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Sample records for parotitis current prevalence

  1. Acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis: current prevalence at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School.

    PubMed

    Belczak, Sergio Quilici; Cleva, Roberto D E; Utiyama, Edivaldo M; Cecconello, Ivan; Rasslan, Samir; Parreira, José Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Postsurgical acute suppurative parotitis is a bacterial gland infection that occurs from a few days up to some weeks after abdominal surgical procedures. In this study, the authors analyze the prevalence of this complication in Hospital das Clínicas/São Paulo University Medical School by prospectively reviewing the charts of patients who underwent surgeries performed by the gastroenterological and general surgery staff from 1980 to 2005. Diagnosis of parotitis or sialoadenitis was analyzed. Sialolithiasis and chronic parotitis previous to hospitalization were exclusion criteria. In a total of 100,679 surgeries, 256 patients were diagnosed with parotitis or sialoadenitis. Nevertheless, only three cases of acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis associated with the surgery were identified giving an incidence of 0.0028%. All patients presented with risk factors such as malnutrition, immunosuppression, prolonged immobilization and dehydration. In the past, acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis was a relatively common complication after major abdominal surgeries. Its incidence decreased as a consequence of the improvement of perioperative antibiotic therapy and postoperative support. In spite of the current low incidence, we believe it is important to identify risks and diagnose as quick as possible, in order to introduce prompt and appropriate therapeutic measures and avoid potentially fatal complications with the evolution of the disease.

  2. [Chronic recurrent parotitis].

    PubMed

    Zenk, J; Koch, M; Klintworth, N; Iro, H

    2010-03-01

    Chronic recurrent parotitis is a non-obstructive disease with episodes of mostly painful swelling of the gland. It is categorized into a juvenile and an adult form, even without clear information on its actual origin. As to the etiology of the juvenile form, genetic factors and duct malformations as well as bacterial infections are discussed. Very rarely a complete lymphatic transformation of the gland might take place. Juvenile chronic recurrent parotitis is self-limiting in about 90% of all cases, as patients grow up. The diagnosis is based on patient history and clinical findings. Sonography is the imaging method of choice. Sialendoscopy shows a typical whitish pattern of the ducts in juvenile disease. Strictures or stenoses are typical for the adult form. The therapy of choice is gland massage and sialagogues, in addition to the administration of antibiotics. In more severe cases sialendoscopy together with rinsing of the ducts and instillation of cortisone are indicated. Total parotidectomy remains the last choice and is rarely necessary.

  3. Treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed

    Katz, Philippe; Hartl, Dana M; Guerre, Agnès

    2009-12-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) can be a debilitating illness in children. Knowing how to recognize and diagnose it for early treatment avoids recurrences that could lead to significant destruction of the glandular parenchyma. This article discusses the various therapeutic modalities proposed in the literature (medical treatment or sialendoscopy) and describes the authors' treatment of choice of combining antibiotics and iodinated oil sialography.

  4. Diagnosing Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis. Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Brittany; Mandel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of juvenile recurrent parotitis is based upon clinical symptomatology, because no positive serologic signs have been identified. Objective confirmation is best obtained from sialographic or ultrasound studies.

  5. Group B streptococcal neonatal parotitis.

    PubMed

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Ramos Andrade, Daniel; Cunha, Filipa Inês; Fernandes, Agostinho

    2015-06-10

    Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP) is a rare condition, characterised by parotid swelling and other local inflammatory signs. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus, but other organisms can be implicated. We describe the case of a 13-day-old term newborn, previously healthy, with late-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteraemia with ANP, who presented with irritability, reduced feeding and tender swelling of the right parotid. Laboratory evaluation showed neutrophilia, elevated C reactive protein and procalcitonin, with normal serum amylase concentration. Ultrasound findings were suggestive of acute parotitis. Empiric antibiotic therapy was immediately started and adjusted when culture results became available. The newborn was discharged after 10 days, with clinical improvement within the first 72 h. Although S. aureus is the most common pathogen implicated in ANP, GBS should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  6. Acute suppurative neonatal parotitis: Case report.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sardar U; O'Sullivan, Peter G; McKiernan, John

    2010-02-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis is very rare. One review of the English-language literature spanning 35 years found only 32 cases. Most cases are managed conservatively with antibiotic therapy; early antibiotic treatment reduces the need for surgery. The predominant organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a new case of neonatal suppurative parotitis in a 3-week-old boy. The patient was diagnosed on the basis of parotid swelling, a purulent exudate from a Stensen duct, and the growth of pathogenic bacteria in culture. He responded well to 9 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy. We also discuss the microbiologic and clinical patterns of this disease.

  7. Chronic parotitis: a challenging disease entity.

    PubMed

    Harbison, John M; Liess, Benjamin D; Templer, Jerry W; Zitsch, Robert P; Wieberg, Jessica A

    2011-03-01

    Chronic parotitis is a troubling clinical condition characterized by repeated infection and inflammation of the parotid gland caused by decreased salivary flow or obstruction. Unilateral swelling, pain, and other associated symptoms occur during acute exacerbations of the disease. A variety of laboratory and radiographic tools are available to aid in the diagnosis. Multiple treatment options have been proposed, ranging from conservative medical management to surgical interventions. We present 2 patients with bilateral chronic parotitis who attempted prolonged medical management and ultimately required surgical parotidectomy for control of their disease.

  8. Acute bacterial parotitis following acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, V K; Kimbrough, D J; Jarquin-Valdivia, A A

    2009-06-01

    Acute bacterial parotitis (ABP) is a relatively uncommon condition that tends to occur in debilitated older patients. We report a case of an older woman that presented with an acute intracerebral hemorrhage who developed ABP. This morbidity led to endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy and gastrostomy, all of which were not initially needed. We discuss the proposed physiopathology and etiopathogenesis of ABP in adults.

  9. Acute suppurative parotitis in a 33-day-old patient.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Belet, Nursen; Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar

    2015-06-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is a rare disease in childhood. Its incidence is higher in premature newborns. Parotid swelling and pus drainage from Stenson's duct is pathognomonic, and Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent in most cases. Here, a 33-day-old patient with acute suppurative parotitis is presented.

  10. Sialendoscopy in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Canzi, P; Occhini, A; Pagella, F; Marchal, F; Benazzo, M

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is the second most frequent salivary gland disease in childhood, defined as a recurrent non-suppurative and non-obstructive parotid inflammation. The recurring attacks actually represent the most dramatic and serious aspect of this pathology, since they significantly influence the quality of life, and there are no recognized therapies to avoid them. In recent years, there are reports of many international experiences related to the management of JRP by sialendoscopy. In this context, several authors have stressed the striking role of sialendoscopy in the prevention of JRP attacks. The objective of the current review is to overview the existing literature with particular regards to diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes after the application of sialendoscopy in patients suffering from JRP.

  11. [The acute bacterial parotitis of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Coutaz, M; Morisod, J

    2009-09-30

    Acute bacterial parotitis (ABP) in elderly is clinically described with a sudden onset of painfull swelling over the cheek and angle of the mandible. The occur of ABP is a factor of very bad prognosis, often an indicator of approaching death. In this paper we discuss eight cases observed in our geriatric clinic. To reduce the frequency of ABP in old and frail people, we must be careful about their oral hygiene and dentition, increase their hydration and reduce their use of anticholinergic drugs.

  12. [Bacterial parotitis in an immunocompromised patient in adult ICU].

    PubMed

    Vassal, O; Bernet, C; Wallet, F; Friggeri, A; Piriou, V

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial parotitis is a common childhood disease with a favorable outcome. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently involved pathogen. Clinical presentation in adult patients can be misleading, Onset occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities, making diagnosis difficult--particularly in ICU. Different pathogens are found in adults with worse outcomes observed. We report here the case of a critically ill patient and discuss diagnosis and management of bacterial parotitis.

  13. Bilateral acute neonatal suppurative parotitis: A rare finding in neonatal age.

    PubMed

    Deepak, K; Garima, G; U, J

    2015-03-10

    Acute suppurative parotitis is a rare entity in neonates. Bilateral involvement is extremely rare. Low birth weight, prematurity, gavage feeding, dehydration, sepsis are all known risk factors. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism, other organisms responsible for parotitis are streptococcus, E. coli, pseudomonas and klebsiella. We report a neonate suffering from bilateral acute suppurative parotitis with an unusual causative association. CPAP and its association for acute suppurative parotitis has been proposed.

  14. Acute parotitis induced by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayna S; Scheiner, Edward D

    2011-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions to the sulfonamide antibiotics are uncommon. When they do occur, they usually manifest as a rash or urticaria. Our review of the recent literature found that while sialadenitis is listed as a possible side effect of sulfonamide use, no actual case has ever been reported until now. We describe a case of acute bilateral parotitis that arose as a side effect of sulfonamide antibiotic treatment. We also examine the relevance of such pathology to the proposed mechanisms of sialadenitis, and we briefly discuss sulfonamide-induced pancreatitis. Lastly, we review the controversy over the possibility that some adverse drug reactions may be caused by cross-reactivity among different classes of sulfonamides.

  15. Interventional sialendoscopy for treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Celeste; Kluka, Evelyn A.; Schaitkin, Barry; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate our preliminary experience with interventional sialendoscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP). Materials and Methods: Three consecutive pediatric patients with JRP who underwent interventional sialendoscopy were identified. Interventional sialendoscopy consisted of serial dilation of the Stenson's duct, endoscopy of the ductal system and saline irrigation followed by instillation of triamcinolone acetate. Clinical, demographic, procedure-related data and complications were documented. End points of the study were technical success, defined as completion of the procedure, subjective improvement in symptoms as indicated by the patients or their parents and assessment of safety in terms of complications. Results: Three male patients with a mean age of 9 years (range 6–11 years) underwent interventional sialendoscopy for JRP. Endoscopic findings included a blanched stenotic duct with intraductal debris in those who were symptomatic. Technical success was 100%. The mean number of episodes of JRP in the year prior to presenting to our service among the three patients was 5 (range 4–6 per year). There were no new episodes of JRP reported at the last follow-up. There were no major complications. Conclusion: Our preliminary experience concurs with the current literature and suggests that interventional sialendoscopy is effective for the management of JRP and can be considered for patients who fail conservative medical management. PMID:22121310

  16. [A case of brucellosis presenting with suppurative parotitis involvement].

    PubMed

    Kanmaz, Lutfi; Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Karavaş, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection caused by Brucella bacteria. Brucella infections are usually presented with various clinical manifestations, and often accompanied by multiple organ involvements. In this article, we present a case of brucellosis with suppurative parotitis involvement accompanied by parotid abscess and fistula in a 60-year-old male patient. According to the literature review we conducted regarding complications of brucellosis, our case is the first case reported in the literature. Significant improvement in patient's suppurative parotitis and clinical findings was observed at the fifth week of combination antibiotic therapy. Patient's complaints resolved completely after eight weeks of treatment.

  17. Pediatric suppurative parotitis in Cambodia between 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor P; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. Burkholderia pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; 1 child developed facial nerve palsy.

  18. Acute bilateral parotitis occurring during venlafaxine titration in an adolescent female with major depression.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, U; Khalil-Boutros, Y

    2014-01-01

    Parotitis is a fairly uncommon adverse drug reaction of psychopharmacological treatment. Here, we report on an acute bilateral parotitis, which was associated with titration of venlafaxine in a 20-year-old female suffering from a severe depressive episode. The parotitis recovered quickly with oral penicillin and was most likely caused by bacteria assumed to spread from oral flora into Stensen's duct as a complication of pronounced venlafaxine-induced xerostomia.

  19. A selective IgA deficiency in a boy who presented recurrent parotitis

    PubMed Central

    Patıroglu, T.; Duman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent parotitis is a non-obstructive, non-suppurative inflammatory disease which is characterized by unilateral or bilateral parotid gland swelling attacks. It is also known as juvenile recurrent parotitis. Although the etiology is unknown, congenital malformations of the ductus, genetic predisposition, infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and some immune deficiencies are blamed. Here, we present a case report of recurrent parotitis with selective immunoglobulin A deficiency in a six-year-old boy. The patient was presented to us with a new episode of swelling of left parotid region. In the last 2 years, the patient suffered from recurrent parotitis which lasted for approximately 5 days in ten individual episodes. PMID:24883201

  20. Bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Shyur, Shyh Dar; Chu, Szu Hung; Wu, Yi Lei; Chang, Kuo Ming; Lee, Huei Chung

    2009-12-01

    This report is of a healthy 3-year-old boy with bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae. He was treated with antibiotics, but the symptoms did not improve. The biopsy pathology report revealed chronic caseating granulomatous inflammation. After 2 weeks, Mycobacterium chelonae was identified from the biopsy specimen culture. The antibiotics were changed to amikacin and clarithromycin, according to the susceptibility test. Two weeks later, he underwent debridement surgery. Only partial excision of the infected tissue was performed because of the possibility of facial nerve injury. After another 2 weeks of treatment with amikacin and clarithromycin, parotidectomy was performed. The patient then received a 6-month course of oral clarithromycin. At the 1-year follow up, he was well and without residual mass. His immunologic examinations were all within normal limits. This is the first report of bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae in an immunocompetent boy in the English-language literature.

  1. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Umar, Aminu Mahmoud; Freemantle, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in Nigeria from prevalence studies. Methods A search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBase and WHO cardiovascular InfoBase from 1968 till date was conducted to identify studies which provide estimates of prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria. Results The search yielded a total of 1748 hits from which 45 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 0.1% (95%CI:-0.1 to 0.3) to 17.5% (95% CI: 13.6 to 21.4) in children and 2.1% (95%CI: 1.4 to 2.8) to 47.2% (95%CI: 43.6 to 50.8) in adults depending on the benchmark used for diagnosis of hypertension, the setting in which the study was conducted, sex and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.2% (95%CI: 4.0 to 8.4) to 48.9% (95%CI: 42.3 to 55.5) for men and 10% (95%CI: 8.1 to 12) to 47.3% (95%CI: 43 to 51.6%) for women. In most studies, prevalence of hypertension was higher in males than females. In addition, prevalence across urban and rural ranged from 9.5% (95%CI: 13.6 to 21.4) to 51.6% (95%CI: 49.8 to 53.4) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.9 to 6.7) to 43% (95%CI: 42.1 to 43.9) respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is high among the Nigerian population. Appropriate interventions need to be developed and implemented to reduce the preventable burden of hypertension especially at Primary Health Care Centres which is the first point of call for over 55% of the Nigerian population. PMID:26461923

  2. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an emerging cause of acute bacterial parotitis.

    PubMed

    Nicolasora, Nelson P; Zacharek, Mark A; Malani, Anurag N

    2009-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognized as a cause of acute bacterial parotitis. A case of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) parotitis is presented, highlighting the emergence of this increasingly important pathogen to cause a wide variety of infections. Also reviewed are the salient clinical and microbiologic features of this novel infection.

  3. Mumps Parotitis and Ovarian Cancer: Modern Significance of an Historic Association

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-07-1-0292 TITLE: Mumps Parotitis and Ovarian Cancer...2009 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 Nov 2008 – 30 Sep 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Mumps Parotitis and Ovarian...14. ABSTRACT Epidemiologic studies found childhood mumps might protect against ovarian cancer. We investigated whether mumps might engender

  4. Recurrent parotitis as a presentation of primary pediatric Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baszis, Kevin; Toib, Dana; Cooper, Megan; French, Anthony; White, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Parotitis is a common condition seen in the pediatric population, usually as an isolated occurrence associated with viral or bacterial infection. The differential diagnosis expands when recurrent parotitis is encountered. One etiology is primary pediatric Sjögren syndrome (SS), an autoimmune condition typically associated with dryness of the eyes and mouth in adults. Pediatric patients often present with isolated recurrent bilateral parotitis, however, and we describe 4 such cases in children aged 9 to 17 years at presentation. Despite lack of ocular complaints, 3 of these patients had ocular findings on ophthalmologic exam. Our patients also exhibited classic laboratory abnormalities, including positive antinuclear antibody, SS A, and SS B antibodies; presence of rheumatoid factor; and hypergammaglobulinemia. Consideration of SS in the child with recurrent parotitis is important for timely and appropriate referral and treatment. We review the differential diagnosis of parotitis in children as well as the salient features of pediatric SS.

  5. Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed.

  6. Juvenile recurrent parotitis in children: diagnosis and treatment using sialography.

    PubMed

    Narsimha Rao, Vanga V; Putta Buddi, Jai Shankar Homberhali; Kurthukoti, Ameet J

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is a nonobstructive, nonsuppurative parotid inflammation in young children. Causative factors are many such as allergy, infection, local autoimmune manifestations, and genetic inheritance have been suggested, but none have been proved. Parotid sialography is a hallmark in the diagnosis of JRP but newer modalities such as ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging-sialography are noninvasive investigative techniques. Recurrent attacks are often managed conservatively. Here we report a case of a 5-year-old child with JRP. Sailography can be used as both diagnostic and therapeutic modality.

  7. Beware of parotitis induced by iodine-containing contrast media.

    PubMed

    Kohat, A K; Jayantee, K; Phadke, R V; Muthu, R; Singh, V; Misra, U K

    2014-01-01

    Carotid stenting is being increasingly used for revascularization of the moderate to severe carotid stenosis and thus its complications are increasingly being recognized. We report a rare complication of induced by iodine contrast in a patient undergoing carotid stenting. s. A 51 year old man after the second stenting developed multiple small infarcts in spite of the distal device. He also had painful parotid swelling which improved within a week. One should be aware of iodine parotitis s in the patients undergoing iodinated contrast study.

  8. Acute neonatal suppurative parotitis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Halil; Karbuz, Adem; Ciftçi, Ergin; Fitöz, Suat; Ince, Erdal; Doğru, Ulker

    2011-07-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis (NSP) is an uncommon disease. Information about the etiopathogenesis and management of the disease is very limited. Here, we describe a newborn who developed NSP due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and who was treated successfully with antibiotics.

  9. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  10. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  11. [A parotitis as primary infection of Lemierre's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Valleix, B; Floccard, B; Hautin, E; Faure, F; Allaouchiche, B

    2011-09-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a classical presentation of human necrobacillosis. It is characterized by a primary infection in the face including a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and disseminated metastatic abcesses. Fusobacterium necrophorum is the main pathogen found in that syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical features, then on the microbiology with positive anaerobic blood cultures as key role and finally on the computed tomography. Most of the time a well-chosen antibiotic treatment against anaerobic pathogens and Gram negative bacilli is efficient but surgery can be useful. We report a case of a 73 years old man, which seems to be unique because it is the first case reported of a Lemierre's syndrome characterized by a parotitis infected by F. necrophorum.

  12. [Prevalence of obesity in developed countries: current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J

    2002-02-01

    Obesity is one of the main public health problems in developed countries. It is considered to be a risk factor associated with the genesis or development of the major chronic diseases. The classification of a population by weight and the awareness of its determining factors are essential elements in order to undertake health planning programmes and health promotion projects. In Europe, the prevalence of obesity (BMI 30) is greater in northern countries (7% in men and 9% in women in the Netherlands; 5.3% and 9.1% respectively in Sweden) than in southern countries (Spain: 11.5% in men and 15.2% for women) or further east (Germany: 10.6% in men and 11.6% among women). In the United States, obesity is taking on alarming proportions, with an increase of 8 percentage points between 1976 and 1994, placing the problem at a level of 22.5% of the population classified as obese. The prevalence of obesity in Spain is 13.4%, higher after the age of 45 years, among women and in individuals with a lower educational level. The pattern of geographical distribution evidences a greater prevalence towards the south and south-east, with statistical significance among males. It is necessary to analyze in further depth the factors involved in the genesis of obesity and to institutionalize community health programmes for its prevention, monitoring and treatment.

  13. Acute suppurative parotitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in an HIV-infected man.

    PubMed

    Guzman Vinasco, Luis; Bares, Sara; Sandkovsky, Uriel

    2015-03-02

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with progressive unilateral parotid gland enlargement and subsequently tested positive for HIV. A CT scan of the neck performed with contrast showed a phlegmon in the region of the right parotid tail measuring approximately 2.5×2.4 cm. Cultures of the aspirated fluid grew Streptococcus pneumoniae and the S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test was also positive. The patient underwent surgical debridement and received antimicrobial therapy with complete resolution of the parotitis. Parotitis caused by S. pneumoniae is rare, and HIV infection should be suspected in any case of invasive pneumococcal disease.

  14. [A virological description of serous meningitis in children immunized with vaccine against epidemic parotitis].

    PubMed

    Goleva, O V; Kharit, S M; Cherniaeva, T V; Aksenov, O A; Davidkin, I; Kolyshkin, V M

    2004-01-01

    The morbidity structure was analyzed in children vaccinated against epidemic parotitis in 1993-2002. Eight children (4 with serous meningitis and 4 with lesions of the salivary glands) underwent virologic and immunologic examinations. The molecular typing of the SH-gene fragment of the parotitis virus showed the process in 7 cases to be provoked by the vaccination strain. Presumedly, progressing vaccine-associated meningitis inhibits antibody formation. The total incidence of vaccine-associated meningitis was shown, according to Saint Petersburg data, to be not high, which testifies to a low reactogenicity of the Russian vaccine strain.

  15. Acute suppurative parotitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in an HIV-infected man

    PubMed Central

    Guzman Vinasco, Luis; Bares, Sara; Sandkovsky, Uriel

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with progressive unilateral parotid gland enlargement and subsequently tested positive for HIV. A CT scan of the neck performed with contrast showed a phlegmon in the region of the right parotid tail measuring approximately 2.5×2.4 cm. Cultures of the aspirated fluid grew Streptococcus pneumoniae and the S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test was also positive. The patient underwent surgical debridement and received antimicrobial therapy with complete resolution of the parotitis. Parotitis caused by S. pneumoniae is rare, and HIV infection should be suspected in any case of invasive pneumococcal disease. PMID:25733094

  16. Recurrent parotitis as a first manifestation in a child with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alp, H; Orbak, Z; Erdogan, T; Karabag, K; Gursan, N

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent parotitis is an acute, severe inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands in young children. We report the case of a seven-year old boy with Primary Sjogrens syndrome (PSS) who presented with 15 episodes of painful recurrent bilateral swellings of the parotid glands over a four-year period.

  17. [IgG4-associated parotitis:case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Fang, Li-hua; Ping, Jin-liang

    2013-08-01

    A case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-associated parotitis was reported and related literatures were reviewed,in order to improve the recognization of this systemic diseases and reduce the misdiagnosis and mistreatment in clinical practice for the stomatologists.

  18. Mycobacterium avium complex suppurative parotitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Zahir Osman Eltahir; Beeston, Christine; Purcell, Janet; Desai, Niranjan; Ustianowski, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Restoration of the immune system following initiation of antiretroviral therapy can result in an adverse phenomenon known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Herein, we report a case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) suppurative parotitis associated with IRIS in a patient with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MAC parotitis in the setting of IRIS and clinicians should be aware of this condition.

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan: Current prevalence and future forecast.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Zia, Inam; Bukhari, Ishfaq A; Arain, Shoukat Ali

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic health problem of all age groups, both gender, involves rural and urban areas and developing and developed countries globally. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. Systematic bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, ISI-web of science and Google Scholar was conducted with key words of "type 2 diabetes mellitus" "prevalence", "incidence", "occurrence". A total of 22 peer reviewed papers published in ISI and PubMed indexed journals were selected and examined. All the epidemiologic and experimental studies reporting the diabetes prevalence in Pakistan were included. Lastly, we analyzed 18 publications and remaining 04 papers were excluded. The current prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan is 11.77%. In males the prevalence is 11.20% and in females 9.19%. The mean prevalence in Sindh province is 16.2% in males and 11.70 % in females; in Punjab province it is 12.14% in males and 9.83% in females. In Baluchistan province 13.3% among males, 8.9% in females; while in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) it is 9.2% in males and 11.60% in females. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in urban areas is 14.81% and 10.34% in rural areas of Pakistan. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan is11.77%. The prevalence is higher in males than females and more common in urban areas compared to the rural areas. Pakistan must include diabetes preventive measures in their national health policy to minimize the burden of the disease.

  20. Prevalence of Alcohol-Interactive Prescription Medication Use among Current Drinkers: United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Rosalind A.; Dong, Chuanhui; White, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of Americans consume alcoholic beverages. Alcohol interacts negatively with numerous commonly prescribed medications. Yet, on a population level, little is known about use of alcohol interactive (AI) prescription medications among drinkers. Purpose To determine the prevalence of AI prescription medication use among current drinkers in the US population. Methods Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2010); 26,657 adults aged ≥20 years had data on past year alcohol consumption and past month prescription medication use. Analyses were adjusted for covariates: age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Statistical procedures accounted for survey stratification, clustering, and non-response. Analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Results The unadjusted total prevalence of AI medication use was 42.8% (95% CI [CI] 41.5–44.0). Among current drinkers, adjusted prevalence was 41.5% (CI 40.3–42.7). Among participants aged ≥65 total prevalence of AI medication use was 78.6% (CI 77.3–79.9) and adjusted prevalence among current drinkers was 77.8% (CI 75.7–79.7). The AI medications most commonly used by current drinkers were cardiovascular agents, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and metabolic agents. Conclusions Our results suggest that there could be substantial simultaneous exposure to alcohol and AI prescription medications in the US population. Given the adverse health risks of combining alcohol with AI prescription medications, future efforts are needed to collect data to determine actual simultaneous prevalence. PMID:25597432

  1. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Current Smoking among Adolescent Students in Thailand, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…

  2. The Lifetime Prevalence of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Dependence in Americans: Current Best Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Harrison G.; Kanayama, Gen; Athey, Alison; Ryan, Erin; Hudson, James I.; Baggish, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although various surveys have tracked the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use in American teenagers and young adults, no recent surveys have assessed the lifetime prevalence of AAS use in Americans overall. We therefore analyzed serial youth-survey data to derive estimates of the lifetime prevalence of AAS use in the current American general population. Methods We first determined the distribution of age of onset of AAS use, based on pooled data from nine studies. Using this distribution, we then developed equations to project the eventual lifetime prevalence of AAS use among young survey respondents, once they aged and completed the period of risk for initiating AAS. We similarly calculated the denominator of lifetimes of risk for AAS use in the total American population. We next applied these equations to four independent national youth datasets to derive current American general-population estimates for lifetime AAS use. Finally, using data from 10 pooled studies, we estimated the lifetime prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users. Results Age-of-onset studies consistently showed that AAS use begins later than most drugs, with only 22% of users (95% confidence interval: 19%–25%) starting before age 20. Applying the age-of-onset findings to national youth datasets, we estimated that among Americans currently age 13 to 50 years, 2.9–4.0 million have used AAS. Within this group, roughly 1 million may have experienced AAS dependence. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Although subject to various limitations, our estimation techniques suggest a surprisinigly high prevalence of AAS use and dependence among Americans. PMID:24112239

  3. Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Type of Disability, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. Methods We used data from the 2009–2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18–49 years. Results Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, p<0.001). Among adults with disabilities, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 32.4% (self-care difficulty) to 43.8% (cognitive limitation). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, having a disability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). Conclusions The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur. PMID:24791023

  4. Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in Mexico: Past, Current and Future Prevalence and Incidence Rates

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. Methods We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960–2012), and birth-cohort (1920–1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010–2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Results Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65–68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57–59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960–2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7–22.5% by 2050, affecting 15–25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. PMID:26546108

  5. Current prevalence rate of latex allergy: Why it remains a problem?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaozong; McIntosh, James; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous occupational health hazard. Methods: Scientific publications on PubMed, particularly those published within the last five years, and current regulations from agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed. Consumer and commercial products that may contain latex were also surveyed. Results: Approximately 12 million tons of natural rubber latex is produced annually and is widely used to manufacture millions of consumer and commercial products. Only limited number of latex-derived products have been approved and regulated by government agencies, such as FDA, whereas the majority of finished products do not label whether they contain latex. Owing to millions of unidentifiable products containing latex and many routes for exposure to latex, preventing contact with latex allergens and reducing the prevalence of latex allergy are more difficult than expected. Reported data suggest that the average prevalence of latex allergy worldwide remains 9.7%, 7.2%, and 4.3% among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and general population, respectively. Conclusions: Latex-derived products are ubiquitous, and latex allergy remains a highly prevalent health risk in many occupations and to the general population. Developing alternative materials and increasing the ability to identify and label latex-derived products will be practicable approaches to effectively control the health risks associated with latex. PMID:27010091

  6. Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome in pre-crisis Syria: call for current relief efforts.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, H; Naja, F; Fouad, F M; Antoun, E; Jaffa, M; Chaaban, R; Haidar, M; Sibai, A M

    2016-12-12

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence, components and correlates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults in pre-crisis Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic. We used a population-based, 2-stage cluster sampling method in a population of 557 men and 611 women, randomly selected from 83 residential neighbourhoods including many rural settlers. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidity, anthropometry and biochemical indices were measured. Prevalence of MetS was estimated at 39.6%, with comparable rates in men and women. Hypertension was the most prevalent component (56.6%), followed by central obesity (51.4%). Among women, education (12 years) was inversely associated with risk of MetS, while family history of obesity and diabetes was associated with an increased risk. The high prevalence of MetS and its components emphasizes the burden of cardiovascular diseases among adults in pre-crisis Aleppo. A system of surveillance and management for cardiovascular diseases needs to be incorporated into the current humanitarian response.

  7. PML-associated repressor of transcription (PAROT), a novel KRAB-zinc finger repressor, is regulated through association with PML nuclear bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, Sandra; Wiemann, Stefan; Will, Hans; Hofmann, Thomas G. . E-mail: t.hofmann@dkfz.de

    2006-04-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are implicated in transcriptional regulation. Here we identify a novel transcriptional repressor, PML-associated repressor of transcription (PAROT), which is regulated in its repressor activity through recruitment to PML-NBs. PAROT is a Krueppel-associated box ( KRAB) zinc-finger (ZNF) protein, which comprises an amino terminal KRAB-A and KRAB-B box, a linker domain and 8 tandemly repeated C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-ZNF motifs at its carboxy terminus. Consistent with its domain structure, when tethered to DNA, PAROT represses transcription, and this is partially released by the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. PAROT colocalizes with members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family and with transcriptional intermediary factor-1{beta}/KRAB-associated protein 1 (TIF-1{beta}/KAP1), a transcriptional corepressor for the KRAB-ZNF family. Interestingly, PML isoform IV, in contrast to PML-III, efficiently recruits PAROT and TIF-1{beta} from heterochromatin to PML-NBs. PML-NB recruitment of PAROT partially releases its transcriptional repressor activity, indicating that PAROT can be regulated through subnuclear compartmentalization. Taken together, our data identify a novel transcriptional repressor and provide evidence for its regulation through association with PML-NBs.

  8. Atypical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus: parotitis and secondary Sjogren's syndrome. Case report.

    PubMed

    Criscov, Geanina Irina; Rugină, Aurica; Stana, A B; Azoicăi, Alice Nicoleta; Moraru, Eovelina

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by auto antibodies directed against self-antigens, immune complex formation and immune deregulations and may affect joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, nervous system, and immune system. The onset can be variable and the symptoms can occur for many years. Parotitis as the initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare condition and can be associated with Sjogren's syndrome. In this article we present the case of a young patient who was diagnosed with Sjogren's syndrome retrospectively, after she met the criteria for SLE.

  9. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI TEN YEARS AGO COMPARED TO THE CURRENT PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING UPPER ENDOSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    FRUGIS, Sandra; CZECZKO, Nicolau Gregori; MALAFAIA, Osvaldo; PARADA, Artur Adolfo; POLETTI, Paula Bechara; SECCHI, Thiago Festa; DEGIOVANI, Matheus; RAMPANAZZO-NETO, Alécio; D´AGOSTINO, Mariza D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Helicobacter pylori has been extensively studied since 1982 it is estimated that 50% of the world population is affected. The literature lacks studies that show the change of its prevalence in the same population over time. Aim: To compare the prevalence of H. pylori in 10 years interval in a population that was submitted to upper endoscopy in the same endoscopy service. Method: Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study comparing the prevalence of H. pylori in two samples with 10 years apart (2004 and 2014) who underwent endoscopy with biopsy and urease. Patients were studied in three consecutive months of 2004, compared to three consecutive months of 2014. The total number of patients was 2536, and 1406 in 2004 and 1130 in 2014. Results: There were positive for H. pylori in 17 % of the sample as a whole. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence from 19.3% in 2004 to 14.1% in 2014 (p<0.005). Conclusion: There was a 5.2% reduction in the prevalence of H. pylori comparing two periods of three consecutive months with 10 years apart in two equivalent population samples. PMID:27759776

  10. Complete genome sequence of mumps viruses isolated from patients with parotitis, pancreatitis and encephalitis in India.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Chowdhury, Deepika T; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M; Hamde, Venkat S

    2016-04-01

    Limited information is available regarding epidemiology of mumps in India. Mumps vaccine is not included in the Universal Immunization Program of India. The complete genome sequences of Indian mumps virus (MuV) isolates are not available, hence this study was performed. Five isolates from bilateral parotitis and pancreatitis patients from Maharashtra, a MuV isolate from unilateral parotitis patient from Tamil Nadu, and a MuV isolate from encephalitis patient from Uttar Pradesh were genotyped by the standard protocol of the World Health Organization and subsequently complete genomes were sequenced. Indian MuV genomes were compared with published MuV genomes, including reference genotypes and eight vaccine strains for the genetic differences. The SH gene analysis revealed that five MuV isolates belonged to genotype C and two belonged to genotype G strains. The percent nucleotide divergence (PND) was 1.1% amongst five MuV genotype C strains and 2.2% amongst two MuV genotype G strains. A comparison with widely used mumps Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain revealed that Indian mumps isolates had 54, 54, 53, 49, 49, 38, and 49 amino acid substitutions in Chennai-2012, Kushinagar-2013, Pune-2008, Osmanabad-2012a, Osmanabad-2012b, Pune-1986 and Pune-2012, respectively. This study reports the complete genome sequences of Indian MuV strains obtained in years 1986, 2008, 2012 and 2013 that may be useful for further studies in India and globally.

  11. Effects of Huangqi and bear bile on recurrent parotitis in children: a new clinical approach*

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Huang, Mei-li; He, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Feng; Tao, Hai-biao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine, bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule, on recurrent parotitis in children. Methods: In this prospective, controlled, and randomized study, a total of 151 young children were divided into three groups: Group A included massaging the children’s parotid region and melting vitamin C in their mouth daily; Group B included swallowing bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule daily; and Group C included massages and vitamin C as prescribed in Group A, and traditional Chinese medicine as prescribed in Group B. Children were treated individually for one month and then a follow-up study was conducted for 1 to 3.5 years. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Ridit analysis were employed for statistical analysis. Results: The recurrence rate decreased in every group, but was significantly more in Groups B and C when compared to Group A. The recurrences significantly decreased (P<0.01) in Group B and their recovery rate was as high as 63%, significantly better than those of the other groups (P<0.01). Conclusions: Huangqi and bear bile could be a novel clinical approach for treating recurrent parotitis in children. PMID:23463769

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia due to parotitis in a patient with systemic sclerosis and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jamie Bee Xian; Fong, Warren Weng Seng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive pneumococcal disease is an uncommon and notifiable disease in Singapore. It is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a rare case of invasive pneumococcal bacteraemia due to parotitis in a patient with systemic sclerosis and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome. We also present a retrospective review of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia cases in Singapore General Hospital from January 2011 to April 2016. Case presentation: A 59-year-old Malay lady with a history of systemic sclerosis with secondary Sjögren’s syndrome presented with fever and left parotid gland swelling. Clinical examination revealed poor salivary pooling and left parotid swelling without fluctuance. Ultrasound of the left parotid gland confirmed acute parotitis without evidence of abscess or sialolithiasis. Blood cultures were positive for S. pneumoniae. She was diagnosed to have invasive pneumococcal bacteraemia secondary to acute parotitis, and treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin with clearance of bacteraemia after 3 days. Upon discharge, her antibiotics were changed to intravenous ceftriaxone to facilitate outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for another 2 weeks. She responded favourably to antibiotics at follow-up, with no complications from the bacteraemia. A review of the microbiological records of the Singapore General Hospital revealed 116 cases of pneumococcal bacteraemia, most (80.3 %) of which were due to pneumonia. None were due to parotitis. Conclusion: S. pneumoniae parotitis and subsequent bacteraemia is rare. Prompt recognition of the disease and appropriate use of antibiotics are important. This case highlights that close communication between healthcare workers (microbiologist, rheumatologist and infectious disease specialist) is essential in ensuring good clinical outcomes in patients with a potentially fatal disease. PMID:28348790

  13. Prevalence, Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are found with increasing prevalence, especially in elderly asymptomatic individuals. Although the overall risk of malignancy is very low, the presence of these pancreatic cysts is associated with a large degree of anxiety and further medical investigation due to concerns about malignancy. This review discusses the different cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and reports diagnostic strategies based on clinical features and imaging data. Surgical and nonsurgical management of the most common cystic neoplasms, based on the recently revised Sendai guidelines, is also discussed, with special reference to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN; particularly the branch duct variant), which is the lesion most frequently identified incidentally. IPMN pathology, its risk for development into pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the pros and cons of current guidelines for management, and the potential role of endoscopic ultrasound in determining cancer risk are discussed. Finally, surgical treatment, strategies for surveillance of pancreatic cysts, and possible future directions are discussed. PMID:26343068

  14. Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer; Xiao, Haijun; Stalgaitis, Carolyn; Vallone, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated market areas. We used adjusted logistic regression to identify correlates of noncombustible tobacco product use. Results. Of the sample, 96% were aware of at least 1 noncombustible tobacco product, but only 33% had used and 21% had purchased one. Noncombustible tobacco product use was associated with being male, non-Hispanic White, younger, and more nicotine dependent. Respondents used noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit cigarettes, but only snus was associated with a higher likelihood of making a quit attempt. Users of noncombustible tobacco products, particularly ENDS, were most likely to endorse the product as less harmful than cigarettes. Conclusions. Smokers may use noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit smoking. However, noncombustible tobacco product use was not associated with a reduction in cigarettes per day or cessation. PMID:24922154

  15. [Acrylamid- and immunelectrophoretic separations of human parotid secretions from individuals with parotid tumors, chronic parotitis and sialadenosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H

    1976-11-01

    After previous examinations in normal parotid glands in this paper secretion of proteins in parotid glands with pleomorphic adenomas, Whartin tumors, parotid carcinomas, chronic parotitis and sialadenosis should be studied. Different discelectrophoretic and immunelectrophoretic runs were done. Thereby we got the following changes in electrophoreses: Pleomorphic adenomas generally show a more palid pattern in band-structure, caused by the diminished proteinconcentration in the secretions. Most remarkable are thereby the c1 and d1-4-bands. Immunelectrophoretic separations are normal. Whartin tumors show a different bandpattern in the anodal near gel region, which is enpowered by immunelectrophoretic runs. Secretions from parotid carcinomas show a characteristic change in bandstructure. There are found added bands which result from serumproteins as immunelectrophoretic examinations proof. The same is found in glands with parotitis in contrary to glands with sialadenosis.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Mumps Meningoencephalitis with Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions without Preceding Acute Parotitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ah Reum; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kang, Young Hye; Cho, Soon Gu; Choi, Seong Hye; Baek, Ji Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection. PMID:28246518

  17. The prevalence and risk indicators of symptoms of common mental disorders among current and former Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-11-29

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among current and former Dutch elite athletes, and to explore the inference between potential risk indicators (severe injury, surgery, life events, sport career dissatisfaction, social support) and the outcomes measures under investigation. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among 203 current and 282 former elite Dutch athletes (response rate: 28% among current athletes and 95% among former athletes). Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed. Prevalence (4-week) ranged from 6% for adverse alcohol use to 45% for anxiety/depression among current elite athletes, and from 18% for distress to 29% for anxiety/depression among former elite athletes. A higher number of past severe injuries, higher number of past surgeries, higher number of recent life events, higher level of career dissatisfaction and lower level of social support were related to the occurrence of symptoms of common mental disorders among both current and former elite athletes. On average, the 4-week prevalence of common mental disorders as shown in our study among current and former Dutch elite athletes were similar to the ones found among athletes from other sports disciplines and does compare with the lifetime prevalence estimates in the general population of the Netherlands.

  18. State-Specific Prevalence of Current Cigarette Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; Marshall, LaTisha; Brown, Susan; Neff, Linda

    2016-10-07

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). In recent years, cigarette smoking prevalence has declined in many states; however, there has been relatively little change in the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use or concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in most states, and in some states prevalence has increased (2). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess state-specific prevalence estimates of current use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco (any cigarette/smokeless tobacco use) among U.S. adults. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 9.7% (Utah) to 26.7% (West Virginia); current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 1.4% (Hawaii) to 8.8% (Wyoming); current use of any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco product ranged from 11.3% (Utah) to 32.2% (West Virginia). Disparities in tobacco use by sex and race/ethnicity were observed; any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco use was higher among males than females in all 50 states. By race/ethnicity, non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence of any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco use in eight states, followed by non-Hispanic other races in six states, non-Hispanic blacks in five states, and Hispanics in two states (p<0.05); the remaining states did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. Evidence-based interventions, such as increasing tobacco prices, implementing comprehensive smoke-free policies, conducting mass media anti-tobacco use campaigns, and promoting accessible smoking cessation assistance, are important to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest use prevalence (3).

  19. Prevalence and determinants of current and secondhand smoking in Greece: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) study

    PubMed Central

    Rachiotis, George; Barbouni, Anastasia; Katsioulis, Antonis; Antoniadou, Eleni; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Kourea, Kallirrhoe; Khoury, Rula N; Tsouros, Agis; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Greece is one of the leading tobacco-producing countries in European Union, and every year over 19 000 Greeks die from tobacco-attributable diseases. The aim of the present study was to provide nationally representative estimates on current and secondhand smoking prevalence in Greece and their determinants. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Greece. Participants A total of 4359 individuals participated in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a household survey of adults ≥15 years old (overall response rate 69%). They were selected through a multistage geographically clustered sampling design with face-to-face interview. Primary and secondary outcome measures In 2013, we investigated the prevalence of current and secondhand smoking and their determinants. Univariate and logistic regression analysis was used in order to identify possible risk factors associated with the prevalence of current and secondhand smoking. Results The prevalence of current smoking was 38.2% (95% CI 35.7% to 40.8%), and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 19.8. Multivariate analysis confirmed that male gender (OR=3.24; 95% CI 2.62 to 4.00), age groups (25–39, OR=4.49; 95% CI 3.09 to 8.46 and 40–54, OR=3.51; 95% CI 1.88 to 5.87) and high school education (OR=1.97; 95% CI 1.41 to 2.74) were independently associated with the current smoking. Remarkably, responders with primary or less education had the lowest prevalence of current smoking (p<0.001). The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at work, home and restaurants, was 52.3%, 65.7% and 72.2%. In total, 90.0% (95% CI 87.8% to 91.9%) of Greek population is exposed to tobacco smoke (current smoking and secondhand smoke). Conclusions Our results revealed an extremely high prevalence of current smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult population and a positive gradient between education and current smoking. These findings are alarming and implementation of comprehensive tobacco control and

  20. The prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Poland--current results (2009-2013).

    PubMed

    Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Sroka, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Różycki, Mirosław; Chmurzyńska, Ewa; Bilska-Zając, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Poland. Overall, 1,546 intestinal samples from 15 of the 16 provinces in Poland were examined by the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). The mean prevalence of E. multilocularis in Poland was 16.5% and was found in 14 of the 15 examined provinces. The mean intensity of infection was 2,807 tapeworms per intestine. Distinct differences in prevalence were observed between regions. In some provinces of eastern and southern Poland, the level of prevalence was 50.0% (Warmińsko-Mazurskie), 47.2% (Podkarpackie), 30.4% (Podlaskie) and 28.6% (Małopolskie), while in other provinces (west and south-west), only a few percent was found: 2.0% (Dolnośląskie), 2.5% (Wielkopolskie) and 0.0% (in Opolskie). The border between areas with higher and lower prevalence seems to coincide with a north-south line running through the middle of Poland, with prevalence from 17.5 to 50.0% in the eastern half and from 0.0 to 11.8% in the western half. The dynamic situation observed in the prevalence of this tapeworm indicated the necessity of continuing to monitor the situation concerning E. multilocularis in red foxes in Poland.

  1. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries

    PubMed Central

    San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour. PMID:26500929

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of neonatal suppurative parotitis: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Sean T; Rohman, Grant T; Selph, John P; Rajan, Roy; Stocks, Rosemary M; Thompson, Jerome W

    2013-06-01

    Suppurative parotitis is an uncommon entity identified in newborns. While Staphylococcus aureus has been frequently identified as the causative pathogen among the few patients diagnosed with neonatal suppurative parotitis (NSP), there has only been one prior case described in the literature that was due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Because of its virulence, MRSA presents new and substantial challenges for the surgeon; we describe two cases of NSP caused by MRSA and the subsequent surgical intervention necessitated for cure. We also include a review of all cases of NSP described in the English-language literature.

  3. Acute Suppurative Parotitis Treatment by Diode Laser Combined with ER:YAG Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jyuhn H.; Wang, Hong Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim: The diode laser combined with Er:YAG laser is a new treatment modality for acute sialadenitis. A 78-year-old woman with acute suppurative parotitis was treated by traditional probe to the duct orifice with oral antibiotics for 2 weeks. The symptoms and signs did not subside after treatment. The Er:YAG laser was used to reduce severe infection and inflammation and low level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied to relieve pain sensation during incision and drainage. Less scar formation and obstruction was observed after the laser treatments. Results: Purulent secretions from the Stensen duct was noted after milking the parotid gland. The symptoms and signs were significantly relieved after combined laser treatments. The patient experienced no pain during the course of treatment. No recurrence of the symptoms and signs was noted after 1-year follow-up, and the prognosis was very good. Conclusion: The hemostatic properties of the diode laser enable better control of the surgical field and faster healing of the wound lesions. The bactericidal effect of Er:YAG lasers has been proved by many researchers, and has been shown to reduce infection and inflammation for better wound healing. The combined laser therapy of diode and Er:YAG lasers is recommended in treating acute sialadenitis. PMID:24610980

  4. Evaluation and management of juvenile recurrent parotitis in children from northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou-Alataki, E; Chatziavramidis, A; Vampertzi, O; Alataki, S; Konstantinidis, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis (JRP) is a recurrent parotid inflammation of childhood.  The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and imaging profile of children with JRP as well as to estimate the impact of siadendoscopy as a therapeutic tool in the clinical outcome of JRP. Methods: Twenty-three children with JRP aged 3.5-16 years, were investigated. Twelve of them underwent sialendoscopy: seven aged <8 years under general and five aged >8 years under local anesthesia. Results: The age at onset ranged from 2-15 years while the number of episodes from 2-8 per year. The autoantibody profile was negative in all patients, suggesting no evidence for autoimmune diseases.  Antibody deficiency was found in two children. The imaging studies reveal an overall parotid swelling and intraparotid lymph nodes while microabscesses were present in 31% of the patients. Twelve patients who underwent sialendoscopy had a significant improvement in their clinical outcome; the mean episodes of JRP before sialendoscopy was 3.9/year and reduced to 0.4 at the post-intervention year. Conclusion: Sialendoscopy represents an alternative and promising perspective in the management of JRP. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 356-359. PMID:27688702

  5. Chymotrypsin with sialendoscopy-assisted surgery for the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, H-J; Xiao, J-Q; Qiao, Q-H; Bao, X; Wu, C-B; Zhou, Q

    2017-03-06

    Chronic obstructive parotitis (COP) is a common disease of the parotid gland. A total of 104 patients with COP were identified and randomized into a treatment group (52 cases) and a control group (52 cases). All patients underwent sialography and salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) examinations before surgery. The patients in the treatment group received chymotrypsin combined with gentamicin via interventional sialendoscopy to irrigate the duct, and the control group received gentamicin alone. All patients were asked to record their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) before treatment and at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The VAS score for pain intensity was decreased at 1 week post-treatment in both groups (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the VAS score was lower in the treatment group at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month post-treatment (P<0.05). The 6-month postoperative SGS results showed improved uptake and excretion in both groups (P<0.05). The treatment group exhibited higher scores for postoperative SGS excretion than the control group (P<0.05). The administration of chymotrypsin combined with gentamicin by sialendoscopy is effective for the treatment of non-stone-related COP and specifically improves the excretion function of the parotid gland.

  6. Pedagogy Redefined: Frameworks of Learning Approaches Prevalent in the Current Digital Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlFuqaha, Isam Najib

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to delineate the frameworks of learner-centered vis-à-vis teacher-centered processes of learning prevalent in the second decade of the twenty-first century. It defines the pedagogical changes that have emerged due to the development of delivery technologies, and the interrelations among teachers, students, and knowledge. The…

  7. Current prevalence of goiter determined by ultrasonography and associated risk factors in a formerly iodine-deficient area of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Mustafa; Erem, Cihangir; Deger, Orhan; Topbas, Murat; Ersoz, Halil Onder; Can, Emine

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of goiter and related risk factors in an adult population in a formerly iodine-deficient area of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 2,500 subjects (1,270 women and 1,230 men, aged over 20 years) by multistage sampling. Blood and urine specimens were collected for the assessment of thyroid function. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG) was performed to measure thyroid volume and evaluate nodules. The overall goiter prevalence was 26.5 % (28.4 % in women, 24.5 % in men, P < 0.05). Median thyroid volume was 15.59 mL (13.65 mL in women, 17.96 mL in men, P < 0.0001). Median urinary iodine was 122.79 μg/L. USG revealed thyroid nodules in 35.2 % of the subjects (38.4 % in women, 31.8 % in men, P < 0.005). Age group analysis revealed the lowest rate in the 20-29-year age group (12.5 %), which increased with age, reaching the highest level (38.4 %) in the 70+ years age group. The prevalence of goiter was negatively correlated with education level and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and positive family history. According to occupation, goiter prevalence was highest in farmers (35.3 %) and housewives (32.2 %). Despite a normal range of current urinary iodine excretion levels, prevalence of goiter in this adult population in a formerly iodine-deficient province of Turkey remained high, even about 10 years after salt iodine supplementation program introduction. In addition, the goiter prevalence was higher for female gender, advanced age, positive family history of goiter, low education level, and high BMI.

  8. Current status of allergy prevalence in Germany: Position paper of the Environmental Medicine Commission of the Robert Koch Institute.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Heinrich, Joachim; Niemann, Hildegard

    The lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases in adults in Germany [self-reported doctor diagnosed allergic diseases, Study on Adult Health in Germany (Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland, DEGS1, 2008-2011) of the Robert Koch Institute] is 8.6 % for asthma, 14.8 % for hay fever, 3.5 % for atopic dermatitis, 8.1 % for contact dermatitis, 4.7 % for food allergies, and 2.8 % for insect venom allergies. Almost 20 % of German adults are currently affected by at least one allergy. In tests on 50 common single allergens and two mixtures comprising either inhalant allergens or grass pollen allergens, 48.6 % of participants exhibited at least one allergic sensitization (specific IgE antibody detection). Overall, 33.6 % of participants were sensitized to inhalant allergens, 25.5 % to at least one food allergens, and 22.6 % to at least one insect venom allergens. A comparison of data on adults from 1998 [Federal Health Survey 1998 (Bundes-Gesundheitssurvey 1998, BGS98) of the Robert Koch Institute] and 2008-2011 (DEGS1) shows an increase in prevalence over time of almost three percentage points, while the rate of sensitization to inhalant allergens has increased from 29.8 % to 33.6 %. The prevalence of doctor diagnosed hay fever, atopic dermatitis, and food allergies, on the other hand, has remained virtually unchanged over the last 15 years. The Germany-wide lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases in children and adolescents [Study on the Health of Children and Adolescents in Germany (Studie zur Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland, KiGGS initial survey, 2003-2006) of the Robert Koch Institute] was 4.7 % for asthma, 10.7 % for hay fever, and 13.2 % for atopic dermatitis. Altogether, 40.8 % of German children and adolescents were sensitized to at least one of the inhalant or food allergens measured, while 20.0 % were sensitized to at least one food allergen. A marked increase in hay fever prevalence among East German children in the 1990s has

  9. Prevalence and correlates of current daily use of electronic cigarettes in the European Union: analysis of the 2014 Eurobarometer survey.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis; Le Houezec, Jacques

    2017-03-04

    The study purpose was to analyze current daily and current daily nicotine-containing electronic cigarette (EC) use in the European Union (EU). Special Eurobarometer 429, a cross-sectional survey performed in a representative sample of 28 member states of the EU in November and December of 2014, was analyzed. The prevalence of current daily and current daily nicotine-containing EC use was 1.08% (95% CI 0.95-1.20%) and 1.00% (95% CI 0.88-1.12%), respectively, and was mainly observed in current and former smokers. Minimal current daily (0.08%, 95% CI 0.03-0.12%) and current daily nicotine-containing EC use (0.04%, 95% CI 0.01-0.08%) was observed among never smokers. Smoking cessation with the help of ECs was reported by 47.12% (95% CI 41.28-52.96%) of current daily and 49.14% (95% CI 43.12-55.17%) of current daily nicotine-containing EC users. Additionally, 33.18% (95% CI 27.67-38.69%) and 31.40% (95% CI 25.80-36.99%) reported reduction in smoking consumption, respectively. The strongest correlates of daily EC use were being current and former smokers. In the EU in late 2014, current daily EC use was predominantly observed in current and former smokers and was associated with high self-reported rates of smoking cessation and reduction. Current daily EC use by never smokers was extremely infrequent.

  10. Current Perceptions and Practices (KAP) about Leprosy among Leprosy Patients: A Comparative Study between High Prevalent & Low Prevalent Districts of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Saha, G; Mandal, N K; Dutta, R N

    2015-01-01

    A cross sectional observational study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude and practices about leprosy among leprosy patients in six districts of West Bengal. Total patients selected for the study were 300; of them 185 patients were from three high prevalent districts and 115 from three low prevalent districts of West Bengal. 56.33% patients were male and 43.67% were female. Most of the patients (85.67%) belonged to Hindu community and 60% from socially backward group. 64.33% patients lived below poverty line. Thirty five percentage of patients had correct knowledge that leprosy is caused by a bacteria. Patients from high prevalent districts (41.62%) have better knowledge than those from low prevalent areas (26.09%). Difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.006). Correct knowledge about spread of leprosy through cough & sneezing, of the patients from high prevalent districts (30.81%) was more than those from low prevalent districts (14.78%) (p = 0.001). 74.05% patients from high prevalent districts could tell one or other forms of clinical presentation of a leprosy patients, while 56.52% from low prevalent areas could mention it correctly (p = 0.01). About infectiousness, duration of treatment, complications, patients from high prevalent districts showed better knowledge that those from low prevalent districts. Similarly, Attitude of the patients towards leprosy was found to be more adverse in low prevalent areas. 90% patients have idea that leprosy was curable, but only 51.67% patients heard about MDT. Place of residence (high prevalent districts) & level of education (secondary & above) attributed to better knowledge score of the patients, whereas Place of residence (high prevalent districts) & age (younger age group) attributed to better attitude score of the patients.

  11. Rescuers at risk: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of the worldwide current prevalence and correlates of PTSD in rescue workers

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Marques-Portella, Carla; Luz, Mariana Pires; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate the pooled current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers and to determine the variables implicated in the heterogeneity observed among the prevalences of individual studies. Methods A systematic review covering studies reporting on the PTSD prevalence in rescue teams was conducted following four sequential steps: (1) research in specialized online databases, (2) review of abstracts and selection of studies, (3) review of reference list, and (4) contact with authors and experts. Prevalence data from all studies were pooled using random effects model. Multivariate meta-regression models were fitted to identify variables related to the prevalences heterogeneity. Results A total of 28 studies, reporting on 40 samples with 20,424 rescuers, were selected. The worldwide pooled current prevalence was 10%. Meta-regression modeling in studies carried out in the Asian continent had, on average, higher estimated prevalences than those from Europe, but not higher than the North American estimates. Studies of ambulance personnel also showed higher estimated PTSD prevalence than studies with firefighters and police officers. Conclusions Rescue workers in general have a pooled current prevalence of PTSD that is much higher than that of the general population. Ambulance personnel and rescuers from Asia may be more susceptible to PTSD. These results indicate the need for improving pre-employment strategies to select the most resilient individuals for rescue work, to implement continuous preventive measures for personnel, and to promote educational campaigns about PTSD and its therapeutic possibilities. PMID:21681455

  12. [Biochemical findings in proteincomposition of secretions of human malignant parotid tumours, chronic parotitis and sialadenoses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H; Bretzel, G; Hochstrasser, K

    1977-01-01

    In comparison to former investigations in pleomorphic adenoms and Wharthin tumours in the present paper secretion of IgA, lysozyme in correlation to flowrate and total secretion in glands with malignant tumours, inflammations and Sialadenosis were estimated. Thereby 12 patients with malignomas of the parotid gland, 11 patients with chronic parotitis and 12 with sialadenoses were examined. The following results were found: 1. The concentration of protein, IgA and Lysozym is significantly higher than in normal glands and in glands with pleomorphic adenomas and Wharthin tumours. 2. Differentialdiagnosis of Sialadenitis and Sialadenosis of parotid glands is possible by estimating the examined parameters. Thereby in glands with sialadenosis flowrate is higher than in normal glands, and significant lower in glands with sialadenitis. Moreover concentrations of IgA and Lysozyme and protein in glands with sialadenitis are evaluated.

  13. Exonic Splicing Mutations Are More Prevalent than Currently Estimated and Can Be Predicted by Using In Silico Tools

    PubMed Central

    Soukarieh, Omar; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Hamieh, Mohamad; Drouet, Aurélie; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a causal mutation is essential for molecular diagnosis and clinical management of many genetic disorders. However, even if next-generation exome sequencing has greatly improved the detection of nucleotide changes, the biological interpretation of most exonic variants remains challenging. Moreover, particular attention is typically given to protein-coding changes often neglecting the potential impact of exonic variants on RNA splicing. Here, we used the exon 10 of MLH1, a gene implicated in hereditary cancer, as a model system to assess the prevalence of RNA splicing mutations among all single-nucleotide variants identified in a given exon. We performed comprehensive minigene assays and analyzed patient’s RNA when available. Our study revealed a staggering number of splicing mutations in MLH1 exon 10 (77% of the 22 analyzed variants), including mutations directly affecting splice sites and, particularly, mutations altering potential splicing regulatory elements (ESRs). We then used this thoroughly characterized dataset, together with experimental data derived from previous studies on BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and NF1, to evaluate the predictive power of 3 in silico approaches recently described as promising tools for pinpointing ESR-mutations. Our results indicate that ΔtESRseq and ΔHZEI-based approaches not only discriminate which variants affect splicing, but also predict the direction and severity of the induced splicing defects. In contrast, the ΔΨ-based approach did not show a compelling predictive power. Our data indicates that exonic splicing mutations are more prevalent than currently appreciated and that they can now be predicted by using bioinformatics methods. These findings have implications for all genetically-caused diseases. PMID:26761715

  14. Donor testing and risk: current prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmissible agents in US allogeneic donations.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shimian; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a major increase in the safety of the blood supply, as demonstrated by declining rates of posttransfusion infection and reductions in estimated residual risk for such infections. Reliable estimates of residual risk have been possible within the American Red Cross system because of the availability of a large amount of reliable and consistent data on donations and infectious disease testing results. Among allogeneic blood donations, the prevalence rates of infection markers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus have decreased over time, although rates for markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus did not. The incidence (/100 000 person-years) of HIV and HCV among repeat donors showed apparent increases from 1.55 and 1.89 in 2000 through 2001 to 2.16 and 2.98 in 2007 through 2008. These observed fluctuations confirm the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation. The residual risk of HIV, HCV, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus among all allogeneic donations is currently below 1 per 1 million donations, and that of hepatitis B surface antigen is close to 1 per 300 000 donations.

  15. Sarcopenia: an undiagnosed condition in older adults. Current consensus definition: prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International working group on sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Roger A; Vellas, Bruno; Evans, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Morley, John E; Newman, Anne B; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bauer, Juergen; Breuille, Denis; Cederholm, Tommy; Chandler, Julie; De Meynard, Capucine; Donini, Lorenzo; Harris, Tamara; Kannt, Aimo; Keime Guibert, Florence; Onder, Graziano; Papanicolaou, Dimitris; Rolland, Yves; Rooks, Daniel; Sieber, Cornel; Souhami, Elisabeth; Verlaan, Sjors; Zamboni, Mauro

    2011-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability, and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy, on November 18, 2009, to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. Although cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the 2 conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1 m/s(-1). Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s(-1) and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg, appendicular mass relative to ht(2) that is ≤ 7.23 kg/m(2) in men and ≤ 5.67 kg/m(2) in women). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization, and death.

  16. Long-term follow-up of the effect of tympanic neurectomy on sialadenosis and recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed

    Benedek-Spät, E; Székely, T

    1985-01-01

    We examined the effect of tympanic neurectomy on the clinical symptoms and secretory function of the parotids in 13 patients with chronic parotitis or sialadenosis for 3 years. Each patient had significantly fewer complaints immediately after the surgery. In quite a few patients the improvement was transient only. Three years after neurectomy 3 of the 10 examined patients were free from complaints and 4 further patients had less severe complaints than before the surgery. Neurectomy was followed by a significant decrease in parotid flow rate and an increase in the sodium concentration of parotid saliva, while potassium concentration showed a slight decrease. Three years after the surgery the flow rate and the sodium concentration were moderately higher than before that. There was a significant, long-lasting change in the amylase activity of parotid saliva; 3 years after neurectomy it attained one-third of the preoperative value. A pharmacological test, carried out 3 years after neurectomy in 2 patients, suggested parasympathetic reinnervation of the parotid.

  17. Current cat ownership may be associated with the lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis in schoolchildren in Himeji, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kurosaka, Fumitake; Nakatani, Yuji; Terada, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Ikeuchi, Haruki; Hayakawa, Akira; Konohana, Atsuo; Oota, Kenji; Nishio, Hisahide

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between current pet ownership, passive smoking, and allergic diseases among the Japanese children. From 1995 to 2001, we distributed the Japanese edition of the questionnaire of the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) to survey allergic diseases among 35,552 6-yr-old children at primary school in the city of Himeji, Japan. We analyzed the data by multiple logistic regression and calculated adjusted odds ratios for environmental factors, including passive smoking and pet (dog and/or cat) ownership. There were no significant relationships between the prevalence of asthma and current pet ownership and passive smoking. However, current cat ownership was related to a significantly lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.93], allergic rhinitis (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75). Strikingly, passive smoking was also related to a significantly lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88). Current cat ownership was associated with a lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, passive smoking was also associated with a lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis and Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  18. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, K E C; Allen, K; Edwards, C A; Beyer, K; Boulay, A; van der Aa, L B; Sprikkelman, A; Belohlavkova, S; Clausen, M; Dubakiene, R; Duggan, E; Reche, M; Marino, L V; Nørhede, P; Ogorodova, L; Schoemaker, A; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A; Szepfalusi, Z; Vassilopoulou, E; Veehof, S H E; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Wjst, M; Dubois, A E J

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  19. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  20. Current Scenario of Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ostensibly Healthy Indian Population: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Aditi; Raizada, Arun; Vinayak, Kamini

    2016-10-01

    25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vit D] deficiency is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub-continent. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of 25(OH) vit D in different age groups. The data of 25(OH) vit D assay of 26,346 ostensibly healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, over a period of 3 years, were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed extensively. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD) was defined as 25(OH) vit D < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency (VDI) as 25(OH) vit D between 20 and 40 ng/ml and 25(OH) vit D sufficiency (VDS) as 25(OH) D > 40 ng/mL. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD + VDI) was observed in 93 % of the subject population. Maximum number of the subjects belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. 59 % had frank 25(OH) vit D deficiency when cut off level was <20 ng/mL. Mean value of 25(OH) vit D in our subjects was 21.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL. Significant difference in 25(OH) vit D level was observed in between male and female subjects. Simultaneously 25(OH) vit D levels were significantly lower in the patient visited hospital in winter-spring season than the summer-autumn season (p > 0.001). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of 25(OH) vit D deficiency in an ostensibly healthy Indian population. There is a need for redefining our reference ranges according to our population and extensively improving the status of vitamin D.

  1. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Győrke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Annoscia, Giada; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, Dirofilaria spp. infection in European dogs has rapidly spread from historically endemic areas towards eastern and northeastern countries, but little or no information is available from these geographical regions. The present study provides a picture of filarial infections in dogs from Romania and compares two tests for the diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis. From July 2010 to March 2011, blood samples were collected from 390 dogs from nine counties of Romania and serological SNAP tests were performed for the detection of D. immitis antigen. The remaining blood clots were subsequently used for DNA extraction followed by multiplex PCR for assessing filarioid species diversity (i.e. D. immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum). Based on molecular detection, an overall prevalence of 6.92 % (n = 27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.70-10.03 %) for D. repens, 6.15 % (n = 24; 95 % CI 4.07-9.14 %) for D. immitis and 2.05 % (n = 8; 95 % CI 0.96-4.16 %) for A. reconditum was recorded, with significant variations according to sampling areas. Coinfections of D. immitis and D. repens were recorded in 23.91 % (n = 11) positive dogs. A slightly higher prevalence for D. immitis was detected at the SNAP test (n = 28, 7.17 %; 95 % CI 4.91-10.33 %), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.66). However, only 53.57 % (n = 15) of antigen-positive dogs were confirmed by PCR, while other dogs (n = 9) PCR positive for D. immitis were negative at the serology. The present study shows that Dirofilaria species are endemic in the southern and southeastern areas of Romania, This article also provides, for the first time, an epidemiological picture of the distribution of A. reconditum in Romania.

  2. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  3. Detective value of historical height loss and current height/knee height ratio for prevalent vertebral fracture in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yoh, Kousei; Kuwabara, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral fracture (VFx) is associated with various co-morbidities and increased mortality. In this paper, we have studied the detective value of height loss for VFx using two indices; historical height loss (HHL) which is the difference between the maximal height, and the current height (CH), and CH/knee height (KH) ratio. One-hundred and fifty-one postmenopausal women visiting the outpatient clinic of orthopaedics were studied for their CH, self-reported maximal height, KH, and radiographically diagnosed VFx number(s). VFx was present in 41.1 % of the subjects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the number of prevalent fractures was a significant predictor of HHL and CH/KH ratio. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis has shown that for HHL, the area under the curve (AUC) with their 95 %CI in the parentheses was 0.84 (0.77, 0.90), 0.88 (0.83, 0.94), and 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) for ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3 fractures, respectively. For the presence of ≥ 1 VFx, the cut-off value was 4.0 cm (specificity 79 %; sensitivity 79 %). Regarding the CH/KH ratio, AUC was 0.73 (0.65, 0.82), 0.85 (0.78, 0.93), and 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) for ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3 fractures, respectively. For the presence of ≥ 1 VFx, the cut-off value was 3.3 (specificity 47 %; sensitivity 91 %). Both cut-off values for HHL and CH/KH ratio had high negative predictivity across the wide range of theoretical VFx prevalence. Thus, HHL and CH/KH were both good detectors of VFx. Our data would be the basis to determine the cut-off value for the screening or case finding of subjects with VFx.

  4. Prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in current, previous, and never smokers in a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rendina, D; De Palma, D; De Filippo, G; De Pascale, F; Muscariello, R; Ippolito, R; Fazio, V; Fiengo, A; Benvenuto, D; Strazzullo, P; Galletti, F

    2015-03-01

    Simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 2 frequent nonmalignant thyroid diseases. Tobacco smoking has detrimental effects on the endocrine system and in particular on thyroid function and morphology. The objective of this cross-sectional study, involving 1800 Caucasian adults from a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency, was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, and the prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid status was evaluated by ultrasonic exploration of the neck, measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine excretion. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of significant nodules was also performed. Smoking habits were evaluated by a specific questionnaire and the calculation of number of pack years. Both current and previous smokers showed an increased risk of simple nodular goiter compared to never smokers after adjustment for potential confounders and known goitrogen factors. Interestingly, the simple nodular goiter risk was similar for never smokers and for previous smokers declaring a time since cessation of smoking for more than 69 months. Smoking habit was not associated to an increased risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.Smoking appears to be an independent risk factor for simple nodular goiter but not for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an area with mild iodine deficiency. A prolonged withdrawal of smoking dramatically reduces the risk of simple nodular goiter occurrence.

  5. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings. PMID:11329727

  6. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P<0.05) between farms where cows were positive or negative for liver fluke antibodies in (a) the total number of adult dairy cows in herds, (b) the number of adult dairy cows contributing to BTM samples, and (c) the size of the total area of grassland, with positive farms having larger numbers in each case. There was no difference (P>0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (P<0.001) between drainage statuses for GSL with farms on good drainage having longer GSL than moderately drained farms. The GSL for dairy cows on farms with good drainage was 11 days longer than for those with moderate drainage (P<0.001). The percentage of farmers that used an active ingredient during the non-lactating period against liver fluke, gastrointestinal nematodes, lungworm, and rumen fluke was 96%, 85%, 77% and 90%, respectively. Albendazole was the most frequently used active ingredient for treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes (57%), liver fluke (40%) and lungworm (47%), respectively. There was a difference

  7. Prevalence of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria, antimicrobial resistance, and somatic cell counts in organic dairy production: current knowledge and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Rajić, Andrijana; Waddell, Lisa; Parker, Sarah; Harris, Janet; Roberts, Karen C; Kydd, Robyn; Greig, Judy; Baynton, Ashley

    2009-06-01

    The review's objective was to identify, evaluate, and summarize the findings of all primary research published in English or French, investigating prevalence of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria, bacterial resistance to antimicrobials, and somatic cell count (SCC) in organic dairy production, or comparing organic and conventional dairy production, using a systematic review methodology. Among 47 studies included in the review, 32 comparison studies were suitable for quality assessment. Fifteen studies were not assessed for quality, due to their descriptive nature or a low sample size (n prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria in 12 and 7 studies, respectively. Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli including Shiga toxin-producing strains, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and SCC were investigated in 2, 7, 4, 6, and 15 studies, respectively. Contradictory findings were reported for differences in bacterial outcomes and SCC between dairy production types (organic vs. conventional). Lower prevalence of AMR on organic dairy farms was reported more consistently in studies conducted in the United States, as opposed to those conducted in Europe. These conflicting findings may result from geographic differences in organic production regulations governing antimicrobial usage, use of antimicrobials in conventional dairy production, and baseline prevalence, as well as laboratory methods, study designs, or methods of analysis employed. The majority (four of seven) of MDR investigations reported no significant differences in prevalence. Overall, only 9 of 32 studies met all five methodological soundness criteria. More well designed, executed, and reported primary research is needed at the farm and post-farm levels.

  8. Diagnosing acute and prevalent HIV-1 infection in young African adults seeking care for fever: a systematic review and audit of current practice.

    PubMed

    Prins, Henrieke A B; Mugo, Peter; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander; Smith, Adrian; Sanders, Eduard J; Graham, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    Fever is a common complaint in HIV-1 infected adults and may be a presenting sign of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). We investigated the extent to which HIV-1 infection was considered in the diagnostic evaluation of febrile adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through a systematic review of published literature and guidelines in the period 2003-2014. We also performed a detailed audit of current practice for the evaluation of febrile young adults in coastal Kenya. Our review identified 43 studies investigating the aetiology of fever in adult outpatients in SSA. While the guidelines identified recommend testing for HIV-1 infection, none mentioned AHI. In our audit of current practice at nine health facilities, only 189 out of 1173 (16.1%) patients, aged 18-29 years, were tested for HIV-1. In a detailed record review, only 2 out of 39 (5.1%) young adults seeking care for fever were tested for HIV-1, and the possibility of AHI was not mentioned. Available literature on adult outpatients presenting with fever is heavily focused on diagnosing malaria and guidelines are poorly defined in terms of evaluating aetiologies other than malaria. Current practice in coastal Kenya shows poor uptake of provider-initiated HIV-1 testing and AHI is not currently considered in the differential diagnosis.

  9. Diagnosing acute and prevalent HIV-1 infection in young African adults seeking care for fever: a systematic review and audit of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Henrieke A.B.; Mugo, Peter; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander; Smith, Adrian; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Fever is a common complaint in HIV-1 infected adults and may be a presenting sign of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). We investigated the extent to which HIV-1 infection was considered in the diagnostic evaluation of febrile adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through a systematic review of published literature and guidelines in the period 2003–2014. We also performed a detailed audit of current practice for the evaluation of febrile young adults in coastal Kenya. Our review identified 43 studies investigating the aetiology of fever in adult outpatients in SSA. While the guidelines identified recommend testing for HIV-1 infection, none mentioned AHI. In our audit of current practice at nine health facilities, only 189 out of 1173 (16.1%) patients, aged 18–29 years, were tested for HIV-1. In a detailed record review, only 2 out of 39 (5.1%) young adults seeking care for fever were tested for HIV-1, and the possibility of AHI was not mentioned. Available literature on adult outpatients presenting with fever is heavily focused on diagnosing malaria and guidelines are poorly defined in terms of evaluating aetiologies other than malaria. Current practice in coastal Kenya shows poor uptake of provider-initiated HIV-1 testing and AHI is not currently considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24842982

  10. Risk Behaviors, Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Population Size of Current Injection Drug Users in a China-Myanmar Border City: Results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Background Injection drug use has been the major cause of HIV/AIDS in China in the past two decades. We measured the prevalences of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and their associated risk factors among current injection drug users (IDUs) in Ruili city, a border region connecting China with Myanmar that has been undergoing serious drug use and HIV spread problems. An estimate of the number of current IDUs is also presented. Methods In 2012, Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥18 years were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. Participants underwent interviews and serological testing for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Logistic regression indentified factors associated with HIV and HCV infections. Multiplier method was used to obtain an estimate of the size of the current IDU population via combining available service data and findings from our survey. Results Among 370 IDUs recruited, the prevalence of HIV and HCV was 18.3% and 41.5%, respectively. 27.1% of participants had shared a needle/syringe in their lifetime. Consistent condom use rates were low among both regular (6.8%) and non-regular (30.4%) partners. Factors independently associated with being HIV positive included HCV infection, having a longer history of injection drug use and experience of needle/syringe sharing. Participants with HCV infection were more likely to be HIV positive, have injected more types of drugs, have shared other injection equipments and have unprotected sex with regular sex partners. The estimated number of current IDUs in Ruili city was 2,714 (95% CI: 1,617–5,846). Conclusions IDUs may continue to be a critical subpopulation for transmission of HIV and other infections in this region because of the increasing population and persistent high risk of injection and sexual behaviours. Developing innovative strategies that can improve accessibility of current harm reduction services and incorporate more comprehensive

  11. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-05-01

    During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by "in-house" real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78-5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21-4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32-7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51-48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21-59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine.

  12. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  13. Changing Trends in Asthma Prevalence Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Lara J.; Simon, Alan E.; Rossen, Lauren M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood asthma prevalence doubled from 1980 to 1995 and then increased more slowly from 2001 to 2010. During this second period, racial disparities increased. More recent trends remain to be described. METHODS We analyzed current asthma prevalence using 2001–2013 National Health Interview Survey data for children ages 0 to 17 years. Logistic regression with quadratic terms was used to test for nonlinear patterns in trends. Differences between demographic subgroups were further assessed with multivariate models controlling for gender, age, poverty status, race/ethnicity, urbanicity, and geographic region. RESULTS Overall, childhood asthma prevalence increased from 2001 to 2009 followed by a plateau then a decline in 2013. From 2001 to 2013, multivariate logistic regression showed no change in prevalence among non-Hispanic white and Puerto Rican children and those in the Northeast and West; increasing prevalence among 10- to 17-year-olds, poor children, and those living in the South; increasing then plateauing prevalence among 5- to 9-year-olds, near-poor children, and non-Hispanic black children; and increasing then decreasing prevalence among 0- to 4-year-olds, nonpoor, and Mexican children and those in the Midwest. Non-Hispanic black-white disparities stopped increasing, and Puerto Rican children remained with the highest prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Current asthma prevalence ceased to increase among children in recent years and the non-Hispanic black-white disparity stopped increasing due mainly to plateauing prevalence among non-Hispanic black children. PMID:26712860

  14. Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Paul S.

    The current prevailing professional opinion is that the prevalence rates of alcohol abuse among the elderly are low compared to the general population. The prevalence of alcohol abuse among the elderly was examined through a review of the empirical research. This review revealed a number of serious methodological problems. The most important of…

  15. Cigarette Smoking among Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juon, Hee-Soon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines prevalence of cigarette smoking and explores its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45 percent. Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Perceived peer use, academic stress, grade, and type of school were associated with…

  16. [Considerations on the complications of epidemic parotitis].

    PubMed

    Izzi, G C; Montanarini, G; Benaglia, G; Ghirardini, G; Cassaro, F; Malvicini, R

    1983-01-01

    The AA describe 82 cases of complications occurred during an outbreak of mumps in 1980-81. Forty-two cases of meningitis, 4 of pancreatitis, 2 of orchitis and 2 cases of encefalitis occurred. All patients had eventual, complete recovery. The other cases are not specific complications. The treatment was almost entirely symptomatic. The headache of meningitis was relieved by a lumbar poncture. In the epicrisis of the AA these cases of complications have some importance in relation to the opportunity of getting herd vaccination against mumps.

  17. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques.

  18. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  19. The Prevalence of Marfan Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Marfan syndrome (MFS) in Korean adults. Data were collected from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from 2006 through 2013. The data consisted of primary diagnoses related to MFS (Q87.4) diagnosed according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The age-standardized prevalence of MFS in adults was calculated using the estimated Korean population in 2010 as a reference. Overall, the prevalence of MFS was 0.90 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 2.27 in 2013. For males in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 2.61 in overall and 4.32 in 15–19 years-old. For females in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 1.92 in overall and 3.02 in 10–14 years-old. In conclusion, currently, the age-standardized overall prevalence of MFS was 2.27 persons per 100,000 persons. And the overall age-standardized prevalence of MFS increased between 2006 and 2013 especially in 15–19 years-old males and 10–14 years-old females. PMID:28244281

  20. Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis in Wukro, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebresilassie, Lidya

    2015-01-01

    Background. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic, and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Objective. Assessing the prevalence of Haemonchus parasite and its associated risk factors in sheep slaughtered at different restaurants of Wukro. Methods. Cross-sectional study using random sampling from November 2013 to April 2014 in a total of 384 sheep was conducted and SPSS version 20 software using descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Result. The overall prevalence of Haemonchus contortus was 40.9% (n = 157). The prevalence in medium body condition 27.3% (n = 105) varies significantly from that of good body condition 13.5% (n = 52) (P < 0.05). Moreover, there was significant variation (P < 0.05) in the prevalence in young and adult sheep with rates of 21.9% (n = 84) and 19% (n = 73), respectively. At the same time, there is significant variation (P < 0.05) in male and female sheep with prevalence of 29.7% (n = 114) and 11.2% (n = 43), respectively. The prevalence of 25.3% (n = 97) in sheep that originated from Negash compared to Wukro and Agulae showed no significant variation (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The current finding revealed that significant numbers of sheep were affected by the parasites. Hence strategic deworming with good husbandry practice should be implemented. PMID:25688297

  1. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  2. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Cancer.gov

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and two-phase stratified sampling. Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  3. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    López-Velázquez, Jorge A; Silva-Vidal, Karen V; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arrese, Marco; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an alarming public health problem. The disease is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and is directly linked to the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the general population. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated at 20-30%, but the prevalence is unknown in the Americas because of a lack of epidemiological studies. However, given the trends in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD and its consequences are expected to increase in the near future. The aim of the present study is to present the current data on the prevalence of NAFLD in the Americas. We performed an electronic search of the main databases from January 2000 to September 2013 and identified 356 reports that were reviewed. We focused on the epidemiology and prevalence of known NAFLD risk factors including obesity, T2DM, and the metabolic syndrome (MS). The prevalence of the MS was highest in the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Chile, and Venezuela. In addition, Puerto Rico, Guyana, and Mexico have the highest prevalence of T2DM in the Americas, while USA has the most people with T2DM. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of NAFLD and obesity were highest in the United States, Belize, Barbados, and Mexico.

  4. Dynamic Model Predicting Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Prevalence Trends

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Weedermann, Marion; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Martin, Corby K.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Bredlau, Carl; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ravussin, Eric; Bouchard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity prevalence in the United States (US) appears to be leveling, but the reasons behind the plateau remain unknown. Mechanistic insights can be provided from a mathematical model. The objective of this study is to model known multiple population parameters associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) classes and to establish conditions under which obesity prevalence will plateau. Design and Methods A differential equation system was developed that predicts population-wide obesity prevalence trends. The model considers both social and non-social influences on weight gain, incorporates other known parameters affecting obesity trends, and allows for country specific population growth. Results The dynamic model predicts that: obesity prevalence is a function of birth rate and the probability of being born in an obesogenic environment; obesity prevalence will plateau independent of current prevention strategies; and the US prevalence of obesity, overweight, and extreme obesity will plateau by about 2030 at 28%, 32%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions The US prevalence of obesity is stabilizing and will plateau, independent of current preventative strategies. This trend has important implications in accurately evaluating the impact of various anti-obesity strategies aimed at reducing obesity prevalence. PMID:23804487

  5. Is asthma prevalence still increasing?

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, Bo; Backman, Helena; Lötvall, Jan; Rönmark, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of asthma in society and altered diagnostic practices makes evaluation of data on prevalence change difficult. In most parts of the world the asthma prevalence seems to still be increasing. The increase is associated with urbanization and has been documented particularly among children and teenagers in urban areas of middle- and low-level income countries. Use of validated questionnaires has enabled comparisons of studies. Among adults there are few studies based on representative samples of the general population which allow evaluation of time trends of prevalence. This review focuses mainly on studies of asthma prevalence and symptoms among adults. Parallel with increased urbanization, we can assume that the increase in asthma prevalence in most areas of the world will continue. However, in Australia and North-West Europe studies performed, particularly among children and adolescents, indicate that the increase in asthma prevalence may now be leveling off.

  6. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed.

  7. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  8. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS

    PubMed Central

    Demmer, R.T.; Jacobs, D.R.; Singh, R.; Zuk, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Papapanou, P.N.; Desvarieux, M.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  9. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  10. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  11. The prevalence of obesity.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Holly R

    2003-06-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has increased substantially, making it a true epidemic and a public health crisis that both health care providers and the public are going to have to face. Currently, 61% of the US population is overweight or obese and therefore at increased risk for a number of diseases that are associated with increased body fat. Indeed, the obesity epidemic already is leading to dramatic increases in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Almost a quarter of the population currently has metabolic syndrome, which places them at high risk for the development of coronary heart disease. The future of the general health of the US population depends on identifying and providing the best treatment and prevention strategies for obesity in the years ahead.

  12. Paternal investment affects prevalence of malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Richner, H; Christe, P; Oppliger, A

    1995-01-01

    Both reproduction and parasite defense can be costly, and an animal may face a trade-off between investing in offspring or in parasite defense. In contrast to the findings from nonexperimental studies that the poorly reproducing individuals are often the ones with high parasite loads, this life-history view predicts that individuals with high reproductive investment will show high parasite prevalence. Here we provide an experimental confirmation of a positive association between parental investment levels of male great tits Parus major and the prevalence of Plasmodium spp, a hematozoa causing malaria in various bird species. We manipulated brood size, measured feeding effort of both males and females, and assessed the prevalence of the hemoparasite from blood smears. In enlarged broods the males, but not the females, showed significantly higher rates of food provisioning to the chicks, and the rate of malarial infection was found to be more than double in male, but not female, parents of enlarged broods. The findings show that there may be a trade-off between reproductive effort and parasite defense of the host and also suggest a mechanism for the well documented trade-off between current reproductive effort and parental survival. PMID:7862659

  13. Prevalence effect in haptic search

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Ken; Takaoka, Yutaka; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kita, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the ratio of target-present to target-absent trials has important effects on miss rates. In this study, we examined whether the target prevalence effect occurs in a haptic search task by using artificial tactile maps. The results indicated that target prevalence has effects on miss rates, sensitivity, and criterion. Moreover, an increase in miss rates in the low-prevalence condition (10%) was strongly correlated with a decrease in search termination times (target-absent reaction times). These results suggest that the prevalence effect on haptic search is caused by a decrease in the search termination time and a shift in decision criterion and a decrease in sensitivity. PMID:23145300

  14. Current Titles

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  15. Prevalence of obesity in Malta

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, J.; Calleja, N.; Camilleri, R.; Borg, A.; Bonnici, G.; Zhang, Y.; Pace, N.; Mamo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Obesity is a global epidemic with the Mediterranean island of Malta being no exception. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified Malta as one of the European countries with the highest obesity prevalence. Method A cross‐sectional study was conducted (2014–2016) under the auspices of the University of Malta. The prevalence of overweight‐obesity in Malta was calculated and then age stratified for comparisons with previous studies. Results The study identified 69.75% (95% CI: 68.32–71.18) of the Maltese population to be either overweight or obese. The men overweight/obese prevalence (76.28% 95% CI: 74.41–78.14) was statistically higher than that for women (63.06% 95% CI: 60.92–65.20) (p = 0.0001). Age stratification revealed that both genders had the highest overweight prevalence rates between 55 and 64 years (Men = 23.25% 95% CI: 20.43–26.33; Women = 24.68% 95% CI: 21.44–28.22). Men obesity prevalence rates were highest in the 35 to 44 years group (22.52% 95% CI: 19.65–25.68) while for women it was highest in the 55 to 64 years group (28.90%, 95% CI: 25.44–30.63). Conclusion Over a 35‐year period, an overall decrease in the normal and overweight BMI categories occurred with an increase in the prevalence of obesity. An exception was observed in the women, where the prevalence of normal BMI increased over this time period. Also, it appears that while the total population obesity prevalence increased (for 2016), a percentage of the women have shifted from an obese to an overweight status. PMID:28090352

  16. The effects of local prevalence and explicit expectations on search termination times

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Shinichi; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the relative proportions of target-present and -absent trials have important effects on behavior. Miss error rates rise as target prevalence decreases (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, Nature 435, 439–440, 2005). At the same time, search termination times on target-absent trials become shorter (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology 20, 121–124, 2010). These effects must depend on some implicit or explicit knowledge of the current prevalence. What is the nature of that knowledge? In Experiment 1, we conducted visual search tasks at three levels of prevalence (6%, 50%, and 94%) and analyzed performance as a function of “local prevalence,” the prevalence over the last n trials. The results replicated the usual effects of overall prevalence but revealed only weak or absent effects of local prevalence. In Experiment 2, the overall prevalence in a block of trials was 20%, 50%, or 80%. However, a 100%-valid cue informed observers of the prevalence on the next trial. These explicit cues had a modest effect on target-absent RTs, but explicit expectation could not explain the full prevalence effect. We conclude that observers predict prevalence on the basis of an assessment of a relatively long prior history. Each trial contributes a small amount to that assessment, and this can be modulated but not overruled by explicit instruction. PMID:22006528

  17. BRAIN MYELINATION IN PREVALENT NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    BARTZOKIS, GEORGE

    2008-01-01

    Current concepts of addiction focus on neuronal neurocircuitry and neurotransmitters and are largely based on animal model data, but the human brain is unique in its high myelin content and extended developmental (myelination) phase that continues until middle age. The biology of our exceptional myelination process and factors that influence it have been synthesized into a recently published myelin model of human brain evolution and normal development that cuts across the current symptom-based classification of neuropsychiatric disorders. The developmental perspective of the model suggests that dysregulations in the myelination process contribute to prevalent early-life neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to addictions. These disorders share deficits in inhibitory control functions that likely contribute to their high rates of comorbidity with addiction and other impulsive behaviors. The model posits that substances such as alcohol and psychostimulants are toxic to the extremely vulnerable myelination process and contribute to the poor outcomes of primary and comorbid addictive disorders in susceptible individuals. By increasing the scientific focus on myelination, the model provides a rational biological framework for the development of novel, myelin-centered treatments that may have widespread efficacy across multiple disease states and could potentially be used in treating, delaying, or even preventing some of the most prevalent and devastating neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18668184

  18. Prevalence odds ratio versus prevalence ratio: choice comes with consequences.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A; Cutter, Gary R

    2016-12-30

    Odds ratio, risk ratio, and prevalence ratio are some of the measures of association which are often reported in research studies quantifying the relationship between an independent variable and the outcome of interest. There has been much debate on the issue of which measure is appropriate to report depending on the study design. However, the literature on selecting a particular category of the outcome to be modeled and/or change in reference group for categorical independent variables and the effect on statistical significance, although known, is scantly discussed nor published with examples. In this article, we provide an example of a cross-sectional study wherein prevalence ratio was chosen over (Prevalence) odds ratio and demonstrate the analytic implications of the choice of category to be modeled and choice of reference level for independent variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Current titles

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  20. Current evidence for osteoarthritis treatments.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; March, Lyn

    2010-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability among older people. The burden of the disease is expected to rise with an aging population and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Despite this, there is as yet no cure for OA. However, in recent years, a number of potential therapeutic advances have been made, in part due to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. This review provides the current evidence for symptomatic management of OA including nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches. The current state of evidence for disease-modifying therapy in OA is also reviewed.

  1. The Prevalence and Practices of Academic Library Journal Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Philip; Vilelle, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Increased mention of journal clubs in the library literature and the recent creation of clubs at the authors' institutions sparked curiosity about how widespread they are in academic libraries. An online survey announced on library listservs assessed their prevalence and practices. Library journal clubs promote current awareness, analysis skills,…

  2. [Prevalence, symptoms, and diagnosis of tuberculosis in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Hilberg, Ole; Hyldgaard, Charlotte; Løkke, Anders

    2011-03-21

    In Denmark the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) is low, but updated knowledge on the diagnostic techniques available is still important. We summarise the current procedure for diagnosing TB with emphasis on sputum culture, use of interferon gamma release assays and the clinical and radiological manifestations of tuberculosis.

  3. Prevalence of birth defects in Korean livebirths, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-A; Yee, Nan Hee; Choi, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jung Yun; Seo, Kyung

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the livebirths prevalence and occurrence pattern of birth defects in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was done in 2,348 medical institutions around the nation, the birth defect prevalence of livebirths in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of livebirths in Korea was 883,184 from 2005-2006, and 25,335 cases of birth defects were notified to our study, equivalent to a prevalence of 286.9 per 10,000 livebirths. Anomalies of the circulatory system were the most common defects, accounting for 43.4% of birth defects with a prevalence of 124.5 per 10,000 livebirths. It was followed by the musculoskeletal system anomalies, the digestive system anomalies, and the urinary system anomalies. The five major birth defects based on the ranking of prevalence were atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, hydronephrosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and cleft lip/palate. Birth defects in livebirths were associated with a high proportion of low birthweight, prematurity, multiple births and advanced maternal age. The prevalence of birth defects in Korea is similar to or lower than those reported in developed countries. Our study suggests baseline data to explain the current status of birth defects and to establish a registry system of birth defects in Korea.

  4. Sero-Prevalence of Rodent Pathogens in India.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Shrruthi; Kulkarni, Prachet G; Nagavelu, Krishnaveni; Samuel, Rosa J; Srinivasan, Sandhya; Ramasamy, Nandhini; Hegde, Nagendra R; Gudde, Ramachandra S

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring is an integral part of laboratory animal quality standards. However, current or past prevalence data as well as regulatory requirements dictate the frequency, type and the expanse of health monitoring. In an effort to understand the prevalence of rodent pathogens in India, a preliminary study was carried out by sero-epidemiology. Sera samples obtained from 26 public and private animal facilities were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against minute virus of mice (MVM), ectromelia virus (ECTV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus (SeV), and Mycoplasma pulmonis in mice, and SeV, rat parvo virus (RPV), Kilham's rat virus (KRV) and sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) in rats, by sandwich ELISA. It was observed that MHV was the most prevalent agent followed by Mycoplasma pulmonis and MVM in mice, and SDAV followed by RPV were prevalent in rats. On the other hand, none of the samples were positive for ECTV in mice, or SeV or KRV in rats. Multiple infections were common in both mice and rats. The incidence of MHV and Mycoplasma pulmonis was higher in facilities maintained by public organizations than in vivaria of private organizations, although the difference was not statistically different. On the other hand the prevalence of rodent pathogens was significantly higher in the northern part of India than in the South. These studies form the groundwork for detailed sero-prevalence studies which should further lay the foundations for country-specific guidelines for health monitoring of laboratory animals.

  5. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  6. Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence. PMID:24906567

  7. Prevalence of Bipolar I and II Disorder in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Keltie C; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Duffy, Anne; Bresee, Lauren; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Patten, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Current epidemiologic knowledge about bipolar disorder (BD) in Canada is inadequate. To date, only 3 prevalence studies have been conducted: only 1 was based on a national sample, and none distinguished between BD I and II. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BD I and II in Canada in 2012. Method: Data were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-being, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of household residents ages 15 years and older (n = 25 113). The survey response rate was 68.9%. Interviews were based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Prevalence was estimated using generalized linear modelling. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of BD and use of lithium were also estimated. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of BD I and II (based on the CIDI) in Canada in 2012 was 0.87% (95% CI 0.67% to 1.07%) and 0.57% (95% CI 0.44% to 0.71%), respectively. Prevalence did not differ by sex. The estimated prevalence of self-reported BD was 0.87% (95% CI 0.65% to 1.07%). There was a lack of congruence between CIDI-defined and self-reported BD, and few people taking lithium were positive for BD on the CIDI, which raises some concerns about the validity of the CIDI’s assessment of BD. Conclusions: These prevalence estimates align with those reported in prior literature. However, caution should be exercised when interpreting general population studies that use CIDI-defined BD owing to the possibility of misclassification. PMID:25886691

  8. Prevalence of asthma in Portugal - The Portuguese National Asthma Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a frequent chronic respiratory disease in both children and adults. However, few data on asthma prevalence are available in Portugal. The Portuguese National Asthma Survey is the first nationwide study that uses standardized methods. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in the Portuguese population and to assess the association between ‘Current asthma’ and comorbidities such as upper airways disease. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based, telephone interview survey including all municipalities of Portugal was undertaken. Participants were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire based on the Portuguese version of the GA2LEN survey. ‘Current asthma’ was defined as self-reported lifetime asthma and at least one of 3 symptoms in the last 12 months: wheezing, waking with breathlessness or having an asthma attack. Results Data were obtained for 6 003 respondents, with mean age of 38.9 (95%CI 38.2-39.6) years and 57.3% females. In the Portuguese population, the prevalence of ‘Current asthma’ was 6.8% (95%CI 6.0-7.7) and of ‘Lifetime asthma’ was 10.5% (95%CI 9.5-11.6) Using GA2LEN definition for asthma, our prevalence estimate was 7.8% (95%CI 7.0-8.8). Rhinitis had a strong association with asthma (Adjusted OR 3.87, 95%CI 2.90-5.18) and the association between upper airway diseases and asthma was stronger in patients with both rhinitis and sinusitis (Adjusted OR 13.93, 95%CI 6.60-29.44). Conclusions Current asthma affects 695 000 Portuguese, with a prevalence of 6.8%. People who reported both rhinitis and sinusitis had the highest risk of having asthma. PMID:22931550

  9. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  10. Prevalence, Diagnosis, Treatment and Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Singapore and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neik, Tina Ting Xiang; Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min; Chia, Noel Kok Hwee; Chua, Arnold Chee Keong

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of autism is increasing globally. While most of the published works are done in the Western and European countries, the trend in autism research is shifting towards the Asian continent recently. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in…

  11. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.

  12. Prevalence of fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.; Robinson, H.; Wake, S.; Webb, T.

    1996-07-12

    The much-quoted prevalence figure of 1:1,000 males for fragile X syndrome is an overestimate in a mixed ethnic population. A reexamination of the individuals from whom those data were derived using molecular diagnostic techniques demonstrates a more realistic figure of 1:4,000 males. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Challenging Behaviours: Prevalence and Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…

  14. Prevalence of hair shedding among women.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Maja; Goren, Andy; Shapiro, Jerry; Sinclair, Rodney; Lonky, Neal M; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Bolanca, Zeljana; McCoy, John

    2017-01-01

    Hair shedding in female patients is a frequent complaint in dermatological, endocrinological, and gynecological consults. Previously, the Sinclair Hair Shedding Scale was developed to assess normal versus excessive hair shedding in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) subjects. However, the prevalence of hair shedding in females not suffering from FPHL is unknown. To gain better understanding of hair shedding in the general population, we recruited 300 subjects visiting a public hospital for conditions other than alopecia. Of the 300 subjects recruited, 263 did not suffer from FPHL. Among those subjects, approximately 40% reported experiencing excessive hair shedding (as defined by the Sinclair Hair Shedding Scale) on hair washing days. In comparison, in our subject population, approximately 60% of subjects with FPHL reported excessive hair shedding on hair washing days. To best of our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the prevalence of hair shedding in women. While, no treatment currently exists for this condition, we hope that this study would encourage physicians and researchers to address this frequent concern.

  15. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  16. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  17. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  18. The incidence and prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Donald S A; Cooper, David S

    2012-10-01

    The thyroid gland is the most common organ affected by autoimmune disease. Other autoimmune diseases, most notably type 1 diabetes mellitus, are increasing in incidence. It is unknown whether autoimmune thyroid diseases are following the same pattern. This review summarizes studies of autoimmune thyroid disease incidence and prevalence since 1950, not only for these measures of occurrences, but also for commenting on identified risk factors for thyroid autoimmunity. We find that incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease is currently higher than in historic series although the studies are so variable in design, patient population, disease definition, and laboratory methods that it is impossible to tell whether this difference is real. Further research is required to assess the possibility of changing disease patterns of autoimmune thyroid disease as opposed to simple changes in diagnostic thresholds.

  19. Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Krisin; Asih, Puji; Sekartuti; Dewi, Rita M; Coutrier, Farah; Rozy, Ismail E; Susanti, Augustina I; Elyazar, Iqbal RF; Sutamihardja, Awalludin; Rahmat, Agus; Kinzer, Michael; Rogers, William O

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan and assess local malaria control efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia, there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. Methods Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Results Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26) in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90) in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0–34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal. Conclusion Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed. PMID:19134197

  20. Associations between national gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates within Europe.

    PubMed

    Planzer, Simon; Gray, Heather M; Shaffer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers and other interested stakeholders currently are seeking information about the comparative effectiveness of different regulatory approaches to minimising gambling-related harm. This study responds to this research gap by exploring associations between gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates. We gathered information about gambling policies for thirty European jurisdictions and past-year prevalence rates for disordered gambling for twelve of these jurisdictions. We present policy trends and prevalence rates and then describe the level of association between policy and prevalence. We observe one statistically significant association between policy and prevalence: rates of sub-clinical (i.e., Level 2) disordered gambling were higher within environments that mandated less strict regulation of advertising for online gambling. Finally, we discuss the implications of our research in the context of the current process regarding the pan-European regulation of gambling. Our findings do not offer evidence for certain assumptions made in the past by the European judiciary.

  1. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases.

  2. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines.

  3. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  4. Bilateral parotitis as the initial presentation of childhood sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Banks, Gretchen C; Kirse, Daniel J; Anthony, Evelyn; Bergman, Simon; Shetty, Avinash K

    2013-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid gland enlargement in children includes infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders. We present the case of a 13-year-old male who presented with a 5-week history of bilateral parotid swelling. On exam, both parotid glands were nontender, smooth, and diffusely enlarged. He had slightly elevated inflammatory markers, but other lab results were normal. A neck CT revealed symmetric enlargement of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. A chest CT revealed scattered peripheral pulmonary nodules and bilateral hilar adenopathy. A parotid gland biopsy showed multiple noncaseating granulomas with multinucleated giant cells surrounded by lymphocytes, consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Special stains for acid-fast and fungal organisms were negative. Using this illustrative case, we discuss the differential diagnosis of bilateral salivary gland enlargement in children and review the etiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of pediatric sarcoidosis.

  5. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  6. Prevalence, characteristics, and survival of frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Katrina M.; Patterson, Karalyn; Vázquez Rodríquez, Patricia; Wehmann, Eileen; Wilcox, Alicia; Lansdall, Claire J.; Dawson, Kate E.; Wiggins, Julie; Mead, Simon; Brayne, Carol; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the lifetime risk, prevalence, incidence, and mortality of the principal clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) using revised diagnostic criteria and including intermediate clinical phenotypes. Methods: Multisource referral over 2 years to identify all diagnosed or suspected cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) in 2 UK counties (population 1.69 million). Diagnostic confirmation used current consensus diagnostic criteria after interview and reexamination. Results were adjusted to the 2013 European standard population. Results: The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS was 10.8/100,000. The incidence and mortality were very similar, at 1.61/100,000 and 1.56/100,000 person-years, respectively. The estimated lifetime risk is 1 in 742. Survival following diagnosis varied widely: from PSP 2.9 years to semantic variant FTD 9.1 years. Age-adjusted prevalence peaked between 65 and 69 years at 42.6/100,000: the age-adjusted prevalence for persons older than 65 years is double the prevalence for those between 40 and 64 years. Fifteen percent of those screened had a relevant genetic mutation. Conclusions: Key features of this study include the revised diagnostic criteria with improved specificity and sensitivity, an unrestricted age range, and simultaneous assessment of multiple FTLD syndromes. The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS increases beyond 65 years, with frequent genetic causes. The time from onset to diagnosis and from diagnosis to death varies widely among syndromes, emphasizing the challenge and importance of accurate and timely diagnosis. A high index of suspicion for FTLD syndromes is required by clinicians, even for older patients. PMID:27037234

  7. Sero-Prevalence of Rodent Pathogens in India

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, Shrruthi; Kulkarni, Prachet G.; Nagavelu, Krishnaveni; Samuel, Rosa J.; Srinivasan, Sandhya; Ramasamy, Nandhini; Hegde, Nagendra R.; Gudde, Ramachandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring is an integral part of laboratory animal quality standards. However, current or past prevalence data as well as regulatory requirements dictate the frequency, type and the expanse of health monitoring. In an effort to understand the prevalence of rodent pathogens in India, a preliminary study was carried out by sero-epidemiology. Sera samples obtained from 26 public and private animal facilities were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against minute virus of mice (MVM), ectromelia virus (ECTV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus (SeV), and Mycoplasma pulmonis in mice, and SeV, rat parvo virus (RPV), Kilham’s rat virus (KRV) and sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) in rats, by sandwich ELISA. It was observed that MHV was the most prevalent agent followed by Mycoplasma pulmonis and MVM in mice, and SDAV followed by RPV were prevalent in rats. On the other hand, none of the samples were positive for ECTV in mice, or SeV or KRV in rats. Multiple infections were common in both mice and rats. The incidence of MHV and Mycoplasma pulmonis was higher in facilities maintained by public organizations than in vivaria of private organizations, although the difference was not statistically different. On the other hand the prevalence of rodent pathogens was significantly higher in the northern part of India than in the South. These studies form the groundwork for detailed sero-prevalence studies which should further lay the foundations for country-specific guidelines for health monitoring of laboratory animals. PMID:26158453

  8. Disparity in smoking prevalence by education: can we reduce it?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Hebert, Kiandra; Wong, Shiushing; Cummins, Sharon; Gamst, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Can an intervention program that is highly effective in reducing the prevalence of an unhealthy behavior in the general population also reduce the disparity among its subgroups? That depends on what measure of disparity is used. Using simple algebraic models, this study demonstrates that disparity measured in terms of relative difference between two groups tends to increase when the prevalence of the behavior is in decline. The study then shows an empirical example, by analyzing the effects of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence of two education groups, the lowest (less than 12 years) and the highest (16 years or more). It examines the data from four California Tobacco Surveys covering the years 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005. The effects of three components of the tobacco control program known to be effective in decreasing prevalence (media, worksite policy, and price) on the two education groups are assessed. The smoking prevalence for the two groups is obtained from these four surveys and a regression line is computed for each education group from 1996 to 2005. Results show that the California program is effective with both low education and high education groups and that the rate of decline in smoking prevalence from 1996 to 2005 is no smaller for the low education group than for the high education group. The paper then discusses that an analysis of disparity based on relative difference, however, could result in misleading recommendations that an intervention like the California tobacco program needs to change from its current whole-population approach to one that focuses on targeting subgroups because it has not reduced disparity. It proposes that research should focus more on increasing the rate of change among less advantage groups and less on the relative disparity compared to some other group.

  9. Target-present guessing as a function of target prevalence and accumulated information in visual search.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-02-09

    Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response. However, researchers have found very high false alarms in high-prevalence searches, suggesting that prevalence rates may be used as a source of information to make "educated guesses" after search termination. Here, we further examine the ability for prevalence level and knowledge gained during visual search to influence guessing rates. We manipulate target prevalence and the amount of information that an observer accumulates about a search display prior to making a response to test if these sources of evidence are used to inform target present guess rates. We find that observers use both information about target prevalence rates and information about the proportion of the array inspected prior to making a response allowing them to make an informed and statistically driven guess about the target's presence.

  10. Has smoking cessation ceased? Expected trends in the prevalence of smoking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mendez, D; Warner, K E; Courant, P N

    1998-08-01

    From 1965 to 1990, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults (aged > or = 18 years) fell steadily and substantially. Data for the 1990s suggest that the smoking initiation rate is increasing and that the decline in the prevalence of smoking may have stalled, raising the fear that the historical 25-year decline will not continue. The authors used a new dynamic forecasting model to show that although the decline may slow down, the demographics of smoking imply that prevalence will inexorably continue to decline over the next several decades, even without any intensified efforts aimed at tobacco control. The authors estimated and validated the model using historical (1965-1993) data collected by the National Health Interview Surveys on the prevalence of smoking among adults. Their results indicate that the current increase in the smoking initiation rate partially explains the fact that the prevalence of smoking has apparently leveled off, but even if the most grim assumptions about future initiation rates are used, the prevalence of smoking among adults will continue to decline for several more decades. The authors predict that if current initiation and cessation behaviors persist, the prevalence of smoking among adults will automatically decline from its current level of 25% to 15-16% by the second quarter of the next century. Even so, smoking will remain the nation's leading cause of premature death.

  11. Marijuana: current concepts(†).

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Hawver, Elizabeth K; Greydanus, Megan M; Merrick, Joav

    2013-10-10

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  12. Current Opinions on Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Goff, Caroline Le; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional ”treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Key points The word “tendinopathy ”is the correct term for the clinical diagnosis of pain accompanied by impaired performance, and sometimes swelling in the tendon. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be a multi-factorial process, involving promoting factors that are intrinsic or extrinsic, working either alone or in combination. US (with color Doppler) and MRI are usually prescribed when tendinopathy is unresponsive to treatment and entails lingering symptoms. Eccentric training is currently considered to be the

  13. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented.

  14. [Colombia. Prevalence, Demography and Health Survey 1990].

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    Colombia's 1990 Survey of Prevalence, Demography, and Health (EPDS) was intended to provide data on the total population and on the status of women's and children's health for use in planning and in formulating health and family planning policy. 7412 household interviews and 8647 individual interviews with women aged 15-49 years were completed. This document provides a brief description of the questionnaire, sample design, data processing, and survey results. More detailed works on each topic are expected to follow. After weighing, 74.8% of respondents were urban and 25.2% rural. 3.2% were illiterate, 36.6% had some primary education, 50.2% had secondary educations, and 9.9% had high higher educations. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 98.2% and 997% knew some contraceptive method, 94.1% and 97.9% knew some source of family planning, 57.6% and 86.0% had ever used a method, and 39.9% and 66.1% were currently using a method. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 52.2% and 78.9% had ever used a modern method and 33.0% and 54.6% were currently using a modern method. Among women in union, 14.1% currently used pills, 12.4% IUDs, 2.2% injectables, 1.7% vaginal methods, 2.9% condoms, 20.9% female sterilization, .5% vasectomy, 11.5% some tradition method, 6.1% periodic abstinence, 4.8% withdrawal, and .5% others. Equal proportions of rural and urban women were sterilized. The prevalence of female sterilization declined with education and increased with family size. Modern methods were used by 57.5% of urban and 47.7% of rural women, 44.0% of illiterate women, 51.8% of women with primary and 57.8% with secondary educations. Among women in union, 10.9% wanted a child soon, 19.7% wanted 1 eventually, 3.6% were undecided, 42.6% did not want 1, 21.4% were sterilized, and 1.2% were infertile. Among women giving birth in the past 5 years, the proportion having antitetanus vaccinations increased from 39% in 1986

  15. Superconducting fault current controller/current controller

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Yung S.

    2004-06-15

    A superconducting fault current controller/current controller employs a superconducting-shielded core reactor (SSCR) with a variable impedance in a secondary circuit to control current in a primary circuit such as an electrical distribution system. In a second embodiment, a variable current source is employed in a secondary circuit of an SSCR to control current in the primary circuit. In a third embodiment, both a variable impedance in one secondary circuit and a variable current source in a second circuit of an SSCR are employed for separate and independent control of current in the primary circuit.

  16. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  17. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation. PMID:27536165

  18. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  19. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: literature review update.

    PubMed

    Marques, Amelia Pasqual; Santo, Adriana de Sousa do Espírito; Berssaneti, Ana Assumpção; Matsutani, Luciana Akemi; Yuan, Susan Lee King

    2016-12-18

    The present study aimed to update the literature review on the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) published in 2006. A bibliographical survey was carried out from 2005 to 2014 in the MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, LILACS and SciELO databases and 3274 records were identified. Five researchers selected the studies, following the inclusion criteria: studies that obtained the prevalence of FM. FM studies in associated diseases were excluded. When screening by title and abstract, 2073 irrelevant articles were excluded. The full texts of 210 articles were evaluated for eligibility and this review included 39 studies, described in 41 articles. The selected studies were grouped into four categories: a) prevalence of FM in the general population; B) prevalence of FM in women; C) prevalence of FM in rural and urban areas; D) prevalence of FM in special populations. The literature shows values of FM prevalence in the general population between 0.2 and 6.6%, in women between 2.4 and 6.8%, in urban areas between 0.7 and 11.4%, in rural areas between 0.1 and 5.2%, and in special populations values between 0.6 and 15%. This literature review update shows a significant increase in FM prevalence studies in the world. The new 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria have not been widely used yet and the COPCORD (Community-oriented program for control of Rheumatic Diseases) methodology has increased the quality of studies on the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in general.

  20. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan BR

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either “typical” or “atypical”. In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  1. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued. PMID:27185955

  2. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-05-31

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued.

  3. Increasing Prevalence of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in Primary Healthcare of a Finnish Town, 1989-99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannus, Sinikka; Kauppila, Timo; Launonen, Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    Background: The increasing prevalence of specific language impairment (SLI) is a matter of current debate. Aims: Speech and language therapists and other authorities in Finland have discussed the prevalence of SLI since the 1990s. This discussion has been based on international studies because of the lack of national studies. This paper presents…

  4. Prevalence of obesity and correlations with lifestyle and dietary factors in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Wen, Wanqing; Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate the age-adjusted prevalence of general and centralized obesity among Chinese men living in urban Shanghai. Research Methods and Procedures A cross-sectional study was conducted in 61,582 Chinese men aged 40 to 75. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was used to measure overweight (23≤BMI<27.5) and obesity (BMI≥27.5) based on the WHO recommended criteria for Asians. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was used to measure moderate (75th≤WHR<90th percentile) and severe (WHR≥90th percentile) centralized obesity. Results The average BMI and WHR were 23.7 kg/m2 and 0.90, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 48.6% and obesity, 10.5%. The prevalence of general and centralized obesity was higher in men with high income or who were unemployed, tea drinkers, or non-ginseng users than their counterparts. Men with high education had a higher prevalence of overweight and centralized obesity, but had a lower prevalence of obesity and severe centralized obesity compared to those with lower education. Current smokers or alcohol drinkers had a lower prevalence of general obesity but higher prevalence of centralized obesity than non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Ex-smokers and ex-alcohol drinkers had a higher prevalence of general and centralized obesity compared to non-smokers and non-alcohol drinkers. Prevalence of obesity was associated with high energy intake and low daily physical activity. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity in Chinese men in urban Shanghai was lower than that observed in Western countries but higher than that in other Asian countries, and the prevalence of general and centralized obesity differed by demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. PMID:18356829

  5. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  6. [Prevalence and socio-economic relevance of allergies in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böcking, C; Renz, H; Pfefferle, P I

    2012-03-01

    Within the last five decades, the worldwide prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, or food allergies has increased dramatically. Germany follows a similar trend; several studies have shown increased numbers of allergic diseases in this period. Although allergic diseases do not exhibit high mortality rates, the loss of quality of life as shown by studies conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) is considerable. Additional health-economical analyses documented that allergic patients more frequently occupy services of the health care system in Germany. The treatment of allergies and the increasing consultation rates cause rising costs and an increasing burden for the national economy. Currently it is possible to control allergic diseases such as asthma by a precise diagnosis or identification of the causative allergen. However, a considerable reduction in the prevalence of allergic disease and its therapy costs can only be expected if causative therapies and effective prevention strategies are available.

  7. Prevalence of domestic violence in an inpatient female population.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, K C; Burns, R B; McCarthy, E P; Freund, K M

    1998-04-01

    Studies have evaluated the prevalence of domestic violence in populations of patients in emergency and primary care settings, but there are little data on patients admitted to hospitals. We undertook a study to evaluate the prevalence of domestic violence among female inpatients. Of 131 consecutive female patients between the ages of 18 and 60 admitted to a nontrauma urban teaching hospital asked to complete a self-administered survey about domestic violence, 101 completed the questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of the respondents reported being in an abusive relationship at one time. Two patients felt that domestic violence contributed to their current reason for admission. No respondents were asked about domestic violence by health care providers. Domestic violence is an uncommon but important precipitant to nontrauma hospital admissions. Physicians should query all female inpatients about domestic assault.

  8. The Prevalence of Standard Large Modules in Thermoelectric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J.; Bierschenk, J.

    2015-06-01

    The thermoelectric industry serves a broad range of applications using, mainly, a few standard module designs. This paper first briefly describes types of modules and two types of thermoelectric material used by the industry, after which the focus is on selected features of the standard designs and reasons for their prevalence. Whereas cost reduction and the need to maximize reliability drive the adoption of standard modules, other factors contribute to shaping the particular features of the standard thermoelectric cooling modules. These factors include the magnitude of heat loads, heat-sink performance, durability and performance expectations, and relative ease of manufacture. This discussion of the features and prevalence of standard modules relates to broader aspects of both the production and implementation of thermoelectric modules, and an estimate of current thermoelectric industry output is included.

  9. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Lindsey A.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PMID

  10. Is Maxwell's Displacement Current a Current?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses in detail the claim that certain well-known physics experiments demonstrate the magnetic field produced by Maxwell's displacement current. Addresses the question of whether the displacement current acts as a source of magnetic field in the same way as a current in a wire would. (Contains 12 references.) (WRM)

  11. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  12. Prevalence of mental disorders in a Greek island.

    PubMed

    Stylianidis, S; Pantelidou, S; Chondros, P; Roelandt, J L; Barbato, A

    2014-01-01

    In Greece, the need for epidemiological data became evident at the beginning of the mental health reform during 1983 with the emergence of the necessity to develop community-based mental health services. This survey was conducted in 2005 by the Association for Regional Development and Mental Health (EPAPSY), supported by the local authorities. It followed the methodology of the survey "Mental Health in the General Population: Images and Realities" (MHGP), a large scale multisite epidemiological research conducted by the World Health Organization Collaborative Centre of Lille in France and other countries. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, sociodemographic and comorbidity patterns of mental disorders in the general adult population of Evia Island, Greece. This was a cross-sectional survey investigating point, period and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. The target population was the non-institutionalized adult population of island of Evia (population 230,000 people). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a sociodemographic data questionnaire were administered by trained interviewers to 900 residents of Evia. The quota sampling method was used to obtain a sample representative of the target population. Lifetime prevalence of any disorder, as identified by the MINI, was 29%. The prevalence of depression was high, with 17.5% of women and 14.6% of men currently meeting the criteria for diagnosis. Affective and anxiety disorders were found to be more frequent in women than men, except for dysthymia, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder which were slightly more frequent in men. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Evia was much higher than the prevalence found by other epidemiological studies in Greece and among the highest in Southern Europe. The high prevalence of mental disorders found in Evia means that almost one third of the population will suffer from a clinically significant disorder in their lifetime

  13. Prevalence of Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sarki, Ahmed M.; Nduka, Chidozie U.; Stranges, Saverio; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Uthman, Olalekan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of hypertension prevalence, and to examine the pattern of this disease condition across different socio-demographic characteristics in low-and middle-income countries. We searched electronic databases from inception to August 2015. We included population-based studies that reported hypertension prevalence using the current definition of blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used random-effects meta-analyses to pool prevalence estimates of hypertension, overall, by World Bank region and country income group. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. A total of 242 studies, comprising data on 1,494,609 adults from 45 countries, met our inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 32.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.4–35.3), with the Latin America and Caribbean region reporting the highest estimates (39.1%, 95% CI 33.1–45.2). Pooled prevalence estimate was also highest across upper middle income countries (37.8%, 95% CI 35.0–40.6) and lowest across low-income countries (23.1%, 95% CI 20.1–26.2). Prevalence estimates were significantly higher in the elderly (≥65 years) compared with younger adults (<65 years) overall and across the geographical regions; however, there was no significant sex-difference in hypertension prevalence (31.9% vs 30.8%, P = 0.6). Persons without formal education (49.0% vs 24.9%, P < 0.00001), overweight/obese (46.4% vs 26.3%, P < 0.00001), and urban settlers (32.7% vs 25.2%, P = 0.0005) were also more likely to be hypertensive, compared with those who were educated, normal weight, and rural settlers respectively. This study provides contemporary and up-to-date estimates that reflect the significant burden of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries, as well as evidence that hypertension remains a major public health issue

  14. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). Design Questionnaire and population based observational study. Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusions EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity

  15. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Among Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096

  16. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p < 0.001), between 2002 (10.6 per 1000) and 2006. The rise in autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  17. Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

  18. [Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats].

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; de Bruin, M J; Jorritsma, R A; Ploeger, H W; Schoormans, A

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for, Tritrichomonas foetus among cats in the Netherlands. A total of 154 faecal samples were collected from three groups of cats: cats with diarrhoea (n=53), cattery cats (n=47), and healthy pet cats (n=54). Faecal samples were examined with a T. foetus specific real-time PCR. All PCR-positive samples were run on gel electrophoresis for definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of T. foetus was 2% among cats with diarrhoea and 4% among cattery cats; T. foetus was not prevalent among pet cats (none of the samples tested positive). Questionnaires had been distributed to cat and cattery owners to determine risk factors for T. foetus, but the low prevalence precluded statistical analysis of the questionnaire results.

  19. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines. PMID:24770530

  20. The prevalence of asthma and allergies in Singapore; data from two ISAAC surveys seven years apart

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Tan, T; Shek, L; Chng, S; Hia, C; Ong, N; Ma, S; Lee, B; Goh, D

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims: Over the past few decades, the prevalence of asthma has been increasing in the industrialised world. Despite the suggestion of a similar increase in Singapore, the 12 month prevalence of wheeze among schoolchildren in 1994 was 2.5-fold less than that reported in western populations. It was hypothesised that with increasing affluence in Singapore, the asthma prevalence would further increase and approach Western figures. A second ISAAC survey was carried out seven years later to evaluate this hypothesis. Methods: The cross-sectional data from two ISAAC questionnaire based surveys conducted in 1994 (n = 6238) and in 2001 (n = 9363) on two groups of schoolchildren aged 6–7 and 12–15 years were compared. The instruments used were identical and the procedures standardised in both surveys. Results: Comparing data from both studies, the change in the prevalence of current wheeze occurred in opposing directions in both age groups—decreasing in the 6–7 year age group (16.6% to 10.2%) but increasing to a small extent in the 12–15 year age group (9.9% to 11.9%). The 12 month prevalence of rhinitis did not change; there was an increase in the current eczema symptoms in both age groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of current wheeze, a surrogate measure of asthma prevalence, has decreased significantly in the 6–7 year age group. Eczema was the only allergic disease that showed a modest increase in prevalence in both age groups. PMID:15102631

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in urban Colombian adolescents aged 10-16 years using three different pediatric definitions.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence in adolescents using three different definitions for this age group. The evaluated sample consisted of 718 male and 743 female adolescents. Definitions by Cook et al., de Ferranti et al. and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for adolescents were used to estimate the prevalence of MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 8.5, 2.5 and 1.2% by de Ferranti et al., Cook et al. and IDF definitions, respectively. High fasting glucose component had the lower prevalence whereas high triglycerides levels component was the most prevalent. In obese adolescents, the prevalence of MetS was higher. MetS classification in adolescents strongly depends on the definition chosen. Further research is required for the evaluation of the current definitions (multicentric studies), and for addition or design of new and useful criteria.

  2. Arsenic and diabetes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Fa; Chen, Ya Wen; Yang, Ching Yao; Tsai, Keh Sung; Yang, Rong Sen; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2011-09-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metalloid of global concern. Many studies have indicated a dose-response relationship between accumulative arsenic exposure and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan and Bangladesh, where arsenic exposure occurs through drinking water. Epidemiological researches have suggested that the characteristics of arsenic-induced DM observed in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan and Mexico are similar to those of non-insulin-dependent DM (Type 2 DM). These studies analyzed the association between high and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water and the development of DM, but the effect of exposure to low to moderate levels of inorganic arsenic on the risk of DM is unclear. Navas-Acien et al. recently proposed that a positive association existed between total urine arsenic and the prevalence of Type 2 DM in people exposed to low to moderate levels of arsenic. However, the diabetogenic role played by arsenic is still debated upon. An increase in the prevalence of DM has been observed among residents of highly arsenic-contaminated areas, whereas the findings from community-based and occupational studies in low-arsenic-exposure areas have been inconsistent. Recently, a population-based cross-sectional study showed that the current findings did not support an association between arsenic exposure from drinking water at levels less than 300 μg/L and a significantly increased risk of DM. Moreover, although the precise mechanisms for the arsenic-induced diabetogenic effect are still largely undefined, recent in vitro experimental studies indicated that inorganic arsenic or its metabolites impair insulin-dependent glucose uptake or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Nevertheless, the dose, the form of arsenic used, and the experimental duration in the in vivo studies varied greatly, leading to conflicting results and ambiguous interpretation of these data with respect to human exposure

  3. Prevalence of substance-related disorders in heart transplantation candidates.

    PubMed

    Sirri, L; Potena, L; Masetti, M; Tossani, E; Grigioni, F; Magelli, C; Branzi, A; Grandi, S

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse cessation is one of the leading factors in determining the eligibility for the heart transplantation waiting list, as noncompliance with this issue may seriously endanger posttransplantation outcomes. Yet, the prevalence of substance-related disorders among candidates for heart transplantation has not been evaluated enough. Eighty three heart transplantation candidates were assessed for prior or current substance-related disorders through the Structured Clinical Interview for mental disorders according to DSM-IV. A prior history of at least one substance-related disorder was found in 64% of patients, with nicotine dependence as the most prevalent diagnosis (61.4% of the sample). Ten subjects were currently smokers, despite heart failure. A prior history of alcohol abuse and caffeine intoxication was found in 9.6% and 2.4% of patients, respectively. Substance abuse or dependence behaviors should be monitored during all the phases of heart transplantation program. Early identification of current substance-related disorders may allow better allocation of organ resources and proper lifestyle modification programs provision. A prior history of substance-related disorders should alert physicians to assess patients for possible relapse, especially after transplantation. The inclusion of a specialist in the assessment and treatment of substance-related disorders in the heart transplantation unit may reduce the risk of unsuccessful outcomes due to noncompliance with an adequate lifestyle.

  4. The contraceptive prevalence survey project: content and status.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G L

    1983-01-01

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) selected Westinghouse Health Systems to carry out contraceptive surveys. The primary objectives of the Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPS) are to determine periodically the levels of contraceptive use in the country; to examine the correlates of and differentials in these levels in order to assess the impact of various types of governmental and nongovernmental programs; to identify factors that will facilitate an increase in contraceptive use, particularly factors involved in program planning activities; and to institutionalize in each country the capability to design and implement studies of contraceptive prevalence, to be undertaken at regular intervals by an in-country agency. Each CPS generally collects data on the basic demographic background of the country concerned, knowledge of contraceptive methods, prior contraceptive experience and current method used, past fertility behavior and future fertility intentions, present utilization of various types of service delivery systems, perceived accessibility of contraceptives, and reasons for nonacceptance of contraception. In the CPS project, data collection and field operations have been strongly stressed. Efforts have recently been made to expand the extent and sophistication of CPS data analysis. For example, 2 countries are currently using a series of mathematical techniques called synthetic estimators to estimate subnational levels of contraceptive use by merging CPS and census data. Westinghouse, in cooperation with the University of Michigan, is currently working to develop community characteristics module for inclusion in future CPS projects.

  5. Hyperhidrosis: an update on prevalence and severity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, James; Walker, Patricia; Mills, Thomas; Thurston, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Current published estimates of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the United States are outdated and underestimate the true prevalence of the condition. The objectives of this study are to provide an updated estimate of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the US population and to further assess the severity and impact of sweating on those affected by the condition. For the purposes of obtaining prevalence, a nationally representative sample of 8160 individuals were selected using an online panel, and information as to whether or not they experience hyperhidrosis was obtained. The 393 individuals (210 female, 244 non-Hispanic white, 27 black, mean age 40.3, SE 0.64) who indicated that they have hyperhidrosis were asked further questions, including body areas impacted, severity of symptoms, age of onset, and socioemotional impact of the condition. Current results estimate the prevalence of hyperhidrosis at 4.8 %, which represents approximately 15.3 million people in the United States. Of these, 70 % report severe excessive sweating in at least one body area. In spite of this, only 51 % have discussed their excessive sweating with a healthcare professional. The main reasons are a belief that hyperhidrosis is not a medical condition and that no treatment options exist. The current study's findings with regard to age of onset and prevalence by body area generally align with the previous research. However, current findings suggest that the severity and prevalence are both higher than previously thought, indicating a need for greater awareness of the condition and its associated treatment options among medical professionals.

  6. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Manes, Harvey R

    2012-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is prevalent in patients who have a repetitive motion, vibration, or pressure exerted on the wrist joint for an extended period of time. The prevalence of this condition in the general population is approximately 5%. Motorcyclists subject themselves to high levels of vibration from the road and use their wrists to control the motorcycle's brakes, gas intake, and gears via the handlebars. Under these conditions, the author hypothesized that an increased prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome would be observed in this population.

  7. Prevalence of Malocclusion in Jaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Chugh, Vinay K; Sharma, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in Jaipur city, India. A total of 700 subjects, in the age group of 16-26 years were divided into five groups of normal occlusion, Angle’s Class I, Class II Div 1, Class II Div 2 and Class III malocclusion. The results revealed that the prevalence of malocclusion was 66.3%, with the majority of them having Class I malocclusion (57.9%), while the prevalence of Class III malocclusion was found to be the least (1.4%). There was no statistically significant gender difference among the subjects studied. PMID:25206094

  8. Amaurosis fugax: risk factors and prevalence of significant carotid stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kvickström, Pia; Lindblom, Bertil; Bergström, Göran; Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and prevalence of carotid stenosis in patients with amaurosis fugax (AF). Method Patients diagnosed with AF and subjected to carotid ultrasound in 2004–2010 in Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (n=302), were included, and data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Results The prevalence of significant carotid stenosis was 18.9%, and 14.2% of the subjects were subjected to carotid endarterectomy. Significant associations with risk of having ≥70% stenosis were male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26–5.46), current smoking (aOR: 6.26; 95% CI: 2.62–14.93), diabetes (aOR: 3.68; 95% CI: 1.37–9.90) and previous vasculitis (aOR: 10.78; 95% CI: 1.36–85.5). A majority of the patients (81.4%) was seen by an ophthalmologist prior to the first ultrasound. Only 1.7% of the patients exhibited retinal artery emboli at examination. Conclusion The prevalence of carotid stenosis among patients with AF is higher than has previously been demonstrated in stroke patients. An association with previously reported vascular risk factors and with vasculitis is seen in this patient group. Ocular findings are scarce. PMID:27826182

  9. Prevalence of Sleepwalking: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleepwalking is thought to be a common arousal disorder; however, the epidemiology of this disorder has not yet been systematically examined. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted for ‘sleepwalking’ OR ‘somnambulism’ in any field, to identify studies that reported the epidemiology of sleepwalking or sleepwalking disorders. Fifty-one studies assessed the prevalence rates of sleepwalking in a total sample of 100 490. The meta-analysis showed the estimated lifetime prevalence of sleepwalking was 6.9% (95% CI 4.6%–10.3%). The current prevalence rate of sleepwalking—within the last 12 months—was significantly higher in children 5.0% (95% CI 3.8%–6.5%) than adults 1.5% (95% CI 1.0%–2.3%). There was no evidence of developmental trends in sleepwalking across childhood. The significant risk of bias across all studies suggests these results should be used cautiously. Further epidemiological research that addresses methodological problems found in studies of sleepwalking to date is needed. PMID:27832078

  10. Prevalence of Sleepwalking: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Stallman, Helen M; Kohler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleepwalking is thought to be a common arousal disorder; however, the epidemiology of this disorder has not yet been systematically examined. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted for 'sleepwalking' OR 'somnambulism' in any field, to identify studies that reported the epidemiology of sleepwalking or sleepwalking disorders. Fifty-one studies assessed the prevalence rates of sleepwalking in a total sample of 100 490. The meta-analysis showed the estimated lifetime prevalence of sleepwalking was 6.9% (95% CI 4.6%-10.3%). The current prevalence rate of sleepwalking-within the last 12 months-was significantly higher in children 5.0% (95% CI 3.8%-6.5%) than adults 1.5% (95% CI 1.0%-2.3%). There was no evidence of developmental trends in sleepwalking across childhood. The significant risk of bias across all studies suggests these results should be used cautiously. Further epidemiological research that addresses methodological problems found in studies of sleepwalking to date is needed.

  11. Obesity prevalence from a European perspective: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Berghöfer, Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Reinhold, Thomas; Apovian, Caroline M; Sharma, Arya M; Willich, Stefan N

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity has been recognised as an important contributing factor in the development of various diseases, but comparative data on this condition are limited. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in European countries. Methods We identified relevant published studies by means of a MEDLINE search (1990–2008) supplemented by information obtained from regulatory agencies. We only included surveys that used direct measures of weight and height and were representative of each country's overall population. Results In Europe, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) in men ranged from 4.0% to 28.3% and in women from 6.2% to 36.5%. We observed considerable geographic variation, with prevalence rates in Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe being higher than those in Western and Northern Europe. Conclusion In Europe, obesity has reached epidemic proportions. The data presented in our review emphasise the need for effective therapeutic and preventive strategies. PMID:18533989

  12. HIV in Indian prisons: Risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background & Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Methods: Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. Results: No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Interpretation & conclusions: HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided. PMID:21245617

  13. The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangfang; Huang, Yinxing; Ding, Chenyu; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Shousen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPMAs) is not well known, and hyperprolactinemia caused by a NFPMA is currently associated with diagnostic uncertainty. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs. Methods: A meta-analysis of all existing articles in PubMed was conducted. The search string was designed as “(non-functioning pituitary tumor OR non-functioning pituitary tumor OR non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas OR non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas OR non-functioning pituitary adenomas OR non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and hyperprolactinemia”. References of the articles found were also reviewed. Study selection and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 software (StataCorp LP, USA). The fixed effects model was used to evaluate these studies. Results: The search identified 57 published studies, seven of which were accepted for the final meta-analysis. The authors found an overall estimated 40.2% prevalence of (95% CI, 36.6%-43.7%) hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs. Conclusions: Given the high frequency of hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs, a diagnosis of NFPMA or prolactinoma should be made more carefully. PMID:26770524

  14. Prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care despite the critical public health concern and the burden of suffering on such youths. The current study examined the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment across five public sectors of care. Youths aged 11-18 (n = 1,135) enrolled in one of five public sectors of care reported on their maltreatment history using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Across all sectors, 78% of youth reported experiencing at least moderate levels of maltreatment with the majority (58%) reporting multiple types of maltreatment. The prevalence of maltreatment was highest for youths involved in the alcohol/drug (86%) and child welfare (85%) sectors, and lowest in the serious emotional disturbance sector (72%). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine differences in the likelihood of multiple types of maltreatment by sector affiliation, controlling for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and age. The results indicate that rates of maltreatment across sectors do not differ greatly from those in child welfare. The high incidence of maltreatment across all sectors, not solely child welfare, indicates that all youth in public sectors of care should be screened for a history of maltreatment when they enter into care.

  15. [Raynaud's phenomenon: pathogenesis and prevalence].

    PubMed

    Mikulska, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is defined as occasional ischemia of the distal parts of the extremities. Ischemia may be idiopathic as in primary Raynaud's disease or instigated by a comorbidity as in Raynaud's syndrome. Opinions on the etiopathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon have changed during recent years. Research has shown that enhanced vascular reactivity is attributable more to local factors and less to abnormalities in the central nervous system. Local factors are classified as vascular, nervous, and intravascular. Changes in our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon have resulted in modified therapeutic guidelines. The present work reviews current opinions on the etiopathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon.

  16. Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects in Metropolitan Atlanta, 1998–2005

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Mark D.; Strickland, Matthew J.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Mahle, William T.; Correa, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine an accurate estimate of the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) using current standard diagnostic modalities. Study design We obtained data on infants with CHD delivered during 1998–2005 identified by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, an active, population-based birth defects surveillance system. Physiologic shunts in infancy and shunts associated with prematurity were excluded. Selected infant and maternal characteristics of the cases were compared with those of the overall birth cohort. Results From 1998–2005 there were 398 140 births, of which 3240 infants had CHD, for an overall prevalence of 81.4/10 000 births. The most common CHD were muscular ventricular septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, and secundum atrial septal defect, with prevalence of 27.5, 10.6, and 10.3/10 000 births, respectively. The prevalence of tetralogy of Fallot, the most common cyanotic CHD, was twice that of transposition of the great arteries (4.7 vs. 2.3/10 000 births). Many common CHD were associated with older maternal age and multiple-gestation pregnancy; several were found to vary by sex. Conclusion This study, using a standardized cardiac nomenclature and classification, provides current prevalence estimates of the various CHD subtypes. These estimates can be used to assess variations in prevalence across populations, time or space. PMID:18657826

  17. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among instrumental musicians at a center for performing arts in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ajidahun, Adedayo T; Phillips, Julie

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) is high in various countries of the world, but there is a paucity of literature in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMDs among instrumentalists in South Africa, with specific objectives in determining the distribution, symptoms, and pain severity. The self-administered Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect information from the participants regarding the lifetime and current prevalence and the distribution of PRMD symptoms. A visual analog scale was used to collect information on the severity of pain, while the questionnaire designed by Blackie, Stone, and Tiernan (1999) was used to collect information on the symptoms of the PRMDs. Twenty participants took part in this study, and the respondents reported a lifetime prevalence (over a period of 12 months) of PRMDs as 14 out of 17 and the current prevalence (in the last 7 days) as 4. Pain severity was mostly mild, and the most affected region was in the upper extremities, with the shoulders being the most affected. Tightening and soreness were the most reported symptom of PRMDs. The prevalence of PRMDs among this population was high, although severity was mild, with the upper extremities being the most affected area.

  18. Social-structural indices and between-nation differences in HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Tan, Judy Y; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Pratto, Felicia; Rosenthal, Lisa; Kalichman, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Research emphasises the role that social structures play in shaping national HIV prevalence. This study examined how social, economic, and political contexts that may represent the confluence of individual capabilities and environmental affordances or constraints are associated with national HIV prevalence. Based on social-ecological perspectives, we examined social-structural dimensions in relation to national HIV prevalence. The study identified six publicly available nation-level social, political, and economic indices and examined their associations with national 2009 HIV prevalence across 225 nations. National indices, (a) education expenditures, (b) unemployment rate, (c) homicide rate, (d) freedom of religion, and (e) women's social rights, altogether explained 43% of the variability in national HIV prevalence. Education expenditures, homicide rate, and freedom of religion were significant predictors of national HIV prevalence in the multivariate analysis. The present study identified nation-level factors that capture social, economic, and political contexts to explain between-nation differences in HIV prevalence. Findings extend current literature on the social-structural foundation of HIV-risk and the relationship between human rights and health. National safeguards that afford individuals the power to promote general quality of life and protection from structural violence may be most important to lowering overall rates of HIV transmission.

  19. Modeling the distribution of urolithiasis prevalence under projected climate change in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shajari, Ahmad; Sanjerehei, Mohammad Mousaei

    2015-08-01

    Although studies support a positive correlation between temperature and stone risk, the precise relationship between these factors has not been elucidated. We modeled the current distribution of urolithiasis prevalence in Iran using 26 bioclimatic, climatic and topographic variables based on two multivariate linear regression models in geographical information system. The impact of climate change on the stone prevalence was predicted under the projections of GFDL-ESM2G, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES climate models by mid-century (2050). Extraterrestrial radiation and isothermality in the first regression model and annual mean temperature, precipitation seasonality and isothermality in the second model were the significant (P<0.01) predictors of urolithiasis prevalence. Both regression models provided good estimates of the stone prevalence (R2>0.9) and determined a mean urolithiasis prevalence of 6% (range of 1.5-10.8%) in Iran. The climate change under the projections of GFDL-ESM2G, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES models can, respectively, lead to an average increase of 5.7, 4.3 and 9% in the urolithiasis prevalence based on the second regression model by 2050. The highest increase of the prevalence will occur in the west, northwest and southwest provinces of the country. Predicting the impact of climate change on climate-related diseases can be useful for effective preventive measures.

  20. Social-structural indices and between-nation differences in HIV prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Judy Y; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Pratto, Felicia; Rosenthal, Lisa; Kalichman, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Research emphasises the role that social structures play in shaping national HIV prevalence. This study examined how social, economic, and political contexts that may represent the confluence of individual capabilities and environmental affordances or constraints are associated with national HIV prevalence. Based on social-ecological perspectives, we examined social-structural dimensions in relation to national HIV prevalence. The study identified six publicly available nation-level social, political, and economic indices and examined their associations with national 2009 HIV prevalence across 225 nations. National indices, (a) education expenditures, (b) unemployment rate, (c) homicide rate, (d) freedom of religion, and (e) women’s social rights, altogether explained 43% of the variability in national HIV prevalence. Education expenditures, homicide rate, and freedom of religion were significant predictors of national HIV prevalence in the multivariate analysis. The present study identified nation-level factors that capture social, economic, and political contexts to explain between-nation differences in HIV prevalence. Findings extend current literature on the social-structural foundation of HIV-risk and the relationship between human rights and health. National safeguards that afford individuals the power to promote general quality of life and protection from structural violence may be most important to lowering overall rates of HIV transmission. PMID:24700198

  1. What is the impact of disease prevalence upon health technology assessment?

    PubMed

    Rotily, Michel; Roze, Stéphane

    2013-12-01

    As national budgets for health care will remain under stress for the foreseeable future, health technology assessment (HTA) aimed at offering guidance to policy-making will have an increasing role to play in optimizing resources. The emergence of new treatment paradigms and health technologies, and the prevalence studies which determine when a disease is a current or future burden for patients and the community are in the roots of the HTA process. Analysing studies on screening test strategies and health care policy, this paper revisits two key concepts in epidemiology, prevalence and incidence, in order to show their major impact upon HTA. Utilization of the predictive values of screening tests that include prevalence in their calculations, and analysing all options for screening strategies are necessary in HTA. Cost-effectiveness analyses and statistical models should include potential externalities, especially the impact of prevention and treatment on infectious disease prevalence. Beyond estimates of cost-effectiveness ratios, decision makers also need to know by how much their annual health care budget is likely to increase or decrease in the years following the emergence of new technologies: hence the importance of incidence- or prevalence-based economic evaluations. As new paradigms are occurring, especially in the field of oncology, with treatments targeted to 'small' groups of patients identified through genetic testing, prevalence data are strongly needed. Precise estimates of disease prevalence, in general populations as well as in risk or targeted groups, will therefore be necessary to improve HTA process.

  2. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis based on the SACRA questionnaire among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors and asthma and rhinitis are related, relatively few studies have investigated the prevalence of occupational rhinitis based on occupation, and knowledge of occupational rhinitis in Japan is currently limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma. A postal survey was conducted from October to December 2013 using translated versions of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey for the prevalence of asthma and State of the Impact of Allergic Rhinitis on Asthma Control questionnaire for the prevalence of rhinitis. Of 4,634 Japanese nursing professionals, 497 subjects had asthma, and 270 of these 497 subjects had allergic rhinitis (54.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49.7-58.7). Latex allergy was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.21-2.60). There was no relationship between employment period and prevalent allergic rhinitis. The results of this study provide fundamental information regarding occupational health among Japanese nursing professionals, including the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma and latex allergy as a potential risk factor for prevalent allergic rhinitis.

  3. Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

    2014-11-15

    Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human

  4. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  5. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  6. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Harazi, Talal; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abd; Othman, Hidayatulfathi

    2013-12-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among the Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia. The overall intestinal protozoan infection rate was 85% (261 out of 307). The highest prevalence rates were due to Entamoeba coli (24.4%), Giardia lamblia (21.8%), Blastocystis hominis (21.2%) and Entamoeba histolytica (15.0%). The prevalence of Iodamoeba butschlii was only 2.9%. Among the positive samples, mixed infection with B. hominis and E. histolytica was 3.3%, B. hominis and G. lamblia was 2.9%, G. lamblia and E. histolytica was 2.0% and triple infections (B. hominis, G. lamblia and E. histolytica) was 1.0 %. The prevalence of the infection was high in all age groups (6-14 years old). Thus, we can conclude that intestinal protozoan infections are still representing a serious public health problem in aboriginal communities, especially among children.

  8. [Anemia and iron deficiency in the elderly. Prevalence, diagnostics and new therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Röhrig, G; Doehner, W; Schaefer, R M; Schulz, R J

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of anemia in geriatric patients is high. With some variation in different patient cohorts, prevalence of anemia can reach 40%. Anemia is not an age-related disease on its own, but is a symptom with multifactorial genesis and high risk potential. It directly influences mortality, morbidity, and the rate of hospitalization, particularly in older patients suffering from chronic heart failure or chronic kidney disease. The high prevalence of anemia in chronic kidney disease is explained by a combination of erythropoietin and iron deficiency. This review summarizes the recommendations of the iron symposium at the 2010 German Geriatric Society Meeting in Potsdam, Germany. It intends to provide current information on prevalence, diagnostic work-up, and therapeutic options for anemia in the rapidly growing group of elderly patients.

  9. Collecting baseline information for national morbidity alleviation programs: different methods to estimate lymphatic filariasis morbidity prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Els; Amann, Josef; Eigege, Abel; Richards, Frank; Sodahlon, Yao

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic filariasis elimination program aims not only to stop transmission, but also to alleviate morbidity. Although geographically limited morbidity projects exist, few have been implemented nationally. For advocacy and planning, the program coordinators need prevalence estimates that are currently rarely available. This article compares several approaches to estimate morbidity prevalence: (1) data routinely collected during mapping or sentinel site activities; (2) data collected during drug coverage surveys; and (3) alternative surveys. Data were collected in Plateau and Nasarawa States in Nigeria and in 6 districts in Togo. In both settings, we found that questionnaires seem to underestimate the morbidity prevalence compared with existing information collected through clinical examination. We suggest that program managers use the latter for advocacy and planning, but if not available, questionnaires to estimate morbidity prevalence can be added to existing surveys. Even though such data will most likely underestimate the real burden of disease, they can be useful in resource-limited settings.

  10. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the menopausal transition: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder involving a combination of cardiovascular risk factors. Menopausal transition can be a key factor in the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The current study aims to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the menopausal transition, using a systematic review. Three reviewers conducted an article search in PubMed. The articles' quality was evaluated according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Based on the selected studies, prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases in the post-menopausal (as compared to pre-menopausal) period, regardless of the population and study design. The change was more significant for waist circumference and blood pressure, suggesting that these components have the greatest influence on prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  11. PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Chincharadze, S; Vadachkoria, Z; Mchedlishvili, I

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate take significant place in congenital malformations. We aimed to study epidemiological peculiarities of these pathologies in Georgia for 2006-2015. We compared magnitude of its distribution with the data from 1981-1990. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Georgia in 2006-2015 was 0.95±0.04 per 1000 live births, while in 1981-1990- it was 1.05, i.e. in contrast to 1980's frequency of these pathological conditions decreased to some extent. Distribution of cleft lip and palate varies across the country regions. The most intensive spread has been observed in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, where prevalence composed 2.28/1000. In the rest of the regions frequency of these pathologies is significantly lower. For instance, in Kakheti the rate is equal to 1,87/1000, in Kvemo Kartli - 1.56/1000, in Shida Kartli - 1.55/1000. In the rest of the regions prevalence rate is lower than the country average. It should be noted that in Tbilisi the rate is as low as 0.80/1000. The lowest level has been reported in Guria - 0.56/1000. Currently cleft lip with palate is the most frequently occurring anomaly in Georgia accounting for 39.8% of all congenital malformations. Cleft lip alone ranks the second - 36.1%, followed by cleft palate (24.1%). These pathologies are more frequent in boys than in girls. 60.3% of the cases are reported in males, in contrast to girls - 39.7% (p<0.01). Usually, cleft palate is the most common among girls, but in our case, it had higher prevalence among boys, 53.6% vs. 46,4%. Thus cleft lip and palate distribution in Georgia is characterized by epidemiological peculiarities, which should be considered in implementation of preventive measures.

  12. Synthetic Cannabinoids and Cathinones: Prevalence and Markets.

    PubMed

    Bretteville-Jensen, A L; Tuv, S S; Bilgrei, O R; Fjeld, B; Bachs, L

    2013-03-01

    Over the past few years, the phenomenon of new designer drugs has attracted much attention. Synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones are the two main classes of these drugs. Both are potent drugs of abuse, and several cases of severe toxicity and deaths are reported. The present work is based on a systematic review of studies that have assessed the market and prevalence of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones, and integrates pharmacological, sociological, and epidemiological aspects of these two groups of emerging synthetic drugs. The review reflects that the Internet has made synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones widely available. Furthermore, aggressive and widespread marketing, as well as the low price level of these drugs, their juridical status and their lack of detection on standard drug tests may serve as major motivations for drug use. The number of prevalence studies is small and derived from a limited number of countries. In spite of the many methodological shortcomings, some conclusions may be cautiously drawn. Taken together, the results point toward higher prevalence of use for synthetic cathinones than for synthetic cannabinoids. In the general population, the prevalence of use of synthetic cathinones is reported to be around 4% compared to figures lower than 1% for synthetic cannabinoids. Among students, the prevalence varies from 1-20% for synthetic cathinones and 2-10% for synthetic cannabinoids. Among groups with high rates of drug use, the prevalence varies between 4% to more than 60% for synthetic cathinones and around 10% for synthetic cannabinoids.

  13. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  14. Current mapping of obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

  15. Major Disease Prevalence and Menstrual Characteristics in Infertile Female Korean Smokers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking in infertile Korean women. Smoking status, education, occupation, personal habits, past medical history, current illness, stress level, and menstrual characteristics were collected from self-report questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the degree of depression. Data on the causes of infertility and levels of six reproductive hormones were collected from medical records. Among 785 women less than 42 years of age, the prevalence of current, secondhand, past, and never smokers were 12.7%, 45.7%, 0.9%, and 40.6%, respectively. Primary infertility was more frequent in secondhand smokers. Causes of infertility were similar among current, secondhand, and never smokers. Current smokers were less educated (P < 0.001) and more likely to consume alcohol than secondhand or never smokers (P < 0.001). Secondhand smokers slept less than current smokers (P = 0.041). Among several major diseases, only the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (4.0%) was significantly higher in current smokers than in secondhand smokers (0.0%, P = 0.002) or never smokers (0.6%, P = 0.031). The self-reported prevalence of depression, and the degree of depression were similar among women with different smoking statuses. There were no differences in menstrual characteristics or serum levels of six reproductive hormones between current, secondhand, and never smokers, even after excluding women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In conclusion, education/employment status, alcohol drinking, and the prevalence of primary infertility and diabetes mellitus were significantly different according to smoking status among infertile women. PMID:28049245

  16. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses. Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43–54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20–34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13–27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10–14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6–15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12–24) and 11% (95% CI 7–15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2–6). High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  17. Prevalences of asthma and rhinitis among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil: temporal changes *

    PubMed Central

    de Luna, Maria de Fátima Gomes; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; de Luna, João Rafael Gomes; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; de Almeida, Paulo César; Chiesa, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions. RESULTS: Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 2006-2007 period (p < 0.01 for all). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed rhinitis was significantly lower in 2010 (p = 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences between the two periods regarding cumulative rhinitis, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. In both periods, dry cough at night, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (p < 0.01 for all). Also in both periods, active asthma, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were more prevalent in private school students than in public school students (p < 0.01 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis symptoms remain high among 13- and 14-year-olds in Fortaleza, predominantly among females and private school students. PMID:23670497

  18. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Lina; Mackenzie, Ian R; Förstl, Hans; Kurz, Alexander; Diehl-Schmid, Janine

    2014-01-01

    The term frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) refers to a group of progressive brain diseases, which preferentially involve the frontal and temporal lobes. Depending on the primary site of atrophy, the clinical manifestation is dominated by behavior alterations or impairment of language. The onset of symptoms usually occurs before the age of 60 years, and the mean survival from diagnosis varies between 3 and 10 years. The prevalence is estimated at 15 per 100,000 in the population aged between 45 and 65 years, which is similar to the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in this age group. There are two major clinical subtypes, behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia. The neuropathology underlying the clinical syndromes is also heterogeneous. A common feature is the accumulation of certain neuronal proteins. Of these, the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), the transactive response DNA-binding protein, and the fused in sarcoma protein are most important. Approximately 10% to 30% of FTLD shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, with mutations in the genes for MAPT, progranulin (GRN), and in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) accounting for more than 80% of familial cases. Although significant advances have been made in recent years regarding diagnostic criteria, clinical assessment instruments, neuropsychological tests, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and brain imaging techniques, the clinical diagnosis remains a challenge. To date, there is no specific pharmacological treatment for FTLD. Some evidence has been provided for serotonin reuptake inhibitors to reduce behavioral disturbances. No large-scale or high-quality studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of non-pharmacological treatment approaches in FTLD. In view of the limited treatment options, caregiver education and support is currently the most important component of the clinical management. PMID:24600223

  19. Predicting individual affect of health interventions to reduce HPV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Corley, Courtney D; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R; Sanfilippo, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and HPV is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials, and it is currently available in the USA. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step toward automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a text's affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age- and gender-targeted vaccination schemes.

  20. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  1. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Tian, Yongfeng; Yan, Wenhua; Kong, Yue; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Anping; Dou, Jingtao; Liang, Ping; Mu, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years) from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001). The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001), and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007). There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015) and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001). The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.039 (1.034–1.044), p < 0.001), the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097)), Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034)), and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483)) were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and BMI

  2. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  3. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  5. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  6. Prevalence of childhood asthma in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oneş, U; Sapan, N; Somer, A; Dişçi, R; Salman, N; Güler, N; Yalçin, I

    1997-05-01

    In order to determine the asthma prevalence in 6-12-year-old schoolchildren in Istanbul, we issued 2350 questionnaires, according to ISAAC criteria, in six randomly selected city primary schools to be completed at home by parents. A total of 2232 of the questionnaires were completed, an overall response rate of 94.9%, and 2216 questionnaires were taken into consideration. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 9.8% and wheezing 15.1%. To investigate the effect of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of asthma, we evaluated the heating system at home, the place of residence, the educational levels of the mother and father, the number of people living in the house, the sharing of bedrooms, and the annual family income. In conclusion, the prevalence of childhood asthma was not affected by any of these factors. Atopic family history, food allergy, eczema, and frequent otitis media and sinusitis attacks were evaluated and found to be significant in asthma prevalence.

  7. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels.

  8. Prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationship.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Faraj; Roy, Rino; Al-Jame, Badreia

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of occlusal asymmetries in the molar and canine regions in a large population-based sample of adolescent Kuwaitis. Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1299 Kuwaiti adolescents (674 boys mean age 13.3 years and 625 girls mean age 13.2 years), representing approximately 6.7 per cent of that age stratum in the population, were examined clinically for sagittal molar and canine relationships, with a view to recording half and full-step asymmetries. In this sample, 1244 subjects were examined clinically, while for the remaining 55, pre-treatment study models were assessed. All subjects were in the early permanent dentition stage. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to determine the proportion of different molar and canine asymmetries. Antero-posterior asymmetries were found to be a distinctive and common feature of the dental arches, with half-step outweighing full-step asymmetries both in the anterior and posterior regions. The total prevalence of an asymmetric molar or canine relationship was 29.7 and 41.4 per cent, respectively, with more than 95 per cent falling in the mild category. Patient gender did not influence the prevalence or magnitude of asymmetry. The results showed a clinically significant prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationships, which were mainly in the category of half-step asymmetry. Class II half and full-step asymmetries were more prevalent than Class III asymmetries in the molar and canine regions.

  9. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  10. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  11. High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…

  12. Prevalence of ColE1-like plasmids and kanamycinr resistance genes in Salmonella enterica serotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes are increasing in prevalence and concern in human and animal health. Many strains carry resistance determinants on plasmids; current practices focus heavily on large plasmids, and the role that small plasmids play in resistance gene transfer ...

  13. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Incarcerated Males in County Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina J.; Ross, Michael W.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Williams, Mark L.; Carvajal, Raul I.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse in a jailed-based population. Methodology: A retrospective, self-reported survey was administered over an 8-week period to a random sample of 100 men who were incarcerated in a county jail in Southeastern Texas. The survey included questions about…

  14. Prevalence of Hepatitis Virus Infections in an Institution for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Bradley A.; Vazquez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 1,235 residents of Sonoma Developmental Center found 3 residents had hepatitis C virus infections, and 633 had past or current hepatitis B virus infections. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection rose rapidly with longer residence in institutions. Hepatitis A virus infection had occurred in 494 residents. (Contains…

  15. Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

  16. Prevalence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella on comercial dairies utilizing a single heifer raising facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the current research were two-fold: 1) Determine the prevalence of multiple drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella in the various classes of dairy cattle; and 2) Determine if co-mingling of calves from multiple farms at a heifer feedlot serves as a transmission vector for Salmonella back ...

  17. Prevalence of Sexual Abuse of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Shu-Man

    2007-01-01

    Although sexual abuse of people with intellectual disabilities has emerged as a major issue in the West over recent years, few researchers have examined this issue in Taiwan. The prevalence and current state of sexual abuse for people with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan were investigated here. Results of face-to-face interviews with 336…

  18. Are Somatic Symptoms and Related Distress More Prevalent in Hispanic/Latino Youth? Some Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    This article comments on the current status of the anxiety literature involving Latino children and adolescents. As the 2 articles that focus on Hispanic/Latino youth in this special section independently found somatic symptoms to be more prevalent in Latino youth than other racial/ethnic groups (Pina & Silverman, this issue; Varela et al., this…

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Prevalence in Somali and Non-Somali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Amy; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Hamre, Kristin; Esler, Amy N.; Punyko, Judy; Reichle, Joe; Gulaid, Anab A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents results from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) public health surveillance project conducted in Minneapolis. The study was designed to compare ASD prevalence in Somali children (ages 7-9) to that of non-Somali children. The study adapted methodology used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and…

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Multiple Victimization in a Nation-Wide Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Bell, Tessa; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Adolescents often experience different types of victimization across a specified period of time in different situations. These multiple victimization experiences can have a number of deleterious effects on psychosocial well-being. To expand on research gathered primarily from US samples, the current study estimated the prevalence of…

  1. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  2. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  3. Magnetic current sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  4. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain in Radiotherapy Oncology Units

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, Ana; Monroy, Jose Luis; Ramos, Avelino Alia; Cano, Carmen; Lopez-Gomez, Vanessa; Masramon, Xavier; Perez, Maria

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: Neuropathic pain (NP) in cancer patients severely impacts quality of life. Radiotherapy (RT) may cause NP, and at the same time, cancer patients visit RT units for pain relief. NP prevalence at these sites and current analgesic treatment should be assessed to improve management. Methods and Materials: This epidemiological, prospective, multicenter study was undertaken to assess NP prevalence, according to Douleur Neuropathique 4 questions questtionaire (DN4) test results, and analgesic management in cancer pain patients visiting RT oncologic units. Secondary analyses assessed NP etiology and pain intensity (using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form) and impact (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study [MOS] for Sleep, and the Health Survey Short Form-12). Results: A total of 1,098 patients with any kind of pain were registered. NP prevalence was 31.1% (95% confidence interval, 28.4%--33.9%); 291 NP patients (mean age, 62.2 {+-}12.5 years and 57.7% men) were eligible for study; 49% of patients were overweight. The most frequent tumors were those of breast and lung, and stage IIIB was the most common cancer stage. The tumors caused 75% of NP cases. Anxiety, sleepiness, and depression were common. At 8 weeks, pain intensity and interference with daily activities decreased significantly for 50.8% of responders. Depression and anxiety (p < 0.0001) scores on the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary measures (p < 0.0001) and all MOS-Sleep subscales, except for snoring, improved significantly. The percentage of satisfied patients increased from 13.8% to 87.4% (p < 0.0001) with the current analgesic treatment, which meant a 1.2- and 6-fold increase (p < 0.0001) in narcotic analgesics and anticonvulsants, respectively, compared to previous treatment. Conclusions: NP is highly prevalent at RT oncology units, with sleepiness, anxiety, and depression as frequent comorbidities. There is a need to improve

  5. Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Lynn

    2008-12-01

    This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.

  6. International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The behaviours of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) are prevalent among adolescents, and an increase of rates in recent years has been postulated. There is a lack of studies to support this postulation, and comparing prevalence across studies and nations is complicated due to substantial differences in the methodology and nomenclature of existing research. Methods We conducted a systematic review of current (2005 - 2011) empirical studies reporting on the prevalence of NSSI and DSH in adolescent samples across the globe. Results Fifty-two studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were obtained for analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between NSSI (18.0% SD = 7.3) and DSH (16.1% SD = 11.6) studies. Assessment using single item questions led to lower prevalence rates than assessment with specific behaviour checklists. Mean prevalence rates have not increased in the past five years, suggesting stabilization. Conclusion NSSI and DSH have a comparable prevalence in studies with adolescents from different countries. The field would benefit from adopting a common approach to assessment to aide cross-cultural study and comparisons. PMID:22462815

  7. The Prevalence of Mental Illnesses in U.S. State Prisons: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with mental illnesses are understood to be overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system, and estimates of the prevalence of mental illnesses in corrections settings are crucial for planning and implementing preventive and diversionary policies and programs. Despite consistent scholarly attention, two federal self-report surveys are typically cited, and these may not represent the extent of relevant data. This systematic review identifies studies that assess the prevalence of mental illnesses in U.S. state prisons, in order to develop a broader picture of prison prevalence and identify methodological challenges to obtaining accurate and consistent estimates. Methods Medline, PsycInfo, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts were searched. Studies were included if they were published between 1989 and 2013; focused on U.S. state prisons; reported prevalence of diagnoses/symptoms of DSM Axis I disorders; and identified screening/assessment strategies. Results Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria. Estimates of current and lifetime prevalence of mental illnesses varied widely; however, the range of prevalence estimates for particular disorders was much greater—and tended to be higher—in prisons than community samples. Conclusions Operationalizations of mental illnesses, sampling strategies, and case ascertainment strategies likely contributed to inconsistency in findings. Other reasons for study heterogeneity are discussed, and implications for public health are explored. PMID:24686574

  8. Regional epidemiologic assessment of prevalent periodontitis using an electronic health record system.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Amit; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Waring, Stephen C; Miller, Aaron W; Fuehrer, Jay T; Nycz, Gregory R

    2013-04-01

    An oral health surveillance platform that queries a clinical/administrative data warehouse was applied to estimate regional prevalence of periodontitis. Cross-sectional analysis of electronic health record data collected between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, was undertaken in a population sample residing in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Eligibility criteria included: 1) residence in defined zip codes, 2) age 25-64 years, and 3) ≥1 Marshfield dental clinic comprehensive examination. Prevalence was established using 2 independent methods: 1) via an algorithm that considered clinical attachment loss and probe depth and 2) via standardized Current Dental Terminology (CDT) codes related to periodontal treatment. Prevalence estimates were age-standardized to 2000 US Census estimates. Inclusion criteria were met by 2,056 persons. On the basis of the American Academy of Periodontology/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method, the age-standardized prevalence of moderate or severe periodontitis (combined) was 407 per 1,000 males and 308 per 1,000 females (348/1,000 males and 269/1,000 females using the CDT code method). Increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis was noted with increasing age. Local prevalence of periodontitis was consistent with national estimates. The need to address potential sample selection bias in future electronic health record-based periodontitis research was identified by this approach. Methods outlined herein may be applied to refine oral health surveillance systems, inform dental epidemiologic methods, and evaluate interventional outcomes.

  9. Pediatric kidney diseases in an African country: prevalence, spectrum and outcome.

    PubMed

    Ladapo, Taiwo A; Esezobor, Christopher I; Lesi, Foluso E

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient data to guide the authorities responsible for resource allocation and a focus on communicable diseases increase the challenges of care of children with kidney disease in resource-constrained settings like ours. This study was performed with the aim to describe the current spectrum of pediatric nephrology disease in a tertiary hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa and highlight the challenges encountered in their care. A 4-year retrospective review of pediatric renal admissions was carried out and the overall prevalence, disease-specific prevalence and mortality rates were determined. Results were compared with nationwide data. Kidney diseases accounted for 8.9% of pediatric admissions with a prevalence of 22.3 admissions per 1000 child-admissions per year. Nephrotic syndrome, acute kidney injury and nephroblastoma accounted for almost 70% of admissions. The overall mortality was 14.4% with acute kidney injury accounting for 36% of this. Chronic kidney disease was also associated with poor outcome. The spectrum of disease nationwide is similar with a wide variation in disease-specific prevalence between geographic regions. The prevalence of genetic and hereditary conditions was low. The prevalence of pediatric renal disease in our environment is on the increase and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Late presentation and high treatment costs were limitations to care. Preventive nephrology, training of pediatric nephrologists and strengthening of health insurance schemes are advocated.

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online using the terms “prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria” or “overweight and obesity in Nigeria.” In addition, personal inquiries were made. The search limits were articles published from January 2001 to September 2012. Only studies that used the body mass index to assess for overweight and obesity were included. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 75 studies reviewed. In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3%–35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.1%–22.2%. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals in Nigeria is of epidemic proportions. There is a need to pay closer attention to combating these health disorders. PMID:23573067

  11. Lifetime Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Two American Indian Reservation Populations

    PubMed Central

    Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M.; Croy, Calvin; Klein, Suzell A.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be more common among American Indian populations than among other Americans. A complex diagnosis, the assessment methods for PTSD have varied across epidemiological studies, especially in terms of the trauma criteria. Here, we examined data from the American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP) to estimate the lifetime prevalence of PTSD in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, using two formulas for calculating PTSD prevalence. The AI-SUPERPFP was a cross-sectional probability sample survey conducted between 1997 and 2000. Southwest (n = 1,446) and Northern Plains (n = 1,638) tribal members living on or near their reservations, aged 15–57 years at time of interview, were randomly sampled from tribal rolls. PTSD estimates were derived based on both the single worst and 3 worst traumas. Prevalence estimates varied by ascertainment method: single worst trauma (lifetime: 5.9% to 14.8%) versus 3 worst traumas (lifetime, 8.9% to 19.5%). Use of the 3-worst-event approach increased prevalence by 28.3% over the single-event method. PTSD was prevalent in these tribal communities. These results also serve to underscore the need to better understand the implications for PTSD prevalence with the current focus on a single worst event. PMID:23900893

  12. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  13. Prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and severity of generalized anxiety disorder in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siau Pheng; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-10-01

    Despite its pervasiveness and associated impairment, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) remains a poorly recognized disorder. Furthermore, given that GAD has been relatively understudied in Asia, the current study examined the prevalence, correlates and co-morbid conditions of this disorder in a multi-ethnic population of Singapore. Data was utilized from the Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS), a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted among the adult population (n=6616) aged 18 years and above. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI v3.0) was used to assess co-morbidity as well as the life-time and 12-month prevalence of disorders. Functional impairment and treatment-seeking behavior were also assessed. The life-time (0.9%) and 12-month (0.4%) prevalence estimates in the current study were found to be lower than those reported in Western populations but comparable to the prevalence estimates found in Asian countries. The relatively lower prevalence rate of GAD in this study suggests the possible role of culture in reporting and manifestation of anxiety symptomatology. The failure of a substantial proportion of individuals to seek treatment despite self-reported impairment was also identified as an area of concern.

  14. Prevalence of malocclusion among Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Silva, R G; Kang, D S

    2001-03-01

    Although numerous studies have documented malocclusion in various ethnic groups in the United States, the prevalence of malocclusion in the Latino population is not well known. The Latino population may be the largest minority group in the United States by the year 2004. This study analyzes the occlusion of 507 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years. More than 93% of the subjects demonstrated some form of malocclusion. The distribution of malocclusion patterns is presented and contrasted with data published for other ethnic groups. Information about the prevalence and types of malocclusion in the Latino population should be of interest to general dental practitioners and specialists.

  15. Emergence of Neoteric Serotypes Among Multidrug Resistant Strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae Prevalent in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Bahy, Rehab H; Hamouda, Hayam M; Shahat, Amal S; Yassin, Aymen S; Amin, Magdy A

    2016-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalent serotype distribution had shown variation along different studies conducted at different time intervals. In order to efficiently assess the epidemiology of the diseases for effective preventive and treatment strategies, serotype prevalence need to be periodically reassessed. Objectives Conducting a reassessment of the prevalent S. pneumoniae serotypes in Egypt as an essential step in the search for a regional vaccine. In addition, monitoring the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal strains currently causing infections as an evaluation of therapeutic strategies applied. Materials and Methods A total of 100 specimens of different sources were collected in Cairo, Egypt, from 2011 to 2013, representing almost all different types of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae such as meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. Conventional and molecular identification methods were performed, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were assessed and serotyping was done using PCR assays to identify the most prevalent types. In addition, detection of certain virulence genes for the most prevalent serotypes was carried out. Results Our results revealed that in Egypt, currently, the most prevalent serotypes were serogroup 6 and serotype 19F as they represented 58% of all isolates. High rates of resistance were found to different antibiotic classes. The lytA and psaA genes were found to be more sensitive for S. pneumoniae identification than ply. Conclusions Our study illustrates the importance of constantly monitoring the prevalent serotypes in any region in order to aid in the development of more effective vaccines. PMID:27303614

  16. Model-Based Geostatistical Mapping of the Prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Simon J.; Slater, Hannah C.; Cheke, Robert A.; Boatin, Boakye A.; Coffeng, Luc E.; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Boussinesq, Michel; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background The initial endemicity (pre-control prevalence) of onchocerciasis has been shown to be an important determinant of the feasibility of elimination by mass ivermectin distribution. We present the first geostatistical map of microfilarial prevalence in the former Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) before commencement of antivectorial and antiparasitic interventions. Methods and Findings Pre-control microfilarial prevalence data from 737 villages across the 11 constituent countries in the OCP epidemiological database were used as ground-truth data. These 737 data points, plus a set of statistically selected environmental covariates, were used in a Bayesian model-based geostatistical (B-MBG) approach to generate a continuous surface (at pixel resolution of 5 km x 5km) of microfilarial prevalence in West Africa prior to the commencement of the OCP. Uncertainty in model predictions was measured using a suite of validation statistics, performed on bootstrap samples of held-out validation data. The mean Pearson’s correlation between observed and estimated prevalence at validation locations was 0.693; the mean prediction error (average difference between observed and estimated values) was 0.77%, and the mean absolute prediction error (average magnitude of difference between observed and estimated values) was 12.2%. Within OCP boundaries, 17.8 million people were deemed to have been at risk, 7.55 million to have been infected, and mean microfilarial prevalence to have been 45% (range: 2–90%) in 1975. Conclusions and Significance This is the first map of initial onchocerciasis prevalence in West Africa using B-MBG. Important environmental predictors of infection prevalence were identified and used in a model out-performing those without spatial random effects or environmental covariates. Results may be compared with recent epidemiological mapping efforts to find areas of persisting transmission. These methods may be extended to areas where

  17. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Estonia: an estimate based on rheumatology patients' database.

    PubMed

    Otsa, K; Tammaru, M; Vorobjov, S; Esko, M; Pärsik, E; Lang, K

    2013-04-01

    Sound epidemiological data are a basic requirement for decision making on the allocation of health care resources. Unfortunately, this is not the case in Estonia, where the paucity of epidemiological data has impeded health care planning for rheumatic conditions. The current paper presents the first effort to explore the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Estonia. Electronic databases of all rheumatology units of Harju County, three national and one private, were searched for the records of RA (ICD-10 diagnoses M05 and M06.0) patients who had visited a rheumatologist during 2006 or 2007. Prevalence of RA was calculated for the age 20 years and older and for subsets according to age and gender, using the numbers from the patients' database in the numerator and the corresponding population numbers in the denominator. The total number of prevalent RA cases was 1,897, of which 85 % (n = 1,605) were women. The overall crude period prevalence 2006-2007 of RA in Harju County for the age group 20 years and older was 0.46 %. RA prevalence for both sexes increased with age until the age of 70-79 years and decreased subsequently. Prevalence of RA was significantly higher for women compared with men in all age groups. The prevalence of RA among women and men 20 years and older was 0.70 % (6.68-7.37) and 0.16 % (1.42, 1.79), respectively. Age-standardized (European population) prevalence rate was 0.44 %. The results are concordant with epidemiological data on RA prevalence derived recently in other European countries.

  18. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  19. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  20. Evaluation of the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking and its related factors in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hessami, Zahra; Masjedi, Mohammed R; Ghahremani, Reza; Kazempour, Mehdi; Emami, Habib

    2017-03-30

    This study is designed to evaluate the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking and its related factors among Iranian adults. This is a cross-sectional study carried out during 2013/14 in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, among 1830 citizens aged over 15 years. Sampling was through Stratified multistage cluster sampling with proportional allocation within strata. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) questionnaire for waterpipe consumption was used for data gathering. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software. The prevalence of current waterpipe tobacco smoking was 17.6% .Waterpipe use prevalence in men was significantly more than women (24.2% vs. 11.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, cigarette consumption, waterpipe consumption at home and ignorance of safety issues significantly influenced current waterpipe smoking (P = 0.001). Thus, prevalence of waterpipe smoking in Iranian adults is high and significant. Tackling waterpipe smoking should be considered in tobacco control programmes. However, further studies in this field are needed.

  1. Entraining gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Chris; Hogg, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Large-scale gravity currents, such as those formed when industrial effluent is discharged at sea, are greatly affected by the entrainment and mixing of ambient fluid into the current, which both dilutes the flow and causes an effective drag between the current and ambient. We study these currents theoretically by combining a shallow-water model for gravity currents flowing under a deep ambient with an empirical model for entrainment, and seek long-time similarity solutions of this model. We find that the dependence of entrainment on the bulk Richardson number plays a crucial role in the current dynamics, and results in entrainment occurring mainly in a region close to the flow front, reminiscent of the entraining current `head' observed in natural flows. The long-time solution of an entraining lock-release current is a similarity solution of the second kind, in which the current grows as a power of time that is dependent on the form of the entrainment model, approximately as t 0 . 44. The structure of a current driven by a constant buoyancy flux is quite different, with the current length growing as t 4 / 5. Scaling arguments suggest that these solutions are reached only at very long times, and so may be attained in large natural flows, but not in small-scale experiments.

  2. Current Practice and Infrastructures for Campus Centers of Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Marshall; Saltmarsh, John

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current practice and essential infrastructure of campus community engagement centers in their efforts to establish and advance community engagement as part of the college experience. The authors identified key characteristics and the prevalence of activities of community engagement centers at engaged campuses…

  3. Estimating Contraceptive Prevalence Using Logistics Data for Short-Acting Methods: Analysis Across 30 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Marc; Brown, Niquelle; Sacher, Suzy; Hatch, Benjamin; Inglis, Andrew; Aronovich, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is a vital indicator used by country governments, international donors, and other stakeholders for measuring progress in family planning programs against country targets and global initiatives as well as for estimating health outcomes. Because of the need for more frequent CPR estimates than population-based surveys currently provide, alternative approaches for estimating CPRs are being explored, including using contraceptive logistics data. Methods: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 30 countries, population data from the United States Census Bureau International Database, and logistics data from the Procurement Planning and Monitoring Report (PPMR) and the Pipeline Monitoring and Procurement Planning System (PipeLine), we developed and evaluated 3 models to generate country-level, public-sector contraceptive prevalence estimates for injectable contraceptives, oral contraceptives, and male condoms. Models included: direct estimation through existing couple-years of protection (CYP) conversion factors, bivariate linear regression, and multivariate linear regression. Model evaluation consisted of comparing the referent DHS prevalence rates for each short-acting method with the model-generated prevalence rate using multiple metrics, including mean absolute error and proportion of countries where the modeled prevalence rate for each method was within 1, 2, or 5 percentage points of the DHS referent value. Results: For the methods studied, family planning use estimates from public-sector logistics data were correlated with those from the DHS, validating the quality and accuracy of current public-sector logistics data. Logistics data for oral and injectable contraceptives were significantly associated (P<.05) with the referent DHS values for both bivariate and multivariate models. For condoms, however, that association was only significant for the bivariate model. With the exception of the CYP

  4. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H.; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3–8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough. The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities. This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the

  5. Current and future treatments for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Salloway, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    There are currently >5 million people in the United States who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. That prevalence rate is expected to triple as the population ages. The health and economic burden due to Alzheimer's disease is a worldwide problem, with some of the greatest burden coming from the developing world as people live longer in those societies. Throughout the world, the projected growth of Alzheimer's disease is dramatic. This is a worldwide public health problem of the highest order, and there is a compelling need to develop new treatments and methods of earlier diagnosis need to slow the progression of the disease and lessen its impact.

  6. Current drug therapy of protozoal diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Y K; Gupta, Madhur; Aneja, S; Kohli, K

    2004-01-01

    Protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal tract occur worldwide and have substantial morbidity and mortality. Prevalence is higher in the economically deprived regions of the world, especially the developing countries. Infections like amoebiasis and giardiasis have a worldwide distribution, being endemic in India. Apart from producing GI symptoms, growth and development of children is also impaired. It is seen that protozoa multiply rapidly in their hosts and as there is a lack of effective vaccines, chemotherapy has been the only practiced way to treat individuals and reduce transmission. The current treatment modalities for protozoal diarrhoea include 5-nitrosoimidazoles, iodoquinol, diloxanide furoate, paromomycin, chloroquine, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

  7. Prevalence of Chagas Disease in Latin-American Migrants Living in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; de Lazzari, Elisa; Sicuri, Elisa; Brown, Michael; Moore, David A. J.; Gascon, Joaquim; Muñoz, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed the burden of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries and most of them are based on prevalence estimates from Latin American (LA) countries that likely differ from the prevalence in migrants living in Europe. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing data informing current understanding of the prevalence of Chagas disease in LA migrants living in European countries. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting prevalence of Chagas disease in European countries belonging to the European Union (EU) before 2004 in accordance with the MOOSE guidelines and based on the database sources MEDLINE and Global Health. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. The pooled prevalence was estimated using random effect models based on DerSimonian & Laird method. Results We identified 18 studies conducted in five European countries. The random effect pooled prevalence was 4.2% (95%CI:2.2-6.7%); and the heterogeneity of Chagas disease prevalence among studies was high (I2 = 97%,p<0.001). Migrants from Bolivia had the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (18.1%, 95%CI:13.9–22.7%). Conclusions Prevalence of Chagas in LA migrants living in Europe is high, particularly in migrants from Bolivia and Paraguay. Data are highly heterogeneous dependent upon country of origin and within studies of migrants from the same country of origin. Country-specific prevalence differs from the estimates available from LA countries. Our meta-analysis provides prevalence estimates of Chagas disease that should be used to estimate the burden of disease in European countries. PMID:25680190

  8. Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: prevalence, frequency, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

    2014-06-01

    The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family.

  9. Prevalence of malocclusion in urban libyan preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional observational study aimed at quantifying primary dentition parameters and exploring differences in those parameters between included age groups. Materials and Methods: The examined sample comprised 800 preschool children, 3- to 5-year-old in Benghazi city, of which 500 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Primary canine relationship, spacing/crowding, overjet (OJ) and overbite (OB), occlusal relationship was carried out using Federation Dentaire Internationale (1973), modified to the primary dentition. Results: The prevalence of bilateral Class I, Class II, and Class III canine relationship was 69.6%, 22.4%, and 4.4%, respectively. The prevalence of asymmetric canine relationship was 3.6% with no significant difference between gender and age groups. Spacing, closed dentition, and crowding were observed in: 81.6%, 13,4% and 5% respectively in the upper arch, and 58.5%, 24.8%, and 16.7% correspondently in the lower arch. OJ and OB ranging between 1 and 3 mm were found in 82.6% and 56.5%, respectively. An OJ and OB of >3 mm was observed in 11.4% and 35%, respectively, and of edge to edge incisal relationship anteroposteriorly and vertically in 4.6% and 6% in this order. Anterior crossbite and anterior openbite were noted in 1.4% and 2.6%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between OJ and OB and age (P≥0.241). Additionally, there was no significant sex difference in the value of OJ (P=0.561). But, the mean OB value in boys was significantly greater than in girls. Conclusions: The current findings provide an insight into the prevalence of occlusal traits in urban Libyan preschool children and highlight the significance of early detection of malocclusion to assist in achieving effective and individualized long-term treatment planning. PMID:24987642

  10. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  11. Atrial fibrillation: review of current treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Joshua; Luc, Jessica G Y; Phan, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia in modern clinical practice, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5-2%. The prevalence of AF is expected to double in the next decades, progressing with age and increasingly becoming a global medical challenge. The first-line treatment for AF is often medical treatment with either rate control or anti-arrhythmic agents for rhythm control, in addition to anti-coagulants such as warfarin for stroke prevention in patient at risk. Catheter ablation has emerged as an alternative for AF treatment, which involves myocardial tissue lesions to disrupt the underlying triggers and substrates for AF. Surgical approaches have also been developed for treatment of AF, particularly for patients requiring concomitant cardiac surgery or those refractory to medical and catheter ablation treatments. Since the introduction of the Cox-Maze III, this procedure has evolved into several modern variations, including the use of alternative energy sources (Cox-Maze IV) such as radiofrequency, cryo-energy and microwave, as well as minimally invasive thoracoscopic epicardial approaches. Another recently introduced technique is the hybrid ablation approach, where in a single setting both epicardial thoracoscopic ablation lesions and endocardial catheter ablation lesions are performed by the cardiothoracic surgeon and cardiologist. There remains controversy surrounding the optimal approach for AF ablation, energy sources, and lesion sets employed. The goal of this article is review the history, classifications, pathophysiology and current treatment options for AF.

  12. Atrial fibrillation: review of current treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Joshua; Luc, Jessica G. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia in modern clinical practice, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5–2%. The prevalence of AF is expected to double in the next decades, progressing with age and increasingly becoming a global medical challenge. The first-line treatment for AF is often medical treatment with either rate control or anti-arrhythmic agents for rhythm control, in addition to anti-coagulants such as warfarin for stroke prevention in patient at risk. Catheter ablation has emerged as an alternative for AF treatment, which involves myocardial tissue lesions to disrupt the underlying triggers and substrates for AF. Surgical approaches have also been developed for treatment of AF, particularly for patients requiring concomitant cardiac surgery or those refractory to medical and catheter ablation treatments. Since the introduction of the Cox-Maze III, this procedure has evolved into several modern variations, including the use of alternative energy sources (Cox-Maze IV) such as radiofrequency, cryo-energy and microwave, as well as minimally invasive thoracoscopic epicardial approaches. Another recently introduced technique is the hybrid ablation approach, where in a single setting both epicardial thoracoscopic ablation lesions and endocardial catheter ablation lesions are performed by the cardiothoracic surgeon and cardiologist. There remains controversy surrounding the optimal approach for AF ablation, energy sources, and lesion sets employed. The goal of this article is review the history, classifications, pathophysiology and current treatment options for AF. PMID:27747025

  13. Prevalence of allergic diseases and risk factors of wheezing in Korean military personnel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Ahn, Jong Seong; Noh, Chang Suk; Lee, Sei Won

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as the risk factors of wheezing among young adults in the Korean military. Young military conscripts in five areas completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. For subjects with current wheeze in one sample area, baseline spirometry and bronchodilator response were measured. For subjects without a significant response to bronchodilator (improvement in FEV1 of more than 200 mL and 12%), methacholine challenge tests (MCT) were also performed. Of 3,359 subjects that completed the questionnaire, 354 (10.5%) had current wheeze, 471 (14.0%) had current allergic rhinitis, and 326 (9.7%) had current eczema. Current wheeze was associated with family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Of 36 subjects with current wheeze who underwent PFT with or without MCT in the Anyang area, 24 (66.7%) were confirmed to have current asthma. In conclusion, the prevalence of allergic disease in young adults of Korean military is not low, and the risk factors of wheezing include family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  15. Detection and Prevalence of Motor Skill Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolic, Snezana J.; Ilic-Stosovic, Danijela D.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to establish the prevalence, form of manifestation, level and kind of motor skill disorders in three area of motor development functioning: neuromaturation, coordination and balance. The sample included 1165 children, between 6.5 and 11 years of age. The protocol was constructed and contained tests for the…

  16. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. Methods: An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening…

  17. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…

  18. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  19. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Disorders in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold; Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study examined the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among school children in Arkansas for the purpose of helping school districts plan appropriate educational interventions. The ADHD Survey was mailed to all 311 school superintendents; 128 surveys were returned. Findings revealed that, overall, 3 percent of…

  20. Prevalence of Overweight among Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dair, Jessica; Ellis, M. Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the prevalence of overweight cases in a sample of 151 deaf children aged 6-11 years. Participants were deaf students attending six elementary schools, both regular and special, in four states. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using height and weight, plotted on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) U.S.…

  1. Prevalence of SLI in Language Resource Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Many children with communication impairments whose educational needs cannot be met in mainstream classrooms receive additional resource support in classroom units that specialise in the coordination and provision of academic teaching and speech language therapy in the UK. This study estimated the prevalence of Specific Language Impairment (SLI)…

  2. Molar incisor hypomineralization, prevalence, and etiology.

    PubMed

    Allazzam, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alaki, Sumer Madani; El Meligy, Omar Abdel Sadek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n = 267) from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM), erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children's medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB), atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P = 0.01). The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P = 0.001), adenoiditis (P = 0.001), asthma (P = 0.001), fever (P = 0.014), and antibiotics intake (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake.

  3. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Allazzam, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alaki, Sumer Madani; El Meligy, Omar Abdel Sadek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n = 267) from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM), erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children's medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB), atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P = 0.01). The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P = 0.001), adenoiditis (P = 0.001), asthma (P = 0.001), fever (P = 0.014), and antibiotics intake (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake. PMID:24949012

  4. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  5. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  6. Prevalence of malocclusions in Hungarian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gábris, Katalin; Márton, Sándor; Madléna, Melinda

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, associated caries experience, and level of oral hygiene in the Hungarian population using the World Health Organisation (WHO) questionnaire designed to assess dentofacial anomalies. A total of 483 adolescents (289 girls, 194 boys), aged 16-18 years, were assessed. Orthodontic anomalies were detected in 70.4 per cent of the sample. Crowding and spacing were observed in 14.3 and 17 per cent, respectively, with the latter being more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible (10.4 and 2.9 per cent, respectively). A Class I occlusion was found in 52.8 per cent of the subjects. A half cusp anomaly in the antero-posterior molar relationship was more prevalent than a full cusp anomaly (26.9 and 20.3 per cent, respectively). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS), and the visible plaque indices scores (VPI) of the 340 adolescents with malocclusion were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the adolescents who displayed no anomalies. The prevalence of malocclusion in the Hungarian population seems to be comparable with other European communities.

  7. Prevalence of Axial Spondylarthritis in the United States: Estimates From a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    REVEILLE, JOHN D.; WITTER, JAMES P.; WEISMAN, MICHAEL H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The US national prevalence of spondylarthritis (SpA) was estimated for 2 published sets of classification criteria: the Amor criteria and the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria. These 2 SpA criteria sets have been the most widely utilized in previous population-based studies of SpA. Methods The US SpA prevalence estimates were based on a representative sample of 5,013 US adults ages 20 – 69 years who were examined in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010. Results The overall age-adjusted prevalence of definite and probable SpA by the Amor criteria was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.7–1.1%), corresponding to an estimated 1.7 million persons (95% CI 1.4–2.1 million persons). The age-adjusted prevalence of SpA by the ESSG criteria was 1.4% (95% CI 1.0–1.9%), corresponding to an estimated 2.7 million persons (95% CI 1.9–3.7 million persons). There were no statistically significant sex differences in SpA prevalence. The SpA prevalence among non-Hispanic white persons was 1.0% (95% CI 0.7–1.5%) by the Amor criteria and 1.5% (95% CI 1.0–2.3%) by the ESSG criteria. SpA prevalence could not be reliably estimated in other race/ethnicity subgroups due to sample size imitations. Conclusion The SpA prevalence estimates are in the range of SpA prevalence estimates reported elsewhere in population-based surveys and it is likely that SpA may affect up to 1% of US adults, a prevalence similar to that reported for rheumatoid arthritis. The current US SpA prevalence estimates may be lower than the true value because the NHANES 2009–2010 data collection did not capture a complete set of the elements specified in the 2 SpA criteria sets. PMID:22275150

  8. Disease prevalence in the English population: a comparison of primary care registers and prevalence models.

    PubMed

    Martin, David; Wright, James A

    2009-01-01

    The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is a UK system for monitoring general practitioner (GP) activity and performance, introduced in 2004. The objective of this paper is to explore the potential of QOF datasets as a basis for better understanding geographical variations in disease prevalence in England. In an ecological study, prevalence estimates for four common disease domains (coronary heart disease (CHD), asthma, hypertension and diabetes) were derived from the 2004-2005 QOF primary care disease registers for 354 English Local Authority Districts (LADs). These were compared with synthetic estimates from four prevalence models and with self-reported measures of general health from the 2001 census. Prevalence models were recalculated for LADs using demographic and deprivation data from the census. Results were mapped spatially and cross-tabulated against a national classification of local authorities. The four disease domains display different spatial distributions and different spatial relationships with the corresponding prevalence model. For example, the prevalence model for CHD under-estimated QOF cases in northern England, but this north-south pattern was not evident for the other disease domains. The census-derived health measures were strongly correlated with CHD, but not with the other disease domains. The relationship between modelled prevalence and QOF disease registers differs by disease domain, implying that there is no simple cross-domain effect of the QOF process on prevalence figures. Given reliable synthetic estimates of small area prevalence for the QOF disease domains, one potential application of the QOF dataset may be in assessing the geographical extent of under-diagnosis for each domain.

  9. Caring for children with autism spectrum disorder. Part I: prevalence, etiology, and core features.

    PubMed

    Inglese, Melissa Dodd; Elder, Jennifer Harrison

    2009-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 150 children and has been gaining national attention over the past decade. Given the prevalence of this disorder, there is a high probability that pediatric nurses will care for a child with ASD, regardless of the setting in which they work. Children with ASD traverse the primary care outpatient setting, schools, subspecialty clinics, and inpatient units. A basic understanding of the current issues regarding prevalence and etiology, coupled with knowledge of the core features of ASD, will help pediatric nurses in all settings and at various practice levels better care for these children.

  10. Halitosis: a review of the literature on its prevalence, impact and control.

    PubMed

    Akaji, Ezi A; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Ashiwaju, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Halitosis is the offensive or disagreeable odour that may emanate from the mouth. In 80%-90% of cases, bacterial activities especially on the dorsum of the tongue are implicated. Current studies on halitosis accessed from electronic databases were appraised in the light of prevalence, impact and control of halitosis. Halitosis has a worldwide occurrence with a prevalence range of 22% to 50%. Due to the associated social and psychological effects, it should be taken seriously in all affected patients. Oral healthcare professionals ought to be well informed, because their office(s) are usually the first points of call for the affected patients.

  11. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

    2006-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill

  12. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  13. Regional Wave Climates along Eastern Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Two types of wind-generated gravity waves coexist at the ocean surface: wind sea and swell. Wind sea waves are waves under growing process. These young growing waves receive energy from the overlaying wind and are strongly coupled to the local wind field. Waves that propagate away from their generation area and no longer receive energy input from the local wind are called swell. Swell waves can travel long distances across entire ocean basins. A qualitative study of the ocean waves from a locally vs. remotely generation perspective is important, since the air sea interaction processes is strongly modulated by waves and vary accordingly to the prevalence of wind sea or swell waves in the area. A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves along eastern boundary currents (EBC; California Current, Canary Current, in the Northern Hemisphere, and Humboldt Current, Benguela Current, and Western Australia Current, in the Southern Hemisphere), based on the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis will be presented. The wind regime along EBC varies significantly from winter to summer. The high summer wind speeds along EBC generate higher locally generated wind sea waves, whereas lower winter wind speeds in these areas, along with stronger winter extratropical storms far away, lead to a predominance of swell waves there. In summer, the coast parallel winds also interact with coastal headlands, increasing the wind speed through a process called "expansion fan", which leads to an increase in the height of locally generated waves downwind of capes and points. Hence the spatial patterns of the wind sea or swell regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean along EBC, due to coastal geometry and fetch dimensions. Swell waves will be shown to be considerably more prevalent and to carry more energy in winter along EBC, while in summer locally generated wind sea waves are either more comparable to swell waves or

  14. Rossby Rip Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, D. P.; Vogel, B.; Zhai, X.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic Rossby waves and eddies flux energy and fluid westward, the latter through the Stokes drift or bolus transport. While the wave energy is largely dissipated at the western boundary, mass conservation requires that the fluid be returned offshore through Rossby rip currents. The form and magnitude of these rip currents are investigated through linear Rossby wave theory, a nonlinear numerical model, and analysis of sea surface height satellite observations. The net eastward volume transport by Rossby rip currents over the global ocean is estimated to be of order 10 Sv. In an eddying ocean, both the westward Stokes drift and eastward rip currents assume the form of banded quasi-zonal jets, albeit for reasons unrelated to the rip currents themselves. A mismatch between the vertical structures of the eddy energy and the Rossby rip currents will also be discussed.

  15. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  16. Tsunami currents in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends.

  17. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies in immigrants from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tarrago D; López-Vélez, R; Turrientes, C; Baquero, F; Mateos, M L

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies among indigenous Spanish blood donors and immigrants from developing countries in order to determine whether immigrants pose a significant risk for the transmission of HEV to the healthy Spanish population. The seroprevalence of HEV was determined in a cohort of 90 asymptomatic immigrants (mostly from countries in sub-Saharan Africa) who had recently arrived in Madrid, Spain, and in 863 blood donors, who represented the healthy Spanish population. The results showed that the prevalence of HEV antibodies was 1.9 times higher in the immigrants than in the blood donors (5.5% in immigrants, 95% CI 1.8-12.4; 2.9% in blood donors, 95% CI 1.9-4.2). Combined with the estimated population figures of 300,000 undocumented immigrants versus 39,000,000 Spaniards, these results indicate that sub-Saharan immigrants cannot currently be considered a major risk source for the transmission of HEV in Spain.

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity--epidemics, incidence, prevalence, blindness.

    PubMed

    Gergely, K; Gerinec, A

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are enough financial resources in industrial most developed countries to provide quality health care to the risk population of premature children. Neonatological units are equipped with state-of-the-art technological background, and highly qualified personnel are employed at the units. This as well allows providing optimum care of extremely immature newborns. ROP prevalence in these countries reaches approximately 5-8%. Today, a boom of surviving premature newborns can be seen in countries with medium-developed economy. Nevertheless, limited financing resources do not allow for standard high-level care. In such countries, the prevalence reaches up to 30%. In this respect, the "third ROP epidemic" is mentioned. Birth weight and gestational age parameters achieve significantly lower values in ROP-infants than in those not affected by the disease. Higher number of surviving immature newborns correlates with an increased risk of advanced ROP stages occurrence, while the frequency and degree of the disease are of inverse nature to the gestational age and birth weight (Tab. 1, Ref. 39).

  20. [On the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Puche, Rodolfo C

    2015-01-01

    Between 1987 and the date of the present issue, 10 reports have been published on the prevalence of the vitamin D deficit in Argentina. These studies were done investigating new born babies, children, adolescents, and healthy and institutionalized adults, living in southern, middle or northern cities of Argentina. The weighed prevalence of vitamin D deficit in those reports was 43.3% (436/1007). This figure may be lower than reality because it is not known whether the stratification (age and location of residence) of the sum of samples agree with that of the national population. Taking into account the obvious difficulties in carrying out such a research two areas for further research are suggested: a) an investigation on the solar exposure in summer needed to obviate (or not) the oral supplementation of vitamin D in winter, b) to determine the success of the schema of administration taking into account the current controversy between dose and optimum plasma levels of 25(HO)D3. In both instances, the end point should include some of the physiological functions alluded to in this editorial.

  1. Food allergy prevalence: new possibilities for therapy and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy is an important clinical problem of increasing prevalence worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses are the most widely recognized form of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy is influenced by country, age, culture, and dietary habits. Strategies for the prevention of food allergy have been extensively studied. There is currently no standard treatment for food allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy has been hindered by severe side effects in the past. A mutated recombinant major apple allergen is clinically hypoallergenic, which paves the way toward safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest medical practices in the world. A Chinese Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has been used as a therapy for food allergy patients. FAHF-2 was shown to be remarkably effective against food anaphylaxis in an animal model and in human clinical trial with the potential to be a long-lasting therapy.

  2. Prevalence of recent immunisation in children with febrile convulsions

    PubMed Central

    Motala, Leya; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of recent immunisation amongst children under 7 years of age presenting for febrile convulsions. METHODS This is a retrospective study of all children under the age of seven presenting with febrile convulsions to a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. A total of 78 cases occurred in the period January 2011 to July 2012 and were included in the study. Data was extracted from medical records to provide a retrospective review of the convulsions. RESULTS Of the 78 total cases, there were five medical records which contained information on whether or not immunisation had been administered in the preceding 48 h to presentation to the emergency department. Of these five patients only one patient (1.28% of the study population) was confirmed to have received a vaccination with Infanrix, Prevnar and Rotavirus. The majority of cases reported a current infection as a likely precipitant to the febrile convulsion. CONCLUSION This study found a very low prevalence of recent immunisation amongst children with febrile convulsions presenting to an emergency department at a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. This finding, however, may have been distorted by underreporting of vaccination history. PMID:27610346

  3. Subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents: Prevalence and impact.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sophie C; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the prevalence of subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder (subthreshold-BDD) in a community sample of adolescents, and to compare disorder correlates in individuals with subthreshold-BDD to those with probable full-syndrome BDD (probable-BDD) and those without BDD (non-BDD). Self-report questionnaires assessing DSM-IV BDD criteria, past mental health service use, and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, were completed by 3149 Australian high school students (mean age =14.6 years, 63.5% male). Male participants also completed measures assessing quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems. The prevalence of subthreshold-BDD was 3.4%, and probable-BDD was 1.7%. Compared to the non-BDD group, subthreshold-BDD was associated with elevated symptoms of comorbid psychopathology and greater past mental health service use, and in male-only measures, with poorer quality of life and elevated muscularity concerns. Subthreshold-BDD participants reported significantly lower mental health service use, and fewer symptoms of depression, eating disorders, and hyperactivity than probable-BDD participants, however, other comorbid symptoms did not differ significantly between these groups. These findings indicate that subthreshold-BDD is associated with substantial difficulties for adolescents in the general community. BDD screening should include subthreshold presentations, as these may be an important target for early intervention programs.

  4. Prevalence and impact of disabling chronic conditions in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Newacheck, P W; Halfon, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study provides a current national profile of the prevalence and impact of chronic conditions causing childhood disability. Disability is defined as a long-term reduction in ability to conduct social role activities, such as school or play, because of a chronic physical or mental condition. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed on data from 99513 children younger than 18 years who were included in the 1992-1994 National Health Interview Survey. The response rate exceeded 93% during each year. RESULTS: A significant proportion of children, estimated at 6.5% of all US children, experienced some degree of disability. The most common causes of childhood disability were respiratory diseases and mental impairments. Prevalence of disability was higher for older children, boys, and children from low-income and single-parent families. Childhood disability is estimated to result in 66 million restricted activity days annually, including 24 million days lost from school. Furthermore, disability in childhood results in an added 26 million physician contacts and 5 million hospital days annually. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood disability has profound impacts on children, the education system, and the health care system. PMID:9551003

  5. Temperature compensated current source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, D. R. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A current source was designed which is substantially independent of variations of temperature. The current source may be made either to have a linear dependence upon changes of temperature or, by the simple addition of a resistor, may be made substantially independent of temperature variations. Since the current source consists only of transistors of one conductivity type and resistors, it is ideally suited for manufacture in the form of a monolithic integrated circuit.

  6. RF current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  7. Quantization of interface currents

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, Motoko; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann; Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  8. Intimate partner violence against older women in Germany: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte; Penhale, Bridget

    2012-09-01

    Violence against women is a recognized human rights and public health issue, with significant impacts on women's life and health. Until now, several studies, most of them relying on small scale samples, have explored the prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence against older women, whereas few have examined what actually puts older women at risk of intimate partner violence. This study is based on a secondary analysis of the first national survey on violence against women in Germany, looking at the prevalence and associated factors for physical and for sexual violence by the current partners of women aged 50 to 65 and women aged 66 to 86 years. The prevalence of violence in women's current relationships was 12% and 5%, respectively. In both age groups, women who had experienced violence during childhood and nonpartner physical or sexual violence after the age of 16 had higher odds of experiencing current partner violence. Current partner violence was associated only with women and their partner's level of education and women's vocational training among women aged 66 to 86 years. Relationships where one or both partners drank heavily in recent months were associated with higher odds of violence among women aged 50 to 65. Future studies on intimate partner violence need to recognize that women above reproductive risk are also at risk of current partner violence.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for atherosclerotic carotid stenosis and plaque

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Shin Young; Joh, Jin Hyun; Han, Sang-Ah; Park, Ho-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerotic carotid stenosis (ACS) is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Screening for asymptomatic ACS is important to identify the patients who require longitudinal surveillance, medication, or endovascular surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for ACS and carotid plaque (CP) in Korea using a population-based screening study. We recruited participants during visits to several community welfare centers in Korea. The baseline characteristics of the study population were collected. All patients underwent duplex ultrasonography to examine their bilateral carotid arteries. ACS was defined as the presence of plaque with ≥50% vessel diameter reduction and peak systolic velocity (PSV) ≥125 cm/s or PSV ratio ≥2.0. CP was defined as the presence of plaque with <50% vessel diameter reduction. The Mann–Whitney test, χ2 test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. A total of 3030 participants were enrolled in this study (male 43.7% and female 56.3%). The prevalence of ACS and CP was 1.1% and 5.7%, respectively. Significant risk factors for CP included age ≥80 years (odds ratio [OR], 8.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.45–18.93), male sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.29–3.61), hypertension (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.45), and hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.30–2.62). The presence of ACS was significantly associated with age (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03–1.12), hypertension (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.34–7.46), and being an ex-smoker (OR, 6.81; 95% CI, 1.66–27.93) or current smoker (OR, 6.97; 95% CI, 1.78–27.31) after adjusting for confounding factors. This population-based screening study revealed that ACS was uncommon and had a prevalence of 1.1% in the study population. Age, hypertension, and smoking were risk factors for ACS. Further investigations into the prevalence and risk factors of ACS are required, as are studies on the cost-effectiveness of a national screening

  10. High prevalence of human papillomaviruses in Ghanaian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Marco H; Völker, Fabian M; Lugert, Raimond; Cooper, Paul; Hasenclever, Kai; Groß, Uwe; Pfister, Herbert; Silling, Steffi

    2016-12-01

    Data about the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in African women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology are still scarce. Current HPV vaccines contain HPV types, which mainly represent the HPV epidemiology of industrial countries. As further developments of HPV vaccines are going on, it is necessary to regard regional differences in HPV type prevalence to ensure optimal protection by the vaccine. Vaginal swabs of Ghanaian pregnant women, routinely collected before delivery to rule out bacterial infections causing early onset sepsis, were screened for 12 high-risk (HR), 13 probably/possibly (pHR), and 18 low-risk (LR) HPV types. Most pregnant women come for delivery to the hospital. This was considered as appropriate possibility to have an unselected group of women. HPV DNA were detected in 55/165 women (33.3, 95 % CI 26.3-41.1 %). Thirty-four out of fifty-five (61.8, 95 % CI 47.7-74.3 %) of HPV-positive women were infected with HR and/or pHR HPV types. The five most prevalent HR or pHR HPV types were HPV-52 and HPV-67 (7 women each, 4.2, 95 % CI 1.9-8.9 %), HPV-53 (six women, 3.6, 95 % CI 1.5-8.1 %), HPV-45 (five women, 3.0, 95 % CI 1.1-7.3 %), and HPV-18 (four women, 2.4, 95 % CI 0.8-6.5 %), respectively. HPV-16 was found in two women only (1.2, 95 % CI 0.2-4.8 %). Future HPV vaccine research may devote special interest to HPV-67 and HPV-53 provided further studies confirm their high prevalence in the general population of Sub-Saharan African countries. The true carcinogenic potential of HPV-67, which is a member of species alpha9 including HPV-16, and so far categorized as pHR, should be clarified.

  11. Prevalence of heroin markers in urine for pain management patients.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julie; Puet, Brandi L; DePriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Hild, Cheryl; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2014-10-01

    Surveys of current trends indicate heroin abuse is associated with nonmedical use of pain relievers. Consequently, there is an interest in evaluating the presence of heroin-specific markers in chronic pain patients who are prescribed controlled substances. A total of 926,084 urine specimens from chronic pain patients were tested for heroin/diacetylmorphine (DAM), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), 6-acetylcodeine (6AC), codeine (COD), and morphine (MOR). Heroin and markers were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Opiates were analyzed following hydrolysis using LC-MS-MS. The prevalence of heroin use was 0.31%, as 2871 were positive for one or more heroin-specific markers including DAM, 6AM, or 6AC (a known contaminant of illicit heroin). Of these, 1884 were additionally tested for the following markers of illicit drug use: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine (MAMP), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetracannabinol (THCCOOH), and benzoylecgonine (BZE); 654 (34.7%) had positive findings for one or more of these analytes. The overall prevalence of heroin markers were as follows: DAM 1203 (41.9%), 6AM 2570 (89.5%), 6AC 1082 (37.7%). MOR was present in 2194 (76.4%) and absent (Prevalence of combinations for specimens containing MOR were as follows: DAM only 13 (0.59%), 6AM only 1140 (52.0%), 6AC only 24 (1.1%), DAM/6AM/6AC 710 (32.4%), 6AM/6AC 188 (8.6%), DAM/6AM 113 (5.2%), DAM/6AC 6 (0.27%). Importantly, the prevalence of combinations for specimens without MOR were as follows: DAM only 161 (23.8%), 6AM only 217 (32.1%), 6AC only 92 (13.6%), DAM/6AM/6AC 50 (7.4%), 6AM/6AC 7 (1.0%), DAM/6AM 145 (21.4%), DAM/6AC 5 (0.74%). Unexpected patterns of excretion were observed, such as the presence of DAM and 6AC in the absence of 6AM and MOR; therefore, multiple heroin markers may be useful to assess for

  12. Prevalence of smoking among school adolescents in Khartoum State

    PubMed Central

    Adil, Abo-mali; Mustafa, Babiker M.; Abdo, Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco is the single most important cause of chronic morbidity in the Developed World. Tobacco use primarily begins in early adolescence, reportedly before the time of high school graduation. By 2015 tobacco use is projected to cause 50% more deaths than AIDS. A cross sectional school based survey was conducted in primary and secondary school in Khartoum State. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking in school adolescents and associated personal and social factors. A total of 910 students with complete questionnaires were included in the analysis, of whom 13.6% were found to be current cigarette smokers. Factors that played role in initiation of smoking included smoking among parents, other family members and close friends. School adolescents who have friends or parents who smoke should be the main target for tobacco control. Smoking should become public health priority in Sudan to educate adolescents and parents regarding its hazards. PMID:27493344

  13. Misuse of "study drugs:" prevalence, consequences, and implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Miller, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Background Non-medical/illegal use of prescription stimulants popularly have been referred to as "study drugs". This paper discusses the current prevalence and consequences of misuse of these drugs and implications of this information for drug policy. Results Study drugs are being misused annually by approximately 4% of older teens and emerging adults. Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications. Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education. Conclusion Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts. PMID:16764722

  14. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  15. Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Hu, Yichun; Mao, Deqian; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jing; Li, Weidong; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Lichen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the level of blood hemoglobin and the rates of anemia in Chinese rural residents in the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the change in its prevalence in rural residents during the last ten years. Our methodology included data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010–2012, where samples were selected through the method of probability proportion to size. The study objects were from 150 sites in provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities in China. The concentration of blood hemoglobin was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia was judged by the anemia standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), combined with elevation correction standard. The level of blood hemoglobin, the prevalence of anemia, and the 95% CI (Confidence interval) value were analyzed using complex sampling weighted processing, combined with the population figures released by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009. Our results indicate that the level of blood hemoglobin of the Chinese rural area population was 145.92 ± 0.83 g/L, with the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population at 9.7% (95% CI: 9.4%–10.0%). The prevalence of anemia in children 6–11 years old was 5.5% (95% CI: 5.0%–6.0%), 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–8.7%) for 12–17-year-old teenagers, 10.0% (95% CI: 9.4%–10.6%) for 18–44-year-old adults, 9.6% (95% CI: 9.0%–10.1%) for 45–59-year-old adults, and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.9%–13.3%) for the elderly above 60 years old. Our conclusion shows that the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population in 2010–2012 had obviously decreased compared to the last decade; however, women of reproductive age and the elderly still had a high prevalence of anemia. PMID:28245576

  16. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  17. Direct current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  18. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  19. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  20. Occupation and the Prevalence of Respiratory Health Symptoms and Conditions: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; London, Stephanie J.; Charles, Luenda E.; Pompeii, Lisa A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations between occupation and respiratory health in a large, population-based cohort of adults in the United States. Methods Data from 15,273 participants, aged 45-64 years, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study were used to examine associations of current or most recent job held with the prevalence of self-reported chronic cough, chronic bronchitis, wheeze, asthma, and measures of lung function collected by spirometry. Results Eleven percent of participants reported wheeze and 9% were classified as having airway obstruction. Compared to individuals in managerial and administrative jobs, increased prevalences of respiratory outcomes were observed among participants in selected occupations, including construction and extractive trades (wheeze: prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35, 2.73; airway obstruction: PR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.65). Conclusions Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. PMID:22157701

  1. Same-Sex Domestic Violence: Prevalence, Unique Aspects, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Carroll, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. Prevalence rates for same-sex domestic violence vary because of methodological issues related to recruitment and definitions of sexual orientation. However, such prevalence rates are currently considered to be similar to slightly greater than other-sex prevalence rates. Research has identified differences between same-sex domestic violence and other-sex domestic violence, including internalized and externalized stressors associated with being a sexual minority that interact with domestic violence to create or exacerbate vulnerabilities, higher risk for complex trauma experiences, and difficulties accessing services. This review provides a critical review of the literature, focusing upon empirical findings regarding same-sex domestic violence.

  2. Heterosexual anal intercourse: increasing prevalence, and association with sexual dysfunction, bisexual behavior, and venereal disease history.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Representative samples of the Czech population were surveyed with regard to sexual behavior in 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008 (N = 7,720). Lifetime prevalence of Heterosexual Anal Intercourse increased from 1993 to 2008 (16.6% to 19.7% among women, 15.7% to 25.3% among men). Anal intercourse was associated with lifetime number of sex partners, current masturbation, and histories (prevalence of which increased from 1993 to 2008) of homosexual sex, prostitution, venereal disease (adjusted for number of sex partners), and women's sexual dysfunction. The authors discuss the possible reasons for the increasing prevalence and the associations. Multivariate predictors of ever having a sexual dysfunction or a venereal disease are also presented.

  3. The Comparison of Malocclusion Prevalence Between Children with Cerebral Palsy and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Bakarcić, Danko; Lajnert, Vlatka; Maricić, Barbara Mady; Jokić, Nataga Ivancić; Vrancić, Zlatka Roksandić; Grzić, Renata; Prpić, Igor

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to examine the prevalence of malocclusion and habits in a group of children with cerebral palsy and to compare it with a control group of healthy children. The presence of an anterior open bite was statistically significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The presence of aposterior crossbite was not significantly different between the examined groups, as was the case for a lingual crossbite. The occurrence of visceral swallowing, incompetent lips and oral respiration was significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The current study cannot satisfactorily sustain the issue of a higher prevalence of posterior and lingual crossbite in children with cerebral palsy because of no significant differences between groups, but it certainly can for an anterior openbite. The present study also adds to the evidence that there is an increased prevalence of oral breathing, visceral swallowing and lip incompetence in children with cerebral palsy.

  4. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  5. Variations in the prevalence and predictors of prevalent metabolically healthy obesity in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Heinzle, S.; Ball, G. D. C.; Kuk, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Obesity is a heterogeneous condition, which includes a subset of individuals that can be classified as having metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), but there is no consensus on what constitutes MHO. Thus, the objective of the study is to examine the prevalence and predictors of prevalent MHO in adolescents using various definitions of MHO. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used. Participants included 316 male and 316 female adolescents aged 12–19 years with a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Two definitions were used to define MHO. First, MHO was defined as having ≤ 1 metabolic syndrome criteria (excluding waist) and being free of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Second, MHO was defined as being free of all metabolic syndrome criteria, insulin resistance and inflammation. Results The prevalence of MHO was 42% (male) and 74% (female) using the first definition and 7% (male) and 12% (female) using the second more conservative definition. Lower abdominal obesity (waist circumference) and lower insulin resistance predicted prevalent MHO in male and female adolescents for both definitions (p <0.01). Associations between dietary components and MHO were weak and inconsistent, while physical activity and inflammation were not associated with MHO in male and female adolescents for both definitions (p >0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of MHO in adolescents varied across definitions, with lower levels of abdominal obesity and insulin resistance as the most consistent predictors of prevalent MHO status. PMID:26643813

  6. Prevalence of face recognition deficits in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Murray, Ebony; Boyce, Tian; Bate, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 2-2.5% of the adult population is believed to show severe difficulties with face recognition, in the absence of any neurological injury-a condition known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP). However, to date no research has attempted to estimate the prevalence of face recognition deficits in children, possibly because there are very few child-friendly, well-validated tests of face recognition. In the current study, we examined face and object recognition in a group of primary school children (aged 5-11 years), to establish whether our tests were suitable for children and to provide an estimate of face recognition difficulties in children. In Experiment 1 (n = 184), children completed a pre-existing test of child face memory, the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Kids (CFMT-K), and a bicycle test with the same format. In Experiment 2 (n = 413), children completed three-alternative forced-choice matching tasks with faces and bicycles. All tests showed good psychometric properties. The face and bicycle tests were well matched for difficulty and showed a similar developmental trajectory. Neither the memory nor the matching tests were suitable to detect impairments in the youngest groups of children, but both tests appear suitable to screen for face recognition problems in middle childhood. In the current sample, 1.2-5.2% of children showed difficulties with face recognition; 1.2-4% showed face-specific difficulties-that is, poor face recognition with typical object recognition abilities. This is somewhat higher than previous adult estimates: It is possible that face matching tests overestimate the prevalence of face recognition difficulties in children; alternatively, some children may "outgrow" face recognition difficulties.

  7. Bioclimatic distribution and prevalence maps for Fasciola hepatica in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis affects different ruminant species and leads to great economic losses for cattle farmers worldwide. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate bovine fasciolosis prevalence in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, using slaughter maps provided by slaughterhouses and verifying the origin of cattle. Methods A map was created based on analysis of epidemiological data. The ArcGIS/ArcINFO 10.1 software was employed in order to elaborate updated bioclimatic maps that displayed the fasciolosis prevalence within the state – per city– between 2009 and 2011. Results According to the bioclimatic map it was clear that 52.24% of the state’s total area comprise regions considered favorable for the development and survival of Fasciola hepatica. According to the data provided by slaughterhouses, the parasite was more frequent in the cities of Atílio Vivácqua, Itapemirim and Anchieta with respective prevalence of 28.41, 25.50 and 24.95%. Although the northern portion of the state is also favorable for the disease maintenance (reaching rates above 90%), several cities presented prevalence of only 0.99 and 1.94% respectively. These findings indicate that climatic and environmental factors only cannot be considered preponderant to fasciolosis occurrence. Regarding the slaughterhouse located in Anchieta city, the higher prevalence was registered in the cities of Jerônimo Monteiro, Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, with mean prevalence of 1.21, 1.07 and 2.09% respectively. Conclusion Although the present findings suggest a pattern for the prevalence of fasciolosis, records of the cities for the occurrence of the disease usually do not reflect the true origin of animals. PMID:25101121

  8. True versus Apparent Malaria Infection Prevalence: The Contribution of a Bayesian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Filip; Van Hong, Nguyen; Torres, Kathy; Mao, Sokny; Van den Eede, Peter; Thi Thinh, Ta; Gamboa, Dioni; Sochantha, Tho; Thang, Ngo Duc; Coosemans, Marc; Büscher, Philippe; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Berkvens, Dirk; Erhart, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Aims To present a new approach for estimating the “true prevalence” of malaria and apply it to datasets from Peru, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Methods Bayesian models were developed for estimating both the malaria prevalence using different diagnostic tests (microscopy, PCR & ELISA), without the need of a gold standard, and the tests' characteristics. Several sources of information, i.e. data, expert opinions and other sources of knowledge can be integrated into the model. This approach resulting in an optimal and harmonized estimate of malaria infection prevalence, with no conflict between the different sources of information, was tested on data from Peru, Vietnam and Cambodia. Results Malaria sero-prevalence was relatively low in all sites, with ELISA showing the highest estimates. The sensitivity of microscopy and ELISA were statistically lower in Vietnam than in the other sites. Similarly, the specificities of microscopy, ELISA and PCR were significantly lower in Vietnam than in the other sites. In Vietnam and Peru, microscopy was closer to the “true” estimate than the other 2 tests while as expected ELISA, with its lower specificity, usually overestimated the prevalence. Conclusions Bayesian methods are useful for analyzing prevalence results when no gold standard diagnostic test is available. Though some results are expected, e.g. PCR more sensitive than microscopy, a standardized and context-independent quantification of the diagnostic tests' characteristics (sensitivity and specificity) and the underlying malaria prevalence may be useful for comparing different sites. Indeed, the use of a single diagnostic technique could strongly bias the prevalence estimation. This limitation can be circumvented by using a Bayesian framework taking into account the imperfect characteristics of the currently available diagnostic tests. As discussed in the paper, this approach may further support global malaria burden estimation initiatives. PMID:21364745

  9. Adult physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world: Analysis of 38 countries

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity surveillance informs policy and treatment options toward meeting the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of a 10% reduction in its prevalence by 2025. We currently do not know the aggregate prevalence for Muslim-majority countries, many of which have extremely high rates of comorbidities associated with physical inactivity. Method Based on data for 163, 556 persons in 38 Muslim countries that were collected by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, unweighted and weighted physical inactivity prevalence estimates were calculated. I used two-proportion Z tests to determine gender and ethnic differences within the sample and between the sample and 94 non-Muslim countries and odds ratios to determine the magnitude of significant differences. Results Total physical inactivity prevalence was 32.3% (95% CI: 31.9, 32.7). Prevalence among males and females was 28.8% and 35.5%, respectively. Prevalence among non-Arabs and Arabs was 28.6% and 43.7%, respectively. Females and Arabs were more likely physically inactive than their respective counterparts [OR = 1.36 (1.33, 1.39) and OR = 1.94 (1.90, 1.98)]. Muslim countries were more likely physically inactive [OR = 1.23 (1.22, 1.25)] than non-Muslim ones, which was primarily due to the influence of Arabs [OR = 2.01 (1.97, 2.04)], and in particular female Arabs [OR = 2.22 (2.17, 2.27)]. Conclusion Physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world is higher than non-Muslim countries and the difference is primarily due to higher rates among Arabs. PMID:26844051

  10. Trends in autism prevalence: diagnostic substitution revisited.

    PubMed

    Coo, Helen; Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène; Lloyd, Jennifer E V; Kasmara, Liza; Holden, Jeanette J A; Lewis, M E Suzanne

    2008-07-01

    There has been little evidence to support the hypothesis that diagnostic substitution may contribute to increases in the administrative prevalence of autism. We examined trends in assignment of special education codes to British Columbia (BC) school children who had an autism code in at least 1 year between 1996 and 2004, inclusive. The proportion of children with an autism code increased from 12.3/10,000 in 1996 to 43.1/10,000 in 2004; 51.9% of this increase was attributable to children switching from another special education classification to autism (16.0/10,000). Taking into account the reverse situation (children with an autism code switching to another special education category (5.9/10.000)), diagnostic substitution accounted for at least one-third of the increase in autism prevalence over the study period.

  11. [Prevalence of latex hypersensitivity among medical personnel].

    PubMed

    Camacho Ibarra, V C; López García, A I; Galindo García, J A; Paz Martínez, D; Papaqui Tapia, J S

    1997-01-01

    In order to determine the latex hypersensitivity prevalence in medical residents from Hospital Universitario de Puebla, it was carried out a transversal, observational and descriptive study including the medical staff of all specialties. The epicutancous test was effectuated with 1:20 latex antigen dilution. It was studied a total of 90 medical residents, 68.9% were males and 31.1% females. The mean age was 30.6 years (SD 3.8). The 50% were from clinical specialties and 50% else were from surgical. The global latex hypersensitivity prevalence was 8%. It will be convenient to carry out a follow up of studied cohort to establish if continual exposition, years later, will determine skin reactivity to latex in professional practice.

  12. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population.

  13. Prevalence of malnutrition in general surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Aoun, J P; Baroudi, J; Geahchan, N

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) was studied on one hundred consecutive patients admitted to the department of surgery at the Saint Georges Hospital, Beirut, during the months of April and June 1991, regardless of age, sex and socio-economic status. Data was completed on 94 of those cases. Multiple parameters were studied, including measurements of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, percent weight loss, creatinine height index, serum albumin and transferrin levels and total lymphocyte count. We found a prevalence of 81%, 65%, 53% and 31% of PCM, if one, two, three or at least four abnormal parameters are used respectively, to assess malnutrition. Defining malnutrition as the presence of at least three abnormal parameters, we conclude that 53% of the patients, on admission to the department of surgery, had evidence of PCM. Further studies are required to assess the impact of this prevalence on length of stay, morbidity and mortality.

  14. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095

  15. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  16. Prevalence of celiac disease in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a common systemic disease related to a permanent intolerance to gluten and is often associated with different autoimmune and neurological diseases. Its mean prevalence in the general population is 1-2% worldwide. Our aim was to study the prevalence of celiac disease in a prospective series of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients and their first-degree relatives. Methods We analyzed the prevalence of serological, histological and genetic CD markers in a series of 72 MS patients and in their 126 first-degree relatives, compared to 123 healthy controls. Results Tissue IgA-anti-transglutaminase-2 antibodies were positive in 7 MS patients (10%), compared to 3 healthy controls (2.4%) (p < 0.05). OR: 5.33 (CI-95%: 1.074-26.425). No differences were found in HLA-DQ2 markers between MS patients (29%) and controls (26%) (NS). We detected mild or moderate villous atrophy (Marsh III type) in duodenal biopsies, in 8 MS patients (11.1%). We also found a high proportion of CD among first-degree relatives: 23/126 (32%). Several associated diseases were detected, mainly dermatitis 41 (57%) and iron deficiency anemia in 28 (39%) MS patients. We also found in them, an increased frequency of circulating auto-antibodies such as anti-TPO in 19 (26%), ANA in 11 (15%) and AMA in 2 (3%). Conclusions We have found an increased prevalence of CD in 8 of the 72 MS patients (11.1%) and also in their first-degree relatives (23/126 [32%]). Therefore, increased efforts aimed at the early detection and dietary treatment of CD, among antibody-positive MS patients, are advisable. PMID:21385364

  17. Prevalence of bruxism awareness in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nekora-Azak, Aysen; Yengin, Esengun; Evlioglu, Gulumser; Ceyhan, Arzu; Ocak, Ozlem; Issever, Halim

    2010-04-01

    The reported prevalence of symptoms related to bruxism varies in the general population because of different investigative methodologies, operational definitions, clinical criteria, and samples of population. Awareness of bruxism in the general population is 15% to 23%, however, this rate increases to 50% to 90% in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms associated with bruxism in Istanbul, Turkey and to analyze the correlation between bruxism and factors such as age, gender, marital status, and occupation. Seven-hundred-ninety-five (795) adult subjects who resided in the city of Istanbul were interviewed by telephone about their age, gender, marital status, occupation, and description of the prevalence of bruxism awareness. The overall prevalence of clenching teeth was 45.7% and that of grinding teeth was 21.6%. Women responded positively to the questions more often than men. The data showed significant differences between males and females, regarding clenching teeth OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.05-1.87), difficulty opening OR: 2.64 (95% CI: 1.63-4.26), headache on awakening OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.58-3.27) joint sounds OR: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.24-2.38), sore on awakening OR: 2.97 (95% CI: 1.91-4.61), influence in daily activity (OR: 2.26 CI: 1.38-3.67). Tooth wear in the married group was higher than the single group. Age distribution showed significant differences related to grinding teeth, tooth wear and joint sounds. There were statistically significant differences between bruxism and job categories. As a conclusion, this study suggest an association between bruxism and stressful events such as marital status and job problems.

  18. Prevalence & consequences of anaemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, K

    2009-11-01

    Prevalence of anaemia in India is among the highest in the world. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50 per cent of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake due to low vegetable consumption, perhaps low B12 intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. In India, anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for 40 per cent of maternal deaths. There is 8 to 10-fold increase in MMR when the Hb falls below 5 g/dl. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. A doubling of low birth weight rate and 2 to 3 fold increase in the perinatal mortality rates is seen when the Hb is <8 g/dl. Intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight inevitably lead to poor growth trajectory in infancy, childhood and adolescence and contribute to low adult height. Parental height and maternal weight are determinants of intrauterine growth and birth weight. Thus maternal anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can lead to substantial reduction in undernutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.

  19. Prevalence of Hypertension Among Active Duty Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-13

    coronary heart disease , and renal disease , which account for a large proportion of adult deaths in the United States. The purpose of this study was to...cardiovascular diseases --stroke, rheumatic heart disease , coronary heart disease , and hypertension--hypertension is the most prevalent, afflicting approximately 30...factor, in conjunction with the fact that hypertension is one of the most modifiable risk factors for heart disease and stroke (Alderman,

  20. Exploring the Underdiagnosis and Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Conditions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Matthews, Fiona E; Zhang, Zhixiang; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies reported that the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) in mainland China is much lower than estimates from developed countries (around 1%). The aim of the study is to apply current screening and standardized diagnostic instruments to a Chinese population to establish a prevalence estimate of ASC in an undiagnosed population in mainland China. We followed the design development used previously in the UK published in 2009 by Baron-Cohen and colleagues. The Mandarin Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) was validated by screening primary school pupils (n = 737 children age 6-10 years old) in Beijing and by conducting diagnostic assessments using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. The prevalence estimate was generated after adjusting and imputing for missing values using the inverse probability weighting. Response was high (97%). Using the UK cutoff (≥15), CAST performance has 84% sensitivity and 96% specificity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46, 98, and 96, 97, respectively). Six out of 103 children, not previously diagnosed, were found to the meet diagnostic criteria (8.5 after adjustment, 95% CI: 1.6, 15.4). The preliminary prevalence in an undiagnosed primary school population in mainland China was 119 per 10,000 (95% CI: 53, 265). The utility of CAST is acceptable as a screening instrument for ASC in large epidemiological studies in China. Using a comparable method, the preliminary prevalence estimate of ASC in mainland China is similar to that of those from developed countries.

  1. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Attending Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    AL-MAWERI, Sadeq Ali Ali; ISMAIL, Noorliza Mastura; ISMAIL, Abdul Rashid Ismail; AL-GHASHM, Abdulmlik

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a greater likelihood of developing certain oral mucosal disorders. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and to investigate the association of such lesions with metabolic control of the disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 391 patients with DM2 and 391 non-diabetic control subjects. Demographic information and data on the duration and type of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, medical history, and current use of medication were obtained from medical records. Detailed oral examination was performed in accordance with international criteria. Results: The prevalence of OMLs was significantly higher among diabetic patients (45.5%) than among control subjects (38.4%) (P = 0.042). Patients with diabetes had a higher prevalence of geographic tongue (GT) (P = 0.017), denture stomatitis (P = 0.018), and angular cheilitis (P = 0.006) than controls. Overall, diabetic patients with poor metabolic control had a significantly higher prevalence of OMLs and xerostomia than patients with moderately and well-controlled disease (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of OMLs was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects. Higher occurrence of OMLs was significantly associated with poor metabolic control. PMID:24043995

  2. Trends in the prevalence and distribution of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although most HTLV infections in Spain have been found in native intravenous drug users carrying HTLV-2, the large immigration flows from Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa in recent years may have changed the prevalence and distribution of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections, and hypothetically open the opportunity for introducing HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 in Spain. To assess the current seroprevalence of HTLV infection in Spain a national multicenter, cross-sectional, study was conducted in June 2009. Results A total of 6,460 consecutive outpatients attending 16 hospitals were examined. Overall, 12% were immigrants, and their main origin was Latin America (4.9%), Africa (3.6%) and other European countries (2.8%). Nine individuals were seroreactive for HTLV antibodies (overall prevalence, 0.14%). Evidence of HTLV-1 infection was confirmed by Western blot in 4 subjects (prevalence 0.06%) while HTLV-2 infection was found in 5 (prevalence 0.08%). Infection with HTLV types 1, 2, 3 and 4 was discarded by Western blot and specific PCR assays in another two specimens initially reactive in the enzyme immunoassay. All but one HTLV-1 cases were Latin-Americans while all persons with HTLV-2 infection were native Spaniards. Conclusions The overall prevalence of HTLV infections in Spain remains low, with no evidence of HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 infections so far. PMID:22444832

  3. Evidence of low prevalence of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Orłowska, Blanka; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Anusz, Krzysztof; Kita, Jerzy

    2017-01-25

    Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi are generally regarded as the main causes of lymphadenitis in pigs and wild boars. In Poland, mycobacterial submandibular lymphadenitis was first diagnosed in a wild boar in 2012 but Mycobacterium spp. infections are also present in the Polish population of European bison (Bison bonasus). The prevalence of lymphadenitis in Polish wild boars has been found to 8.4% (95% CI 6.2-11.3%) and it has been proved that R. equi is not an important cause of purulent lesions in these animals. The current study was carried out to assess the prevalence of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in the Polish wild boar population. Submandibular lymph nodes with purulent lesions collected from 38 wild boars in 2010/2011 and negative for R. equi were included. Calculations based on the hypergeometric approximation were used to determine the probability that at least one positive individual would be detected if the infection had been present at a prevalence greater than or equal to the design prevalence. All 38 samples were negative for Mycobacterium spp. [0% (95% CI 0, 9.2%)]. Epidemiological analysis showed that the true prevalence was 95% likely to be lower than 10%. In conclusion, mycobacterial lymphadenitis seems to occur rarely in wild boars in Poland. Due to the presence of Mycobacterium spp. infections in other wildlife, the surveillance of mycobacterial infections in wild animals in Poland remains an important issue.

  4. Prevalence of hyperuricemia in Bangkok population.

    PubMed

    Uaratanawong, Somchai; Suraamornkul, S; Angkeaw, S; Uaratanawong, R

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia in general Thai population and to evaluate its association with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,945 subjects who sought for routine annual health checkup in our hospital from 1 October 2009 to 31 March 2010 were enrolled into the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy individuals, aged ≥35 years old, and lived in Bangkok for over 10 years. Data of general health status, age, gender, history of alcoholic consumption, body weight, height, and waist circumference were obtained by an interview-structured questionnaire. Fasting blood sample was collected from each subject early in the morning for uric acid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in our study population was 24.4%, being significantly more common in men than women (59% vs. 11%, p < 0.001). The condition was also associated with various features of high body mass index or waist circumference, alcohol consumption, dyslipidemia, and high fasting blood glucose. Metabolic syndrome was found in 35% and 23% of men and women with hyperuricemia; direct relationship between level of uric acid and prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed. Hyperuricemia is common among Bangkok population in our study. This disorder is frequently associated with metabolic syndrome.

  5. [Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence in sex workers].

    PubMed

    Salomón, María Cristina; Martínez, Norma; Delgado, Delia; González Arra, Carolina; Bittar, Víctor; González, Nieves

    2011-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) usually associated to vaginitis, urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease, which can cause infertility. The aim of this retrospective longitudinal study was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence in a population of male and female sex workers in Mendoza, Argentina. A cohort of 720 people who attended the STI Program in this province was retrospectively analyzed. From February 2007 up to June 2009, 1692 samples were processed using a reposition sampling method. The age and sex distribution of the population was: 687 women/33 men, from 15 to 65 years old. Trichomoniasis prevalence determined for this population at risk was 7.6% in women only, men did not present infection. The high prevalence shown for this risk group suggests a great vulnerability of this population to contract other more serious STIs. In another sense, it also shows a remarkable lack in the use of mechanical barriers to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The present research justifies the elaboration of standardized procedures guide to diagnose T. vaginalis within the framework of the Reproductive Health Program (PROSAR).

  6. Somatotype and disease prevalence in adults.

    PubMed

    Koleva, M; Nacheva, A; Boev, M

    2002-01-01

    We examined the association between the somatotype and its main components (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy), and the prevalence of several chronic diseases. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey designed to assess somatotype and morbidity with special reference to most often diagnosed diseases. The study population comprised 524 men and 250 women. The subjects underwent laboratory tests and clinical and anthropometric examinations. Of all examined workers, 94.8% fell into the five somatotype categories; of these, 394 were endomorphic mesomorphs. The most common somatotype was endomorphic mesomorph for men and mesomorph-endomorph for women. In five disease groups, prevalence was significantly related to a somatotype. Mesomorphic endomorphs most frequently suffered from digestive system diseases (40.6%, p < 0.05), neuroses (30.1%, p < 0.05), and radiculitis lumbosacralis (15.4%). The prevalence of arterial hypertension in mesomorph-endomorphs (37.1%), endomorphic mesomorphs (35.5%), and mesomorphic endomorphs (34.3%) was equal. In both genders, those with the highest endomorphy and mesomorphy and the lowest ectomorphy, grouped by cluster analysis, were those who suffered most frequently from arterial hypertension and liver disease. The authors conclude that the somatotype having a dominant mesomorphy and marked endomorphy constitutes a risk factor as a particular predisposition toward certain diseases and requires body weight control.

  7. Current physics information.

    PubMed

    Koch, H W

    1971-11-26

    A new concept in science communication will be given its first test in calendar year 1972. Primary and secondary contents of a selected subset of the world's journal literature in physics will be provided in a variety of output formats. Among them are a monthly microfilm containing the full texts of all articles in the set of journals (Current Physics Microform); an advance abstracts journal describing the articles (Current Physics Advance Abstracts); a printed, classified index of the titles of the articles (Current Physics Titles); and a computer tape index to the articles (Searchable Physics Information Notices).

  8. Rossby rip currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, David P.; Vogel, Bendix; Zhai, Xiaoming

    2013-08-01

    Oceanic Rossby waves and eddies flux energy and fluid westward, the latter through the Stokes drift or bolus transport. While the wave energy is largely dissipated at the western boundary, mass conservation requires that the fluid be returned offshore through Rossby rip currents. The form and magnitude of these rip currents are investigated through linear Rossby wave theory, a nonlinear numerical model, and analysis of sea surface height satellite observations. The net eastward volume transport by Rossby rip currents over the global ocean is estimated to be of order 10 Sv (1 Sv ≡106 m3 s-1). In an eddying ocean, both the westward Stokes drift and eastward rip currents can assume the form of banded quasi-zonal jets.

  9. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  10. Current control circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S.

    2005-03-15

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor (30), a servo device (40), and a current source (50). The servo device (40) is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor (30) by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base (32b). The current source (150) is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor (30). A first device (24) provides an input signal to an electrical node (70) positioned between the emitter (32e) of the transistor (30) and the current source (50). A second device (26) receives an output signal from the collector (32c) of the transistor (30).

  11. Lightning Current Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Lightning Current Detector (LCD) was developed to monitor the magnitude of lightning strikes. Information it supplies is useful in evaluating lightning protection designs for such systems as telephone cables, radio broadcast towers, power transmission equipment and oil well towers.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  13. Prevalence and predictors of female sexual dysfunction: a protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual function is an essential component of life. For this reason, sexual dysfunction can have a negative impact on the wellbeing of men and women alike. Since the turn of the 21st century, research on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has gained momentum. While FSD is often assessed in people with ill health, sexual dysfunction is an illness of its own entity and is also prevalent in non-patient populations. A critical review of current literature on female sexual dysfunction in general populations will shed light on possible determinants as well as at-risk groups. Thus, the aim of this systematic review is to assess the prevalence and the predictors of female sexual dysfunction in general populations. Methods/Design A systematic review of current literature on FSD will be performed. Studies will be considered for review if they report quantitative data on the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction. Outcome measures will include the prevalence of FSD, the time period assessed, and significant predictors for each domain of FSD. The scientific databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science will be systematically searched in cooperation with a medical research librarian. Hand searches for further relevant publications will also be undertaken. Screening of search results and extraction of data from included studies will be conducted cooperatively by two authors. The quality of the studies will be appraised and documented. Results will be compiled and presented in evidence tables. Discussion In the past decade, population-based studies on female sexual dysfunction have increased in number and grown more varied in their cultural settings. This review aims to provide a current overview of the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in populations from various countries, cultures, and age groups in order to provide a better understanding of its effect on women's lives today. PMID:25015232

  14. RCEX: Rip Current Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Bate [ 1987 ] found surfzone diatom blooms were correlated with larger breaking waves and rip current events, and the largest concentrations of surfzone...and Schmidt, W., (2007). Observing surfzone dispersion with drifters. J. Phys. Ocean., 37 (12). 2920- 2939 . Swenson, M.S., and P. P. Niiler, (1996...Statistical analysis of the surface circulation of the California Current. J. of Geophy. Res. 101, 2263122645. Talbot, M. M., and G. C. Bate, ( 1987

  15. Baseline prevalence of Axis I diagnosis in the Ohio Army National Guard.

    PubMed

    Tamburrino, Marijo B; Chan, Philip; Prescott, Marta; Calabrese, Joseph; Liberzon, Israel; Slembarski, Renee; Shirley, Edwin; Fine, Thomas; Goto, Toyomi; Wilson, Kimberly; Derus, Alphonse; Ganocy, Stephen; Beth Serrano, Mary; Galea, Sandro

    2015-03-30

    The goal of this study is to determine the pre-existing lifetime and current prevalence of DSM-IV Axis I disorders within the Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG). Data was analyzed from the clinical subsample of the Ohio Army National Guard Mental Health Initiative (OHARNG MHI). Five hundred participants were provided with an in-depth clinical assessment using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID). Logistic regression examined the relationship between Axis I disorders and the number of deployments and gender. Prevalence of at least one DSM-IV lifetime disorder was 66.2%; substance use disorders were 52.2%, followed by mood disorders (30.0%) and anxiety disorders (22.0%). Prevalence of at least one current disorder was 24.8%; anxiety disorders (13.2%), mood disorders (7.6%), and substance use disorders (7.0%) were most frequent. Number of deployments was associated with PTSD (OR=8.27, 95% CI 2.10-32.59, p=0.003), alcohol use disorder (OR=1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.92, p=0.025), and any substance use disorder (OR=1.85, 95% CI 1.12-3.05, p=0.016). Gender (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.73, p=0.024) was associated with any mood disorder. The results provide baseline information on the most prevalent mental disorders within the OHARNG.

  16. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  17. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  18. Substorm Current Wedge Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepko, L.; McPherron, R. L.; Amm, O.; Apatenkov, S.; Baumjohann, W.; Birn, J.; Lester, M.; Nakamura, R.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Sergeev, V.

    2015-07-01

    Almost 40 years ago the concept of the substorm current wedge was developed to explain the magnetic signatures observed on the ground and in geosynchronous orbit during substorm expansion. In the ensuing decades new observations, including radar and low-altitude spacecraft, MHD simulations, and theoretical considerations have tremendously advanced our understanding of this system. The AMPTE/IRM, THEMIS and Cluster missions have added considerable observational knowledge, especially on the important role of fast flows in producing the stresses that generate the substorm current wedge. Recent detailed, multi-spacecraft, multi-instrument observations both in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere have brought a wealth of new information about the details of the temporal evolution and structure of the current system. While the large-scale picture remains valid, the new details call for revision and an update of the original view. In this paper we briefly review the historical development of the substorm current wedge, review recent in situ and ground-based observations and theoretical work, and discuss the current active research areas. We conclude with a revised, time-dependent picture of the substorm current wedge that follows its evolution from the initial substorm flows through substorm expansion and recovery.

  19. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  20. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence of late life depression in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, M.; Prina, A.M.; Ferri, C.P.; Acosta, D.; Gallardo, S.; Huang, Y.; Jacob, K.S.; Jimenez-Velazquez, I.Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, J.J.; Liu, Z.; Salas, A.; Sosa, A.L.; Williams, J.D.; Uwakwe, R.; Prince, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current estimates of the prevalence of depression in later life mostly arise from studies carried out in Europe, North America and Asia. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of depression using a standardised method in a number of low and middle income countries (LMIC). Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey involving over 17,000 participants aged 65 years and over living in urban and rural catchment areas in 13 sites from 9 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, China, India and Nigeria). Depression was assessed and compared using ICD-10 and EURO-D criteria. Results Depression prevalence varied across sites according to diagnostic criteria. The lowest prevalence was observed for ICD-10 depressive episode (0.3 to 13.8%). When using the EURO-D depression scale, the prevalence was higher and ranged from 1.0% to 38.6%. The crude prevalence was particularly high in the Dominican Republic and in rural India. ICD-10 depression was also associated with increased age and being female. Limitations Generalisability of findings outside of catchment areas is difficult to assess. Conclusions Late life depression is burdensome, and common in LMIC. However its prevalence varies from culture to culture; its diagnosis poses a significant challenge and requires proper recognition of its expression. PMID:26544620

  1. The prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa, Turkey (A western city from a country bridging Asia and Europe).

    PubMed

    Sakar, Aysin; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Dinc, Gonul; Yuksel, Hasan; Celik, Pinar; Dagyildizi, Lale; Coskun, Evsen; Kaya, Ece; Ozyurt, Beyhan; Ozcan, Cemil

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa city center, Turkey, to evaluate the determinants effective on those values, and to review the prevalence rates reported from different parts of the country. Data were collected from 610 households and complete interviews were conducted with 1,336 adults over 18 years of age by using European Community Respiratory Health Survey-ECRHS questionnaire. The prevalences of current asthma, cumulative asthma and asthma-like symptoms were found in 1.2, 1.0 and 25.0%, respectively, of the 20-44 years age group and the prevalences of allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and family atopy were found in 14.5, 10.9, and 15.2%, respectively, in all age group. Wheezing with breathlessness, wheezing without cold, woken up with shortness of breath and woken up with cold were reported by 9.1%, 6.9%, 6% and 16.1% of the study population, respectively. Gender, age, active or passive smoking, family atopy and home condition effect on prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms. In this study prevalence of asthma correlated with the studies reporting low prevalence rates of Turkey.

  2. Management of asthma in adults: current therapy and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Green, R; Brightling, C; Pavord, I; Wardlaw, A

    2003-01-01

    Asthma is increasing in prevalence worldwide and results in significant use of healthcare resources. Although most patients with asthma can be adequately treated with inhaled corticosteroids, an important number of patients require additional therapy and an increasing number of options are available. A further minority of patients develop severe persistent asthma which remains difficult to manage despite current pharmacological therapies. This review discusses the various treatment options currently available for each stage of asthma severity, highlights some of the limitations of current management, and outlines directions which may improve the management of asthma in the future. PMID:12782771

  3. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  4. California nearshore surface currents. [monitoring by remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Murphy, M. J.; Edmisten, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    During the oceanic period from July to November, the southward flowing California current dominates the nearshore current patterns. Commencing about the middle of November and extending to mid-February, the Davidson current, a northward moving countercurrent, is the dominant inshore transporter of water and suspensates. The phenomenon of upwelling is prevalent during the period from the middle of February to the end of July. Thus, every year along the coast of California, there are three successive current seasons: the oceanic, the Davidson, and the upwelling. This paper is a discussion of the nature of these nearshore currents. In addition, the capabilities of various remote sensing platforms and systems for providing methods of monitoring the coastal processes associated with the current seasons of California are demonstrated herein.

  5. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control

  6. Lifetime prevalence and incidence of sexual victimization of adolescents in institutional care.

    PubMed

    Allroggen, Marc; Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-02-14

    The frequency of sexual victimization in high-risk populations like adolescents in institutional care has hardly been studied. In this study, we report lifetime prevalence and incidence from a nationwide German sample including 322 adolescents (mean age 16.69 years, 43% female) from 20 residential care facilities and 12 boarding schools. Lifetime prevalence for severe sexual victimization (in and outside of institution) was 46.7% for girls and 8.0% for boys. Moreover, 5% of all adolescents experienced severe sexual victimization for the first time after they were admitted to the current institution (mean duration of stay in the current institution 3.08 years). Offenders were mostly adolescents of the same age whereas staff members played a minor role as perpetrators. We conclude that the high rate of sexual victimization among adolescents in institutional care should be considered during decision-making processes concerning out-of-home placement and during a stay in residential care.

  7. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  8. Current induced interlayer coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Peter M.; Heide, Carsten; Zhang, Shufeng; Fert, Albert

    2001-03-01

    It has recently been shown that a perpendicular current in a magnetically multilayered structures induces an unusual bilinear coupling between the magnetizations of the layers [1]. While this was demonstrated in the ballistic regime, transport is likely to be diffusive in the structures where this may be relevant to the role of currents in switching the magnetization of the layers. We have derived the current induced coupling by using the Boltzmann equation in terms of the parameters used to describe the giant magnetoresistance of magnetically layered structures, and thereby estimate the strength of this coupling. Work supported in part by DARPA and ONR. [1] C.Heide and R.J.Elliott, Europhys. Lett. 50, 271 (2000).

  9. Surface matching via currents.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Marc; Glaunès, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method for computing an optimal deformation between two arbitrary surfaces embedded in Euclidean 3-dimensional space. Our main contribution is in building a norm on the space of surfaces via representation by currents of geometric measure theory. Currents are an appropriate choice for representations because they inherit natural transformation properties from differential forms. We impose a Hilbert space structure on currents, whose norm gives a convenient and practical way to define a matching functional. Using this Hilbert space norm, we also derive and implement a surface matching algorithm under the large deformation framework, guaranteeing that the optimal solution is a one-to-one regular map of the entire ambient space. We detail an implementation of this algorithm for triangular meshes and present results on 3D face and medical image data.

  10. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in union ironworkers.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Punnett, Laura; Wegman, David H

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) symptoms and doctor-diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders (DDMDs) were estimated among union construction ironworkers by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Of 1996 ironworkers eligible, 1566 were contacted and 981 were interviewed. The prevalence of self-reported MSD symptoms was high for the lower back (56%), wrist/hands/fingers (40%), knees (39%), and shoulders (36%). The most common DDMDs were tendonitis (19%), ruptured disk in the back (18%), bursitis in the shoulder (15%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (12%). Generally, the prevalence of DDMDs and MSD symptoms increased with duration of employment. In age-adjusted logistic regression analyses, those who worked 25 to 35 years were more likely to have tendonitis (odds ratio [OR] 7.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.116.6), shoulder bursitis (OR 13.7, 95% CI 3.160.4), knee bursitis (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.025.1), and ruptured intervertebral back disk (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.617.5). The effect of prior injury was also consistently high (upper extremities, OR 4.6; lower extremities OR 5.1; lower back, OR 6.0). Among workers without prior injuries, MSD symptoms were more frequent for the lower back in structural ironwork (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.12.6), and for the upper extremity in concrete reinforcement ironwork (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.22.9). These findings suggest that some musculoskeletal morbidity in construction ironworkers may be work related and thus preventable.

  11. Prevalence of Hyponatremia in Palliative Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Shoba; Mary, Thiophin Regina; Tarey, SD; Daniel, Sudha Pauline; Austine, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hyponatremia is an undertreated finding in clinical practice. It is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Hyponatremia can be asymptomatic or can cause symptoms ranging from nausea and lethargy to convulsions and coma. Palliative care patients have a multitude of symptoms and there are several contributing factors towards this. Hyponatremia could be one of the contributing factors. Looking at the prevalence of hyponatremia would highlight the magnitude of the problem and would prompt healthcare professionals to investigate and treat hyponatremia in palliative care patients, which in turn might reduce symptoms such as fatigue and nausea. This could improve the quality of life in palliative care patients. Aim: To assess the prevalence of hyponatremia among patients referred for palliative care in a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: This is a descriptive study, with retrospective analysis of consecutive patient charts for 5 years. The sodium levels at the time of referral for palliative care, was reviewed. Inferential statistics for the result was calculated using the Z-test. Results: Of the 2666 consecutive patient charts that were reviewed, sodium values were recorded in 796 charts. Among the recorded charts, 28.8 % of patients showed hyponatremia at the time of referral which was significant with a P value of 0.000 (<0.05). Of these, 61.1 % had malignancy as their diagnosis and the rest had nonmalignant diseases, ranging from trauma to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: Prevalence of hyponatremia is significant in palliative care patients. A prospective study looking at the causes and clinical outcomes associated with hyponatremia in palliative care patients is needed. PMID:26962278

  12. Snacking Is Prevalent in Mexico123

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snacking has increased globally, but little is known about how Mexicans consume foods outside meals. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of snacking behavior among Mexicans. Methods: We used data from children and adults (aged ≥2 y; n = 9937) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 to examine the prevalence of snacking as well as amount (kcal) and contribution of snacks to total energy intake per day. Snacking was defined as eating outside of the 3 main meals. We calculated per capita (among the total population) and per consumer (“snackers”) estimates of the number of snacks per day, kilocalories per snack, kilocalories per day from snacks, and the percentage of energy from snacks. Top foods consumed during snack occasions were also examined for the NHNS 2012. All results were weighted to account for survey design and to be nationally representative. Results: In 2012, an estimated 73% of the population consumed snacks on a given day, with estimates ranging from 70% among ≥59 y olds to 77% among 2–11 y olds. An average of 1.6 snacks/d were consumed by the population. This value was slightly higher (2.1 snacks/d) among snackers. Snacks provided an average of 343 kcal/d per snacker (17% of total energy/d). Fruit was the most commonly consumed snack food by all ages except for 12–18 y olds. Salty snacks, sweet snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and milk were frequently in the top 5 categories across age groups. Differences were observed between age groups. Conclusions: Snacking is prevalent in the Mexican population. Many, but not all, of the foods consumed during snack occasions are foods considered “foods to limit” in the United States. PMID:25332484

  13. Antiepileptic drugs prescribed in pregnancy and prevalence of major congenital malformations: comparative prevalence studies

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Irene; Collings, Shuk-Li; McCrea, Rachel L; Nazareth, Irwin; Osborn, David P; Cowen, Phil J; Sammon, Cormac J

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of major congenital malformations associated with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in pregnancy. Patients and methods Using data from The Health Improvement Network, we identified women who have given live birth and their offspring. Four subgroups were selected based on the AED treatment in early pregnancy, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and women not receiving AED treatment. We compared the prevalence of major congenital malformations within children of these four groups and estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) using Poisson regression adjusted for maternal age, sex of child, quintiles of Townsend deprivation score and indication for treatment. Results In total, 240,071 women were included in the study. A total of 229 women were prescribed valproate in pregnancy, 357 were prescribed lamotrigine and 334 were prescribed carbamazepine and 239,151 women were not prescribed AEDs. Fifteen out of 229 (6.6%) women prescribed valproate gave birth to a child with a major congenital malformation. The figures for lamotrigine, carbamazepine and women not prescribed AEDs were 2.7%, 3.3% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of major congenital malformation was similar for women prescribed lamotrigine or carbamazepine compared to women with no AED treatment in pregnancy. For women prescribed valproate in polytherapy, the prevalence was fourfold higher. After adjustments, the effect of estimates attenuated, but the prevalence remained two- to threefold higher in women prescribed valproate. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that lamotrigine and carbamazepine are safer treatment options than valproate in pregnancy and should be considered as alternative treatment options for women of childbearing potential and in pregnancy. PMID:28243149

  14. Prevalence of heat and perspiration discomfort inside prostheses: literature review.

    PubMed

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Safari, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    People with limb amputation deal with thermal stresses in their daily activities. Unfortunately, in the majority of this population, all thermal transfer mechanisms, including convection, radiation, evaporation, and conduction, can be disturbed due to the prosthetic socket barrier, decreased body surface area, and/or vascular disease. The thermal environment inside prosthetic sockets, in addition to decreased quality of life and prosthesis use, comfort, and satisfaction, could endanger people with amputation with a high risk of skin irritations. The current review explores the importance of thermal and perspiration discomfort inside prosthetic sockets by providing an insight into the prevalence of the problem. The literature search was performed in two databases, PubMed and Web of Knowledge, to find relevant articles. After considering the review criteria and hand-searching the reference sections of the selected studies, 38 studies were listed for review and data extraction. This review revealed that more than 53% of people with amputation in the selected studies experienced heat and/or perspiration discomfort inside their prostheses. In spite of great technological advances, current prostheses are unable to resolve this problem. Therefore, more attention must be paid by researchers, clinicians, and manufacturers of prosthetic components to thermal-related biomechanics of soft tissues, proper fabrication technique, material selection, and introduction of efficient thermoregulatory systems.

  15. Missing data: prevalence and reporting practices.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Todd E

    2006-12-01

    Results are described for a survey assessing prevalence of missing data and reporting practices in studies with missing data in a random sample of empirical research journal articles from the PsychINFO database for the year 1999, two years prior to the publication of a special section on missing data in Psychological Methods. Analysis indicates missing data problems were found in about one-third of the studies. Further, analytical methods and reporting practices varied widely for studies with missing data. One may consider these results as baseline data to assess progress as reporting standards evolve for studies with missing data. Some potential reporting standards are discussed.

  16. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions

  17. Prevalence of voice disorders among future teachers.

    PubMed

    Simberg, S; Laine, A; Sala, E; Rönnemaa, A M

    2000-06-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in order to find out the prevalence of voice disorders among students studying to be teachers. Vocal symptoms were inquired of 226 students. Their voices were assessed perceptually by a speech therapist and those who had abnormal voice quality or reported several vocal symptoms were referred to a clinical examination by a laryngologist. The results showed that 20% of this population reported two or more vocal symptoms during the previous year and that 19% had an organic voice disorder. This reinforces the need for clinical evaluation of students with vocal symptoms and more vocal training in the teacher education programs.

  18. Fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  19. Current signature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

  20. Current Signature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Mario (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

  1. Dysmobility syndrome: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Keith D; Farrier, Kaela; Russell, Melissa; Burton, Elissa

    2017-01-01

    Background A new term, dysmobility syndrome, has recently been described as a new approach to identify older people at risk of poor health outcomes. The aim was to undertake a systematic review of the existing research literature on dysmobility syndrome. Method All articles reporting dysmobility syndrome were identified in a systematic review of Medline (Proquest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. Key characteristics of identified studies were extracted and summarized. Results The systematic review identified five papers (three cross-sectional, one case control, and one longitudinal study). No intervention studies were identified. Prevalence of dysmobility syndrome varied between studies (22%–34% in three of the studies). Dysmobility syndrome was shown to be associated with reduced function, increased falls and fractures, and a longitudinal study showed its significant association with mortality. Conclusion Early research on dysmobility syndrome indicates that it may be a useful classification approach to identify older people at risk of adverse health outcomes and to target for early interventions. Future research needs to standardize the optimal mix of measures and cut points, and investigate whether balance performance may be a more useful factor than history of falls for dysmobility syndrome. PMID:28144132

  2. Hepatitis B screening and prevalence among resettled refugees - United States, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kevin C; Taylor, Eboni M; Mamo, Blain; Herr, Nathaniel D; Cronkright, Peter J; Yun, Katherine; Altshuler, Marc; Shetty, Sharmila

    2015-06-05

    Globally, more than two billion persons have been infected at some time with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and approximately 3.5 million refugees have chronic HBV infection. The endemicity of HBV varies by region. Because chronic hepatitis B is infectious and persons with chronic infection benefit from treatment, CDC recommends screening for HBV among all refugees who originate in countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; a marker for acute or chronic infection) is ≥2% or who are at risk for HBV because of personal characteristics such as injection drug use or household contact with an individual with HBV infection. Currently, almost all refugees are routinely screened for hepatitis B. However, prevalence rates of HBV infection in refugee populations recently resettled in the United States have not been determined. A multisite, retrospective study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of past HBV infection, current infection, and immunity among refugees resettled in the United States; to better characterize the burden of hepatitis B in this population; and to inform screening recommendations. The study incorporated surveillance data from a large state refugee health program and chart reviews from three U.S. sites that conduct medical screenings of refugees. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past as determined by available titer levels) varied among refugees originating in different countries and was higher among Burmese refugees than among refugees from Bhutan or Iraq. Current or past HBV infection was also higher among adults (aged >18 years) and male refugees. These data might help inform planning by states and resettlement agencies, as well as screening decisions by health care providers.

  3. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Shawn D; Gershon, Andrea S; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Jenna; Whitmore, GA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain to be investigated. PMID:27698561

  4. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28

  5. [Hallucinations and dementia. Prevalence, clinical presentation and pathophysiology].

    PubMed

    Fénelon, G; Mahieux, F

    2004-04-01

    Hallucinations are a common feature of certain degenerative diseases with a risk of dementia such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Obtaining valid epidemiological data is nevertheless quite difficult because of methodological problems. As a rule, hallucinations are more prevalent in Lewy body disease than Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. The prevalence in parkinsonian dementia is about the same as in Lewy body disease. Complex visual hallucinations predominate, auditory or tactile hallucinations are more exceptional. Minor forms (illusions, sensation of presence) are also observed. Recurrence is common, mainly in the evening or at night. Patients with advanced mental impairment generally take the hallucinations for reality. The hallucinations can be associated with psychological and behavioral disorders such as delusionnal idea or identification disorders. It is important to search for other causes of hallucinations such as drugs, ocular disorders, or depression, but many of these disorders are common comorbidities in elderly patients with degenerative disease. There is no unique model fitting all the hypothesized pathogenic mechanisms. Complex visual hallucinations most likely arise from abnormal activation of the extra-striat temporal associative regions, but only hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed. Genetic studies and functional imaging have not provided convincing evidence. Current focus is placed on an imbalance between deficient cholinergic transmission and preserved or augmented monoaminergic transmission at the cortical level, but other neurotransmission systems could be involved. The dream dysregulation mechanism proposed in Parkinson's disease cannot be generalized. The link between cognitive disorders and hallucination is also poorly understood: hallucinations are associated with more severe cognitive impairments or more rapid cognitive deline in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but the

  6. Prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism among Patients Hospitalized for Syncope.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin H; Ciammaichella, Maurizio; Perlati, Marica; Mumoli, Nicola; Bucherini, Eugenio; Visonà, Adriana; Bova, Carlo; Imberti, Davide; Campostrini, Stefano; Barbar, Sofia

    2016-10-20

    Background The prevalence of pulmonary embolism among patients hospitalized for syncope is not well documented, and current guidelines pay little attention to a diagnostic workup for pulmonary embolism in these patients. Methods We performed a systematic workup for pulmonary embolism in patients admitted to 11 hospitals in Italy for a first episode of syncope, regardless of whether there were alternative explanations for the syncope. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was ruled out in patients who had a low pretest clinical probability, which was defined according to the Wells score, in combination with a negative d-dimer assay. In all other patients, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography or ventilation-perfusion lung scanning was performed. Results A total of 560 patients (mean age, 76 years) were included in the study. A diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was ruled out in 330 of the 560 patients (58.9%) on the basis of the combination of a low pretest clinical probability of pulmonary embolism and negative d-dimer assay. Among the remaining 230 patients, pulmonary embolism was identified in 97 (42.2%). In the entire cohort, the prevalence of pulmonary embolism was 17.3% (95% confidence interval, 14.2 to 20.5). Evidence of an embolus in a main pulmonary or lobar artery or evidence of perfusion defects larger than 25% of the total area of both lungs was found in 61 patients. Pulmonary embolism was identified in 45 of the 355 patients (12.7%) who had an alternative explanation for syncope and in 52 of the 205 patients (25.4%) who did not. Conclusions Pulmonary embolism was identified in nearly one of every six patients hospitalized for a first episode of syncope. (Funded by the University of Padua; PESIT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01797289 .).

  7. Cattle breeding, trypanosomosis prevalence and drug resistance in Northern Togo.

    PubMed

    Tchamdja, E; Kulo, A E; Vitouley, H S; Batawui, K; Bankolé, A A; Adomefa, K; Cecchi, G; Hoppenheit, A; Clausen, P H; De Deken, R; Van Den Abbeele, J; Marcotty, T; Delespaux, V

    2017-03-15

    African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major disease of cattle in Togo and its control is essentially based on chemotherapy. However, because of excessive use of trypanocides during the past decades, chemo-resistance in the parasites has developed. In order to assess the current situation of AAT and resistance to trypanocidal drugs in Northern Togo, a study was conducted on cattle from December 2012 to August 2013 in the regions of Kara and Savanes. An initial cross-sectional survey was carried out in 40 villages using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT). Out of these, 5 villages with a trypanosome prevalence of >10% were selected for a block treatment study (BT) with diminazene diaceturate (DA: 3.5mg/kg for a 14-day follow-up) and isometamidium chloride (ISM: 0.5mg/kg for a 28-day follow-up). Positive blood samples collected during the parasitological surveys and an equivalent number of negatives were further analyzed by PCR-RFLP for trypanosome species confirmation and molecular diagnosis of resistance to DA in Trypanosoma congolense. The results from 1883 bovine blood samples confirmed a high overall trypanosome prevalence of 10.8% in Northern Togo. PCR-RFLP revealed that T. congolense is the dominant pathogenic trypanosome species (50.5%) followed by T. vivax (27.3%), and T. brucei (16.2%). The BT showed varying levels of treatment failures ranging from 0 to 30% and from 0 to 50% for DA and for ISM respectively, suggesting the existence of resistant trypanosome populations in the study area. Our results show that AAT still represents a major obstacle to the development of cattle husbandry in Northern Togo. In areas of high AAT risk, a community-based integrated strategy combining vector control, rational use of trypanocidal drugs and improving the general condition of the animals is recommended to decision makers.

  8. High prevalence of altered cardiac repolarization in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Altered cardiac repolarization and increased dispersion of repolarization have been identified as risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD). The prevalence of and the mechanisms contributing to altered cardiac repolarization are currently unknown in COPD. Methods In 91 COPD patients, 32 controls matched for age, cardiovascular risk and medication, and 41 healthy subjects, measures of cardiac repolarization and dispersion of repolarization (QTc interval, QT dispersion) were derived from 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). Prevalence rates of heart rate corrected QT (QTc) >450ms and QT dispersion >60ms were determined to assess the number of subjects at risk for SCD. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify possible factors contributing to altered cardiac repolarization. Results QTc was found to be prolonged in 31.9% and QT dispersion in 24.2% of the COPD patients compared to 12.5% in matched controls and 0% in healthy subjects. The QTc interval was longer in COPD patients compared to matched and healthy controls respectively (437.9 ± 29.5 vs. 420.1 ± 25.3 ms, p = 0.001 and vs. 413.4 ± 18.2 ms, p < 0.001). QT dispersion was significantly increased in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects (45.4 (34.8 , 59.5) vs. 39.7 (29.3 , 54.8) ms, p = 0.049). Only oxygen saturation was independently associated with QTc duration in multivariate analysis (β = -0.29, p = 0.015). Conclusion One third of a typical COPD population has altered cardiac repolarization and increased dispersion of repolarization, which may be related to hypoxia. Altered cardiac repolarization may expose these patients to an increased risk for malignant ventricular arrhythmias and SCD. PMID:24690123

  9. High Current Power Controller

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    AFWAL-TR-81- 2016 U iui.N HIGH CURRENT Ŕ POWER CONTROLLER P. E. McCOLLUM Audwo ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL AUTONETICS STRATEGIC SYSTEMS DIVISION 3370...personnel. During norm3l operation, HCP \\.s pose no hazard, bLt unde- certain operating conditions potential noaza-ds do exist. They are: (1) During

  10. Unattended Dual Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Parker, Robert F.; Jones, David C.

    2016-08-11

    The Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM) is an ideal solution for current measurement needs such as ion chamber gamma measurements. The UDCM has two independent inputs and each input detects currents in two user selectable ranges, -0.2nA to -20nA or -20nA to -2uA. Measurement results can be retrieved via an Ethernet connection or by monitoring the TTL output pulses with a simple counter. Measurement data is also stored on a user accessible micro-SD card and automatically downloaded to a USB flash drive. A programmable negative High Voltage (HV) power supply provides detector bias voltages from 0 to -1,000V. The UDCM is fully compatible with the IAEA Multi Instrument Collect (MIC) software and responds to the existing MiniGRAND commands. The Ethernet port provides an IAEA RAINSTORM compliant data transfer and data security interface. The UDCM produces TTL pulses at a rate proportional to the input current, 100cps/nA. The UDCM can simplify instrumentation needs by enabling the use of a simple pulse counter for both neutron and gamma measurements. The UDCM is a simple instrument, inexpensive to manufacturer and designed for reliability.

  11. Current Issues in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Alice, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin is published annually in the interest of children with learning disabilities, language disabilities, or dyslexia. The 22 articles discuss the following topics: current issues in dyslexia, language disorders, subgroups in dyslexia, specificity and parameters in defining dyslexia, strategies for recognition and management of reading…

  12. [Acromegaly: current view].

    PubMed

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  13. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  14. Selected Current Data Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBrock, Larry M.

    1987-01-01

    Lists 55 free or inexpensive periodicals which may be used to provide current data for undergraduate economics courses. The list is divided into standard sources, federal reserve publications, selected bank newsletters, selected government newsletters, selected not-for-profit institutions, and miscellaneous. (JDH)

  15. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  16. Keeping Science Current.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Points out old-dated information provided in textbooks and recommends using current events to close the knowledge gap between the real world and textbooks. Uses year-long journal writings in which students choose a science article and analyze it. Provides an example of the activity sheet. (YDS)

  17. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in top-level male and female football players

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Astrid; Feddermann-Demont, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Scientific studies on the prevalence of mental health problems in elite athletes are rare, and most have had considerable methodological limitations, such as low response rate and heterogeneous samples. Aims To evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in top-level football players in comparison to the general population, and to analyse potential risk factors. Methods Players of all first league (FL) and of four U-21 football teams in Switzerland were asked to answer a questionnaire on player's characteristics, the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale. Results All 10 women's FL teams, 9 of 10 men's FL teams and 4 male U-21 teams (n=471 football players) took part in the study. The CES-D score indicated a mild to moderate depression in 33 (7.6%) players and a major depression in 13 (3.0%) players. The GAD-7 score indicated an at least moderate anxiety disorder in 6 (1.4%) players. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of depression was similar and the prevalence of anxiety disorders was significantly (χ2=16.7; p<0.001) lower in football players. Significant differences were observed with regard to player characteristics, such as age, gender, player position, level of play and current injury. Conclusions Swiss FL football players had the same prevalence of depression as the general population, while male U-21 players had a higher prevalence of depression. It is important to raise awareness and knowledge of athletes’ mental health problems in coaches and team physicians, and to provide adequate treatment to athletes. PMID:27900164

  18. Ambient air pollution, traffic noise and adult asthma prevalence: a BioSHaRE approach.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yutong; Zijlema, Wilma L; Doiron, Dany; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R; Fortier, Isabel; Gaye, Amadou; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stéphane; Morley, David W; Stolk, Ronald P; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both ambient air pollution and traffic noise on adult asthma prevalence, using harmonised data from three European cohort studies established in 2006-2013 (HUNT3, Lifelines and UK Biobank).Residential exposures to ambient air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were estimated by a pan-European Land Use Regression model for 2007. Traffic noise for 2009 was modelled at home addresses by adapting a standardised noise assessment framework (CNOSSOS-EU). A cross-sectional analysis of 646 731 participants aged ≥20 years was undertaken using DataSHIELD to pool data for individual-level analysis via a "compute to the data" approach. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the effects of each exposure on lifetime and current asthma prevalence.PM10 or NO2 higher by 10 µg·m(-3) was associated with 12.8% (95% CI 9.5-16.3%) and 1.9% (95% CI 1.1-2.8%) higher lifetime asthma prevalence, respectively, independent of confounders. Effects were larger in those aged ≥50 years, ever-smokers and less educated. Noise exposure was not significantly associated with asthma prevalence.This study suggests that long-term ambient PM10 exposure is associated with asthma prevalence in western European adults. Traffic noise is not associated with asthma prevalence, but its potential to impact on asthma exacerbations needs further investigation.

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder post Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence among military subgroups.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-09-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD.

  20. Variation with land use of immune function and prevalence of avian pox in Galapagos finches.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Maxine; Lee, Kelly A; Klasing, Kirk C; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Introduced disease has been implicated in recent wildlife extinctions and population declines worldwide. Both anthropogenic-induced change and natural environmental features can affect pathogen spread. Furthermore, environmental disturbance can result in changes in stress physiology, nutrition, and social structure, which in turn can suppress immune system function. However, it remains unknown whether landscape variation results in heterogeneity in host resistance to pathogens. Avian pox virus, a pathogen implicated in avian declines and extinctions in Hawaii, was introduced to the Galapagos in the 1890 s, and prevalence (total number of current infections) has increased recently in finches. We tested whether prevalence and recovery trends in 7 species of Galapagos finches varied by elevation or human land use. To do so, we used infection data obtained from 545 wild-caught birds. In addition, we determined whether annual changes in 4 aspects of innate immune function (complement protein activity, natural antibody activity, concentration of PIT54 protein, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio) varied by elevation or land use. Prevalence and recovery rates did not vary by elevation from 2008 to 2009. Avian pox prevalence and proportion of recovered individuals in undeveloped and urban areas did not change from 2008 to 2009. In agricultural areas, avian pox prevalence increased 8-fold (from 2% to 17% of 234 individuals sampled) and proportion of recovered individuals increased (11% to 19%) from 2008 to 2009. These results suggest high disease-related mortality. Variation in immune function across human land-use types correlated with variation in both increased prevalence and susceptibility, which indicates changes in innate immune function may underlie changes in disease susceptibility. Our results suggest anthropogenic disturbance, in particular agricultural practices, may underlie immunological changes in host species that themselves contribute to pathogen emergence.

  1. A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Food Animals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that T. gondii is one of three pathogens (along with Salmonella and Listeria), that together account for >70% of all deaths due to foodborne illness in the United States. Food animals are reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. Based on limited population-based data, the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization estimated that approximately 22% of human T. gondii infections are meatborne. The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to provide a precise estimation of T. gondii infection prevalence in food animals produced in the United States. Four databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Prevalence was estimated in six animal categories (confinement-raised market pigs, confinement-raised sows, non-confinement-raised pigs, lamb, goats, and non-confinement-raised chickens) by a quality-effects model. A wide variation in prevalence was observed in each animal category. Animals raised outdoors or that have outdoor access had a higher prevalence as compared with animals raised indoors. T. gondii prevalence in non-confinement-raised pigs ranked the highest (31.0%) followed by goats (30.7%), non-confinement-raised chickens (24.1%), lambs (22.0%), confinement-raised sows (16.7%), and confinement-raised market pigs (5.6%). These results indicate that T. gondii-infected animals are a food safety concern. The computed prevalence can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to further predict public health burden.

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Post Iraq and Afghanistan: Prevalence Among Military Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; FFPH; Wessely, Simon; FMedSci; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD. PMID:25569079

  3. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in Piemonte, Italy: results from a second regional prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) was previously performed in the Piemonte region in 2000. In the decade following the survey, many studies were performed at both the regional and hospital levels, and training courses were developed to address issues highlighted by the survey. In 2010, a second regional prevalence study was performed. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the second prevalence study and discuss them within the context of the HAI prevention and control programmes that have been implemented in the decade since the original survey was conducted. Methods The study involved all public hospitals in the Piemonte region. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the main risk factors associated with HAIs, including both overall and site-specific infections. Results A total of 7841 patients were enrolled: 6.8% were affected by at least one HAI. The highest prevalence of HAIs was found in intensive care units (18.0%, 95% CI 14.0-22.6), while UTIs presented the highest relative frequency (26.7%), followed by respiratory tract infections (21.9%). The age of the patient, hospital size and urinary and central venous catheter status were significantly associated with HAIs. Conclusions The study results showed an increase in HAI prevalence, despite prevention and control efforts, as well as training implemented after the first regional survey. Nevertheless, these data are consistent with the current literature. Furthermore, despite its limits, the prevalence approach remains an important means for involving healthcare workers, emphasising HAIs and revealing critical problems that need be addressed. PMID:24899239

  4. The prevalence, characteristics of and risk factors for eczema in Belgian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Govaere, Elke; Van Gysel, Dirk; Verhamme, Katia M C; Doli, Erenik; Oranje, Arnold P; De Baets, Frans

    2009-01-01

    Childhood eczema is common in infants, but its nature and extent during later childhood remains unclear. In this cross-sectional study we examined the prevalence and characteristics of eczema in an unbiased community population of 2,021 Belgian schoolchildren, aged 3.4 to 14.8 years with skin prick testing and parental questionnaires. Our study identified an eczema prevalence of 23.3% and a considerable allergic comorbidity, mainly in sensitized children. The reported prevalence of eczema in infancy was 18.5% and for current eczema 11.6%. The overall sensitization rate (33.2%) as well as sensitization rates for the individual allergens were significantly higher in children with "eczema ever." Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (19.6%), mixed grass pollen (15.1%), and cat (9.1%) were most common. Until the age of 6 years, boys with eczema were significantly more sensitized than girls (p = 0.007). Children with both eczema in infancy and current eczema show a tendency to be more sensitized than children with eczema in infancy only or current eczema only, but significance was only noted for a few individual allergens. Analysis of factors associated with eczema revealed a predominantly atopic profile characterized by family or personal history of allergy. Breastfeeding and environmental factors seemed to assume little relevance except for a protective effect of prematurity and having a dog at birth.

  5. How to define e-cigarette prevalence? Finding clues in the use frequency distribution

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Michael S; Boyle, Raymond G; Levy, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective E-cigarette use has rapidly increased. Recent studies define prevalence using a variety of measures; competing definitions challenge cross-study comparison. We sought to understand patterns of use by investigating the number of days out of the past 30 days when adults had used e-cigarettes. Design We used the 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey, a random digit dial population survey (n=9304 adults). Questions included ever using e-cigarettes, number of days used in the past 30 days and reasons for use. Smoking status was determined by combustible cigarette use. Histograms of e-cigarette use were visually inspected for current, former and never smokers with any 30-day e-cigarette use. Different definitions of current use were compared. Results Use ≤5 days in the past 30 days demarcated a cluster of infrequent users at the low end of the distribution. Among those with use in the past 30 days, infrequent users were the majorities of current (59%) and never smokers (89.5%), but fewer than half of former smokers (43.2%). Infrequent users were more likely to cite curiosity and less likely to cite quitting/cutting down other tobacco use as reasons for use. Conclusions Defining adult prevalence as any use in the past 30 days may include experimenters unlikely to continue use, and is of questionable utility for population surveillance of public health trends over time. Defining prevalence as >5 days excludes those infrequent users. PMID:26085124

  6. Dispersing hemipteran vectors have reduced arbovirus prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy T.; Brown, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in managing vector-borne zoonotic diseases in human and wildlife populations is predicting where epidemics or epizootics are likely to occur, and this requires knowing in part the likelihood of infected insect vectors dispersing pathogens from existing infection foci to novel areas. We measured prevalence of an arbovirus, Buggy Creek virus, in dispersing and resident individuals of its exclusive vector, the ectoparasitic swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius), that occupies cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) colonies in western Nebraska. Bugs colonizing new colony sites and immigrating into established colonies by clinging to the swallows’ legs and feet had significantly lower virus prevalence than bugs in established colonies and those that were clustering in established colonies before dispersing. The reduced likelihood of infected bugs dispersing to new colony sites indicates that even heavily infected sites may not always export virus to nearby foci at a high rate. Infected arthropods should not be assumed to exhibit the same dispersal or movement behaviour as uninfected individuals, and these differences in dispersal should perhaps be considered in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as arboviruses. PMID:24694692

  7. Enduring Mental Health: Prevalence and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin cohort, followed from birth to midlife, to compare people never-diagnosed with mental disorder (N = 171; 17% prevalence) to those diagnosed at 1–2 study waves, the cohort mode (N = 409). Surprisingly, compared to this modal group, never-diagnosed Study members were not born into unusually well-to-do families, nor did their enduring mental health follow markedly sound physical health, or unusually high intelligence. Instead, they tended to have an advantageous temperament/personality style, and negligible family history of mental disorder. As adults, they report superior educational and occupational attainment, greater life satisfaction, and higher-quality relationships. Our findings draw attention to “enduring mental health” as a revealing psychological phenotype and suggest it deserves further study. PMID:27929304

  8. Prevalence of congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Alessandra; Bianco, Flaviana; D'Amico, Adele; Moroni, Isabella; Messina, Sonia; Bruno, Claudio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mora, Marina; Astrea, Guja; Magri, Francesca; Comi, Giacomo P.; Berardinelli, Angela; Moggio, Maurizio; Morandi, Lucia; Pini, Antonella; Petillo, Roberta; Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Minetti, Carlo; Mongini, Tiziana; Ricci, Enzo; Gorni, Ksenija; Battini, Roberta; Villanova, Marcello; Politano, Luisa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Muntoni, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We provide a nationwide population study of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy. Methods: Cases were ascertained from the databases in all the tertiary referral centers for pediatric neuromuscular disorders and from all the genetic diagnostic centers in which diagnostic tests for these forms are performed. Results: The study includes 336 patients with a point prevalence of 0.563 per 100,000. Mutations were identified in 220 of the 336 (65.5%). The cohort was subdivided into diagnostic categories based on the most recent classifications on congenital muscular dystrophies. The most common forms were those with α-dystroglycan glycosylation deficiency (40.18%) followed by those with laminin α2 deficiency (24.11%) and collagen VI deficiency (20.24%). The forms of congenital muscular dystrophy related to mutations in SEPN1 and LMNA were less frequent (6.25% and 5.95%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study provides for the first time comprehensive epidemiologic information and point prevalence figures for each of the major diagnostic categories on a large cohort of congenital muscular dystrophies. The study also reflects the diagnostic progress in this field with an accurate classification of the cases according to the most recent gene discoveries. PMID:25653289

  9. The prevalence of betel chewing among the students of the different senior high schools in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, C S; Gee, M J; Tsai, C C; Lo, C I; Wang, S C

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of betel chewing and the high-risk groups among the students of the first and second grades in five types of senior high schools in southern Taiwan. The results reveal that more male than female students were betel chewers: the prevalence rate of current chewers is from 0.96% to 16.15% among male students compared with that of 0% to 5.58% among female students. The students in the vocational schools was found have the higher prevalence rate of betel chewing. The students in the agricultural schools are the highest-risk group for betel chewing. The highest odds were found in the agricultural school students when they were compared with the general school students. It is 31.74 for the current chewers and 5.93 for the ex-chewers.

  10. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-04

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%-11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%-16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12-3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15-2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11-4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54-2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56-2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65-4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals.

  11. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%–11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%–16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12–3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15–2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11–4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54–2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56–2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65–4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals. PMID:26690187

  12. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in acute care hospitals in Catalonia (VINCat Program).

    PubMed

    Olona, Montserrat; Limón, Enric; Barcenilla, Fernando; Grau, Santiago; Gudiol, Francesc

    2012-06-01

    The first objective of the Catalonian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (VINCat) is to monitor the prevalence (%) of patients with nosocomial infections (NI), patients undergoing urinary catheterization with closed circuit drainage (%) and patients undergoing antibiotic treatment (%). We present the results for the period 2008-2010. Comprehensive and point annual prevalence surveys were conducted that included conventionally hospitalized patients in acute care hospitals belonging to the VINCat Program. The number of participating hospitals was 46 (2008), 48 (2009) and 61 (2010), most belonging to the Network of Public Use Hospitals of Servei Català de la Salut. The results are presented globally and by hospital size (<200 beds, 200-500 beds, >500 beds). The prevalence of patients with active NI acquired during the current or the previous hospitalization (global NI/P%) was 7.6 (2008), 6.2 (2009) and 6.3 (2010). The prevalence of patients with active NI acquired during the current (actual NI/P%) was 6.2 (2008), 4.7 (2009) and 4.6 (2010).The results by hospital size shows that the variation occurred mainly in <200 beds hospitals. The proportion of closed circuit urinary catheterization use was 90.2%. The use of antibiotics varied between 34.6% and 37.6%, with no differences due to hospital size. The global prevalence of NI provides information on the burden of NI at the institutional and regional level. Between 17.3% and 26.9% of patients with NI at the time of the study had acquired it in a previous hospitalization at the same institution.

  13. Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Dysfunctions : Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajith; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2004-01-01

    The sexual dysfunctions are one of the most prevalent conditions. Sexual dysfunctions can have profound effect on the psychological well-being of an individual and the psychosexual relationship of a couple. Management of the sexual dysfunction should be preceded by an accurate diagnosis reached after a complete medical and sexual history and physical examination. Current focus of researchers has been on understanding the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and other sexual dysfunctions that can help in developing newer pharmacological cures for these conditions. Recently, a number of clinical trials have studied the potential effectiveness of the phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor sildenafil in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) and Premature Ejaculation (PME). The introduction of PDE-5 inhibitors like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil has revolutionized the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. This review focuses on the recent pharmacological advances in the treatment of common sexual dysfunctions like ED and PME with special focus on the role of PDE-5 inhibitors. Also discussed is the pharmacological treatment of other less prevalent and recognized disorders like female sexual dysfunction, drug induced sexual dysfunction etc. PMID:21224902

  14. Malnutrition in pediatric hospital patients: current issues.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Koen F M; Hulst, Jessie M

    2011-02-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized children is still very prevalent, especially in children with underlying disease and clinical conditions. The purpose of this review is to describe current issues that have to be taken into account when interpreting prevalence data. Weight-for-height and height-for-age standard deviation scores are used for classification for acute and chronic malnutrition, respectively. Body mass index for age can also be used for the definition of acute malnutrition but has a few advantages in the general pediatric population. The new World Health Organization child-growth charts can be used as reference but there is a risk of over- and underestimation of malnutrition rates compared with country-specific growth references. For children with specific medical conditions and syndromes, specific growth references should be used for appropriate interpretation of nutritional status. New screening tools are available to identify children at risk for developing malnutrition during admission. Because of the diversity of medical conditions and syndromes in hospitalized children, assessment of nutritional status and interpretation of anthropometric data need a tailored approach.

  15. Current status of onchocerciasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Corredor, A; Nicholls, R S; Duque, S; Munoz de Hoyos, P; Alvarez, C A; Guderian, R H; Lopez, H H; Palma, G I

    1998-05-01

    To assess the current epidemiologic status of onchocerciasis in Colombia two surveys were undertaken in 1995 in a suspected new focus on the border between Colombia and Ecuador and in the known focus located on the Micay River. No new focus was found along the Colombia-Ecuador border. In the known focus, communities along the upper Micay River and its tributaries were surveyed; 655 adults underwent physical examinations and skin biopsies. Infected individuals were found almost exclusively in the community of Naiciona, where prevalence of infection was 40% (36 of 91). Polymerase chain reaction detection of onchocercal DNA in skin snips correlated with the skin-snip biopsy results. The prevalence of punctate keratitis, the only ocular manifestation found, was 33%. A rapid entomologic assessment demonstrated Simulium exiguum infected with Onchocerca volvulus. This is the first finding in Colombia of naturally infected black flies and confirms S. exiguum as a vector species. These data will be used for implementing a control program using periodic ivermectin distribution.

  16. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Acute and Chronic HIV in a Lower-Prevalence Urban Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Moschella, Phillip C.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Ruffner, Andrew H.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Wayne, D. Beth; Sperling, Matthew I.; Trott, Alexander T.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the seroprevalence of both acute and chronic HIV infection by using a random sample of emergency department (ED) patients from a region of the United States with low-to-moderate HIV prevalence. Methods. This cross-sectional seroprevalence study consecutively enrolled patients aged 18 to 64 years within randomly selected sampling blocks in a Midwestern urban ED in a region of lower HIV prevalence in 2008 to 2009. Participants were compensated for providing a blood sample and health information. After de-identification, we assayed samples for HIV antibody and nucleic acid. Results. There were 926 participants who consented and enrolled. Overall, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was 0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30%, 1.56%). Three participants (0.32%; 95% CI = 0.09%, 0.86%) were nucleic acid–positive but antibody-negative and 4 (0.43%; 95% CI = 0.15%, 1.02%) were antibody-positive. Conclusions. Even when the absolute prevalence is low, a considerable proportion of undetected HIV cases in an ED population are acute. Identification of acute HIV in ED settings should receive increased priority. PMID:25033145

  17. Current standardisation for nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Delphine; Mark, David; Möhlmann, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    Standardisation and standards provide an important mechanism to support both innovation and the application of regulations. There is currently no specific regulation for any nanomaterials. Health, safety and environmental protection aspects associated with nanomaterials are however in principle covered to different levels by current EU regulatory framework. There are a number of national, European and international organisations developing standards associated with the development, description and use of nanomaterials as well as the protection of human health and the environment from the production and use of chemicals and consumer products, including nanomaterials. These organisations have also established specific committees on nanotechnology. This paper outlines the different relevant regulations and standards. This paper will mainly be focused on a European health and safety perspective.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in three ethnic groups using current definitions.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Hélène; Désilets, Marie-Claude; Vargas, Estanislao Ramirez; Garrel, Dominique

    2008-04-01

    According to two current definitions, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among black Haitians of Montreal was <20%, 30%-36% in Algonquin Indians of Quebec, and >45% in Mexicans of Oaxaca (all aged 35-60 y). Although phenotypes were different, high triglycerides and fasting dysglycemia were good predictors of MetS in all three groups using both definitions. The international cut-offs for abdominal obesity were not predictive of MetS in the Haitian subjects.

  19. Currents in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1983-01-01

    A model of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field is obtained from the Voyager 1 and 2 observations. A representation consisting of the Z sub 3 zonal harmonic model of Saturn's planetary magnetic field together with an explicit model of Saturn's planetary magnetic field and a model of the equatorial ring current fits the observations well within r 20 R sub S, with the exception of data obtained during the Voyager 2 inbound pass.

  20. Current oscillations in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Brittany

    We develop a simple phenomenological model to describe current oscillations in single, conically shaped nanopores. The model utilizes aspects of reaction rate theory, electrochemical oscillators, and nonlinear dynamical systems. Time series of experimental data were analyzed and compared to time series simulated using the model equations. There is good qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation, though the model needs to be improved in order to obtain better quantitative agreement.

  1. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  2. High current ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  3. Peak HIV prevalence: a useful outcome variable for ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Chris; Colebunders, Robert; Voeten, Helene; Lurie, Mark

    2013-05-01

    A key question for ecological studies with HIV as the outcome variable is what measure of HIV prevalence to use. In this study we compared the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of measures of HIV prevalence, focusing on peak HIV prevalence and HIV prevalence measured at the same time as the exposure variable. We explored the theoretical problems with each of the two measures of HIV prevalence. We then investigated the difference that substituting one variable for the other made to two published ecological studies. One published study found a strong relationship between migration intensity and HIV prevalence measured at the time the migration was measured. When we repeated the analysis using peak HIV prevalence as the outcome variable, there was no evidence of an association. The second study found evidence of a strong relationship between concurrency and peak HIV prevalence. On repetition of the analysis (but utilizing HIV prevalence at the time the concurrency was measured as the outcome variable) there was no longer a significant association. The choice of HIV measure as outcome variable in ecological studies makes a large difference to the study results. The choice of peak HIV prevalence as outcome variable offers the advantage of avoiding the HIV introduction time bias.

  4. Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Haddock, L; de Conty, I T

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence data for diabetes mellitus obtained from a household interview of a random sample of the general population by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the years 1975-1986. Details of the prevalence rate by sex and age were analyzed for the years 1981, 1984, 1985, and 1986 and for the urban and rural population in 1985. The mean prevalence rate of known cases of diabetes showed a tendency to increase from 3.1% in 1975 to 5.1% in 1986. Prevalence rates adjusted for age and sex showed an increase in the mean prevalence for 1986 compared with that of 1981. The prevalence rate was significantly higher for the rural population for the age-group 45-64 yr old and for the urban population for the age-group greater than or equal to 65 yr. The prevalence rate compares with that of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York City area. On the basis of the prevalence data, approximately 90% of the diabetic population is non-insulin dependent and 10% are insulin dependent. Major risk factors thought to explain the increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes are increasing longevity of the Puerto Rican population, genetic predisposition, obesity, and changes in life-styles. In conclusion, Puerto Ricans, as other Hispanic Americans, have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the white American population.

  5. Fast wave current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  7. Prevalence of School Bullying among Secondary Students in Taiwan: Measurements with and without a Specific Definition of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ming; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of bullying and bullying victimization rates vary depending on how these rates are measured. The current study used survey methods of the World Health Organisation (WHO) to investigate the prevalence of school bullying among secondary students in Taiwan. We also examined whether results differed between surveys with and without…

  8. The Prevalence of Cyber Bullying Victimization and Its Relationship to Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007)…

  9. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series. Inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Richard N; Wong, Karen; Bridges, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning inflammatory bowel diseases – specifically, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:21157579

  10. Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco…

  11. Is the prevalence of coronary heart disease falling in British men?

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, F; Morris, R; Whincup, P; Walker, M; Ebrahim, S; Shaper, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess whether long term trends over time in acute coronary heart disease (CHD) event rates have influenced the burden of prevalent CHD in British men.
DESIGN—Longitudinal cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS—7735 men, aged 40-59 at entry (1978-80), selected from 24 British towns.
METHODS—The prevalences of current angina symptoms and history of diagnosed CHD were ascertained by questionnaire in 1978-80, 1983-85, 1992, and 1996. New major CHD events (fatal and non-fatal) were ascertained throughout the study from National Health Service central registers and general practice record reviews. Age adjusted trends in CHD prevalence were compared with trends in major CHD event rates.
RESULTS—From 1978-1996 there was a clear decline in the prevalence of current angina symptoms: the age adjusted annual percentage change in odds was -1.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.8% to -0.8%). However, there was no evidence of a trend in the prevalence of history of diagnosed CHD (annual change in odds 0.1%, 95% CI -1.0% to 1.2%). Over the same period, the CHD mortality rate fell substantially (annual change -4.1%, 95% CI -6.5% to -1.6%); rates of non-fatal myocardial infarction, all major CHD events, and first major CHD event fell by -1.7% (95% CI -3.9% to 0.5%), -2.5% (95% CI -4.1% to -0.8%), and -2.4% (95% CI% -4.3 to -0.4%), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that middle aged British men are less likely to experience symptoms of angina than in previous decades but are just as likely to have a history of diagnosed CHD. Despite falling rates of new major events and falling symptom prevalence, the need for secondary prevention among middle aged men with established CHD is as great as ever.


Keywords: coronary heart disease; angina; prevalence; trends PMID:11602539

  12. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in India: current scenario.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted.

  13. [Transcranial direct current stimulation for depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Aust, S; Palm, U; Padberg, F; Bajbouj, M

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide but approximately 20-30 % of patients do not respond to standard guideline conform treatment. Recent neuroimaging studies in depressive patients revealed altered activation patterns in prefrontal brain areas and that successful cognitive behavioral therapy and psychopharmacological interventions are associated with a reversal of these neural alterations. Therefore, a direct modulation of prefrontal brain activation by non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) seems to be a promising and innovative approach for the treatment of depressive disorders. In addition, recent neuropsychological findings indicated an augmentation of positive tDCS effects by simultaneous external activation of the stimulated brain area, for example by cognitive training tasks. Based on these findings, the possibility to augment cognitive-emotional learning processes during cognitive behavioral therapy by simultaneous tDCS to increase antidepressive therapeutic effects is discussed in this article.

  14. NONMELANOMA SKIN CANCER IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-01-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted. PMID:21430894

  15. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  16. Influence of two different geo-climatic zones on the prevalence and time trends of asthma symptoms among Spanish adolescents and schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Marcos, Luis; Batllés-Garrido, José; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo; García-Hernández, Gloria; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Busquets-Monge, Rosa M.; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; López-Silvarrey-Varela, Ángel; García-Andoin, Nekane

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the long-term influence of the climate on the prevalence of asthma. The aim of this study is to establish the influence of geo-climatic conditions on the prevalence of asthma symptoms both in adolescents and schoolchildren, and to discover if this influence is associated with their time trends. Eight centres in Spain performed both ISAAC phases I (1994) and III (2002) in children 13-14 years old. Six of them also surveyed children 6-7 years old. For each age group and phase, about 3,000 children were surveyed per centre. This study examines the prevalence of current wheeze and severe current wheeze in two different geo-climatic zones, coast and plateau, considering their relative humidity and temperature range. In both age groups, the mean asthma prevalence on the coast, for phase I and III, was significantly higher than on the plateau. Living on the plateau was an independent protective factor for current wheeze and severe current wheeze for the two age groups. Within the coastal centres, the increase of the annual relative humidity was a statistical significant risk factor for current wheeze, the same trend existing for current severe wheeze. These effects were independent of the sex and of the phase of the study. The prevalence of asthma and severe asthma symptoms is more frequent on the coast of Spain as compared to the inner plateau. This finding was repeated both in 1994 and in 2002.

  17. Diabetes incidence and glucose intolerance prevalence increase with higher outdoor temperature

    PubMed Central

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Aziz, N Ahmad; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Blauw, C Alexander; de Craen, Anton J; Pijl, Hanno; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Rising global temperatures might contribute to the current worldwide diabetes epidemic, as higher ambient temperature can negatively impact glucose metabolism via a reduction in brown adipose tissue activity. Therefore, we examined the association between outdoor temperature and diabetes incidence in the USA as well as the prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide. Research design and methods Using meta-regression, we determined the association between mean annual temperature and diabetes incidence during 1996–2009 for each US state separately. Subsequently, results were pooled in a meta-analysis. On a global scale, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess the association between mean annual temperature and the prevalence of glucose intolerance. Results We demonstrated that, on average, per 1°C increase in temperature, age-adjusted diabetes incidence increased with 0.314 (95% CI 0.194 to 0.434) per 1000. Similarly, the worldwide prevalence of glucose intolerance increased by 0.170% (95% CI 0.107% to 0.234%) per 1°C rise in temperature. These associations persisted after adjustment for obesity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the diabetes incidence rate in the USA and prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide increase with higher outdoor temperature.

  18. Impact of Hispanic ethnic concentration and socioeconomic status on obesity prevalence in Texas counties.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Rocha, Elizabeth; Abdelbary, Bassent E; Gay, Jennifer; Sexton, Ken

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the association of Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity varies by socioeconomic environment. Although little influence was observed for % poverty, the relationship between Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity differed by county-level educational attainment. High proportion of residents with a bachelor's degree is associated with a low prevalence of obesity; counties with both high % Hispanic and high % with Bachelor's degrees had the lowest prevalence of obesity. Our results suggest that promoting and improving education, perhaps including training on healthful living, may serve as an effective means of curbing current obesity trends and associated health problems in Hispanic and possibly other ethnic communities.

  19. Prevalence and duration of PTSD in survivors 6 years after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Filip K; Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin; Michel, Per-Olof

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors with low levels of risk factors for PTSD. The sample included 142 adults (58% women, 54% university education, 93% employed/students/retired) on vacation in Southeast Asia during the 2004 Indian Ocean disaster. Semi-structured clinical interviews (SCID-I) were performed after 6 years including PTSD, depression, specific phobia, and alcohol abuse. The 6-year prevalence of PTSD was 11.3% and the current prevalence was 4.2%, with onset mainly within 1 month and remission within 3 years post-disaster. Suicidal ideation and comorbidity were common in PTSD cases. Lifetime prevalence of depression was 19%, specific phobia 7%, and alcohol abuse 4%. The findings suggest elevated levels of PTSD but not other disorders as compared with general population samples, but still lower levels than other disaster samples. Despite benign circumstances, however, the course and burden of PTSD were comparable to similar studies.

  20. Overview of Celiac Disease in Russia: Regional Data and Estimated Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Erdes, Svetlana I.; Antishin, Anton S.

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten from some cereals mainly in individuals carrying the HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 haplotypes. As an autoimmune disease, CD is manifested in the small intestine in the form of a progressive and reversible inflammatory lesion due to immune response to self-antigens. Indeed, CD is one of the most challenging medicosocial problems in current gastroenterology. At present, the global CD prevalence is estimated at approximately 1% based on data sent from different locations and available CD screening strategies used. However, it is impossible to estimate global CD prevalence without all the data from the world, including Russia. In this review, we summarize the data on the incidence and prevalence of CD across geographically distinct regions of Russia, which are mostly present in local Russian scientific sources. Our conclusion is that the situation of CD prevalence in Russia is higher than is commonly believed and follows global tendencies that correspond to the epidemiologic situation in Europe, America, and Southwest Asia. PMID:28316996

  1. Prevalence, associated factors and management of insomnia in prison populations: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Dewa, Lindsay H; Kyle, Simon D; Hassan, Lamiece; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Prisoners have many potential risk factors for insomnia including mental ill health and substance misuse. However, literature on prevalence, associated factors and management of insomnia in prison has yet to be systematically examined in this group. The paper objective was to synthesise and appraise the research that examines insomnia in a prison environment. An integrative literature review using thematic analysis was conducted to critically reflect on the current evidence base and outline a prospective research agenda. From the original 384 sourced papers, 33 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included for review. Definitions of insomnia and assessment tools used in studies varied considerably making the overall validity of findings uncertain. Notably, no studies used a recommended measure to assess insomnia disorder (ID). Thematic analysis yielded five themes: 1) the varied prevalence of insomnia; 2) the comorbidity of insomnia, psychiatric disorder and substance misuse; 3) the negative influence of prison-related situational and environmental factors on insomnia; 4) the role of hypnotic medication, and, 5) preliminary indications that non-pharmacological treatment can improve sleep. The methodological heterogeneity and variable quality across studies in the assessment of insomnia means conclusive data on prevalence, associated factors and management is lacking. Nonetheless, sleep problems are common and impairing in prison, are linked to comorbid conditions and negatively influenced by the prison environment, which routinely provides limited scope for effective management. Future research in prison populations is needed to reliably identify insomnia prevalence and determine how it can be managed effectively.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Results Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. Conclusion This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies. PMID:27051290

  3. Impact of Hispanic Ethnic Concentration and Socioeconomic Status on Obesity Prevalence in Texas Countie

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Rocha, Elizabeth; Abdelbary, Bassent E.; Gay, Jennifer; Sexton, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the association of Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity varies by socioeconomic environment. Although little influence was observed for % poverty, the relationship between Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity differed by county-level educational attainment. High proportion of residents with a bachelor’s degree is associated with a low prevalence of obesity; counties with both high % Hispanic and high % with Bachelor’s degrees had the lowest prevalence of obesity. Our results suggest that promoting and improving education, perhaps including training on healthful living, may serve as an effective means of curbing current obesity trends and associated health problems in Hispanic and possibly other ethnic communities. PMID:22690191

  4. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Andreana

    2015-09-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a somatoform disorder characterised by a distressing obsession with an imagined or slight appearance defect, which can significantly impair normal day-to-day functioning. Patients with BDD often first present, and are hence diagnosed, in cosmetic surgery settings. Several studies have investigated the prevalence rate of BDD in the general population or have done so for patients referring to cosmetic medical centers. To date, however, no review has been undertaken to compare the prevalence in the general community versus in a cosmetic surgery setting. Despite the lack of such a review it is a commonly held belief that BDD is more common in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. The current study aims to review the available literature in order to investigate whether BDD is indeed more prevalent in patients requesting cosmetic surgery, and if that is the case, to provide possible reasons for the difference in prevalence. In addition this review provides evidence on the effectiveness of cosmetic surgery as a treatment of BDD.

  5. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems. PMID:27695609

  6. [Prevalence of intestinal parasitis at the King Baudouin health center of Guediawaye (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Ndir, I; Gaye, A; Sy, M; Gaye, O; Ndir, O

    2002-01-01

    A prospective study carrying on 302 samples of stools of aged children of 0 to 15 years has been achieved between January 02 and April 11 2001 in the center of health Roi Baudouin of Guediawaye (SENEGAL) to appreciate the prevalence of intestinal parasitis. For every child, we made a scotch test, a macroscopic exam of stools and a microscopic exam to the direct analysis and after concentration by the method of RITCHIE simplified. The global prevalence is 56,62%. Ascaris lumbricoides arrived in head with 34,17%, follow-up of Giardia lamblia (22,50%), Trichirus trichiura (22,08%) and Amoeba (14,58%). The prevalence varied with age and the children who are 11 to 15 years have the indication of infestation the most elevated (75,86%): The difference of prevalence to the sex and according to the presence or no current water is not meaningful. On the other hand topics to weak standard of living have an indication elevated parasitis with 66,05%. So measures of efficient struggle must be undertaken to combat these intestinal parasitis.

  7. Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184

  8. Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of the Smoking Prevalence in Mazandaran Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Afshari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is regarded as one of the main risk factors and additive to the global burden of diseases in the World. Objectives: This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis aimed to estimate the smoking prevalence in Mazandaran province of Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was an IPD meta-analysis. The study data were part of the STEPS Study in Mazandaran province (northern Iran), conducted annually from 2005 to 2009. Sample size was 7759 subjects. Sampling method was census. Data entry was in Epi6 software and the analyses were with stata 11 software. Results: Mean (standard error) age of starting to smoke was 20.21 (0.6) years and females had started smoking 4 years later (P = 0.01). During the study, men smoked cigarettes more than women (total prevalence: 23.2%; 95% CI: 22.5-23.9 vs. 0.9%; 95% CI: 0.7-1.1 respectively). The pooled prevalence of the current smoking was estimated about 12.08 % (95% CI: 11.40-12.81). Conclusions: Present study showed that the prevalence of Smoking in men is very high in this region of Iran. Therefore to prevent the problem it is necessary that educational and research centres and health providers make suitable policies and strategies . PMID:25793112

  9. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a brazilian military police population

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Viviani-Silva; Godinho, Eliane-Lopes; Farias, Lucyana-Conceição; Marques-Silva, Luciano; Santos, Sérgio-Henrique-Sousa; Rodrigues-Neto, João-Felício; Ferreira, Raquel-Conceição; De-Paula, Alfredo-Maurício-Batista; Martins, Andréa-Maria-Eleutério-de Barros-Lima

    2015-01-01

    Background Data obtained from oral health surveys are very important for identifying disease-susceptible groups and for developing dental care and prevention programs. So, the purpose of the current article was to investigate the prevalence of oral mucosa lesions (OMLs) in a population of Brazilian police. Material and Methods Interviews and oral cavity examinations were performed on a sample of 395 police officers who were randomly selected by the calibrated researcher. The number of individuals was obtained by a sample calculation using the finite population correction. The diagnostic criteria were based on the WHO (1997) criteria and adapted to Brazilian surveys. Results In total, 8.61% of the population presented some OML. Traumatic injuries and benign migratory glossitis (BMG) were the most prevalent lesions. Conclusions The prevalence of potentially malignant disorders was lower than among the Brazilian population.The most prevalent lesion among the police officers was related to trauma. Patients dissatisfied with oral health had a higher risk of presenting OMLs. Key words:Mouth disease, mouth mucosa, military personnel, public health, oral pathology, oral leukoplakia. PMID:26155334

  10. Prevalence of sexual problems and associated distress among lesbian and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence studies on female sexual problems among heterosexual samples have been conducted extensively across different countries. However, relatively little is known regarding prevalence of sexual problems in lesbians. The present study aimed to assess and compare the frequency of self-perceived sexual problems and associated levels of distress in lesbians and heterosexual women. In all, 390 lesbians and 1,009 heterosexual women completed an online survey. The authors assessed the frequency of self-perceived sexual problems in lesbians and heterosexual women, over the past 6 months, as well as the associated levels of distress. Main results suggested that, after controlling for distress levels, sexual pain was the most frequent sexual problem reported by lesbians and heterosexual women. Also, when distress was considered a significant decrease on prevalence rates of sexual problems were found for both lesbians and heterosexual women. Current findings emphasize the role of associated levels of distress to self-perceived sexual problems in women, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, results suggest that length of relationship play a major role on sexual problems. Overall, data indicated a relatively similar pattern in prevalence of sexual problems in lesbians and heterosexual women.

  11. [Current status of autism studies].

    PubMed

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  12. [Tocophobia--its origin, prevalence and implications].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Stolovitch, Natan; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2014-05-01

    Tocophobia is defined as fear from pregnancy in general and fear of vaginal delivery in particular. This is a relatively prevalent phenomenon, which originates due to traumatic events in the past: whether as a result of previous bad obstetric experience or from other non-obstetric related events. Unstable mental disorder may also be expressed as tocophobia. As there is no common agreement regarding the definition of tocophobia, conservative methods of treatment have not proven effective. Male tocophobia is also recognized and can be negatively influential on female males and spouses. The ultimate solution to tocophobia is an elective cesarean section following maternal request, with no obvious medical indication. This creates ethical problems to the attending physicians.

  13. Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Crary, Shelley E; Ramaciotti, Claudio; Buchanan, George R

    2011-12-01

    Vascular complications, including pulmonary hypertension (PH), have been reported to occur following splenectomy for various disorders,including hereditary spherocytosis (HS). We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of 36 adults with HS (78% with prior splenectomy)utilizing echocardiography to estimate tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) as well as measurement of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) to screen for PH. No participant with HS hada significantly elevated TRV or NT-proBNP level, despite a median 25-year interval since splenectomy (95% confidence interval for point prevalence 0, 0.097). Although our study was limited by a small sample size, it appears that persons with HS, following splenectomy, appear unlikely to be at significantly increased risk of developing PH to the degree reported for thalassemia and sickle cell disease

  14. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella in Australian reptiles.

    PubMed

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (P<0.0001). No Salmonella was found in 60 wild, freshwater chelonians or 48 wild southern water skinks (Eulamprus heatwolei). Our results suggest that some species of wild reptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species.

  16. Injuries to dancers. Prevalence, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sohl, P; Bowling, A

    1990-05-01

    Studies from the USA and UK indicate that the back, neck and shoulder and the lower limb (particularly the hip, knee, ankle and foot) are the most frequent sites of injury among dancers. Most injuries are soft tissue injuries. Most dancers experience injuries at some time and about half have chronic injuries. Shoulder injuries appear to be caused by frequent or unaccustomed lifting, and are treated by rest and oral anti-inflammatory medication. Back injuries include sprains, prolapsed or herniated intervertebral discs, and spondylolytic stress fractures. Several risk factors, especially training error, have been identified for overuse injuries. Hip injuries include degenerative changes and osteoarthritis, stress fractures, bursitis and damage to the sciatic nerve. The most common foot injury is an anterior lateral ligament sprain, which may lead to permanent instability in the ankle. More soundly based research into the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of injuries is needed.

  17. Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

  18. Bias in Observational Studies of Prevalent Users: Lessons for Comparative Effectiveness Research From a Meta-Analysis of Statins

    PubMed Central

    Danaei, Goodarz; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are usually the preferred strategy with which to generate evidence of comparative effectiveness, but conducting an RCT is not always feasible. Though observational studies and RCTs often provide comparable estimates, the questioning of observational analyses has recently intensified because of randomized-observational discrepancies regarding the effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on coronary heart disease. Reanalyses of observational data that excluded prevalent users of hormone replacement therapy led to attenuated discrepancies, which begs the question of whether exclusion of prevalent users should be generally recommended. In the current study, the authors evaluated the effect of excluding prevalent users of statins in a meta-analysis of observational studies of persons with cardiovascular disease. The pooled, multivariate-adjusted mortality hazard ratio for statin use was 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65, 0.91) in 4 studies that compared incident users with nonusers, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.78) in 13 studies that compared a combination of prevalent and incident users with nonusers, and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.66) in 13 studies that compared prevalent users with nonusers. The corresponding hazard ratio from 18 RCTs was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.91). It appears that the greater the proportion of prevalent statin users in observational studies, the larger the discrepancy between observational and randomized estimates. PMID:22223710

  19. Variations in prevalence of viral, bacterial, and rhizocephalan diseases and parasites of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    Prevalence of blue crab diseases and parasites has not been consistently monitored in the Gulf of Mexico. To establish current prevalence levels and to more fully understand population dynamics, commercial landing trends, and effects of future natural and anthropogenic disasters on animal health, we measured the prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Loxothylacus texanus, shell disease, and Vibrio spp. in blue crabs collected from Louisiana in 2013 and the beginning of 2014. We used PCR to detect WSSV and L. texanus infections, visual gross diagnosis for L. texanus externae and shell disease, and standard microbiological culture techniques and biochemical testing for Vibrio spp. We found no crabs infected with WSSV or L. texanus. Absence of L. texanus parasitization was expected based on the sampled salinities and the sampling focus on large crabs. Shell disease was present at a level of 54.8% and was most prevalent in the winter and summer and least prevalent in the spring. Vibrio spp. were found in the hemolymph of 22.3% of the crabs and prevalence varied by site, season, and sex. Additionally, three of 39 crabs tested were infected with reo-like virus.

  20. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was included in European Health Interview Study (EHIS) on representative Slovenian sample. The frequency of Internet use and problematic Internet use were both assessed. Results 59.9% of Slovenian adult population uses the Internet daily, and 3.1% are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, 11% in the age group from 20 to 24 years. Those being at risk for becoming problematic Internet users are younger (mean age 31.3 vs. 48.3 for non-problematic users), more likely to be males (3.6% of males, whereas 2.6% of females are affected), students (12.0%), unemployed (6.3%) or unable to work (8.7%), single (6.5%), with high education (4.5%). Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of being at risk for problematic Internet use is age (ß=-0.338, p<0.001); followed by high educational level (ß=0.145; p<0.001) and student status (ß=0.136; p<0.001). Conclusion 3.1% of Slovenian adult population are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, whereas 3 out of 20 Slovenian adolescents aged from 18 to 19 years are at risk (14.6%). Prevention programs and treatment for those affected are paramount, especially for the young generation. PMID:27703540

  1. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  2. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately. PMID:25628080

  3. Stochastic longshore current dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar

    2016-12-01

    We develop a stochastic parametrization, based on a 'simple' deterministic model for the dynamics of steady longshore currents, that produces ensembles that are statistically consistent with field observations of these currents. Unlike deterministic models, stochastic parameterization incorporates randomness and hence can only match the observations in a statistical sense. Unlike statistical emulators, in which the model is tuned to the statistical structure of the observation, stochastic parametrization are not directly tuned to match the statistics of the observations. Rather, stochastic parameterization combines deterministic, i.e physics based models with stochastic models for the "missing physics" to create hybrid models, that are stochastic, but yet can be used for making predictions, especially in the context of data assimilation. We introduce a novel measure of the utility of stochastic models of complex processes, that we call consistency of sensitivity. A model with poor consistency of sensitivity requires a great deal of tuning of parameters and has a very narrow range of realistic parameters leading to outcomes consistent with a reasonable spectrum of physical outcomes. We apply this metric to our stochastic parametrization and show that, the loss of certainty inherent in model due to its stochastic nature is offset by the model's resulting consistency of sensitivity. In particular, the stochastic model still retains the forward sensitivity of the deterministic model and hence respects important structural/physical constraints, yet has a broader range of parameters capable of producing outcomes consistent with the field data used in evaluating the model. This leads to an expanded range of model applicability. We show, in the context of data assimilation, the stochastic parametrization of longshore currents achieves good results in capturing the statistics of observation that were not used in tuning the model.

  4. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. PMID:26907308

  5. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  6. Low Current Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Because Goddard Space Flight Center needed a way to cool sensors aboard the AXAF, a low current superconducting magnet was developed under contract by Cryomagnetics, Inc. The magnet, now commercially available, reduced the rate of helium consumption, extending the lifetime of the AXAF's x-ray spectrometer. On Earth, it offers a way to reduce operating costs through smaller, less expensive power supplies and reduced use of coolant. The magnet has particular advantages for MRI systems, as it is safer and has lower maintenance requirements.

  7. SBC Dark Current Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This takes a series of SBC dark measurements over a continuous period of about 6 hours {4 orbits}. The aim is to collect dark images during an extended SBC on-time. Earlier measurements indicate that the dark current increases with SBC on-time and may also be increasing with overall SBC use. The 6-hour time matches the longest time used by any observer. As with all SBC observations this needs continuous SAA free time.This program is executed once per cycle. The last exposures were taken in Mar 2013 under Program 13161.

  8. Ring currents in azulene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, A. T.; Todorov, T. N.; Elena, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    We propose a self consistent polarisable ion tight binding theory for the study of push-pull processes in aromatic molecules. We find that the method quantitatively reproduces ab initio calculations of dipole moments and polarisability. We apply the scheme in a simulation which solves the time dependent Schrödinger equation to follow the relaxation of azulene from the second excited to the ground states. We observe rather spectacular oscillating ring currents which we explain in terms of interference between the HOMO and LUMO states.

  9. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  10. Field trial of applicability of lot quality assurance sampling survey method for rapid assessment of prevalence of active trachoma.

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Mark; Limburg, Hans; Minassian, Darwin; Katyola, Damson

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the applicability of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: Prevalence of active trachoma in six communities was found by examining all children aged 2-5 years. Trial surveys were conducted in these communities. A sampling plan appropriate for classifying communities with prevalences < or =20% and > or =40% was applied to the survey data. Operating characteristic and average sample number curves were plotted, and screening test indices were calculated. The ability of LQAS to provide a three-class classification system was investigated. FINDINGS: Ninety-six trial surveys were conducted. All communities with prevalences < or =20% and > or =40% were identified correctly. The method discriminated between communities with prevalences < or =30% and >30%, with sensitivity of 98% (95% confidence interval (CI)=88.2-99.9%), specificity of 84.4% (CI=69.9-93.0%), positive predictive value of 87.7% (CI=75.7-94.5%), negative predictive value of 97.4% (CI=84.9-99.9%), and accuracy of 91.7% (CI=83.8-96.1%). Agreement between the three prevalence classes and survey classifications was 84.4% (CI=75.2-90.7%). The time needed to complete the surveys was consistent with the need to complete a survey in one day. CONCLUSION: Lot quality assurance sampling provides a method of classifying communities according to the prevalence of active trachoma. It merits serious consideration as a replacement for the assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma with the currently used trachoma rapid assessment method. It may be extended to provide a multi-class classification method. PMID:14997240

  11. Prevalence and Management of Diabetic Nephropathy in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Adler, Sharon G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) often results in end-stage renal disease, and this is the most common reason for initiation of dialysis in the United States. Complications of diabetes, particularly renal disease, substantially increase the risk of subsequent severe illness and death. The prevalence of DN is still rising dramatically, with concomitant increases in associated mortality and cardiovascular complications. Summary Renal involvement in type 1 and type 2 diabetes reflects a complex pathogenesis. Various genetic and environmental factors determine the susceptibility and progression to advanced stages of the disease. DN should be considered in patients who have had type 1 diabetes for at least 10 years with microalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy, as well as in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with macroalbuminuria in whom other causes for proteinuria are absent. The glomerular characteristic features include mesangial expansion, thickened glomerular basement membrane, and hyalinosis of arterioles. The optimal therapy of DN continues to evolve. For all diabetic patients, practical management including blood glucose and blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade combined with lipid control, dietary salt restriction, lowering the dietary protein intake, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and smoking cessation can reduce the rate of progression of nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Key Message DN is a complex disease linking hemodynamic and metabolic pathways with oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. We summarize the current evidence of epidemiology, clinical diagnosis, and the current management of DN in Western countries. Facts from East and West The prevalence of DN is increasing in Asia and Western countries alike. The deletion (D) allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is associated with progression to end-stage renal disease in Asian patients with DN, but this association is

  12. Current Psychosomatic Practice.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    Psychosomatic research has advanced over the past decades in dealing with complex biopsychosocial phenomena and may provide new effective modalities of patient care. Among psychosocial variables affecting individual vulnerability, course, and outcome of any medical disease, the role of chronic stress (allostatic load/overload) has emerged as a crucial factor. Assessment strategies include the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. They are presented here in an updated version based on insights derived from studies carried out so far and encompass allostatic overload, type A behavior, alexithymia, the spectrum of maladaptive illness behavior, demoralization, irritable mood, and somatic symptoms secondary to a psychiatric disorder. Macroanalysis is a helpful tool for identifying the relationships between biological and psychosocial variables and the individual targets for medical intervention. The personalized and holistic approach to the patient includes integration of medical and psychological therapies in all phases of illness. In this respect, the development of a new psychotherapeutic modality, Well-Being Therapy, seems to be promising. The growth of subspecialties, such as psychooncology and psychodermatology, drives towards the multidisciplinary organization of health care to overcome artificial boundaries. There have been major transformations in health care needs in the past decades. From psychosomatic medicine, a land of innovative hypotheses and trends, many indications for changes in the current practice of medicine are now at hand. The aim of this critical review is to outline current and potential clinical applications of psychosomatic methods.

  13. Misophonia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Seri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders), or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. PMID:26316758

  14. Estimated prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy in 2015.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bezzini, Daiana

    2017-03-01

    Italy is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS) as confirmed by the numerous prevalence and incidence studies conducted in several regions/districts of the country. Nevertheless, there are no recent published epidemiological data, nor studies about the total prevalence of MS in Italy. Our aim was to update as of 2015 the prevalence rates of MS in different geographical areas using already published epidemiological studies, and to estimate the overall prevalence of the disease in Italy. We made a search in MEDLINE database of all published studies on epidemiology of MS in Italy. Then, we applied, to the already published prevalence data, the last published incidence and mortality rates to recalculate, as of 2015, the prevalence of MS. So, we calculated the mean prevalence rate from our extrapolations, and we applied it to the population in 2015 to estimate the number of MS patients in Italy. Our prevalence extrapolations ranged from 122 to 232 cases/100,000 in the mainland and Sicily, with an average of 176/100,000, and from 280 to 317 cases/100,000 in Sardinia with an average of 299/100,000. Applying these media to the Italian population in 2015, we obtained an estimate of more than 109,000 MS patients in Italy. Our estimates were higher than the latest published rates but consistent with the annual increase of prevalence due to incidence that exceeds mortality, with the increase of survival and, maybe, with the probable increase of incidence.

  15. Prevalence of autoantibodies in a group of hereditary angioedema patients.

    PubMed

    Dortas Junior, Sergio Duarte; Valle, Solange Oliveira Rodrigues; Levy, Soloni Afra Pires; Tortora, Rosangela P; Abe, Augusto Tiaqui; Pires, Gisele Viana; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary Angioedema is a dominantly inherited disease. Routine screening of autoantibodies (AAB) is not recommended for individuals with Hereditary Angioedema; however, prevalence of these antibodies in Hereditary Angioedema patients is not well documented. We aim to determine the prevalence of AAB so that individuals at risk of developing autoimmune diseases can be identified. Fifteen patients with Hereditary Angioedema attended at Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital accepted to participate in this study. Prevalence of AAB was 40%. Our data indicate high prevalence of AAB in patients with Hereditary Angioedema. Large-scale studies should be considered to determine the significance of these AAB in the follow-up care of patients with Hereditary Angioedema.

  16. Current Climate Variability & Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and

  17. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental Exposures and Asthma Prevalence in Two Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eiffert, Samantha; Noibi, Yomi; Downs, Jonathan; Fulk, Florence; Wallace, Juanita; Pearson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most residents (76%) were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35%) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6). The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes' ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01–1.25; two-tailed P = 0.04). Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the study findings. PMID:28003835

  18. Estimating Health Conditions for Small Areas: Asthma Symptom Prevalence for State Legislative Districts

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Yu, Hongjian; Meng, Ying-Ying; Jhawar, Mona; Wallace, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    Research Objective To create prevalence estimates of asthma symptoms for California legislative districts. Data Sources. Three main data sources were used for this study: 2001 California Health Interview Survey, 2000 Census, and 2000–2002 March Current Population Surveys. Study Design Secondary data analyses were conducted from cross-sectional data to distribute the joint probability of ever having an asthma diagnosis and symptoms in the last 12 months within an Assembly district. We applied hierarchical logistic regressions to estimate the parameters for selected survey and census data that predicted the probabilities of diagnosed asthmatics with asthma symptoms. Predictors included individual-level variables and contextual variables at zip code levels. Principal Findings Asthma symptom prevalence geographically varied by age within and across Assembly districts throughout California. Conclusions With modest investments in establishing analytic data files and estimating regression parameters for target conditions, small area estimation (SAE) procedures can create health data estimates not otherwise available at the sub-county level. Applying SAE procedures to asthma symptom prevalence suggest that these data can become essential reference tools for advocates and policy makers currently addressing this and other public health concerns in the state. PMID:17995549

  19. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    PubMed Central

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality. PMID:25449319

  20. Epidemiology of Huntington disease: first post-HTT gene analysis of prevalence in Italy.

    PubMed

    Squitieri, F; Griguoli, A; Capelli, G; Porcellini, A; D'Alessio, B

    2016-03-01

    Huntington disease (HD) prevalence shows geographic variability and has been recently updated by taking into account the mutation diagnostic test. In Italy, the last epidemiological estimation was reported well before the HTT gene discovery and the availability of the corresponding genetic test. It reported a prevalence of affected subjects ranging between 2.3 and 4.8/100,000 in some restricted areas of Northern Italy. We have performed a service-based epidemiological analysis in a very restricted geographic area named Molise, where our institutions currently operate and represent the only point of reference for rare neuropsychiatric diseases. The estimated prevalence rate found was 10.85/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.20-14.50), remarkably higher than that previously described before the gene test analysis was available, and expected to an increase of an additional 17% by 2030, because of Italian population aging. According to our analysis, we estimate that about 6500 subjects are currently affected by HD in Italy, and that this number will further increase in the next decades because of population aging, variable phenotype penetrance and improved life expectancy.

  1. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults --- United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-11-05

    The health consequences of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use both have been well documented, including increased risk for lung, throat, oral, and other types of cancers. To assess state-specific current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation in self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence (range: 6.4% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)] to 25.6% [Kentucky and West Virginia]) and smokeless tobacco use (range: 0.8% [USVI] to 9.1% [Wyoming]). For 15 of the states, Puerto Rico, and Guam, smoking prevalence was significantly higher among men than among women. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was higher among men than women in all states and territories. Smokeless tobacco use was highest among persons aged 18--24 years and those with a high school education or less. From 0.9% (Puerto Rico) to 13.7% (Wyoming) of current smokers reported also using smokeless tobacco. Clinicians should identify all tobacco use in their patients and advise those who use any tobacco product to quit. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends implementing this approach in combination with other measures, including raising excise taxes on tobacco and strengthening smoke-free policies to prevent tobacco-related deaths.

  2. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental Exposures and Asthma Prevalence in Two Communities.

    PubMed

    Eiffert, Samantha; Noibi, Yomi; Vesper, Stephen; Downs, Jonathan; Fulk, Florence; Wallace, Juanita; Pearson, Melanie; Winquist, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most residents (76%) were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35%) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6). The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes' ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01-1.25; two-tailed P = 0.04). Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the study findings.

  3. Prevalence of URAT1 allelic variants in the Roma population.

    PubMed

    Stiburkova, Blanka; Gabrikova, Dana; Čepek, Pavel; Šimek, Pavel; Kristian, Pavol; Cordoba-Lanus, Elizabeth; Claverie-Martin, Felix

    2016-12-01

    The Roma represents a transnational ethnic group, with a current European population of 8-10 million. The evolutionary process that had the greatest impact on the gene pool of the Roma population is called the founder effect. Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a rare heterogenous inherited disorder characterized by impaired renal urate reabsorption. The affected individuals are predisposed to recurrent episodes of exercise-induced nonmyoglobinuric acute kidney injury and nephrolithiasis. To date, more than 150 patients with a loss-of-function mutation for the SLC22A12 (URAT1) gene have been found, most of whom are Asians. However, RHUC 1 patients have been described in a variety of ethnic groups (e.g., Arab Israelis, Iraqi Jews, Caucasians, and Roma) and in geographically noncontiguous countries. This study confirms our previous findings regarding the high frequency of SLC22A12 variants observed. Frequencies of the c.1245_1253del and c.1400C>T variants were found to be 1.92% and 5.56%, respectively, in a subgroup of the Roma population from five regions in three countries: Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Spain. Our findings suggested that the common dysfunction allelic variants of URAT1 exist in the general Roma population and thus renal hypouricemia should be kept in differential diagnostic algorithm on Roma patients with defect in renal tubular urate transport. This leads to confirm that the genetic drift in the Roma have increased the prevalence of hereditary disorders caused by very rare variants in major population.

  4. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively) was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28%) antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5%) of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats), the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines. PMID:22429653

  5. Pap prevalence and cervical cancer prevention among Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Lanier, A P; Kelly, J J; Holck, P

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project (WHP) were to determine the following: (1) Pap prevalence based on chart review before and during an intervention period; (2) the level of understanding of cancer and cancer screening services with emphasis on cervical cancer; (3) use and satisfaction with current health maintenance services; and (4) improvement in knowledge and cancer screening rates following intervention. A random sample of 481 Alaska Native (Eskimo, Aleut, Indian) women living in Anchorage were interviewed face to face about their understanding of cancer risk factors (tobacco use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), reproductive issues), cancer screening examinations (Pap test, breast self-examination (BSE), breast exam by a provider, mammography), and their attitudes about health care and health care services. Sixty-two percent of control women were documented to have had at least one Pap test within the 3-year period prior to the beginning of the study; however, only 9% were documented to have had annual Pap screening. The intervention included distribution of educational materials, counseling on any woman's health issue, special evening clinics, and reminders (mail/phone call) of scheduled Pap appointments.

  6. Discriminants of prevalent fractures in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Cremers, Serge; Zhang, Amy; Thomas, Valeri; Stein, Emily; Cohen, Adi; Chauncey, Ryan; Nikkel, Lucas; Yin, Michael T; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Staron, Ronald B; Leonard, Mary B; McMahon, Donald J; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Shane, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have higher rates of fracture than the general population. Increased bone remodeling, leading to microarchitectural deterioration and increased fragility, may accompany declining kidney function, but there are no reliable methods to identify patients at increased risk for fracture. In this cross-sectional study of 82 patients with predialysis CKD, high-resolution imaging revealed that the 23 patients with current fractures had significantly lower areal density at the femoral neck; total, cortical, and trabecular volumetric bone density; cortical area and thickness; and trabecular thickness. Compared with levels in the lowest tertile, higher levels of osteocalcin, procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were associated with higher odds of fracture, even after adjustment for femoral neck T-score. Discrimination of fracture prevalence was best with a femoral neck T-score of -2.0 or less and a value in the upper two tertiles for osteocalcin, procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide, or tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b; these values corresponded to the upper half of the normal premenopausal reference range. In summary, these cross-sectional data suggest that measurement of bone turnover markers may increase the diagnostic accuracy of densitometry to identify patients with CKD at high risk for fracture.

  7. Prevalence of dry methods in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret L; Johnson, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Granite countertop fabricators are at risk of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, which may cause silicosis and other lung conditions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exposure control methods, especially wet methods, in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma to assess how many workers might be at risk of overexposure to crystalline silica in this industry. Granite fabrication shops in the three largest metropolitan areas in Oklahoma were enumerated, and 47 of the 52 shops participated in a survey on fabrication methods. Countertop shops were small businesses with average work forces of fewer than 10 employees. Ten shops (21%) reported using exclusively wet methods during all fabrication steps. Thirty-five shops (74%) employing a total of about 200 workers reported using dry methods all or most of the time in at least one fabrication step. The tasks most often performed dry were edge profiling (17% of shops), cutting of grooves for reinforcing rods (62% of shops), and cutting of sink openings (45% of shops). All shops reported providing either half-face or full-face respirators for use during fabrication, but none reported doing respirator fit testing. Few shops reported using any kind of dust collection system. These findings suggest that current consumer demand for granite countertops is giving rise to a new wave of workers at risk of silicosis due to potential overexposure to granite dust.

  8. Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy: prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Putko, Brendan N; Wen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard B; Mullen, John; Shanks, Miriam; Yogasundaram, Haran; Sergi, Consolato; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2015-03-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the inappropriate accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in tissues due to a deficiency in the enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A). Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy is characterized by structural, valvular, vascular and conduction abnormalities, and is now the most common cause of mortality in patients with AFD. Large-scale metabolic and genetic screening studies have revealed AFD to be prevalent in populations of diverse ethnic origins, and the variant form of AFD represents an unrecognized health burden. Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder, and genetic testing is critical for the diagnosis of AFD in women. Echocardiography with strain imaging and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using late enhancement and T1 mapping are important imaging tools. The current therapy for AFD is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which can reverse or prevent AFD progression, while gene therapy and the use of molecular chaperones represent promising novel therapies for AFD. Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy is an important and potentially reversible cause of heart failure that involves LVH, increased susceptibility to arrhythmias and valvular regurgitation. Genetic testing and cardiac MRI are important diagnostic tools, and AFD cardiomyopathy is treatable if ERT is introduced early.

  9. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E

    2015-05-30

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women.

  11. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Associated Outcomes in the Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah J; Braunschweig, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia refers to age-associated decrease in muscle mass and function. The condition was originally described in the elderly, but emerging evidence suggests that it is also a concern among the chronically ill nonelderly. Currently there are a number of definitions for diagnosing sarcopenia; however, in the clinical setting, abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans completed for diagnostic purposes can be utilized to identify CT-defined sarcopenia. Recent studies suggest that prevalence of CT-defined sarcopenia is high among chronically ill patients, ranging from 15%-50% in patients with cancer, 30%-45% with liver failure, and 60%-70% for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Depleted muscle mass is associated with infectious complications, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, longer hospitalization, greater need for rehabilitation care after hospital discharge, and higher mortality. In consideration of the growing population of older adults with multiple comorbidities, more research is needed to identify sarcopenia and develop interventions that are directed at attenuating or reversal muscle loss.

  12. Predicting lung cancer deaths from smoking prevalence data.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Volker; Ng, Nawi; Tesfaye, Fikru; Becher, Heiko

    2011-11-01

    Reliable data on lung cancer burden is not available from most developing countries as cancer registration is lacking. In a previously proposed model to estimate lung cancer deaths in those countries using smoking prevalence data, we estimated the current yearly number of lung cancer deaths in Ethiopia as 3356, a figure far above the WHO estimate of 1343 and the GLOBOCAN of 748. Our aim was to further develop and validate our estimation procedure. We included additional data on risk estimates for lung cancer mortality of ex-smokers and an approximation of duration of smoking into our model and reanalysed study results on non-smoker mortality, thus building two improved models. For validation the number of lung cancer deaths in Germany (2006), the UK (2006), Canada (2004), and Utah, USA (2000) were estimated based on all three models and compared to the observed number of deaths in these countries. We found that the refined model with a modified estimate of lung cancer mortality rates in non-smokers and a more detailed incorporation of smoking dose categories estimates rather well the observed lung cancer deaths in the above countries. With this model, the updated estimate of yearly lung cancer deaths in Ethiopia is 2946 deaths, close to the previous reported estimate. If Ethiopian lung cancer mortality rates in never-smokers and smoking relative risks are the same as in industrialised countries, our models suggests that WHO lung cancer deaths may be underestimated in Ethiopia.

  13. Prevalence of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Occlusal Traits in Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Darnahal, Alireza; Damani, Elnaz; Talaeipour, Maziar; Kamali, Zinat

    2014-01-01

    Background. Widespread use of the IOTN along with detailed study of occlusal traits is suitable for planning community dental health resources. Objectives. The aim of current study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment among school children of Tehran by means of the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and also to evaluate the occlusal traits of the subjects. Methods. 684 (343 boys and 341 girls) school children, 15 to 17 years of age, were selected at random from 12 schools to represent the four main areas of Tehran. The final sample who met the inclusion criteria comprised 643 subjects (322 males and 321 females). Malocclusion was determined with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The IOTN grades were statistically compared in the two genders using chi-square test. Results. Orthodontic treatment need, using the DHC, was found in only 9.0 per cent of the children. The prevalence of Angle Class I malocclusion in this study was higher than other malocclusions (65.2 per cent), followed by crowding in 62.7 per cent of the subjects. Conclusion. Orthodontic treatment need for Tehran high school students was relatively lower than that reported in most recent studies in Europe.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of functional dependence among maintenance dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Niall T; Schiller, Brigitte; Saxena, Anjali B; Thomas, I-Chun; Kurella Tamura, Manjula

    2015-10-01

    Functional dependence is an important determinant of longevity and quality of life. The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of functional dependence among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance dialysis. We enrolled 148 participants with ESRD from five clinics. Functional status, as measured by basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL), was ascertained by validated questionnaires. Functional dependence was defined as needing assistance in at least one of seven IADLs or at least one of four ADLs. Demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, anthropometric measurements, and laboratories were assessed by a combination of self-report and chart review. Cognitive function was assessed with a neurocognitive battery, and depressive symptoms were assessed by questionnaire. Mean age of the sample was 56.2 ± 14.6 years. Eighty-seven participants (58.8%) demonstrated dependence in ADLs or IADLs, 70 (47.2%) exhibited IADL dependence alone, and 17 (11.5%) exhibited combined IADL and ADL dependence. In a multivariable-adjusted model, stroke, cognitive impairment, and higher systolic blood pressure were independent correlates of functional dependence. We found no significant association between demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, depressive symptoms or laboratory measurements, and functional dependence. Impairment in executive function was more strongly associated with functional dependence than memory impairment. Functional dependence is common among ESRD patients and independently associated with stroke, systolic blood pressure, and executive function impairment.

  15. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  16. Prevalence and architecture of de novo mutations in developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    2017-02-23

    The genomes of individuals with severe, undiagnosed developmental disorders are enriched in damaging de novo mutations (DNMs) in developmentally important genes. Here we have sequenced the exomes of 4,293 families containing individuals with developmental disorders, and meta-analysed these data with data from another 3,287 individuals with similar disorders. We show that the most important factors influencing the diagnostic yield of DNMs are the sex of the affected individual, the relatedness of their parents, whether close relatives are affected and the parental ages. We identified 94 genes enriched in damaging DNMs, including 14 that previously lacked compelling evidence of involvement in developmental disorders. We have also characterized the phenotypic diversity among these disorders. We estimate that 42% of our cohort carry pathogenic DNMs in coding sequences; approximately half of these DNMs disrupt gene function and the remainder result in altered protein function. We estimate that developmental disorders caused by DNMs have an average prevalence of 1 in 213 to 1 in 448 births, depending on parental age. Given current global demographics, this equates to almost 400,000 children born per year.

  17. Distribution and prevalence of knemidokoptic mange in Hawai`i `Amakihi on the island of Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Apelgren, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    Knemidokoptic mange was first observed on two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) mist netted in Manuka Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the Island of Hawai‘i in June 2007. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings from lesions of the infested individuals revealed the scaley-leg mite, Knemidokoptes jamaicensis. Continued surveillance at Manuka NAR (2007-2009) documented a 24% (15/63) prevalence of mange among Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi distributed from coastal habitat to 1,500 m above sea level (asl). From 2012-2014, we conducted an island-wide survey of wild passerine birds from several leeward sites (Manuka NAR, Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary, and Kipahoehoe NAR) and windward sites (Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, ‘Ᾱinahou Ranch of HAVO, Malama Ki Forest Reserve, and Keauohana Forest Reserve) to determine the current distribution and host range of knemidokoptic mange. We also determined the prevalence of malaria in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi populations where mange was present and treated a subset of infested Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi mange with a single, topical dose of moxidectin. We mist netted and examined a total of 1,734 passerines, including 738 Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi. Mange was present in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi at Manuka NAR (595 and 305 m asl), Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Glover site: 1,201 m asl and Kipuka Akala site: 1,532 m asl), Malama Ki Forest Reserve and Keauohana Forest Reserve (293 m asl). No other passerine birds (n = 995) were infected. Mange prevalence ranged from a high of 69% (40/58) in Keauohana Forest Reserve to a low of 2% (1/65) in the Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Kipuka Akala). At Manuka NAR prevalence had decreased from 26% in 2010 to 10% (7/81) in 2012–2014. We found no significant relationship between the prevalence of mange and the prevalence of avian malaria in mesic habitats at Manuka NAR (P = 0.59 (FET, n = 81)), but there was a significant association between the

  18. Prevalence of doping use in elite sports: a review of numbers and methods.

    PubMed

    de Hon, Olivier; Kuipers, Harm; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of doping in elite sports is relevant for all those involved in sports, particularly for evaluating anti-doping policy measures. Remarkably, few scientific articles have addressed this subject so far, and the last review dates back to 1997. As a consequence, the true prevalence of doping in elite sports is unknown. Even though it is virtually impossible to uncover the exact prevalence of a prohibited activity such as doping, various methods are available to uncover parts of this particular problem, which enables the circumvention (to a certain degree) of the issues of truthfulness, definition problems and the limits of pharmacological evidence. This review outlines the various methods that exist and presents the scarce data available in this area. It is concluded that a combination of questionnaires using the Randomised Response Technique and models of biological parameters is able to provide the statistical possibilities to reveal accurate estimates of this often undisclosed practice. Data gathered in this way yield an estimation of 14-39% of current adult elite athletes who intentionally used doping. These period prevalences have been found in specific sub-groups of elite athletes, and the available data suggest that the prevalence of doping is considerably different between sub-groups with varying types of sport, levels and nationalities. The above-mentioned figure of 14-39% is likely to be a more accurate reflection of the prevalence of intentional doping in elite sports than that provided by doping control test results (estimate of doping: 1-2% annually) or questionnaire-based research (estimations between 1 and 70% depending on sport, level and exact definitions of intent and doping). In the future, analytical science may play a more important role in this topic if it may become feasible to detect very low concentrations of prohibited substances in sewage systems downstream of major sporting events. However, it is clear that current doping

  19. Sepsis Prevalence and Outcome on the General Wards and Emergency Departments in Wales: Results of a Multi-Centre, Observational, Point Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Gemma; Morgan, Paul; Kopczynska, Maja; Dhadda, Amrit; Mann, Charlotte; Donoghue, Danielle; Rollason, Sarah; Brownlow, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Carr, Grace; Turley, Hannah; Hassall, James; Lloyd, James; Davies, Llywela; Atkinson, Michael; Jones, Molly; Jones, Nerys; Martin, Rhodri; Ibrahim, Yousef; Hall, Judith E.

    2016-01-01

    Data on sepsis prevalence on the general wards is lacking on the UK and in the developed world. We conducted a multicentre, prospective, observational study of the prevalence of patients with sepsis or severe sepsis on the general wards and Emergency Departments (ED) in Wales. During the 24-hour study period all patients with NEWS≥3 were screened for presence of 2 or more SIRS criteria. To be eligible for inclusion, patients had to have a high clinical suspicion of an infection, together with a systemic inflammatory response (sepsis) and evidence of acute organ dysfunction and/or shock (severe sepsis). There were 5317 in-patients in the 24-hour study period. Data were returned on 1198 digital data collection forms on patients with NEWS≥3 of which 87 were removed, leaving 1111 for analysis. 146 patients had sepsis and 144 patients had severe sepsis. Combined prevalence of sepsis and severe sepsis was 5.5% amongst all in-patients. Patients with sepsis had significantly higher NEWS scores (3 IQR 3–4 for non-sepsis and 4 IQR 3–6 for sepsis patients, respectively). Common organ dysfunctions in severe sepsis were hypoxia (47%), hypoperfusion (40%) and acute kidney injury (25%). Mortality at 90 days was 31% with a median (IQR) hospital free stay of 78 (36–85) days. Screening for sepsis, referral to Critical Care and completion of Sepsis 6 bundle was low: 26%, 16% and 12% in the sepsis group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified higher National Early Warning Score, diabetes, COPD, heart failure, malignancy and current or previous smoking habits as independent variables suggesting the diagnosis of sepsis. We observed that sepsis is more prevalent in the general ward and ED than previously suggested before and that screening and effective treatment for sepsis and severe sepsis is far from being operationalized in this environment, leading to high 90 days mortality. PMID:27907062

  20. Prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in a rural population.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, A M; Semchuk, K M; McDuffie, H H; Ledingham, D L; Cordeiro, D M; Cessna, A J; Irvine, D G; Senthilselvan, A; Dosman, J A

    1999-06-25

    Exposure to environmentally and occupationally encountered toxicants can be associated with the development of certain autoimmune diseases and with the induction of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Some chemicals used in the agricultural industry are known to affect immune function but their roles in the induction of autoimmunity in general, and ANA in particular, have not been reported previously. This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of ANA in a rural population and to determine environmental and occupational exposures with which they are associated. This cross-sectional study represented one component of an interdisciplinary project (Prairie Ecosystem Study [PECOS], Eco-Research Program, Tri-Council Secretariat of Canada) designed to explore, in a rural population, the roles of environmental exposures as determinants of human health status. Information regarding lifetime, current, and main occupational exposures in the rural-dwelling study population was derived from a self-administered questionnaire. Sera from consenting subjects, collected during the months of February and March 1996, were assayed for ANA by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells. The study population comprised 322 adult subjects (mean age 49.3+/-14.7 yr; range 16-87 yr). Statistical analyses adjusted for age and sex revealed that the presence of ANA among the participants was associated with a current agricultural occupation that included oilseed production, hog production, or poultry production. There was a significant association between ANA positivity and a current main farming operation of crop production. There was also an association among individual participants between lifetime exposure to the insecticide class of pesticides and the presence of ANA. In this rural study population, ANA positivity was significantly associated with lifetime exposure specifically to carbamate, organochlorine (including aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, and lindane, but