Sample records for parotitis

  1. Parotitis due to anaerobic bacteria.


    Matlow, A; Korentager, R; Keystone, E; Bohnen, J


    Although Staphylococcus aureus remains the pathogen most commonly implicated in acute suppurative parotitis, the pathogenic role of gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria and strict anaerobic organisms in this disease is becoming increasingly recognized. This report describes a case of parotitis due to Bacteroides disiens in an elderly woman with Sjögren's syndrome. Literature reports on seven additional cases of suppurative parotitis due to anaerobic bacteria are reviewed. Initial therapy of acute suppurative parotitis should include coverage for S. aureus and, in a very ill patient, coverage of gram-negative facultative organisms with antibiotics such as cloxacillin and an aminoglycoside. A failure to respond clinically to such a regimen or isolation of anaerobic bacteria should lead to the consideration of the addition of clindamycin or penicillin. PMID:3287567

  2. [A treatment method for chronic parenchymatous parotitis].


    Ivasenko, P I; Lobastov, A Iu; Potashov, D A; Distergova, O V; Shadevskiĭ, V M; Krivinskiĭ, A K


    A method for therapy of chronic parenchymatous parotitis is suggested supplementing dimethyl sulfoxide. As reported, the parotid glands produce parotin, an insulin-like substance, whose production is reduced in chronic parotitis; hence, short-acting insulin administered in microdoses was chosen for therapy. To potentiate local insulin effect and increase the sensitivity of oral mucosa peripheral receptors to it a 5% calcium pantothenate solution was used. This method was used in the treatment of 42 patients with chronic parenchymatous parotitis aged 23 to 62. The method is effective, it can be easily used by the patients themselves, and there are virtually no contraindications against such therapy. The authors have applied for inventors' certificate, the priority certificate is No. 4836436/14 as of June 27, 1990. PMID:8236296

  3. Acute parotitis and hyperamylasemia following whole-brain radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cairncross, J.G.; Salmon, J.; Kim, J.H.; Posner, J.B.


    Parotitis, an infrequent, previously unreported complication of whole-brain radiation therapy, was observed in 4 patients. The acute symptoms, which include fever, dry mouth, pain, swelling, and tenderness, are accompanied by hyperamylasemia. Among 10 patients receiving whole-brain irradiation, 8 had serum amylase elevations without symptoms. Both acute parotitis and asymptomatic hyperamylasemia result from irradiation of the parotid glands.

  4. Acute parotitis during induction therapy including L-asparaginase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.


    Sica, S; Pagano, L; Salutari, P; Di Mario, A; Rutella, S; Leone, G


    In a patient affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and subjected to therapy with Erwinia L-asparaginase, acute parotitis was observed. Microbiological studies excluded any infectious etiology. Regression of parotitis was spontaneous. This complication has not been previously reported and could be due to the same mechanism of pancreatic injury. The occurrence of acute parotitis needs to be promptly recognized in order to avoid the continuation of L-asparaginase. PMID:8148421

  5. A selective IgA deficiency in a boy who presented recurrent parotitis

    PubMed Central

    Patıroglu, T.; Duman, L.


    Recurrent parotitis is a non-obstructive, non-suppurative inflammatory disease which is characterized by unilateral or bilateral parotid gland swelling attacks. It is also known as juvenile recurrent parotitis. Although the etiology is unknown, congenital malformations of the ductus, genetic predisposition, infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and some immune deficiencies are blamed. Here, we present a case report of recurrent parotitis with selective immunoglobulin A deficiency in a six-year-old boy. The patient was presented to us with a new episode of swelling of left parotid region. In the last 2 years, the patient suffered from recurrent parotitis which lasted for approximately 5 days in ten individual episodes. PMID:24883201

  6. Acute Parotitis as a Complication of Noninvasive Ventilation.


    Alaya, S; Mofredj, Ali; Tassaioust, K; Bahloul, H; Mrabet, A


    Several conditions, including oropharyngeal dryness, pressure sores, ocular irritation, epistaxis, or gastric distension, have been described during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Although this technique has been widely used in intensive care units and emergency wards, acute swelling of the parotid gland remains a scarcely reported complication. We describe herein the case of an 82-year-old man who developed unilateral parotitis during prolonged NIV for acute heart failure. Intravenous antibiotics, corticosteroids, and adjusting the mask laces' position allowed rapid resolution of clinical symptoms. PMID:26928643

  7. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian


    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  8. Function of the parotid gland in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a case series.


    Xie, Li-song; Pu, Yi-ping; Zheng, Ling-yan; Yu, Chuang-qi; Wang, Zhi-jun; Shi, Huan


    Our aim was to find out how the parotid gland functions in 44 patients with juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to assess the value of measuring the serum amylase activity. Clinical and personal details were recorded, and all patients had their serum amylase activity measured together with sialography during the chronic phase. The function of the gland was classified by sialographic images. The chi square test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analyses. There was a significant association between the degree of glandular function and serum amylase activity (p=0.014). The patients with unilateral and bilateral disease differed significantly in their degree of glandular function (p=0.020), those with bilateral disease having poorer function. There were no significant correlations between other clinical variables and glandular function. Serum amylase activity is an important diagnostic variable in juvenile recurrent parotitis, and poor parotid function reflects the severity of the disease. PMID:26852271

  9. Fistulectomy of the Parotid Fistula Secondary to Suppurative Parotitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Managutti, Anil; Tiwari, Saba; Prakasam, Michael; Puthanakar, Nagaraj


    A parotid fistula is a communication between the skin and a parotid duct or gland through which saliva is discharged. The most common cause of the parotid fistula is trauma. The major causes of parotid trauma in a civilian practice are penetrating injury to the parotid gland from an assault weapon or injury due to shattered glass after a motor vehicle accident. Acute suppurative parotitis can rarely produce a parotid fistula, and it will be difficult to manage successfully. In this article we have described diagnosis by fistulography, meticulous dissection, and complete excision of the fistulous tract with layered closure of the parotid fascia followed by application of a post-operative pressure bandage, use of anticholinergic agents and antibiotics contribute significantly to the successful management of this difficult clinical condition. PMID:25709371

  10. Concurrence of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Bilateral Parotitis after Minocycline Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jimi; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Tae-Heung; Choi, Deok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Pyeong; Yoon, Tae-Jin


    Minocycline is an antibiotic of tetracycline derivatives that is commonly used in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. It has been reported to cause rare adverse events from mild cutaneous eruption to severe forms including drug-induced lupus, serum sickness-like reaction, and hypersensitivity reactions, etc. The risks of adverse events attributed to minocycline have not been ascertained reliably and there are concerns about the safety of minocycline which could possibly result in life-threatening events such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Here we demonstrate an unusual case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in conjunction with bilateral parotitis after the intake of minocycline in a Korean boy suggesting discreet use of the drug. PMID:21103193

  11. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.


    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R


    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. PMID:26912292

  12. Adele Parot: Beacon of the Dioclesian Lewis School of Gymnastic Expression in the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Robert Knight

    In the late 1800's, Dioclesian Lewis developed and introduced into the schools his new concept of physical education. Dr. Lewis thought in terms of preventing illness and maintaining bodily strength and health through physical fitness. His "new gymnastics" were based on programs of exercise movements. Employing light equipment suitable for use by…

  13. Pneumoparotitis with subcutaneous emphysema.


    Balasubramanian, S; Srinivas, S; Aparna, K R


    We report an adolescent with recurrent bilateral parotitis with pneumoparotitis and subcutaneous emphysema due to self pneumoinsufflation by a Valsalva like maneuver. Investigations for recurrent parotitis did not yield any clue. His la belle indifference, prolonged school absence and the presence of sibling rivalry helped us identify the psychological cause. PMID:18250510

  14. Pediatric sialadenitis.


    Francis, Carrie L; Larsen, Christopher G


    Sialadenitis in the pediatric population accounts for up to 10% of all salivary gland disease. Viral parotitis and juvenile recurrent parotitis are the two most common causes. Multiple factors, independently or in combination, can result in acute, chronic, or recurrent acute salivary gland inflammation. Sialendoscopy has emerged as the leading diagnostic technique and intervention for pediatric sialadenitis. Sialendoscopy is a safe and effective gland-preserving treatment of pediatric sialadenitis. Investigational studies are needed to address the impact of steroid instillation, postoperative stenting, and long-term outcomes of pediatric sialendoscopy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric sialadenitis. PMID:25128215

  15. [A premature neonate with a right pre-auricular swelling].


    Schene, Kiry M; Schiering, Irene A M; Mallant, Maarten P J H


    We present a 14-day-old premature born girl with a temperature of 37.8°C and a swelling and redness of the right parotid gland. Laboratory tests revealed a CRP of 79 mg/l and ultrasound examination confirmed a parotitis. Treatment with augmentin i.v. resolved the condition. PMID:26043253

  16. [Deep neck infections].


    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold


    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

  17. Analysis of Serum Th1/Th2 Cytokine Levels in Patients with Acute Mumps Infection

    PubMed Central

    Malaiyan, Jeevan; Ramanan, Padmasani Venkat; Subramaniam, Dinesh; Menon, Thangam


    Background: The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent of parotitis. There has been no study on serum cytokine levels of acute mumps parotitis except for a few which document cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of mumps meningitis. It is with this notion, our study aimed to find Th1/Th2 cytokine levels from patients with acute mumps parotitis. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of mumps-specific IgM, mumps, measles, rubella-specific IgG antibody, and Th1/Th2 cytokines, namely interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and IL-10 were measured simultaneously in serum from 74 patients (42 pediatric and 32 adult cases), 40 healthy subjects (20 pediatric and 20 adults) and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mumps virus genotype C which served as the positive control. Statistical significance was analyzed between each group by means of Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test. Results: IgM positivity confirmed acute infection in all 74 patients and of these 67 were vaccinated cases; however, very few of them (10/67) were positive for mumps IgG. We found that IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 showed a statistically significant increase in both pediatric and adult patients with acute mumps infection when compared to healthy controls and values were comparable to the positive control. Conclusion: The Th1 cells play important roles during the acute phase of mumps parotitis. PMID:27293364

  18. Beyond the diffraction limit of optical/IR interferometers. II. Stellar parameters of rotating stars from differential phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjara, M.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Vakili, F.; Jankov, S.; Millour, F.; Meilland, A.; Khorrami, Z.; Chelli, A.; Baffa, C.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Lagarde, S.; Robbe-Dubois, S.


    Context. As previously demonstrated on Achernar, one can derive the angular radius, rotational velocity, axis tilt, and orientation of a fast-rotating star from the differential phases obtained by spectrally resolved long baseline interferometry using earth-rotation synthesis. Aims: We applied this method on a small sample of stars for different spectral types and classes, in order to generalize the technique to other rotating stars across the H-R diagram and determine their fundamental parameters. Methods: We used differential phase data from the AMBER/VLTI instrument obtained prior to refurbishing its spectrometer in 2010. With the exception of Fomalhaut, which has been observed in the medium-resolution mode of AMBER (λ/δλ ≈ 1500), our three other targets, Achernar, Altair, and δ Aquilae offered high-resolution (λ/δλ ≈ 12 000) spectro-interferometric data around the Brγ absorption line in K band. These data were used to constrain the input parameters of an analytical, still realistic model to interpret the observations with a systematic approach for the error budget analysis in order to robustly conclude on the physics of our 4 targets. We applied the super resolution provided by differential phases φdiff to measure the size (equatorial radius Req and angular diameter ⌀eq), the equatorial rotation velocity (Veq), the inclination angle (i), and the rotation axis position angle (PArot) of 4 fast-rotating stars: Achernar, Altair, δ Aquilae, and Fomalhaut. The stellar parameters of the targets were constrained using a semi-analytical algorithm dedicated to fast rotators SCIROCCO. Results: The derived parameters for each star were Req = 11.2 ± 0.5 R⊙, Veqsini = 290 ± 17 km s-1, PArot = 35.4° ± 1.4°, for Achernar; Req = 2.0 ± 0.2 R⊙, Veqsini = 226 ± 34 km s-1, PArot = -65.5° ± 5.5°, for Altair; Req = 2.2 ± 0.3 R⊙, Veqsini = 74 ± 35 km s-1, PArot = -101.2° ± 14°, for δ Aquilae; and Req = 1.8 ± 0.2 R⊙, Veqsini = 93 ± 16 km s-1

  19. Detection of mumps virus genotype H in two previously vaccinated patients from Mexico City.


    Del Valle, Alberto; García, Alí A; Barrón, Blanca L


    Infections caused by mumps virus (MuV) have been successfully prevented through vaccination; however, in recent years, an increasing number of mumps outbreaks have been reported within vaccinated populations. In this study, MuV was genotyped for the first time in Mexico. Saliva samples were obtained from two previously vaccinated patients in Mexico City who had developed parotitis. Viral isolation was carried out in Vero cells, and the SH and HN genes were amplified by RT-PCR. Amplicons were sequenced and compared to a set of reference sequences to identify the MuV genotype. PMID:26935913

  20. Mumps Presenting as a Parotid Abscess.


    Kim, Jong Seung; Oh, Jong Seok; Kwon, Sam Hyun; Kim, Min Su; Yoon, Yong Joo


    Parotid abscess is an uncommon condition in infants. It is frequently associated with prematurity, prolonged gavage feeding, and dehydration. Mumps is a viral disease caused by paramyxovirus. It frequently involves the parotid gland and is only rarely found in the pancreas, testis, or brain. The authors describe a rare case of a 10-month-old infant with mumps who developed the classical manifestations of unilateral acute parotitis progressing to formation of a parotid abscess that responded to 2 rounds of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. PMID:27159869

  1. A rare case of Kussmaul Disease (Sialodochitis Fibrinosa)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Amrita; Burgin, Sarah J.; Spector, Matthew E.


    Sialodochitis fibrinosa (or commonly known as Kussmaul Disease) is a rare salivary gland disease characterized by recurrent salivary gland swelling and pain as a result of mucofibrinous plugs. Typically patients have a history of multiply recurrent glandular swelling, dehydration and/or decreased salivary flow, thick secretions from Stensen’s or Wharton’s duct, and/or history of allergic diseases. Retention of mucofibrinous plugs may lead to acute suppurative parotitis and chronic sialadenitis ultimately. The diagnosis is one of exclusion, and treatment is based on symptomatology and largely supportive. PMID:26246913

  2. Native bivalvular endocarditis by Gemella haemolysans requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


    Ando, Akika; Kagihara, Jaclyn; Chung, Heath; Bolger, Dennis Thomas


    A 24-year-old otherwise healthy man presented with a 3-week history of malaise, headache, fever and rigors after he was treated with oral clindamycin for left parotitis and Gemella haemolysans bacteraemia. He developed G. haemolysans infective endocarditis, septic emboli and heart failure due to progressive bivalvular disease. He underwent urgent mechanical aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair, which required venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, to support severe respiratory failure. This is the first documented case of G. haemolysans infective endocarditis affecting native aortic and mitral valves in a healthy adult. PMID:27539135

  3. [Acute pancreatitis associated with MMR vaccination].


    Hansen, Lars Folmer; Nordling, Mette Maria; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl


    A 12-year-old girl got abdominal pain three weeks after having received the second vaccination against MMR. MRCP showed dilatation of ductus choledochus and edema of caput pancreaticus. No stone was to be seen and the P-calcium level was normal. Hepatitis A virus, Ebstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, serum col hemaggutinins, Yersinia and cystic fibrosis were all negative. Pancreatitis is seen with endemic parotitis and we suggest that MMR vaccination may have a causal connection with the above case. PMID:12830760

  4. Spontaneous cutaneous extrusion of a parotid gland sialolith.


    Brown, Kelly; Cheah, Tricia; Ha, Jennifer F


    Parotid gland sialolithiasis is an uncommon condition that can cause pain and recurrent infection in affected patients. Migration of a stone through a fistula is a rare but possible complication of untreated sialolithiasis. We present a case of parotid gland sialolithiasis in a 63-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of parotitis and facial pain, which resolved through spontaneous extrusion of the stone (11 mm) through a cutaneous fistula while awaiting surgery. Management is typically conservative or surgical, depending on the location and size of the stone, and the clinical presentation. PMID:27143163

  5. Captopril-induced sialadenitis in a patient with end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahdiabadi, Fatemeh Musavi; Nikvarz, Naemeh


    Sialadenitis is a rare adverse effect of captopril. We report a case of captopril-induced sialadenitis in a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A 20-year-old man with ESRD encountered parotid and submandibular swelling after receiving two doses of captopril, administered sublingually. Despite of prescribing dexamethasone, resuming hemodialysis, and discontinuing other drugs that also can cause parotitis, he improved later than what was reported in patients with normal renal function. In conclusion recovery from captopril-induced sialadenitis in patients with ESRD may be more prolonged than that of patients with normal renal function; moreover, early hemodialysis which helps in drug removal may be the most effective treatment. PMID:27162811

  6. PubMed Central



    SUMMARY Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is the second most frequent salivary gland disease in childhood, defined as a recurrent non-suppurative and non-obstructive parotid inflammation. The recurring attacks actually represent the most dramatic and serious aspect of this pathology, since they significantly influence the quality of life, and there are no recognized therapies to avoid them. In recent years, there are reports of many international experiences related to the management of JRP by sialendoscopy. In this context, several authors have stressed the striking role of sialendoscopy in the prevention of JRP attacks. The objective of the current review is to overview the existing literature with particular regards to diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes after the application of sialendoscopy in patients suffering from JRP. PMID:24376291

  7. [Stomatological manifestations in Sjögren's disease and syndrome].


    Simonova, M V; Gritsman, N N; Venikova, M S; Mylov, N M


    For diagnosis of SS and SD and the detection of early stages of disease one should necessarily take into account the symptom complex of "major" (salivary gland enlargement, xerostomia, exacerbation of parotitis) and "minor" stomatological signs (multiple cervical caries, dry lips, perlèche, mycotic and herpetic stomatitis, lymphadenopathy). The initial, marked and late stages were defined according to a degree of expression of stomatological manifestations. The initial stage prevailed in SS, the late stage in SD. The chief method of examination were sialometry, sialography and minor salivary gland biopsy. Sialography was widely used as a less traumatic diagnostic procedure. In addition to common signs with SD, salivary gland involvement was characterized by changes typical of SS combined with rheumatic disease (sclerosis in sclerodermia, vasculitis in RA and SLE, nuclear pathology in SLE). PMID:3394093

  8. [Two patients with mumps].


    van Brummelen, S E; de Vries, E; Schneeberger, P M; van Binnendijk, R S; Lestrade, P; Wever, P C


    Two patients, men aged 17 and 19 years respectively, were admitted with parotitis epidemica and orchitis caused by mumps. The second patient also had meningitis. PCR analysis revealed that, in both cases, the causative agentwas a mumps virus that was genetically related to a wild-type virus responsible for an outbreak in Singapore. This viral strain was also responsible for a mumps outbreak at Hotel School The Hague in September 2004. Both patients were not fully vaccinated. Both patients were from regions in which clustering of patients with clinical signs of mumps has been seen. Interestingly, a number of patients with confirmed mumps had been fully vaccinated. Possible explanations for the increase in mumps cases include low vaccination and immunity levels, primary and secondary vaccine failure and the emergence of genetically disparate mumps viruses. PMID:16924947

  9. Primary Sjögren syndrome in a 2-year-old patient: role of the dentist in diagnosis and dental management with a 6-year follow-up.


    De Oliveira, Marcio Augusto; De Rezende, Nathalie Pepe Medeiros; Maia, Célia Márcia Fernandes; Gallottini, Marina


    BACKGROUND. Primary Sjögren syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease, especially in children, mainly affecting girls (77%), and usually diagnosed around 10 years of age. Diagnosis during childhood is difficult, especially because of the diversity of the clinical presentation and difficulty obtaining reliable history data, accounting for a higher frequency of underdiagnosed cases. Differential conditions should be considered, especially the ones that promote xerostomia, such as diabetes, ectodermal dysplasia, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, lymphoma, HIV and HTLV infection. Conditions associated with parotid enlargement should also be excluded, including juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP), sialadenosis, sarcoidosis, lymphoma, infectious parotitis caused by streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, viral infections (paramyxovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus), and diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (associated with HIV infection), and rare congenital conditions, such as polycystic parotid disease. CASE REPORT. A paediatric female patient was referred to our clinic for dental treatment complaining about dry mouth, oral discomfort, and dysphagia. The patient presented five of the required criteria to establish the diagnosis of pSS, including ocular symptoms, oral symptoms, evidence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca, focal sialadenitis confirmed by minor salivary gland biopsy, and evidence of major salivary gland involvement. Our patient did not have positive SS-A and SS-B autoantibodies. According to the literature, about 29% of individuals with pSS can present seronegativity for SS-A (anti-Ro) antibodies and about 33% can present seronegativity for SS-B (anti-La) antibodies. CONCLUSION. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported in the scientific English literature with pSS. Primary Sjögren syndrome has a wide clinical and immunologic spectrum and may progress with

  10. Viral etiology of mumps-like illnesses in suspected mumps cases reported in Catalonia, Spain.


    Barrabeig, Irene; Costa, Josep; Rovira, Ariadna; Marcos, M Angeles; Isanta, Ricard; López-Adalid, Rubén; Cervilla, Ana; Torner, Nuria; Domínguez, Angela


    We investigated the etiology of reported sporadic suspected mumps cases with a negative RT-PCR result for the mumps virus in the Barcelona-South region in 2007-2011. Samples from mumps virus-negative patients presenting unilateral or bilateral parotitis or other salivary gland swelling were tested for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by real-time PCR and for respiratory viruses by two multiplex-PCR-based assays to detect parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1-4, influenza virus (InV) A, B and C, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), enterovirus, coronavirus 229E, coronavirus OC43, and rhinovirus. 101 samples were analyzed in persons aged 8 months to 50 years. Oral samples were collected on the first day of glandular swelling in 53 patients (52.5%), and on the first two days in 74 patients (73.3%). Viruses were detected in 52 (51.5%) of samples: one virus (25 EBV, 8 PIV3, 4 adenovirus, 4 PIV2, 1 PIV1, 1 InVA, and 1 enterovirus) was detected in 44 patients (84.6%), two viruses in 7 patients, and three viruses in one patient. In 58 patients (57.5%) whose sample was collected in the first 2 days after onset of parotitis and had received two doses of MMR vaccine and in 15 patients (14.8%) whose sample was collected on the first day, it is very likely that the cause was not the mumps virus. This would mean that 72.3% (73/101) of the reported sporadic suspected mumps cases were not mumps cases. The timing of oral-sample collection is crucial to correctly interpret the negative results for mumps virus RNA, especially when suspected cases occur in vaccinated persons. PMID:25483547

  11. Beyond the diffraction limit of optical/IR interferometers. I. Angular diameter and rotation parameters of Achernar from differential phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domiciano de Souza, A.; Hadjara, M.; Vakili, F.; Bendjoya, P.; Millour, F.; Abe, L.; Carciofi, A. C.; Faes, D. M.; Kervella, P.; Lagarde, S.; Marconi, A.; Monin, J.-L.; Niccolini, G.; Petrov, R. G.; Weigelt, G.


    Context. Spectrally resolved long-baseline optical/IR interferometry of rotating stars opens perspectives to investigate their fundamental parameters and the physical mechanisms that govern their interior, photosphere, and circumstellar envelope structures. Aims: Based on the signatures of stellar rotation on observed interferometric wavelength-differential phases, we aim to measure angular diameters, rotation velocities, and orientation of stellar rotation axes. Methods: We used the AMBER focal instrument at ESO-VLTI in its high-spectral resolution mode to record interferometric data on the fast rotator Achernar. Differential phases centered on the hydrogen Br γ line (K band) were obtained during four almost consecutive nights with a continuous Earth-rotation synthesis during ~5 h/night, corresponding to ~60° position angle coverage per baseline. These observations were interpreted with our numerical code dedicated to long-baseline interferometry of rotating stars. Results: By fitting our model to Achernar's differential phases from AMBER, we could measure its equatorial radius Req = 11.6 ± 0.3 R⊙, equatorial rotation velocity Veq = 298 ± 9 km s-1, rotation axis inclination angle i = 101.5 ± 5.2°, and rotation axis position angle (from North to East) PArot = 34.9 ± 1.6°. From these parameters and the stellar distance, the equatorial angular diameter ⌀eq of Achernar is found to be 2.45 ± 0.09 mas, which is compatible with previous values derived from the commonly used visibility amplitude. In particular, ⌀eq and PArot measured in this work with VLTI/AMBER are compatible with the values previously obtained with VLTI/VINCI. Conclusions: The present paper, based on real data, demonstrates the super-resolution potential of differential interferometry for measuring sizes, rotation velocities, and orientation of rotating stars in cases where visibility amplitudes are unavailable and/or when the star is partially or poorly resolved. In particular, we showed

  12. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.


    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  13. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Psillas, George; Krommydas, Argyrios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Kanitakis, Jean; Markou, Konstantinos


    Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal) cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted. PMID:26681945

  14. Parainfluenza Virus Infection.


    Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R


    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735

  15. Assessment of soft tissue hemangiomas in children utilizing Tc-99m labelled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.


    Hemangiomas may present in infancy as soft tissue masses. Occasionally these lesions may be extensive or may not be clinically recognized as a hemangioma, often causing concern for the presence of a malignant lesion. In later childhood these lesions, which may be occult, may cause overgrowth of an extremity. Evaluation of soft tissue masses suspected of being a hemangioma utilizing Technetium 99m labelled red blood cells has been very valuable. This method allows a dynamic evaluation of first pass blood flow. Subsequent static scintiphotos allow an assessment of the lesion itself. These scintiphotos may be obtained sequentially to evaluate therapy. Twenty patients were evaluated by this method ranging in age from two months to eleven years. There were 13 females and seven males. Lesions evaluated by this method include six hemangiomas of the head and neck: parotic region (2), facial (3), and tongue (1). Extremity lesions were evaluated in six children including both upper extremity (1) and lower extremity (5). Torso lesions evaluated include chest wall (2), abdominal wall (2), and one hemangioma of the gut. This procedure is quickly performed on an outpatient basis, has high anatomic resolution, provides and assessment of these lesions in a manner not available by any other imaging procedure and usually requires no sedation. The radiation exposure for this procedure is low (approximately, a 400mR total body dose) and has been well tolerated by both patients and their parents. Scintigraphic evaluation should be the first diagnostic method utilized in the evaluation of these lesions.

  16. Molecular biology, pathogenesis and pathology of mumps virus

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Steven; Eckhaus, Michael; Rennick, Linda J; Bamford, Connor GG; Duprex, W Paul


    Mumps is caused by the mumps virus (MuV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of enveloped, non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses. Mumps is characterized by painful inflammatory symptoms, such as parotitis and orchitis. The virus is highly neurotropic, with laboratory evidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection in approximately half of cases. Symptomatic CNS infection occurs less frequently; nonetheless, prior to the introduction of routine vaccination, MuV was a leading cause of aseptic meningitis and viral encephalitis in many developed countries. Despite being one of the oldest recognized diseases, with a worldwide distribution, surprisingly little attention has been given to its study. Cases of aseptic meningitis associated with some vaccine strains and a global resurgence of cases, including in highly vaccinated populations, has renewed interest in the virus, particularly in its pathogenesis and the need for development of clinically relevant models of disease. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge on the virus, its pathogenesis and its clinical and pathological outcomes. PMID:25229387

  17. [The protective role of postvaccinal immunity in mumps in children].


    Zheleznikova, G F; Ivanova, V V; Bekhtereva, M K; Gnilevskaia, Z U; Monakhova, N E; Novozhilova, E V; Goleva, O V; Sizemov, A N


    The immunological study of children with infectious parotitis (IP) without complications and with such complications as pancreatitis, meningitis or orchitis in the glandular form was carried out. In accordance with the previously proposed principle, 4 types of immune response (IR) were established on the basis of differences in initial resistance and the IR profile: cell-mediated immunity (types I and III) and humoral immunity (types II and IV). The patients included nonvaccinated children, as well as children vaccinated on epidemic indications, 3-6, 7-9, 10 and more years before infection. The comparative analysis of the number of IP cases with and without complications in the groups of children, divided according to their immunization history and the type of IR, revealed that postvaccinal immunity in children vaccinated on epidemic indications (less than a month ago) or 3-6 years before infection had protective potential, sufficient for the prevention of complicated forms of IP. Immunity obtained 7-9 years ago was effective for the protection from IP complications only in cell-mediated, but not humoral IR. Postvaccinal immunity obtained more than 10 years ago did not ensure the decrease in the occurrence of complicated forms of IP (in comparison with that in nonvaccinated patients) in children with any type of IR. PMID:10925873

  18. Mumps Virus: Modification of the Identify-Isolate-Inform Tool for Frontline Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Kristi L.; Shastry, Siri; Mzahim, Bandr; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J.


    Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the “Identify-Isolate-Inform” tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel. PMID:27625709

  19. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Pasquale; Gaetano, Raffaele; Caroleo, Mariarita; Cerminara, Gregorio; Maida, Francesca; Bruno, Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria; Moreno, Maria Jose Jaén; Russo, Emilio; Segura-García, Cristina


    Clozapine (CLZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate knowledge of the drug, clinical vigilance, and rapid intervention can drastically reduce the morbidity and mortality related to CLZ treatment. PMID:26273202

  20. Mumps Virus: Modification of the Identify-Isolate-Inform Tool for Frontline Healthcare Providers.


    Koenig, Kristi L; Shastry, Siri; Mzahim, Bandr; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J


    Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the "Identify-Isolate-Inform" tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel. PMID:27625709

  1. Long-term remission of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome following immunosuppressive therapy.


    Naniwa, Taio; Takeda, Yutaka


    The patient described here is a 21-year-old Japanese woman with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) presenting with worsening of dyspnea, palpitation, recurrent parotitis, and arthritis. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse interlobular septal thickening and ground-glass opacities. Right heart catheterization demonstrated pulmonary hypertension, right-sided heart failure, normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and no evidence of arterio-venous shunt. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed luminal obliteration of pulmonary venules by intimal cellular proliferations, without abnormalities in the small pulmonary arteries. These findings were consistent with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). Immunosuppressive therapy, starting with prednisolone 20 mg/day and subsequently combined with azathioprine, resulted in the disappearance of the signs and symptoms, including exertional dyspnea and abnormal pulmonary parenchymal shadows on computed tomography, and the normalization of pulmonary artery pressure. So far, there have been no reported cases of PVOD associated with pSS. Of interest, immunosuppressive therapy without vasodilator therapy almost completely resolved the pulmonary hypertension in this patient. PMID:21394665

  2. Acute pancreatitis in six non-transplanted uraemic children. A co-operative study from the French Society of Paediatric Nephrology.


    Boudailliez, B; André, J L; Broyer, M; Davin, J C; Landthaler, G; Palcoux, J B


    Ten clinical episodes of acute pancreatitis (AP) occurred in six patients (mean age 10 years, range 3-15 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) during a 9-year period (1977-1986). The underlying cause of CRF was vesicoureteral reflux (2); urethral valves (1); ureterohydronephrosis (1); nephronopthisis (1) and a haemolytic uraemic syndrome which occurred 12 years before (1). In all patients a diagnosis of AP was established both on clinical grounds and with a serum amylase level of greater than 600 IU/l. In 3 patients laparotomy was performed because of suspected appendicitis. All patients required exclusive parenteral feeding (mean duration 25 days) and 2 patients had a partial pancreatectomy. No patient developed pancreatic pseudocysts, 2 patients experienced one relapse (3 and 21 months later) and 1 patient had two relapses and died. Mean duration of follow up was 3 years (range 1-10 years). Possible aetiological factors were: choledochal cyst (1); parotitis without a rise in mumps antibodies (1); familial dyslipidaemia but without AP in other family members (1), and aluminium intoxication with hypercalcaemia and convulsive encephalopathy treated with valproic acid in 1 patient. Severe hyperparathyroidism with radiological signs was absent in all patients. Transplantation had been performed either before AP in 2 patients (1 and 3 years before AP) or had followed AP in 1 patient (7 years after) without occurrence or relapse of AP. PMID:2484654

  3. A reference substance free diagnostic fragment ion-based approach for rapid identification of non-target components in Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid by high resolution mass spectrometry.


    Dai, Chen; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jun; Guo, Bin; Yang, Tianshu; Cai, Bo


    Rapid and reliable identification of non-target components in herbal preparations remains a primary challenge, especially when corresponding reference substances are inaccessible. In this work, an efficient post-experiment data processing methodology, named reference substance free diagnostic fragment ion (RSFDFI), was developed based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap). The first step of this approach was to cluster the components that share common fragment ions into several groups. After querying the database using a predicted chemical formula, the component with the fewest primary hits was preferentially deduced based on its MS/MS spectrum. Once the structure was characterized, its common fragment ions could be used as the prior structural information to select the possible candidates that would facilitate the subsequent identification for each group. Taking Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid (PDL) as a model herbal preparation, which has been extensively used for the treatment of epidemic parotitis and children with hand-foot-mouth diseases, this strategy enables a nearly eight-fold narrowing of the database hits, with fifty-two components, including lignans, flavonoids, alkaloids and steroids, being rapidly identified. In conclusion, our work clearly demonstrates that integrating RSFDFI with high-resolution mass spectrometry is a powerful methodology for rapid identification of non-target components from herbal prescriptions and may open new avenues for chemical analysis in other complex mixtures. PMID:26938159

  4. Cranial anatomy of the Duchesnean primate Rooneyia viejaensis: new insights from high resolution computed tomography.


    Kirk, E Christopher; Daghighi, Parham; Macrini, Thomas E; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Rowe, Timothy B


    Rooneyia viejaensis is a North American Eocene primate of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Although the external cranial anatomy of Rooneyia is well studied, various authors have suggested that Rooneyia is a stem haplorhine, stem strepsirrhine, stem tarsiiform, or stem anthropoid. Here we describe the internal cranial anatomy of the Rooneyia holotype based on micro-computed tomography and discuss the phylogenetic implications of this anatomy. Precise measurements of the natural endocast filling the braincase of the Rooneyia holotype reveal that the genus had a relative brain size comparable to some living callitrichines and strepsirrhines. Rooneyia was thus probably more encephalized than any other known omomyiform, adapiform, or plesiadapiform. Relative olfactory bulb size in Rooneyia was most comparable to some living strepsirrhines and the stem anthropoid Parapithecus. The nasal fossa of Rooneyia resembled that of living strepsirrhines in retaining an obliquely oriented nasolacrimal canal, four ethmoturbinals, and an olfactory recess separated from the nasopharyngeal meatus by a transverse lamina. The ear region of Rooneyia is characterized by large and complete canals for both the stapedial and promontory branches of the internal carotid artery. Rooneyia also retains a patent parotic fissure and thus had an extrabullar origin of the stapedius muscle. In most of these respects, Rooneyia exhibits the condition that is presumed to be primitive for crown primates and lacks a number of key crown haplorhine synapomorphies (e.g., a dorso-ventrally oriented nasolacrimal canal, loss of the olfactory recess, loss of ethmoturbinals 3-4, loss or extreme reduction of the stapedial canal due to involution of the stapedial artery). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Rooneyia is an advanced stem primate or a basal crown primate but are inconsistent with prior suggestions that Rooneyia is a crown haplorhine. PMID:24856914

  5. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).


    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K


    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future. PMID:19802552

  6. Factors associated with mumps meningitis and the possible impact of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Rhie, Kyuyol; Park, Heung-Keun; Kim, Young-Soo; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang


    Purpose Mumps meningitis is a common complication of mumps infection; however, information on mumps meningitis in the postvaccine era is limited. The purpose of the present study was to determine factors associated with mumps meningitis and to discuss the effect of vaccination on this disease. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients younger than 19 years with mumps, diagnosed at a university hospital in Korea between 2003 and 2013. Patients were divided into groups with and without meningitis, and the clinical features of the 2 groups were compared. Results The study enrolled 119 patients: 19 patients with meningitis and 100 patients without. Univariate analysis showed that older age (median: 15 years vs. 9.5 years, respectively), a longer interval from last vaccination (median: 10.2 years vs. 4.8 years, respectively), and febrile presentation (94.7% vs. 31.0%, respectively) were significantly associated with mumps meningitis. Sex, number of vaccination doses, bilateral parotitis, and the presence of complications other than meningitis did not differ between the 2 groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.89; P=0.04) and fever (odds ratio, 30.46; 95% confidence interval, 3.27–283.61; P<0.01) remained independent factors for mumps meningitis. Conclusion Clinicians in the postvaccine era should be aware of the possibility of mumps meningitis in febrile cases of mumps in adolescents, regardless of the number of vaccination doses. To establish the role of vaccination in mumps meningitis, further studies will be necessary. PMID:26893600

  7. Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Capaccio, P; Torretta, S; Ottaviani, F; Sambataro, G; Pignataro, L


    Summary Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calculi and botulinum toxin therapy. Each of these techniques may be used as a single therapeutic modality or in combination with one or more of the above-mentioned options, usually in day case or one-day case under local or general anaesthesia. The multi-modal approach is completely successful in about 80% of patients and reduces the need for gland removal in 3%, thus justifying the combination of, albeit, time-consuming and relatively expensive techniques as part of the modern and functional management of salivary calculi. With regard to the management of salivary duct anomalies, such as strictures and kinkings, interventional radiology with fluoroscopically controlled balloon ductoplasty seems to be the most suitable technique despite the use of radiation. Operative sialoendoscopy alone is the best therapeutic option for all mobile intra-luminal causes of obstruction, such as microliths, mucous plugs or foreign bodies, or for the local treatment of inflammatory conditions such as recurrent chronic parotitis or autoimmune salivary disorders. Finally, in the case of failure of one of the above techniques and regardless of the cause of obstruction, botulinum toxin injection into the parenchyma of the salivary glands using colour Doppler ultrasonographic monitoring should be considered before deciding on surgical gland removal. PMID:17957846

  8. [Clinical study on cefprozil in pediatrics].


    Iwai, N; Miyazu, M; Nakamura, H; Kasai, K


    Clinical efficacy and safety of cefprozil (CFPZ, BMY-28100), a newly developed oral cephalosporin, were studied in our pediatric department. Clinical effectiveness, bacteriological effectiveness and side effects were studied in 116 pediatric patients with ages ranging 4 months to 11 years. CFPZ was given 4.6-14.1 mg/kg daily in 3 times for 3-10 days. Clinical efficacies were evaluated in 112 patients, and the therapeutic effectiveness were excellent in 1 and good in 6 for 7 patients with acute pharyngitis, excellent in 24 and good in 26 for acute purulent tonsillitis, excellent in 3, good in 8 and fair in 1 for acute bronchitis, excellent in 21, good in 7, fair in 1 and poor in 1 for acute pneumonia, excellent in 1 acute purulent parotitis, excellent in 2 and good in 7 for acute UTI, good in 1 impetigo, fair in 1 periproctal abscess and good in 1 acute enteritis. The effectiveness rate was 96.4%. Bacteriologically, 4 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (beta-lactamase producing strains), 1 strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (beta-lactamase producing strain), 2 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae, 4 strains of beta-Streptococcus, 1 strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae (beta-lactamase producing strain) and 1 strain of Salmonella C2 were all disappeared, and of 22 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 20 strains were disappeared, 1 was decreased and 1 was unknown, of 5 strains of Escherichia coli (3 beta-lactamase producing strains), 4 were disappeared and 1 was decreased, of 29 strains of Haemophilus influenzae (14 beta-lactamase producing strains), 14 were disappeared, 11 were decreased, 3 persisted and 1 was unknown and of 2 strains of Haemophilus parainfluenzae (1 beta-lactamase producing strain), 1 was disappeared and 1 persisted. The bacteriological eradication rates for Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were 97.1% and 56.8%, respectively, and the drug was especially effective against Gram-positive bacteria. No side

  9. Roles of Serine and Threonine Residues of Mumps Virus P Protein in Viral Transcription and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, Adrian; Xu, Pei; Elson, Andrew; Li, Zhuo; Zengel, James


    ABSTRACT Mumps virus (MuV), a paramyxovirus containing a negative-sense nonsegmented RNA genome, is a human pathogen that causes an acute infection with symptoms ranging from parotitis to mild meningitis and severe encephalitis. Vaccination against mumps virus has been effective in reducing mumps cases. However, recently large outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated populations. There is no anti-MuV drug. Understanding replication of MuV may lead to novel antiviral strategies. MuV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase minimally consists of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large protein (L). The P protein is heavily phosphorylated. To investigate the roles of serine (S) and threonine (T) residues of P in viral RNA transcription and replication, P was subjected to mass spectrometry and mutational analysis. P, a 392-amino acid residue protein, has 64 S and T residues. We have found that mutating nine S/T residues significantly reduced and mutating residue T at 101 to A (T101A) significantly enhanced activity in a minigenome system. A recombinant virus containing the P-T101A mutation (rMuV-P-T101A) was recovered and analyzed. rMuV-P-T101A grew to higher titers and had increased protein expression at early time points. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of MuV-P-T101 plays a negative role in viral RNA synthesis. This is the first time that the P protein of a paramyxovirus has been systematically analyzed for S/T residues that are critical for viral RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Mumps virus (MuV) is a reemerging paramyxovirus that caused large outbreaks in the United States, where vaccination coverage is very high. There is no anti-MuV drug. In this work, we have systematically analyzed roles of Ser/Thr residues of MuV P in viral RNA synthesis. We have identified S/T residues of P critical for MuV RNA synthesis and phosphorylation sites that are important for viral RNA synthesis. This work leads to a better understanding of viral RNA synthesis as well as to potential

  10. [Absorption, excretion and clinical trials of cefroxadine in the field of pediatrics (author's transl)].


    Motohiro, T; Sakata, Y; Fujimoto, T; Nishiyama, T; Nakajima, T; Ishimoto, K; Tominaga, K; Yamashita, F; Takajo, N; Araki, H; Shiozuki, Y; Takenaka, S; Kamezaki, K; Yoshinaga, Y; Kawano, N; Yamamoto, M; Komatsu, R; Ohta, M; Etoh, Y; Moroi, T; Iriki, T; Chou, H; Okada, S; Kinoshita, M; Imuta, F; Koga, T


    A study was made with the newly developed cefroxadine (CXD) dry syrup by measuring the serum level, urine excretion and recovery rate in 10 children who were orally administered 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg at 1 hour after meals and the following results were gained. Also, its clinical efficacies and side effects were investigated in the following cases who were treated with a mean dose of 33 mg/day divided into 3 to 4 portions for a period of 9 days on the average; viz. a total of 151 cases consisting of 9 cases of pharyngitis, 39 of tonsillitis, 11 of streptococcal infection, i.e. scarlet fever, 7 of bronchitis, 6 of pneumonia, 1 of otitis media, 6 of purulent lymphadenitis, 1 of purulent parotitis, 1 of subcutaneous abscess and 3 of impetigo. 1. The serum level tends to reach its maximum level within 1 hour after administration. The mean concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg dose in the foregoing time were 6.35, 9.12 and 21.62 mcg/ml respectively and dose response was observed. CXD showed higher concentration than CEX, CED and CFT. The mean half-life periods of the 3 dose were 72, 84 and 66 minutes respectively and variations were observed, but the drugs maintains a satisfactory serum level. 2. The time which showed highest urine excretion was mainly in the 0 to 2 hours bracket and the average concentrations of 5 , 10 and 20 mg/kg dose in the foregoing time were 381.2, 771.7 and 1,577.7 mcg/ml respectively. The dose response was more evident than in the serum concentrations. The average recovery rates within 6 hours were 93.6, 88.3 and 94.3% respectively and they were similar to those of CEX, CED and CFT. 3. The clinical effects were evaluated were in 148 cases out of the total of 151 and 136 cases, or 91.9% showed good or excellent efficacy response. 4. The daily dose groups of less than 30 mg/kg and 31 to 40 mg/kg formed the majority and there was no difference in the comparison of the clinical effectiveness in these 2 groups. Administration of a daily dose of 20 to 40