for greater surveillance of blood pressures in the paediatric population presenting for surgery. A discussion of the significance of hypertension in paediatrics and recommendations for minimum standards of care to address shortcomings in the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric hypertension are proposed.

  6. Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Haddock, L; de Conty, I T

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence data for diabetes mellitus obtained from a household interview of a random sample of the general population by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the years 1975-1986. Details of the prevalence rate by sex and age were analyzed for the years 1981, 1984, 1985, and 1986 and for the urban and rural population in 1985. The mean prevalence rate of known cases of diabetes showed a tendency to increase from 3.1% in 1975 to 5.1% in 1986. Prevalence rates adjusted for age and sex showed an increase in the mean prevalence for 1986 compared with that of 1981. The prevalence rate was significantly higher for the rural population for the age-group 45-64 yr old and for the urban population for the age-group greater than or equal to 65 yr. The prevalence rate compares with that of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York City area. On the basis of the prevalence data, approximately 90% of the diabetic population is non-insulin dependent and 10% are insulin dependent. Major risk factors thought to explain the increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes are increasing longevity of the Puerto Rican population, genetic predisposition, obesity, and changes in life-styles. In conclusion, Puerto Ricans, as other Hispanic Americans, have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the white American population.

  7. Fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  8. Eddy current damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Rich, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    A high torque capacity eddy current damper used as a rate limiting device for a large solar array deployment mechanism is discussed. The eddy current damper eliminates the problems associated with the outgassing or leaking of damping fluids. It also provides performance advantages such as damping torque rates, which are truly linear with respect to input speed, continuous 360 degree operation in both directions of rotation, wide operating temperature range, and the capability of convenient adjustment of damping rates by the user without disassembly or special tools.

  9. The Anderson Current Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1994-01-01

    Four-wire-probe concept applied to electrical-resistance transducers. Anderson current loop is excitation-and-signal-conditioning circuit suitable for use with strain gauges, resistance thermometers, and other electrical-resistance transducers mounted in harsh environments. Used as alternative to Wheatstone bridge. Simplifies signal-conditioning problem, enabling precise measurement of small changes in resistance of transducer. Eliminates some uncertainties in Wheatstone-bridge resistance-change measurements in flight research. Current loop configuration makes effects of lead-wire and contact resistances insignificantly small. Also provides output voltage that varies linearly with change in gauge resistance, and does so at double sensitivity of Wheatstone bridge.

  10. Current signature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

  11. Prevalence of tick borne encephalitis virus in tick nymphs in relation to climatic factors on the southern coast of Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is among the most important vector borne diseases of humans in Europe and is currently identified as a major health problem in many countries. TBE endemic zones have expanded over the past two decades, as well as the number of reported cases within endemic areas. Multiple factors are ascribed for the increased incidence of TBE, including climatic change. The number of TBE cases has also increased in Norway over the past decade, and the human cases cluster along the southern coast of Norway. In Norway the distribution and prevalence of TBE virus (TBEV) in tick populations is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to estimate the TBEV prevalence in Ixodes ricinus from seven locations and to assess the relationship between the TBEV prevalence and site-specific climatic variables. Methods A total of 5630 questing nymphs were collected and analyzed in pools of ten. All pools were screened with an in-house real-time RT-PCR, and the positive pools were pyrosequenced. Two methods, minimum infection rate (MIR) and a frequentist method (EPP) for pooled prevalence estimations were calculated and compared. Climatic data were descriptively compared to the corresponding EPP of each location in order to explain variations in TBEV prevalence. Results The seven foci of TBEV had an estimated overall prevalence (EPP) in pools of nymphs combined, of 0.53% with 95% CI (0.35–0.75), with point prevalence ranging between 0.11%–1.22%. The sites with the highest point prevalences were within the municipalities which had the highest numbers of registered TBE cases. The results indicate that the location with highest point prevalence had the highest relative mean humidity and lowest mean saturation deficit and vice versa for the lowest EPP. Conclusion Our study confirms the existence of TBEV endemic foci in Norway. These results are of importance to increase the awareness of TBEV infections in Norway and could be used for public

  12. Psychology's Role in the Assessment of Erectile Dysfunction: Historical Precedents, Current Knowledge, and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Mark D.; Carey, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…

  13. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  14. Keeping Science Current.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Points out old-dated information provided in textbooks and recommends using current events to close the knowledge gap between the real world and textbooks. Uses year-long journal writings in which students choose a science article and analyze it. Provides an example of the activity sheet. (YDS)

  15. Current Issues in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Alice, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin is published annually in the interest of children with learning disabilities, language disabilities, or dyslexia. The 22 articles discuss the following topics: current issues in dyslexia, language disorders, subgroups in dyslexia, specificity and parameters in defining dyslexia, strategies for recognition and management of reading…

  16. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  17. [Acromegaly: current view].

    PubMed

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  18. Prevalence of asthma among Chinese adolescents living in Canada and in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Yu; Wong, Gary W.K.; Chen, Yu-Zhi; Ferguson, Alexander C.; Greene, Justina M.; Ma, Yu; Zhong, Nan-Shan; Lai, Christopher K.W.; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of the prevalence of asthma among migrating populations may help in identifying environmental risk factors. Methods We analyzed data from Vancouver, Canada, and from Guangzhou, Beijing and Hong Kong, China, collected during phase 3 of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. We subdivided the Vancouver adolescents according to whether they were Chinese immigrants to Canada, Canadian-born Chinese or Canadian-born non-Chinese. We compared the prevalence of asthma and wheezing among Chinese adolescents born in Canada, Chinese adolescents who had immigrated to Canada and Chinese adolescents living in China. Results Of 7794 Chinese adolescents who met the inclusion criteria, 3058 were from Guangzhou, 2824 were from Beijing, and 1912 were from Hong Kong. Of 2235 adolescents in Vancouver, Canada, 475 were Chinese immigrants, 617 were Canadian-born Chinese, and 1143 were Canadian-born non-Chinese. The prevalence of current wheezing among boys ranged from 5.9% in Guangzhou to 11.2% in Canadian-born Chinese adolescents. For girls, the range was 4.3% in Guangzhou to 9.8% in Canadian-born Chinese adolescents. The prevalence of ever having had asthma ranged from 6.6% to 16.6% for boys and from 2.9% to 15.0% for girls. Prevalence gradients persisted after adjustment for other environmental variables (odds ratios for ever having had asthma among Canadian-born Chinese compared with native Chinese in Guangzhou: 2.72 [95% confidence interval 1.75–4.23] for boys and 5.50 [95% confidence interval 3.21–9.44] for girls; p < 0.001 for both). Among Chinese adolescents living in Vancouver, the prevalence of ever wheezing increased with duration of residence, from 14.5% among those living in Canada for less than 7 years to 20.9% among those living their entire life in Canada. The same pattern was observed for the prevalence of ever having had asthma, from 7.7% to 15.9%. Interpretation Asthma symptoms in Chinese adolescents were lowest among

  19. Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco…

  20. Prevalence of School Bullying among Secondary Students in Taiwan: Measurements with and without a Specific Definition of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ming; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of bullying and bullying victimization rates vary depending on how these rates are measured. The current study used survey methods of the World Health Organisation (WHO) to investigate the prevalence of school bullying among secondary students in Taiwan. We also examined whether results differed between surveys with and without…

  1. The Prevalence of Cyber Bullying Victimization and Its Relationship to Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007) and…

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  3. The Association between Teacher Attitudes, Behavioral Intentions, and Smoking and the Prevalence of Smoking among Seventh-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed seventh grade students and teachers from 23 schools to determine association between teacher attitudes, behavioral intentions, and smoking behavior and prevalence of student smoking. Teacher attitudes toward smoking policies were strongly related to current smoking behavior of teacher but not consistently related to student smoking.…

  4. Prevalence of chronic pain in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S K

    1987-05-01

    Five hundred consecutive patients attending a psychiatric clinic were examined in order to ascertain the prevalence of chronic pain in various psychiatric illnesses and demographic categories. Chronic pain was found to be a frequent symptom in anxiety neurosis (60%), neurotic depression (45%) and hysteria (24.3%). Less than 3% of psychotic patients reported chronic pain. Females and those patients who had entered further education beyond secondary level were found to have significantly higher (P less than 0.001) representation as compared to the psychiatric population without pain. The results are in accordance with certain earlier studies carried out almost two decades ago. Chronic pain was found to be a common symptom of psychiatric illness, reported by 18.6% patients, especially those diagnosed as having neurosis. It was also reported more often by females and by those with a higher education. The reasons for these observations require investigation.

  5. Prevalence of hypertension in Lithuanian mariners.

    PubMed

    Kirkutis, Algimantas; Norkiene, Sigita; Griciene, Pasaka; Gricius, Jonas; Yang, Stephen; Gintautas, Jonas

    2004-01-01

    Several international studies from Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Croatia, and Finland indicate contradicting findings regarding cardiovascular dysfunction among seamen, deep sea fishermen, and harbor workers. The purpose of the present survey was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a selected group of Lithuanian seamen. The survey was conducted during a one year period and involved sailors from commercial, passenger, and fishing boats. The survey took into account the sailors' marital status, education, professional rank and duty, and length of stay at sea. It also included demographical data, complete family health history, the sailor's awareness about their health in general, and awareness about their blood pressure in particular. Their dietary habits, changes in body weight, the history of alcohol intake and tobacco usage were also recorded. Analysis of our data indicates that 44.9% of Lithuanian mariners suffer from a clinically significant elevation of blood pressure, as compared to 53% of the general population of Lithuania. Some of the leading risk factors are: a high cholesterol diet and increased body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol abuse, family situation and level of education. The high prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors was to be found related to ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular illness. This may be influenced by poor eating habits, poor health awareness and other social and environmental factors which are common to seamen. Increased blood pressure is a widespread condition that affects a large portion of the population in developed countries. It is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, as well as a significant preventable cause of mortality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which accounts for an estimated 17 million deaths each year. With hypertension, the risk of stroke increases 2.6-3.8 times, the risk of

  6. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  7. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Laleh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage--marriage between relatives--has received a great deal of attention as a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians living in Frydoonshahr (Isfahan province, central Iran). Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 646. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. First cousin marriages (14.2%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by second cousin (7.0%), beyond second cousin (1.5%) and first cousin once removed (0.6%). The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was calculated as 0.0104 for the population. The present study shows that the study population, as other Iranian populations, has a high level of consanguinity.

  8. [Tocophobia--its origin, prevalence and implications].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Stolovitch, Natan; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2014-05-01

    Tocophobia is defined as fear from pregnancy in general and fear of vaginal delivery in particular. This is a relatively prevalent phenomenon, which originates due to traumatic events in the past: whether as a result of previous bad obstetric experience or from other non-obstetric related events. Unstable mental disorder may also be expressed as tocophobia. As there is no common agreement regarding the definition of tocophobia, conservative methods of treatment have not proven effective. Male tocophobia is also recognized and can be negatively influential on female males and spouses. The ultimate solution to tocophobia is an elective cesarean section following maternal request, with no obvious medical indication. This creates ethical problems to the attending physicians. PMID:25112123

  9. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in antenatal women.

    PubMed

    Mathew, R; Kalyani, J; Bibi, R; Mallika, M

    2001-04-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is an established risk factor in pregnant women for premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery. This study was carried out to find out the prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) in antenatal women with vaginal discharge and the effect of treatment with Metronidazole gel on pregnancy outcome. One hundred and fifty symptomatic and fifty asymptomatic women in second trimester of pregnancy in the age group of 20-30 years were included in the study. Gram stained smears of vaginal discharge were examined for evidence of BV with a scoring system by Nugent et al and was found to be positive in 38.5% in symptomatic antenatal women. Intravaginal metronidazole gel application was found to be an effective therapeutic option. Incidence of preterm labour was more in untreated cases. PMID:11883123

  10. Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Dysfunctions : Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajith; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2004-01-01

    The sexual dysfunctions are one of the most prevalent conditions. Sexual dysfunctions can have profound effect on the psychological well-being of an individual and the psychosexual relationship of a couple. Management of the sexual dysfunction should be preceded by an accurate diagnosis reached after a complete medical and sexual history and physical examination. Current focus of researchers has been on understanding the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and other sexual dysfunctions that can help in developing newer pharmacological cures for these conditions. Recently, a number of clinical trials have studied the potential effectiveness of the phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor sildenafil in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) and Premature Ejaculation (PME). The introduction of PDE-5 inhibitors like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil has revolutionized the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. This review focuses on the recent pharmacological advances in the treatment of common sexual dysfunctions like ED and PME with special focus on the role of PDE-5 inhibitors. Also discussed is the pharmacological treatment of other less prevalent and recognized disorders like female sexual dysfunction, drug induced sexual dysfunction etc. PMID:21224902

  11. Prevalence and morphology of supernumerary teeth in the population of a Swiss community. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Schmuckli, Regula; Lipowsky, Claudia; Peltomäki, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the current prevalence of supernumerary teeth (PST) in the population of a Swiss community. 3,004 orthopantomograms (OPTs) routinely produced during the annual school dental examinations in the Winterthur municipality from 1990 to 2005 served as the study basis (average age 9.45 years, 1391 girls, 1613 boys, age range 6-15 years). The study found 44 supernumerary teeth, which yields a prevalence of 1.5%. The prevalence among boys was higher than among girls, with 1.1% and 0.4%, respectively. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (38 of 44 teeth, 86%). Based on their position, 33 of these were classified as mesiodens. Five supernumerary teeth had the same shape as a maxillary lateral incisor. In the mandibular anterior region, five supernumerary teeth were shaped the same as the permanent mandibular incisors. 70% of the supernumerary teeth were conical. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth is low (1.5%) and comparable to similar studies in the literature. The majority (86%) of supernumerary teeth are located in the maxillary anterior region. Thus, in the case of retention or delayed eruption, dentists should bear in mind that supernumerary teeth may be the cause. PMID:21243544

  12. Mental health disorders among individuals with mental retardation: challenges to accurate prevalence estimates.

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Owens, Pamela L.; Zigler, Edward; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this literature review were to assess current challenges to estimating the prevalence of mental health disorders among individuals with mental retardation (MR) and to develop recommendations to improve such estimates for this population. METHODS: The authors identified 200 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, government documents, or reports from national and international organizations on the mental health status of people with MR. Based on the study's inclusion criteria, 52 articles were included in the review. RESULTS: Available data reveal inconsistent estimates of the prevalence of mental health disorders among those with MR, but suggest that some mental health conditions are more common among these individuals than in the general population. Two main challenges to identifying accurate prevalence estimates were found: (1) health care providers have difficulty diagnosing mental health conditions among individuals with MR; and (2) methodological limitations of previous research inhibit confidence in study results. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate prevalence estimates are necessary to ensure the availability of appropriate treatment services. To this end, health care providers should receive more training regarding the mental health treatment of individuals with MR. Further, government officials should discuss mechanisms of collecting nationally representative data, and the research community should utilize consistent methods with representative samples when studying mental health conditions in this population. PMID:15219798

  13. Prevalence and duration of PTSD in survivors 6 years after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Filip K; Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin; Michel, Per-Olof

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors with low levels of risk factors for PTSD. The sample included 142 adults (58% women, 54% university education, 93% employed/students/retired) on vacation in Southeast Asia during the 2004 Indian Ocean disaster. Semi-structured clinical interviews (SCID-I) were performed after 6 years including PTSD, depression, specific phobia, and alcohol abuse. The 6-year prevalence of PTSD was 11.3% and the current prevalence was 4.2%, with onset mainly within 1 month and remission within 3 years post-disaster. Suicidal ideation and comorbidity were common in PTSD cases. Lifetime prevalence of depression was 19%, specific phobia 7%, and alcohol abuse 4%. The findings suggest elevated levels of PTSD but not other disorders as compared with general population samples, but still lower levels than other disaster samples. Despite benign circumstances, however, the course and burden of PTSD were comparable to similar studies.

  14. Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.

    PubMed

    Azzag, Naouelle; Petit, Elisabeth; Gandoin, Christelle; Bouillin, Corinne; Ghalmi, Farida; Haddad, Nadia; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2015-02-01

    Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indicates that 17.8% of the 213 analyzed dogs were positive for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma with a prevalence of 4.2% for E. canis, 14.1% for Anaplama platys and 0% for A. phagocytophilum. Seven (7.1%) of the tested dogs were positive for Bartonella spp. with two characterized as Bartonella rochalimae, four as B. henselae and one as B.v. subsp. berkhoffii.

  15. Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184

  16. Prevalence, associated factors and management of insomnia in prison populations: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Dewa, Lindsay H; Kyle, Simon D; Hassan, Lamiece; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Prisoners have many potential risk factors for insomnia including mental ill health and substance misuse. However, literature on prevalence, associated factors and management of insomnia in prison has yet to be systematically examined in this group. The paper objective was to synthesise and appraise the research that examines insomnia in a prison environment. An integrative literature review using thematic analysis was conducted to critically reflect on the current evidence base and outline a prospective research agenda. From the original 384 sourced papers, 33 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included for review. Definitions of insomnia and assessment tools used in studies varied considerably making the overall validity of findings uncertain. Notably, no studies used a recommended measure to assess insomnia disorder (ID). Thematic analysis yielded five themes: 1) the varied prevalence of insomnia; 2) the comorbidity of insomnia, psychiatric disorder and substance misuse; 3) the negative influence of prison-related situational and environmental factors on insomnia; 4) the role of hypnotic medication, and, 5) preliminary indications that non-pharmacological treatment can improve sleep. The methodological heterogeneity and variable quality across studies in the assessment of insomnia means conclusive data on prevalence, associated factors and management is lacking. Nonetheless, sleep problems are common and impairing in prison, are linked to comorbid conditions and negatively influenced by the prison environment, which routinely provides limited scope for effective management. Future research in prison populations is needed to reliably identify insomnia prevalence and determine how it can be managed effectively. PMID:25644983

  17. [Prevalence of intestinal parasitis at the King Baudouin health center of Guediawaye (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Ndir, I; Gaye, A; Sy, M; Gaye, O; Ndir, O

    2002-01-01

    A prospective study carrying on 302 samples of stools of aged children of 0 to 15 years has been achieved between January 02 and April 11 2001 in the center of health Roi Baudouin of Guediawaye (SENEGAL) to appreciate the prevalence of intestinal parasitis. For every child, we made a scotch test, a macroscopic exam of stools and a microscopic exam to the direct analysis and after concentration by the method of RITCHIE simplified. The global prevalence is 56,62%. Ascaris lumbricoides arrived in head with 34,17%, follow-up of Giardia lamblia (22,50%), Trichirus trichiura (22,08%) and Amoeba (14,58%). The prevalence varied with age and the children who are 11 to 15 years have the indication of infestation the most elevated (75,86%): The difference of prevalence to the sex and according to the presence or no current water is not meaningful. On the other hand topics to weak standard of living have an indication elevated parasitis with 66,05%. So measures of efficient struggle must be undertaken to combat these intestinal parasitis. PMID:15776669

  18. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Results Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. Conclusion This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies. PMID:27051290

  19. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Andreana

    2015-09-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a somatoform disorder characterised by a distressing obsession with an imagined or slight appearance defect, which can significantly impair normal day-to-day functioning. Patients with BDD often first present, and are hence diagnosed, in cosmetic surgery settings. Several studies have investigated the prevalence rate of BDD in the general population or have done so for patients referring to cosmetic medical centers. To date, however, no review has been undertaken to compare the prevalence in the general community versus in a cosmetic surgery setting. Despite the lack of such a review it is a commonly held belief that BDD is more common in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. The current study aims to review the available literature in order to investigate whether BDD is indeed more prevalent in patients requesting cosmetic surgery, and if that is the case, to provide possible reasons for the difference in prevalence. In addition this review provides evidence on the effectiveness of cosmetic surgery as a treatment of BDD.

  20. Dementia in a tribal landlocked elderly population at high altitude: What explains the lower prevalence?

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies across the populations have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Earlier, we reported on the prevalence of dementia in elderly population in migrant, urban, rural, and tribal populations. The present study was conducted with a view to estimating the prevalence of dementia in Tribal Landlocked Elderly Population at high altitude and therefore to draw some conclusions on the differential distribution of dementia across populations. Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase 1 involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase 2 involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that six individuals out of a total of 481 studied above 60 years of age in the studied population scored between 17 and 23, thus qualifying as suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Importantly, none of the individuals above 60 years of age scored <17. Discussion: The current study is in conformity with our previous study conducted on urban, rural, and migrant areas of the state of Himachal Pradesh again emphasizing on dementia being rare in tribal populations and thereby pointing to the presence of some protective factors among tribal people. PMID:27365961

  1. High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Gaby Pons; van der Kooi, Elly; Behin, Anthony; Smeets, Joep; Timmermans, Janneke; van der Maarel, Silvère; Padberg, George; Voermans, Nicol; van Engelen, Baziel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The exact prevalence and nature of cardiac involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is unknown. Nevertheless, the current opinion is that symptomatic cardiac disease is rare. We performed a cardiac screening [electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography in the event of ECG abnormalities] in 75 genetically confirmed, ambulant FSHD patients without cardiac symptoms, with an eight-year follow-up of 57 patients, and compared the findings with results of previously performed cardiac screenings in the normal population. Baseline ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, complete RBBB in 4%, and other minor abnormalities in 16%. Echocardiography showed no abnormalities. No significant changes were found after eight years of follow-up. Comparison with ECG abnormalities in the normal population showed a higher prevalence of incomplete RBBB (9.7 times higher) and of complete RBBB (4.8 times higher) in FSHD patients. This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID:25473735

  2. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems. PMID:27695609

  3. Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in a rural adult population.

    PubMed Central

    Woolcock, A J; Peat, J K; Salome, C M; Yan, K; Anderson, S D; Schoeffel, R E; McCowage, G; Killalea, T

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult populations is not known. To document its prevalence and distribution and to determine the factors associated with it, a random sample of the adult population of Busselton, Western Australia, was studied. Spirometric function, bronchial responsiveness to histamine, and atopic responses to skin prick tests were measured. Respiratory symptoms were determined by questionnaire. Data were obtained from 916 subjects. Of these, 876 underwent a histamine inhalation test and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine (defined as a dose of histamine provoking a 20% fall in FEV1 equal to or less than 3.9 mumol) was found in 10.5%. Another 40 subjects with poor lung function were tested with a bronchodilator and 12 were found to have bronchial hyperresponsiveness (defined as a greater than 15% increase in FEV1), making the total prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness 11.4%. The prevalence of current asthma, defined as bronchial hyperresponsiveness plus symptoms consistent with asthma in the last 12 months, was 5.9%. The distribution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the studied population was continuous. There was a significant association between it and respiratory symptoms, atopy, smoking, and abnormal lung function (p less than 0.001 for all associations). There was no association with age, sex, or recent respiratory tract infection. Images PMID:3660290

  4. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems.

  5. Impact of Hispanic Ethnic Concentration and Socioeconomic Status on Obesity Prevalence in Texas Countie

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Rocha, Elizabeth; Abdelbary, Bassent E.; Gay, Jennifer; Sexton, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the association of Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity varies by socioeconomic environment. Although little influence was observed for % poverty, the relationship between Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity differed by county-level educational attainment. High proportion of residents with a bachelor’s degree is associated with a low prevalence of obesity; counties with both high % Hispanic and high % with Bachelor’s degrees had the lowest prevalence of obesity. Our results suggest that promoting and improving education, perhaps including training on healthful living, may serve as an effective means of curbing current obesity trends and associated health problems in Hispanic and possibly other ethnic communities. PMID:22690191

  6. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a brazilian military police population

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Viviani-Silva; Godinho, Eliane-Lopes; Farias, Lucyana-Conceição; Marques-Silva, Luciano; Santos, Sérgio-Henrique-Sousa; Rodrigues-Neto, João-Felício; Ferreira, Raquel-Conceição; De-Paula, Alfredo-Maurício-Batista; Martins, Andréa-Maria-Eleutério-de Barros-Lima

    2015-01-01

    Background Data obtained from oral health surveys are very important for identifying disease-susceptible groups and for developing dental care and prevention programs. So, the purpose of the current article was to investigate the prevalence of oral mucosa lesions (OMLs) in a population of Brazilian police. Material and Methods Interviews and oral cavity examinations were performed on a sample of 395 police officers who were randomly selected by the calibrated researcher. The number of individuals was obtained by a sample calculation using the finite population correction. The diagnostic criteria were based on the WHO (1997) criteria and adapted to Brazilian surveys. Results In total, 8.61% of the population presented some OML. Traumatic injuries and benign migratory glossitis (BMG) were the most prevalent lesions. Conclusions The prevalence of potentially malignant disorders was lower than among the Brazilian population.The most prevalent lesion among the police officers was related to trauma. Patients dissatisfied with oral health had a higher risk of presenting OMLs. Key words:Mouth disease, mouth mucosa, military personnel, public health, oral pathology, oral leukoplakia. PMID:26155334

  7. High current induction linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge.

  8. Malaria in South Asia: prevalence and control.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajan, Satish N; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2012-03-01

    The "Malaria Evolution in South Asia" (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US-India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public-private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012.

  9. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  10. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was included in European Health Interview Study (EHIS) on representative Slovenian sample. The frequency of Internet use and problematic Internet use were both assessed. Results 59.9% of Slovenian adult population uses the Internet daily, and 3.1% are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, 11% in the age group from 20 to 24 years. Those being at risk for becoming problematic Internet users are younger (mean age 31.3 vs. 48.3 for non-problematic users), more likely to be males (3.6% of males, whereas 2.6% of females are affected), students (12.0%), unemployed (6.3%) or unable to work (8.7%), single (6.5%), with high education (4.5%). Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of being at risk for problematic Internet use is age (ß=-0.338, p<0.001); followed by high educational level (ß=0.145; p<0.001) and student status (ß=0.136; p<0.001). Conclusion 3.1% of Slovenian adult population are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, whereas 3 out of 20 Slovenian adolescents aged from 18 to 19 years are at risk (14.6%). Prevention programs and treatment for those affected are paramount, especially for the young generation. PMID:27703540

  11. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  12. Prevalence and Predictive Value of Dyspnea Ratings in Hospitalized Patients: Pilot Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jennifer P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea (breathing discomfort) can be as powerfully aversive as pain, yet is not routinely assessed and documented in the clinical environment. Routine identification and documentation of dyspnea is the first step to improved symptom management and it may also identify patients at risk of negative clinical outcomes. Objective To estimate the prevalence of dyspnea and of dyspnea-associated risk among hospitalized patients. Design Two pilot prospective cohort studies. Setting Single academic medical center. Patients Consecutive patients admitted to four inpatient units: cardiology, hematology/oncology, medicine, and bariatric surgery. Measurements In Study 1, nurses documented current and recent patient-reported dyspnea at the time of the Initial Patient Assessment in 581 inpatients. In Study 2, nurses documented current dyspnea at least once every nursing shift in 367 patients. We describe the prevalence of burdensome dyspnea, and compare it to pain. We also compared dyspnea ratings with a composite of adverse outcomes: 1) receipt of care from the hospital’s rapid response system, 2) transfer to the intensive care unit, or 3) death in hospital. We defined burdensome dyspnea as a rating of 4 or more on a 10-point scale. Results Prevalence of burdensome current dyspnea upon admission (Study 1) was 13% (77 of 581, 95% CI 11%-16%). Prevalence of burdensome dyspnea at some time during the hospitalization (Study 2) was 16% (57 of 367, 95% CI 12%-20%). Dyspnea was associated with higher odds of a negative outcome. Conclusions In two pilot studies, we identified a significant symptom burden of dyspnea in hospitalized patients. Patients reporting dyspnea may benefit from a more careful focus on symptom management and may represent a population at greater risk for negative outcomes. PMID:27070144

  13. Variations in prevalence of viral, bacterial, and rhizocephalan diseases and parasites of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    Prevalence of blue crab diseases and parasites has not been consistently monitored in the Gulf of Mexico. To establish current prevalence levels and to more fully understand population dynamics, commercial landing trends, and effects of future natural and anthropogenic disasters on animal health, we measured the prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Loxothylacus texanus, shell disease, and Vibrio spp. in blue crabs collected from Louisiana in 2013 and the beginning of 2014. We used PCR to detect WSSV and L. texanus infections, visual gross diagnosis for L. texanus externae and shell disease, and standard microbiological culture techniques and biochemical testing for Vibrio spp. We found no crabs infected with WSSV or L. texanus. Absence of L. texanus parasitization was expected based on the sampled salinities and the sampling focus on large crabs. Shell disease was present at a level of 54.8% and was most prevalent in the winter and summer and least prevalent in the spring. Vibrio spp. were found in the hemolymph of 22.3% of the crabs and prevalence varied by site, season, and sex. Additionally, three of 39 crabs tested were infected with reo-like virus.

  14. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately. PMID:25628080

  15. Influence of two different geo-climatic zones on the prevalence and time trends of asthma symptoms among Spanish adolescents and schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Marcos, Luis; Batllés-Garrido, José; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo; García-Hernández, Gloria; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Busquets-Monge, Rosa M.; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; López-Silvarrey-Varela, Ángel; García-Andoin, Nekane

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the long-term influence of the climate on the prevalence of asthma. The aim of this study is to establish the influence of geo-climatic conditions on the prevalence of asthma symptoms both in adolescents and schoolchildren, and to discover if this influence is associated with their time trends. Eight centres in Spain performed both ISAAC phases I (1994) and III (2002) in children 13-14 years old. Six of them also surveyed children 6-7 years old. For each age group and phase, about 3,000 children were surveyed per centre. This study examines the prevalence of current wheeze and severe current wheeze in two different geo-climatic zones, coast and plateau, considering their relative humidity and temperature range. In both age groups, the mean asthma prevalence on the coast, for phase I and III, was significantly higher than on the plateau. Living on the plateau was an independent protective factor for current wheeze and severe current wheeze for the two age groups. Within the coastal centres, the increase of the annual relative humidity was a statistical significant risk factor for current wheeze, the same trend existing for current severe wheeze. These effects were independent of the sex and of the phase of the study. The prevalence of asthma and severe asthma symptoms is more frequent on the coast of Spain as compared to the inner plateau. This finding was repeated both in 1994 and in 2002.

  16. Ureaplasma: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kokkayil, P; Dhawan, B

    2015-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Ureaplasma has 14 known serotypes and is divided into two biovars- Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The organism has several genes coding for surface proteins, the most important being the gene encoding the Multiple Banded Antigen (MBA). The C-terminal domain of MBA is antigenic and elicits a host antibody response. Other virulence factors include phospholipases A and C, IgA protease and urease. Besides genital tract infections and infertility, Ureaplasma is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and diseases in the newborn (chronic lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity). Infection produces cytokines in the amniotic fluid which initiates preterm labour. They have also been reported from renal stone and suppurative arthritis. Genital infections have also been reported with an increasing frequency in HIV-infected patients. Ureaplasma may be a candidate 'co factor' in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the mainstay of diagnosis. Commercial assays are available with improved turnaround time. Micro broth dilution is routinely used to test antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates. The organisms are tested against azithromycin, josamycin, ofloxacin and doxycycline. Resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones have been reported. The susceptibility pattern also varies among the biovars with biovar 2 maintaining higher sensitivity rates. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent long term complications of Ureaplasma infections. After surveying PubMed literature using the terms 'Ureaplasma', 'Ureaplasma urealyticum' and 'Ureaplasma parvum', relevant literature were selected to provide a concise review on the recent developments. PMID:25865969

  17. Prevalence of diabetes in a Navajo Indian community.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Percy, C

    1989-04-01

    The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) of 494 (76 per cent) Navajo adults living in a reservation community was 10.2 per cent, approximately 60 per cent greater than the estimated prevalence (6.4 per cent) in the general US population. The screening protocol utilized likely underestimates the prevalence of NIDDM in this population. A high proportion of Navajo people were overweight when compared to the general US population. PMID:2929818

  18. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. PMID:26907308

  19. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Understanding the prevalence of schizophrenia has important implications for both health service planning and risk factor epidemiology. The aims of this review are to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of schizophrenia, to summarize the findings of these studies, and to explore selected factors that may influence prevalence estimates. Methods and Findings Studies with original data related to the prevalence of schizophrenia (published 1965–2002) were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations, and writing to authors. These studies were divided into “core” studies, “migrant” studies, and studies based on “other special groups.” Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete prevalence estimates. Cumulative plots of prevalence estimates were made and the distributions described when the underlying estimates were sorted according to prevalence type (point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk). Based on combined prevalence estimates, the influence of selected key variables was examined (sex, urbanicity, migrant status, country economic index, and study quality). A total of 1,721 prevalence estimates from 188 studies were identified. These estimates were drawn from 46 countries, and were based on an estimated 154,140 potentially overlapping prevalent cases. We identified 132 core studies, 15 migrant studies, and 41 studies based on other special groups. The median values per 1,000 persons (10%–90% quantiles) for the distributions for point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk were 4.6 (1.9–10.0), 3.3 (1.3–8.2), 4.0 (1.6–12.1), and 7.2 (3.1–27.1), respectively. Based on combined prevalence estimates, we found no significant difference (a) between males and females, or (b) between urban, rural, and mixed sites. The prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants was higher compared to native-born individuals: the migrant-to-native-born ratio

  20. Worldwide prevalence of red-green color deficiency.

    PubMed

    Birch, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Literature that describes the prevalence of inherited red-green color deficiency in different populations is reviewed. Large random population surveys show that the prevalence of deficiency in European Caucasians is about 8% in men and about 0.4% in women and between 4% and 6.5% in men of Chinese and Japanese ethnicity. However, the male: female prevalence ratio is markedly different in Europeans and Asians. Recent surveys suggest that the prevalence is rising in men of African ethnicity and in geographic areas that have been settled by incoming migrants. It is proposed that founder events and genetic drift, rather than natural selection, are the cause of these differences.

  1. The NLM Current Catalog*

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Emilie V.

    1969-01-01

    When the National Library of Medicine acquired a computer to augment its publication program, the intent was to present in one medium an index to journal articles and a catalog of books and new serial titles. The computer programs designed for indexing were unsatisfactory for cataloging, however; so two publications were issued, the Index Medicus and the NLM Current Catalog. The Current Catalog features separate name and subject sections, added volumes, and technical reports. The Express Cataloging Service was one of the first attempts to increase the speed and coverage of the Catalog. Shared cataloging with the Library of Congress, the Countway Library at Harvard, and the Upstate Medical Library in Syracuse, New York, have also contributed to the efforts toward improving this library service. An additional shared cataloging program, this time with the National Medical Audiovisual Center, is expected to be implemented shortly. PMID:5782262

  2. The NLM current catalog.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, E V

    1969-01-01

    When the National Library of Medicine acquired a computer to augment its publication program, the intent was to present in one medium an index to journal articles and a catalog of books and new serial titles. The computer programs designed for indexing were unsatisfactory for cataloging, however; so two publications were issued, the Index Medicus and the NLM Current Catalog. The Current Catalog features separate name and subject sections, added volumes, and technical reports. The Express Cataloging Service was one of the first attempts to increase the speed and coverage of the Catalog. Shared cataloging with the Library of Congress, the Countway Library at Harvard, and the Upstate Medical Library in Syracuse, New York, have also contributed to the efforts toward improving this library service. An additional shared cataloging program, this time with the National Medical Audiovisual Center, is expected to be implemented shortly. PMID:5782262

  3. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  4. Current oscillations in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Brittany

    We develop a simple phenomenological model to describe current oscillations in single, conically shaped nanopores. The model utilizes aspects of reaction rate theory, electrochemical oscillators, and nonlinear dynamical systems. Time series of experimental data were analyzed and compared to time series simulated using the model equations. There is good qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation, though the model needs to be improved in order to obtain better quantitative agreement.

  5. [Acromegaly: current view].

    PubMed

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly. PMID:26486485

  6. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  7. Prevalence and Management of Diabetic Nephropathy in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Adler, Sharon G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) often results in end-stage renal disease, and this is the most common reason for initiation of dialysis in the United States. Complications of diabetes, particularly renal disease, substantially increase the risk of subsequent severe illness and death. The prevalence of DN is still rising dramatically, with concomitant increases in associated mortality and cardiovascular complications. Summary Renal involvement in type 1 and type 2 diabetes reflects a complex pathogenesis. Various genetic and environmental factors determine the susceptibility and progression to advanced stages of the disease. DN should be considered in patients who have had type 1 diabetes for at least 10 years with microalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy, as well as in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with macroalbuminuria in whom other causes for proteinuria are absent. The glomerular characteristic features include mesangial expansion, thickened glomerular basement membrane, and hyalinosis of arterioles. The optimal therapy of DN continues to evolve. For all diabetic patients, practical management including blood glucose and blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade combined with lipid control, dietary salt restriction, lowering the dietary protein intake, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and smoking cessation can reduce the rate of progression of nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Key Message DN is a complex disease linking hemodynamic and metabolic pathways with oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. We summarize the current evidence of epidemiology, clinical diagnosis, and the current management of DN in Western countries. Facts from East and West The prevalence of DN is increasing in Asia and Western countries alike. The deletion (D) allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is associated with progression to end-stage renal disease in Asian patients with DN, but this association is

  8. Turbulent current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

  9. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.

  10. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  11. Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

  12. Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T; Stark, Damien

    2012-12-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

  13. Prevalence and Characteristics of Anergia (Lack of Energy) in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Newman, Jonathan D.; Gurland, Barry J.; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2012-01-01

    Anergia, a commonly occurring syndrome in older adults and patients with cardiovascular diseases, is associated with functional and clinical limitations. To date, the prevalence and clinical-demographic characteristics of anergia in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have not been elucidated. We examined the prevalence and clinical-demographic characteristics of anergia in a multiethnic sample of patients with ACS. Hospitalized patients with ACS (n = 472), enrolled in the Prescription Usage Lifestyle and Stress (PULSE) prospective cohort study, completed assessments of demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics within 7 days of hospitalization for an ACS event. Current depressive disorder was ascertained using a structured psychiatric interview 3 to 7 days post-discharge. Anergia was assessed at baseline and defined using patients’ binary responses (yes/no) to seven items related to energy level. At least 1 complaint of anergia was reported by 79.9% (n = 377) of patients, and 32% (n = 153) of patients met criteria for anergia. In a multivariable logistic regression model, anergia was independently associated with being female, white (compared to black), having bodily pain, participating in exercise, having current depressive disorder, and having higher values on the Charlson comorbidity index. In conclusion, anergia is a highly prevalent syndrome among patients with ACS. It is distinct from depression and is associated with modifiable clinical factors such as participation in exercise and bodily pain that may be appropriate targets for intervention. PMID:22835409

  14. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    PubMed

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality.

  15. Prevalence of refractive errors in teenage high school students in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Quek, Timothy P L; Chua, Choon Guan; Chong, Choon Seng; Chong, Jin Ho; Hey, Hwee Weng; Lee, June; Lim, Yee Fei; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to study the prevalence of refractive conditions in Singapore teenagers. Grade 9 and 10 students (n = 946) aged 15-19 years from two secondary schools in Singapore were recruited. The refractive errors of the students' eyes were measured using non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Sociodemographic data and information on risk factors for myopia (such as reading and writing) were also obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of refractive conditions was found to be: myopia [spherical equivalent (SE) at least -0.50 D] - 73.9%, hyperopia (SE at least +0.50 D) - 1.5%, astigmatism (cylinder at least -0.50 D) - 58.7% and anisometropia (SE difference at least 1.00 D) - 11.2%. After adjusting for age and gender, currently doing more than 20.5 h of reading and writing a week was found to be positively associated with myopia [odds ratio 1.12 (95% CI 1.04-1.20, p = 0.003)], as was reading and writing at a close distance and a better educational stream. The prevalence of myopia (73.9%) in Singapore teenagers is high. Current reading and writing habits, reading at close distances and a better educational stream are possible risk factors for myopia. PMID:14687201

  16. Distribution and prevalence of knemidokoptic mange in Hawai`i `Amakihi on the island of Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Apelgren, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    Knemidokoptic mange was first observed on two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) mist netted in Manuka Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the Island of Hawai‘i in June 2007. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings from lesions of the infested individuals revealed the scaley-leg mite, Knemidokoptes jamaicensis. Continued surveillance at Manuka NAR (2007-2009) documented a 24% (15/63) prevalence of mange among Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi distributed from coastal habitat to 1,500 m above sea level (asl). From 2012-2014, we conducted an island-wide survey of wild passerine birds from several leeward sites (Manuka NAR, Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary, and Kipahoehoe NAR) and windward sites (Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, ‘Ᾱinahou Ranch of HAVO, Malama Ki Forest Reserve, and Keauohana Forest Reserve) to determine the current distribution and host range of knemidokoptic mange. We also determined the prevalence of malaria in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi populations where mange was present and treated a subset of infested Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi mange with a single, topical dose of moxidectin. We mist netted and examined a total of 1,734 passerines, including 738 Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi. Mange was present in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi at Manuka NAR (595 and 305 m asl), Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Glover site: 1,201 m asl and Kipuka Akala site: 1,532 m asl), Malama Ki Forest Reserve and Keauohana Forest Reserve (293 m asl). No other passerine birds (n = 995) were infected. Mange prevalence ranged from a high of 69% (40/58) in Keauohana Forest Reserve to a low of 2% (1/65) in the Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Kipuka Akala). At Manuka NAR prevalence had decreased from 26% in 2010 to 10% (7/81) in 2012–2014. We found no significant relationship between the prevalence of mange and the prevalence of avian malaria in mesic habitats at Manuka NAR (P = 0.59 (FET, n = 81)), but there was a significant association between the

  17. Prevalence of doping use in elite sports: a review of numbers and methods.

    PubMed

    de Hon, Olivier; Kuipers, Harm; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of doping in elite sports is relevant for all those involved in sports, particularly for evaluating anti-doping policy measures. Remarkably, few scientific articles have addressed this subject so far, and the last review dates back to 1997. As a consequence, the true prevalence of doping in elite sports is unknown. Even though it is virtually impossible to uncover the exact prevalence of a prohibited activity such as doping, various methods are available to uncover parts of this particular problem, which enables the circumvention (to a certain degree) of the issues of truthfulness, definition problems and the limits of pharmacological evidence. This review outlines the various methods that exist and presents the scarce data available in this area. It is concluded that a combination of questionnaires using the Randomised Response Technique and models of biological parameters is able to provide the statistical possibilities to reveal accurate estimates of this often undisclosed practice. Data gathered in this way yield an estimation of 14-39% of current adult elite athletes who intentionally used doping. These period prevalences have been found in specific sub-groups of elite athletes, and the available data suggest that the prevalence of doping is considerably different between sub-groups with varying types of sport, levels and nationalities. The above-mentioned figure of 14-39% is likely to be a more accurate reflection of the prevalence of intentional doping in elite sports than that provided by doping control test results (estimate of doping: 1-2% annually) or questionnaire-based research (estimations between 1 and 70% depending on sport, level and exact definitions of intent and doping). In the future, analytical science may play a more important role in this topic if it may become feasible to detect very low concentrations of prohibited substances in sewage systems downstream of major sporting events. However, it is clear that current doping

  18. Point-prevalence of depression and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek; Sanabria, Alicia Salamanca

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to assess levels of depressive symptoms and associated risk factors in a sample of students in Bogotá, Colombia. A convenient sample (N = 254) of students at the University Antonio Nariño, Bogotá was invited to complete an online survey that contained questions associated with common risk factors for depression and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Chi-square was used to analyze comparisons between demographic and risk factors and severity of depression, and comparisons between those depressed and not depressed. Odds Ratios and their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were computed through logistic regression model developed for each independent variable. The point-prevalence of current depressive symptoms was 36.2%; women 47.3% and men 21.3%. Risk factors associated with depression included being a woman, having a previous diagnosis, suicidal ideation and (or) intent, sleep problems, a recent loss, and a history of family depression and alcoholism. The study confirms the high incidence of depression and associated risk factors in students. The results demonstrate a need for prevention measures, early detection and early intervention. PMID:24839729

  19. Prevalence of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Occlusal Traits in Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Darnahal, Alireza; Damani, Elnaz; Talaeipour, Maziar; Kamali, Zinat

    2014-01-01

    Background. Widespread use of the IOTN along with detailed study of occlusal traits is suitable for planning community dental health resources. Objectives. The aim of current study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment among school children of Tehran by means of the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and also to evaluate the occlusal traits of the subjects. Methods. 684 (343 boys and 341 girls) school children, 15 to 17 years of age, were selected at random from 12 schools to represent the four main areas of Tehran. The final sample who met the inclusion criteria comprised 643 subjects (322 males and 321 females). Malocclusion was determined with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The IOTN grades were statistically compared in the two genders using chi-square test. Results. Orthodontic treatment need, using the DHC, was found in only 9.0 per cent of the children. The prevalence of Angle Class I malocclusion in this study was higher than other malocclusions (65.2 per cent), followed by crowding in 62.7 per cent of the subjects. Conclusion. Orthodontic treatment need for Tehran high school students was relatively lower than that reported in most recent studies in Europe. PMID:27355049

  20. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  1. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E

    2015-05-30

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women. PMID:25770354

  2. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum.

  3. Prevalence of enteric parasites in pet macaques in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Schillact, Michael A; Froehlich, Jeffery; Paputungan, Umar; Kyes, Randall C

    2004-02-01

    On the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, nonhuman primate pets come into frequent contact with humans, presenting the possibility of zoonotic and anthropozoonotic disease transmission. We collected fecal samples from 88 pet macaques representing six of the seven macaque species currently recognized as endemic to Sulawesi (Macaca nigra, M. nigrescens, M. hecki, M. tonkeana, M. maura, and M. ochreata) as well as two non-endemic species (M. fascicularis and M. nemestrina) in order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this population. Seven taxa of intestinal protozoa (Blastocystis hominis, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Chilomastrix mesnili, Endolimax nana, and Retortamonas intestinalis) and three taxa of nematodes (hookworm, Trichuris spp., and Ascaris spp.) were detected. The overall parasitization rate was 59.1%. Commensal organisms predominated in this population. Parasitization was not statistically correlated with macaque age group, sex, species, or location, or with the owner's level of education. These findings are discussed in the context of primate pet ownership practices in Sulawesi. PMID:14983465

  4. Demographics and respiratory illness prevalence of sport scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Tetzlaff, K; Muth, C M

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed to establish epidemiological data on diving habits and outcome of subjects with respiratory diseases who are considered at increased risk for diving injuries. We conducted a cross-sectional demographics and prevalence study by distribution of an anonymous questionnaire with an issue of a widespread sport diving magazine. The questionnaire was designed to obtain medical and diving history data with an emphasis on respiratory diseases and complaints. The investigational population comprised sport scuba divers of any age and gender from Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Two hundred and twenty-six male and 96 female divers sent completed questionnaires. Of the respondents 8.7 % indicated that they currently have asthma. Two thirds of asthmatics complained about regular dyspnoea. However, only 42.4 % used drugs relieving or controlling their symptoms regularly and 27.3 % used them in a prophylactic manner before diving. Five percent and 4.7 % of all divers reported a history of respiratory disease other than asthma or dyspnoea respectively. The divers with respiratory illness or complaints had logged a total of 17,386 dives. There were no cases of serious diving injuries. Despite the well-known limitations of postal surveys assessing self reported data, this study indicates that there is a population of subjects diving uneventfully with respiratory diseases that are considered medical contraindications to diving. These subjects deserve particular guidance on related risks and disease management.

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsiae in different regions of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Svetomir; Marinkovic, Tatjana; Marinkovic, Dragan; Djuricic, Bosiljka; Ristanovic, Elizabeta; Simovic, Tatjana; Lako, Branislav; Vukov, Biljana; Bozovic, Bojana; Gligic, Ana

    2008-04-01

    We assayed the presence of antibodies specific for Rickettsia typhi, R. akari, and R. conorii in sera of persons from several localities in Serbia with different geographic, climatic, and lifestyle characteristics. Sera from 140 patients with unclear clinical symptoms and 273 healthy persons were tested for the presence of rickettsiae-specific antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In this study, for the first time we detected the presence of rickettsiae from the spotted fever group in Serbia. We detected the presence of antibodies against R. conorii in the samples from all tested localities. The proportion of positive cases was low in the plain agricultural areas but reached up to 23% in the mountain areas. We also observed a significant number of cases positive for antibodies against R. akari. Antibodies specific for the antigens of R. typhi were detected in only 2 samples from the municipality of Pec (Kosovo region). These findings contribute to the prevalence of Rickettsia species in Southeast Europe. Our study also revealed a dramatic lack of awareness of rickettsioses among medical personnel and pointed to the need for urgent measures that would help improve the current situation in the region. PMID:18240971

  6. Prevalence of dry methods in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret L; Johnson, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Granite countertop fabricators are at risk of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, which may cause silicosis and other lung conditions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exposure control methods, especially wet methods, in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma to assess how many workers might be at risk of overexposure to crystalline silica in this industry. Granite fabrication shops in the three largest metropolitan areas in Oklahoma were enumerated, and 47 of the 52 shops participated in a survey on fabrication methods. Countertop shops were small businesses with average work forces of fewer than 10 employees. Ten shops (21%) reported using exclusively wet methods during all fabrication steps. Thirty-five shops (74%) employing a total of about 200 workers reported using dry methods all or most of the time in at least one fabrication step. The tasks most often performed dry were edge profiling (17% of shops), cutting of grooves for reinforcing rods (62% of shops), and cutting of sink openings (45% of shops). All shops reported providing either half-face or full-face respirators for use during fabrication, but none reported doing respirator fit testing. Few shops reported using any kind of dust collection system. These findings suggest that current consumer demand for granite countertops is giving rise to a new wave of workers at risk of silicosis due to potential overexposure to granite dust.

  7. A survey of diabetes prevalence in zoo-housed primates.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, C W; Fuller, G A; Dennis, P M

    2013-01-01

    In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, a high calorie diet and limited exercise are significant risk factors for the development of this disease. Zoo primates, with relatively high caloric density diets and sedentary lifestyles, may experience similar conditions that could predispose them to the development of diabetes. We surveyed all Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) facilities with primates in their collections to determine the prevalence of diabetes, diagnosis and treatment methods, and treatment outcomes. Nearly 30% of responding institutions reported at least one diabetic primate in their current collection. Although the majority of reported cases were in Old World Monkeys (51%), all major taxonomic groups were represented. Females represented nearly 80% of the diagnosed cases. A wide variety of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment techniques were reported. It is clear from these results diabetes should be considered prominently in decisions relating to diet, weight and activity levels in zoo-housed primates, as well as discussions surrounding animal health and welfare.

  8. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E

    2015-05-30

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women.

  10. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faris, Nora A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  11. Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy: prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Putko, Brendan N; Wen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard B; Mullen, John; Shanks, Miriam; Yogasundaram, Haran; Sergi, Consolato; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2015-03-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the inappropriate accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in tissues due to a deficiency in the enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A). Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy is characterized by structural, valvular, vascular and conduction abnormalities, and is now the most common cause of mortality in patients with AFD. Large-scale metabolic and genetic screening studies have revealed AFD to be prevalent in populations of diverse ethnic origins, and the variant form of AFD represents an unrecognized health burden. Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder, and genetic testing is critical for the diagnosis of AFD in women. Echocardiography with strain imaging and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using late enhancement and T1 mapping are important imaging tools. The current therapy for AFD is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which can reverse or prevent AFD progression, while gene therapy and the use of molecular chaperones represent promising novel therapies for AFD. Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy is an important and potentially reversible cause of heart failure that involves LVH, increased susceptibility to arrhythmias and valvular regurgitation. Genetic testing and cardiac MRI are important diagnostic tools, and AFD cardiomyopathy is treatable if ERT is introduced early.

  12. A survey of diabetes prevalence in zoo-housed primates.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, C W; Fuller, G A; Dennis, P M

    2013-01-01

    In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, a high calorie diet and limited exercise are significant risk factors for the development of this disease. Zoo primates, with relatively high caloric density diets and sedentary lifestyles, may experience similar conditions that could predispose them to the development of diabetes. We surveyed all Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) facilities with primates in their collections to determine the prevalence of diabetes, diagnosis and treatment methods, and treatment outcomes. Nearly 30% of responding institutions reported at least one diabetic primate in their current collection. Although the majority of reported cases were in Old World Monkeys (51%), all major taxonomic groups were represented. Females represented nearly 80% of the diagnosed cases. A wide variety of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment techniques were reported. It is clear from these results diabetes should be considered prominently in decisions relating to diet, weight and activity levels in zoo-housed primates, as well as discussions surrounding animal health and welfare. PMID:22847472

  13. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Associated Outcomes in the Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah J; Braunschweig, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia refers to age-associated decrease in muscle mass and function. The condition was originally described in the elderly, but emerging evidence suggests that it is also a concern among the chronically ill nonelderly. Currently there are a number of definitions for diagnosing sarcopenia; however, in the clinical setting, abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans completed for diagnostic purposes can be utilized to identify CT-defined sarcopenia. Recent studies suggest that prevalence of CT-defined sarcopenia is high among chronically ill patients, ranging from 15%-50% in patients with cancer, 30%-45% with liver failure, and 60%-70% for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Depleted muscle mass is associated with infectious complications, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, longer hospitalization, greater need for rehabilitation care after hospital discharge, and higher mortality. In consideration of the growing population of older adults with multiple comorbidities, more research is needed to identify sarcopenia and develop interventions that are directed at attenuating or reversal muscle loss.

  14. The High Prevalence of Anemia in Cambodian Children and Women Cannot Be Satisfactorily Explained by Nutritional Deficiencies or Hemoglobin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Sophonneary, Prak; Sinuon, Muth; Greuffeille, Valerie; Hong, Rathavuth; Berger, Jacques; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency, hemoglobin disorders and intestinal parasite infection. Methods: One-sixth of households from the CDHS-2014 were selected for a follow-up visit for the micronutrient survey. Households were visited from two weeks to two months after the CDHS-2014 visit. Data on micronutrient status were available for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). Results: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin < 15 g/L), vitamin A (retinol-binding-protein (RBP) < 0.70 mol/L) or vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/L) were not prevalent in the women (<5% for all), whereas 17.8% of the women had low concentrations of folic acid (<10 nmol/L). In the children, the prevalence of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency was <10%. Zinc deficiency, hookworm infection and hemoglobinopathy were significantly associated with anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children <2 years, but in older children and women, the prevalence of IDA was <5%. The most prevalent, preventable causes of anemia were hookworm infection and zinc and folic acid deficiency. Over 40% of the anemia was not caused by nutritional factors. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian women and children cannot be explained solely by micronutrient deficiencies and hemoglobin disorders. Micronutrient interventions to improve anemia prevalence are likely to have limited impact in the Cambodian setting. The focus of current interventions to

  15. Prevalence of sleep disorders among ESRD patients.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Haitham; Mohab, Amr

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disorders are common among the patients undergoing dialysis in end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although variable, their prevalence has been reported to be higher when compared to the general population. The most frequently reported complaints are insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep-disordered breathing and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders in end stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis (group I with 30 patients) and CKD patients (group II with 30 patients) in comparison to 30 normal population (control group). In addition to laboratory investigations which included creatinine clearance using Cockroft and Gault formula, hemoglobin level (Hb), blood urea, serum creatinine, serum albumin, serum calcium and phosphorus and lipid profile, all subjects underwent one night of laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) consisting of a standard montage of electroencephalography (EEG) (C3/A1 and O2/C3 or O1/C4), monopolar left and right electrooculography (EOG) referenced to the opposite mastoid, surface mentalis electromyography (EMG), respiratory airflow (measured by thermistor) and effort (piezoelectric sensors), electrocardiography (ECG), anterior tibialis EMG and pulse oximetry. For hemodialysis subjects, this study was performed on a night immediately following hemodialysis treatment. The results showed that patients on hemodialysis have sleep disorders, and that sleep disorders are common in group I and II than control group. The percentage of sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients were as follows: insomnia (69%), followed by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome OSAS (24%), RLS and periodic limb movement PLM (18%), nightmares (13%), EDS (12%), sleepwalking (2%), possible rapid eye movement behavior disorders RED (2%), possible narcolepsy (1.4%). While the percentage of sleep disorders in CKD patients were as follows: insomnia (54%), followed by RLS (19%), PLM (12%), OSAS (16

  16. Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide

  17. Prevalence of victims of violence admitted to an emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Hofner, M; Python, N; Martin, E; Gervasoni, J; Graz, B; Yersin, B

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To collect data on the consultation frequency and demographic profile of victims of violence attending an emergency department (ED) in Switzerland. Methods: We undertook screening of all admitted adult patients (>16 years) in the ED of the CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland, over a 1 month period, using a modified version of the Partner Violence Screen questionnaire. Exclusionary criteria were: life threatening injury (National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics score ⩾4), or inability to understand or speak French, to give oral informed consent, or to be questioned without a family member or accompanying person being present. Data were collected on history of physical and/or psychological violence during the previous 12 months, the type of violence experienced by the patient, and if violence was the reason for the current consultation. Sociodemographic data were obtained from the registration documents. Results: The final sample consisted of 1602 patients (participation rate of 77.2%), with a refusal rate of 1.1%. Violence during the past 12 months was reported by 11.4% of patients. Of the total sample, 25% stated that violence was the reason for the current consultation; of these, 95% of patients were confirmed as victims of violence by the ED physicians. Patients reporting violence were more likely to be young and separated from their partner. Men were more likely to be victims of public violence and women more commonly victims of domestic violence. Conclusions: Based on this monthly prevalence rate, we estimate that over 3000 adults affected by violence consult our ED per annum. This underlines the importance of the problem and the need to address it. Health services organisations should establish measures to improve quality of care for victims. Guidelines and educational programmes for nurses and physicians should be developed in order to enhance providers' skills and basic knowledge of all types of violence, how to recognise and interact appropriately

  18. Impact of farm modernity on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in dairy farmers.

    PubMed

    Marescaux, Alexia; Degano, Bruno; Soumagne, Thibaud; Thaon, Isabelle; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2016-02-01

    Dairy farming is associated with an excess of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The dairy industry has been changing for the past three decades with larger, more efficient farms and potentially less exposure to agents involved in COPD development. However, the impact of farm modernisation on COPD prevalence is unknown. We studied respiratory symptoms, respiratory function by spirometry and tobacco smoking in 575 male dairy farmers working either in traditional or in modern farms in the French Doubs region. COPD was defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criterion (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) <0.70) and by the Quanjer reference equation (FEV1/FVCprevalence of COPD in dairy farmers was 12.0 ± 2.7% (GOLD), and 5.6 ± 4.1% (LLN definition). By multivariate analysis using the LLN definition, tobacco smoking (OR (95% CI) 3.96 (1.53 to 10.3) and 3.42 (1.32 to 8.84) for models 1 and 2, respectively) and characteristics of traditional farms (1.97 (1.02 to 4.47) and 5.20 (1.73 to 15.64) for models 1 and 2, respectively) were associated with higher COPD prevalence. Working in a traditional farm plus current smoking had an additive effect on COPD prevalence in model 1 and a synergistic effect in model 2. These findings support a positive impact of farm modernity on COPD prevalence in dairy farmers. Occupational and smoking-related risk factors are of nearly the same magnitude.

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression among Pregnant Women in Debretabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bisetegn, Telake Azale; Mihretie, Getnet; Muche, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy is a major health problem because it is prevalent and chronic, and its impact on birth outcome and child health is serious. Several psychosocial and obstetric factors have been identified as predictors. Evidence on the prevalence and predictors of antenatal depression is very limited in Ethiopia. This study aims to determine prevalence and associated factors with antenatal depression. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 527 pregnant women recruited in a cluster sampling method. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews on socio-demographic, obstetric, and psychosocial characteristics. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The List of Threatening Experiences questionnaire (LTE-Q) and the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSS-3) were used to assess stressful events and social support, respectively. Data were entered into Epi-info and analyzed using SPSS-20. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results The prevalence of antenatal depression was found to be 11.8%. Having debt (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.85), unplanned pregnancy (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = (1.20, 4.76), history of stillbirth (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = (1.67,9.41), history of abortion (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.005, 6.61), being in the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.07,2.72), presence of a complication in the current pregnancy (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.66,6.53), and previous history of depression (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.71,7.06) were factors significantly associated with antenatal depression. Conclusion The prevalence of antenatal depression was high, especially in the third trimester. Poverty, unmet reproductive health needs, and obstetric complications are the main determinants of antenatal depression. For early detection and appropriate intervention, screening for depression during the routine antenatal care should be promoted. PMID:27618181

  20. Comparing epidemic forecasts for European countries obtained from AIDS incidence and HIV prevalence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Phillip W.; Thomas, Richard

    2005-12-01

    Previously, the diffusion of HIV/AIDS among the countries of Europe has been reconstructed using a multiregion epidemic modelling system (Thomas 2000; Smith and Thomas 2001). This model was calibrated to WHO AIDS incidence series for each country which, in most instances, were replicated with a high degree of fit. The size of the epidemic implied by this procedure, however, did not conform to point estimates of cumulative HIV prevalence which indicate an eventual size at least three times greater than that attributable to recorded AIDS cases. This paper, therefore, investigates the consequences of this discrepancy for the space time structure that is estimated for the epidemic in Europe. The first part considers how the modelling system is adapted to take account of national HIV statistics. To this end, an optimisation method is described for identifying disease transmission rates that are consistent with current cumulative HIV prevalence in each country. This method generates a range of feasible solutions where the eventual size of the epidemic is inversely related to this infectivity rate. The second part derives multiregion simulations for European countries using parameter sets calibrated according to both AIDS incidence and HIV prevalence. The outputs for each set include the predicted starting pathway of the epidemic together with a graph recording the direction of the principal infection vector for each country at the forecast time of peak HIV prevalence. For AIDS based scenarios, the diffusion of the epidemic generally flows across Europe from west to east. In contrast, for HIV scenarios at peak prevalence the direction of flow is partially reversed from east to west. The discussion considers the implications of these findings for disease control in the light of issues concerning the recording of HIV and AIDS statistics.

  1. The association between regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Erickson, Steven R.; Hansen, Richard A.; Wu, Chung-Hsuen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is prevalent with significant morbidity in the United States. Aspirin previously has been found to be associated with reduced carcinogenesis of prostate cells. However, it remains unclear whether regularly taking aspirin could lower the risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between self-reported regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer in a national sample of the US adult population. The National Health Interview Survey is an annual survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics to investigate health and healthcare use of the US population. The current study is a population-based cross-sectional study using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Adult male respondents who self-reported regularly taking aspirin at least 3 times per week were grouped as regular users. The prostate cancer prevalence was measured by respondents’ self-report of prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between these 2 factors by adjusting for covariates selected based on Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. An estimated 23 million (23.7%) males in the United States reported that they took aspirin regularly. Of them, 5.0% had prostate cancer. Regular aspirin use was significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer after adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.38–0.94). Regular aspirin use was found to be significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer in the United States in 2010. Further clinical trials and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between regular aspirin use and prostate cancer. PMID:27336878

  2. Prevalence and incidence of severe sepsis in Dutch intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Aukje; Bakker, Jan; Veraart, Christiaan PWM; van Hout, Ben A

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Severe sepsis is a dreaded consequence of infection and necessitates intensive care treatment. Severe sepsis has a profound impact on mortality and on hospital costs, but recent incidence data from The Netherlands are not available. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of severe sepsis occurring during the first 24 hours of admission in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Forty-seven ICUs in The Netherlands participated in a point prevalence survey and included patients with infection at the time of ICU admission. Clinical symptoms of severe sepsis during the first 24 hours of each patient's ICU stay were recorded and the prevalence of severe sepsis was calculated. Then, the annual incidence of severe sepsis in The Netherlands was estimated, based on the prevalence, the estimated length of stay, and the capacity of the participating ICUs relative to the national intensive care capacity. Results The participating ICUs had 442 beds available for admissions, which was estimated to be 42% of the national ICU capacity. At the time of the survey, 455 patients were currently admitted and 151 were included in the analysis; 134 (29.5%) patients met criteria for severe sepsis. The most common failing organ system was the respiratory system (90%), and most patients were admitted following surgery (37%) and were admitted because of acute infection (62%). The most prevalent source of infection was the lung (47%). The estimated duration of ICU stay for severe sepsis patients was 13.3 ± 1.1 days. Conclusion The annual number of admissions for severe sepsis in Dutch ICUs was calculated at 8643 ± 929 cases/year, which is 0.054% of the population, 0.61% of hospital admissions and 11% of ICU admissions. PMID:15312213

  3. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors.

  4. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors. PMID:27651877

  5. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors. PMID:27651877

  6. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors.

  7. Impact of farm modernity on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in dairy farmers.

    PubMed

    Marescaux, Alexia; Degano, Bruno; Soumagne, Thibaud; Thaon, Isabelle; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2016-02-01

    Dairy farming is associated with an excess of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The dairy industry has been changing for the past three decades with larger, more efficient farms and potentially less exposure to agents involved in COPD development. However, the impact of farm modernisation on COPD prevalence is unknown. We studied respiratory symptoms, respiratory function by spirometry and tobacco smoking in 575 male dairy farmers working either in traditional or in modern farms in the French Doubs region. COPD was defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criterion (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) <0.70) and by the Quanjer reference equation (FEV1/FVCprevalence of COPD in dairy farmers was 12.0 ± 2.7% (GOLD), and 5.6 ± 4.1% (LLN definition). By multivariate analysis using the LLN definition, tobacco smoking (OR (95% CI) 3.96 (1.53 to 10.3) and 3.42 (1.32 to 8.84) for models 1 and 2, respectively) and characteristics of traditional farms (1.97 (1.02 to 4.47) and 5.20 (1.73 to 15.64) for models 1 and 2, respectively) were associated with higher COPD prevalence. Working in a traditional farm plus current smoking had an additive effect on COPD prevalence in model 1 and a synergistic effect in model 2. These findings support a positive impact of farm modernity on COPD prevalence in dairy farmers. Occupational and smoking-related risk factors are of nearly the same magnitude. PMID:26675204

  8. Association of obstructive sleep apnea plus hypertension and prevalent cardiovascular diseases: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Cai, Anping; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jiyan; Zhou, Yingling

    2016-09-01

    Current study sought to evaluate the associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus hypertension (HTN) and prevalent cardiovascular diseases (CVD).This was a cross-sectional study and a total of 1889 subjects were enrolled. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured by polysomnography and OSA degree was classified as mild (AHI 5-14.9) and moderate-severe (AHI ≥ 15), and AHI < 5 was considered no-OSA. Mean and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was detected by pulse oximetry. Between-group differences were assessed and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association of OSA plus HTN and prevalent CVD.Compared to normotensive subjects, hypertensive subjects were older and had higher body mass index (BMI), neck girth, waist-hip ratio, AHI, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Conversely, mean and lowest SaO2 levels were significantly lower. Logistic regression analysis showed that in an unadjusted model, compared to subjects with no-OSA and no-HTN (reference group), the association of HTN plus moderate-severe-OSA and prevalent CVD was the most prominent (odds ratio [OR]: 2.638 and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.942-3.583). In normotensive subjects, after adjusted for potential covariates, the associations of OSA (regardless of severity) and prevalent CVD were attenuated to nonsignificant. In hypertensive subjects, however, the associations remained significant but were reduced. Further adjusted for mean and lowest SaO2, the associations remained significant in HTN plus no-OSA (OR: 1.808, 95% CI: 1.207-2.707), HTN plus mild-OSA (OR: 2.003, 95% CI: 1.346-2.980), and HTN plus moderate-severe OSA (OR: 1.834, 95% CI: 1.214-2.770) groups.OSA plus HTN is associated with prevalent CVD, and OSA may potentiate the adverse cardiovascular effects on hypertensives patients but not normotensives. PMID:27684798

  9. Hypertension in the Parsi community of Bombay: a study on prevalence, awareness and compliance to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Nadir E; Kuruvilla, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Background Uncontrolled hypertension (HT) is an established risk factor for the development of vascular diseases. Prevalence varies in different communities and no such study has been conducted in the Parsi community living in Bombay, India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness, compliance to medication and control of HT in this community. Method We used a 1 in 4 random selection of subjects who were ≥ 20 years of age. A questionnaire was administered and the blood pressure (BP) was measured by a doctor. HT was defined as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg ± systolic pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) was defined as SBP ≥ 160 mm Hg with DBP < 90 mm Hg. Subsequently, we reanalysed the data using current definition of ISH as SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg with DBP < 90 mm Hg. Results 2879 subjects ≥ 20 years of age were randomly selected of which 2415 (84%) participated in the study. The overall prevalence of HT in the community was 36.4%, of whom 48.5% were unaware of their hypertensive status. Of those aware of having HT, 36.4% were non-compliant with their anti-hypertensive drugs and only 13.6% had optimally controlled HT. Prevalence of ISH using the present criteria was 19.5% and 73% of hypertensives ≥ 60 years had ISH. Conclusion This study shows that prevalence of HT in the Parsi community is high and nearly half are unaware of their hypertensive status. ISH is the dominant form of HT in the elderly. Compliance to treatment is poor and optimal BP control is achieved in only a small minority. The study highlights the need for regular screening coupled with educational programs to detect and optimally treat HT in the community. PMID:12513697

  10. Current Status of Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragile, P. Chris

    2014-09-01

    As the title suggests, the purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks. This chapter focuses exclusively on global simulations of the accretion process within a few tens of gravitational radii of the black hole. Most of the simulations discussed are performed using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) schemes, although some mention is made of Newtonian radiation MHD simulations and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The goal is to convey some of the exciting work that has been going on in the past few years and provide some speculation on future directions.

  11. Saturn's Other Ring Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's main rings orbit the planet within an atmosphere and ionosphere of water, oxygen and hydrogen, produced by meteoritic impacts on and ultraviolet photodesorbtion of the ring particles [Johnson et al., 2006; Luhmann et al., 2006; Tseng et al., 2010]. The neutral atmosphere itself has only been tentatively detected through ultraviolet fluorescents of OH [Hall et al., 1996] while the ionosphere was observed in situ by the Cassini spacecraft shortly after orbital insertion [Coates et al.,2005; Tokar et al. 2005, Waite et al. 2005]. Although the plasma flow velocity of this ionosphere is not well-constrained, but the close association with the rings suggests that its speed would be couppled to the keplarian velocity of the rings themselves. As a result, the motion of the plasma through Saturn's magnetic field would produce an induced voltage, oriented away from the planet outside synchronous orbit and towards the planet inside synchronous orbit. Such a potential could result in currents flowing across the ring plane and closeing along magnetic field lines and through Saturn's ionosphere at latitudes between 36o and 48o. Cassini observations of whistler-mode plasma wave emissions [Xin et al.,2006] centered on synchronous orbit (1.76 Rs, mapping to 41o latitude) have been interpreted as a product of field-aligned electron beams associated with such a current. This presentation will investigate the magnitude of these currents and the resulting Joule heating of the ionosphere. An important constraint is that no auroral ultraviolet emissions have been observed at the relevant latitudes. In contrast, Joule heating could affect infrared emissions from H3+. Variations in H3+ emission associated with Saturn's rings have been reported by O'Donoghue et al., 2013, and interpreted as a result of ring "rain", i.e. precipitating water group species from the rings which alter ionosphereic chemistry and H3+ densities. As noted by O'Donoghue et al., this interpretation may be

  12. Reducing stray ground currents

    SciTech Connect

    Harlow, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    Utility customers of Clark County, Washington reported that electric shocks from stray ground currents were interfering with cattle, businesses, and equipment. The Public Utility District (PUD) investigated each claim and explored several ways to lower shocks below 10 volts. Ground rods were installed as a low-cost option. The rods reduced ground voltages by 33 percent and motor starting peaks by 50 percent. Variations in earth composition, people, and animals require individualized solutions. A major part of the solution is based on cost and line location. (DCK)

  13. Current collector for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having higher power output is formed of an open mesh current collector such as expanded nickel covering an electrode film applied to a tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). A plurality of cross-members such as spaced, parallel loops of molybdenum metal wire surround the BASE tube. The loops are electrically connected by a bus wire. As the AMTEC cell is heated, the grid of expanded nickel expands more than the BASE tube and the surrounding loop of wire and become diffusion welded to the electrode film and to the wire loops.

  14. Low Current Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Because Goddard Space Flight Center needed a way to cool sensors aboard the AXAF, a low current superconducting magnet was developed under contract by Cryomagnetics, Inc. The magnet, now commercially available, reduced the rate of helium consumption, extending the lifetime of the AXAF's x-ray spectrometer. On Earth, it offers a way to reduce operating costs through smaller, less expensive power supplies and reduced use of coolant. The magnet has particular advantages for MRI systems, as it is safer and has lower maintenance requirements.

  15. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  16. Prevalence of the addictions: a problem of the majority or the minority?

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Lisha, Nadra; Griffiths, Mark

    2011-03-01

    An increasing number of research studies over the last three decades suggest that a wide range of substance and process addictions may serve similar functions. The current article considers 11 such potential addictions (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping), their prevalence, and co-occurrence, based on a systematic review of the literature. Data from 83 studies (each study n = at least 500 subjects) were presented and supplemented with small-scale data. Depending on which assumptions are made, overall 12-month prevalence of an addiction among U.S. adults varies from 15% to 61%. The authors assert that it is most plausible that 47% of the U.S. adult population suffers from maladaptive signs of an addictive disorder over a 12-month period and that it may be useful to think of addictions as due to problems of lifestyle as well as to person-level factors.

  17. [Smoking prevalence and associated factors among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fiori, Nadia Spada; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of smoking and associated factors in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 2,464 tobacco farmers in 2011. Multivariate analysis in men assessed the association between smoking and socioeconomic, behavioral, and occupational variables. Some 31.2% of men and 3.1% of women were current smokers. In men, smoking was directly associated with age, schooling, income, heavy drinking, time at work in tobacco farming, and time of exposure to pesticides. Employment relationship was a risk factor for smoking, and participation in religious activities was a protective factor. Male tobacco farmers showed multiple risk behaviors and higher smoking prevalence than other farmers. Ignoring the risk and cultural legacy may be common factors for these behaviors and suggest combined approaches. PMID:27487442

  18. [Prevalence of mental disorders in the schoolchild population of Santiago de Chile].

    PubMed

    Bralio, S; Seguel, X; Montenegro, H

    1987-12-01

    A prevalence of approximately 15% of behavioral and emotional problems in children was discovered in a representative sample of Santiago, Chile, primary school population (N = 517). Population's data: boys and girls from three different socio-economic levels, ages 6 to 11. T. Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist -which was previously standardized in Chile- was the selected instrument. The results show the percentage of children with either high total scores -thus indicating a grossly deviated behavioral profile- or high partial scores in the 9 behavioral categories proposed for both boys and girls. Sex related differences are reported as well as a negative correlation between SES and a percentage of children with deviated profiles. The likeness of an underevaluation of the current prevalence is discussed as well as the impact the child pathology is bound to have on both family mental health and the 'future' adult person.

  19. Porcine circovirus type 2 in China: an update on and insights to its prevalence and control.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Man-Hua; Wang, Feng-Guo; Li, Xiao-Jing; Sun, Bei-Bei; Deng, Su-Fang; Hu, Jun; Lv, Dian-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Jie; Luo, Man-Lin; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Currently, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered the major pathogen of porcine circovirus associated-diseases (PCVAD) that causes large economic losses for the swine industry in the world annually, including China. Since the first report of PCV2 in 1998, it has been drawing tremendous attention for the government, farming enterprises, farmers, and veterinary practitioners. Chinese researchers have conducted a number of molecular epidemiological work on PCV2 by molecular approaches in the past several years, which has resulted in the identification of novel PCV2 genotypes and PCV2-like agents as well as the description of new prevalence patterns. Since late 2009, commercial PCV2 vaccines, including the subunit vaccines and inactivated vaccines, have already been used in Chinese swine farms. The aim of this review is to update the insights into the prevalence and control of PCV2 in China, which would contribute to understanding the epidemiology, control measures and design of novel vaccines for PCV2.

  20. Prevalence of the Addictions: A Problem of the Majority or the Minority?

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Lisha, Nadra; Griffiths, Mark

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of research studies over the last three decades suggest that a wide range of substance and process addictions may serve similar functions. The current article considers 11 such potential addictions (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping), their prevalence, and co-occurrence, based on a systematic review of the literature. Data from 83 studies (each study n = at least 500 subjects) were presented and supplemented with small-scale data. Depending on which assumptions are made, overall 12-month prevalence of an addiction among U.S. adults varies from 15% to 61%. The authors assert that it is most plausible that 47% of the U.S. adult population suffers from maladaptive signs of an addictive disorder over a 12-month period and that it may be useful to think of addictions as due to problems of lifestyle as well as to person-level factors. PMID:20876085