Science.gov

Sample records for parp-1-deficient mice demonstrate

  1. The MICE Demonstration of Ionization Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, J.; Blackmore, V.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Collomb, N.; Snopok, P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at the Neutrino Factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at the Muon Collider. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material (the absorber) in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and re-acceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised project plan, which has received the formal endorsement of the international MICE Project Board and the international MICE Funding Agency Committee, will deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling by September 2017. In the revised configuration a central lithium-hydride absorber provides the cooling effect. The magnetic lattice is provided by the two superconducting focus coils and acceleration is provided by two 201 MHz single-cavity modules. The phase space of the muons entering and leaving the cooling cell will be measured by two solenoidal spectrometers. All the superconducting magnets for the ionization cooling demonstration are available at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the first single-cavity prototype is under test in the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with a summary of the performance of each of its components. The cooling performance of the revised configuration will also be presented.

  2. Empirical demonstration of hybrid chromosomal races in house mice.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Mabel D; Panithanarak, Thadsin; Hauffe, Heidi C; Searle, Jeremy B

    2016-07-01

    Western house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and common shrews (Sorex araneus) are important models for study of chromosomal speciation. Both had ancestral karyotypes consisting of telocentric chromosomes, and each is subdivided into numerous chromosomal races many of which have resulted from fixation of new mutations (Robertsonian fusions and whole-arm reciprocal translocations). However, some chromosomal races in both species may alternatively have originated through hybridization, with particular homozygous recombinant products reaching fixation. Here, we demonstrate the process of generation of hybrid chromosomal races for the first time in either species using molecular markers. Analysis of centromeric microsatellite markers show that the Mid Valtellina (IMVA) and Upper Valtellina (IUVA) chromosomal races of the house mouse are recombinant products of hybridization of the Lower Valtellina (ILVA) and Poschiavo (CHPO) chromosomal races, supporting earlier theoretical analysis. IMVA and IUVA occupy a small area of the Italian Alps where ILVA makes contact with CHPO. IUVA and CHPO have previously been shown to be reproductively isolated in one village, emphasizing that hybrid chromosomal races in small mammals, as in plants, have the potential to be part of the speciation process. PMID:27287407

  3. Prodynorphin knockout mice demonstrate diminished age-associated impairment in spatial water maze performance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Xuan V; Masse, James; Kumar, Ashok; Vijitruth, Rattanavijit; Kulik, Cynthia; Liu, Mei; Choi, Dong-Young; Foster, Thomas C; Usynin, Ivan; Bakalkin, Georgy; Bing, Guoying

    2005-06-20

    Dynorphins, endogenous kappa-opioid agonists widely expressed in the central nervous system, have been reported to increase following diverse pathophysiological processes, including excitotoxicity, chronic inflammation, and traumatic injury. These peptides have been implicated in cognitive impairment, especially that associated with aging. To determine whether absence of dynorphin confers any beneficial effect on spatial learning and memory, knockout mice lacking the coding exons of the gene encoding its precursor prodynorphin (Pdyn) were tested in a water maze task. Learning and memory assessment using a 3-day water maze protocol demonstrated that aged Pdyn knockout mice (13-17 months) perform comparatively better than similarly aged wild-type (WT) mice, based on acquisition and retention probe trial indices. There was no genotype effect on performance in the cued version of the swim task nor on average swim speed, suggesting the observed genotype effects are likely attributable to differences in cognitive rather than motor function. Young (3-6 months) mice performed significantly better than aged mice, but in young mice, no genotype difference was observed. To investigate the relationship between aging and brain dynorphin expression in mice, we examined dynorphin peptide levels at varying ages in hippocampus and frontal cortex of WT 129SvEv mice. Quantitative radioimmunoassay demonstrated that dynorphin A levels in frontal cortex, but not hippocampus, of 12- and 24-month mice were significantly elevated compared to 3-month mice. Although the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated, the results suggest that chronic increases in endogenous dynorphin expression with age, especially in frontal cortex, may adversely affect learning and memory.

  4. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    PubMed

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice.

  5. Autism-associated gene Dlgap2 mutant mice demonstrate exacerbated aggressive behaviors and orbitofrontal cortex deficits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As elegant structures designed for neural communication, synapses are the building bricks of our mental functions. Recently, many studies have pointed out that synaptic protein-associated mutations may lead to dysfunctions of social cognition. Dlgap2, which encodes one of the main components of scaffold proteins in postsynaptic density (PSD), has been addressed as a candidate gene in autism spectrum disorders. To elucidate the disturbance of synaptic balance arising from Dlgap2 loss-of-function in vivo, we thus generated Dlgap2 −/− mice to investigate their phenotypes of synaptic function and social behaviors. Methods The creation of Dlgap2 −/− mice was facilitated by the recombineering-based method, Cre-loxP system and serial backcross. Reversal learning in a water T-maze was used to determine repetitive behaviors. The three-chamber approach task, resident–intruder test and tube task were performed to characterize the social behaviors of mutant mice. Cortical synaptosomal fraction, Golgi-Cox staining, whole-cell patch electrophysiology and transmission electron microscopy were all applied to investigate the function and structure of synapses in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of Dlgap2 −/− mice. Results Dlgap2 −/− mice displayed exacerbated aggressive behaviors in the resident–intruder task, and elevated social dominance in the tube test. In addition, Dlgap2 −/− mice exhibited a clear reduction of receptors and scaffold proteins in cortical synapses. Dlgap2 −/− mice also demonstrated lower spine density, decreased peak amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current and ultra-structural deficits of PSD in the OFC. Conclusions Our findings clearly demonstrate that Dlgap2 plays a vital role in social behaviors and proper synaptic functions of the OFC. Moreover, these results may provide valuable insights into the neuropathology of autism. PMID:25071926

  6. Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öz, Orhan K.; Hajibeigi, Asghar; Cummins, Carolyn; van Abel, Monique; Bindels, René J.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2007-04-01

    The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency leads to hypercalciuria, we examined the expression of several proteins involved in distal tubule renal calcium reabsorption, both at the message and protein levels. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28K, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCX1), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) were significantly decreased in kidneys of ArKO mice. On the other hand, klotho mRNA levels were elevated in kidneys of ArKO mice. ArKO renal protein extracts had lower levels of calbindin-D28K but higher levels of the klotho protein. Immunochemistry demonstrated increased klotho expression in ArKO kidneys. Estradiol therapy normalized the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, PMCA1b and klotho. Taken together, these results demonstrate that estrogen deficiency produced by aromatase inactivation is sufficient to produce a renal leak of calcium and consequent hypercalciuria. This may represent one mechanism leading to the increased incidence of kidney stones following the menopause in women.

  7. Conditional knockout mice demonstrate function of Klf5 as a myeloid transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Shahrin, Nur Hezrin; Diakiw, Sonya; Dent, Lindsay A; Brown, Anna L; D'Andrea, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor and has been reported to be a direct target of C/EBPα, a master transcription factor critical for formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP) and leukemic GMP. Using an in vivo hematopoietic-specific gene ablation model, we demonstrate that loss of Klf5 function leads to a progressive increase in peripheral white blood cells, associated with increasing splenomegaly. Long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), short-term HSCs (ST-HSCs), and multipotent progenitors (MPPs) were all significantly reduced in Klf5(Δ/Δ) mice, and knockdown of KLF5 in human CD34(+) cells suppressed colony-forming potential. ST-HSCs, MPPs, and total numbers of committed progenitors were increased in the spleen of Klf5(Δ/Δ) mice, and reduced β1- and β2-integrin expression on hematopoietic progenitors suggests that increased splenic hematopoiesis results from increased stem and progenitor mobilization. Klf5(Δ/Δ) mice show a significant reduction in the fraction of Gr1(+)Mac1(+) cells (neutrophils) in peripheral blood and bone marrow and increased frequency of eosinophils in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lung. Thus, these studies demonstrate dual functions of Klf5 in regulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor proliferation and localization in the bone marrow, as well as lineage choice after GMP, promoting increased neutrophil output at the expense of eosinophil production.

  8. Demonstration of Nondeclarative Sequence Learning in Mice: Development of an Animal Analog of the Human Serial Reaction Time Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael A.; Hersch, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate nondeclarative sequence learning in mice using an animal analog of the human serial reaction time task (SRT) that uses a within-group comparison of behavior in response to a repeating sequence versus a random sequence. Ten female B6CBA mice performed eleven 96-trial sessions containing 24 repetitions of a 4-trial…

  9. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol replacement in rats and mice: a visual demonstration.

    PubMed

    Ström, Jakob O; Theodorsson, Annette; Ingberg, Edvin; Isaksson, Ida-Maria; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens are a family of female sexual hormones with an exceptionally wide spectrum of effects. When rats and mice are used in estrogen research they are commonly ovariectomized in order to ablate the rapidly cycling hormone production, replacing the 17β-estradiol exogenously. There is, however, lack of consensus regarding how the hormone should be administered to obtain physiological serum concentrations. This is crucial since the 17β-estradiol level/administration method profoundly influences the experimental results. We have in a series of studies characterized the different modes of 17β-estradiol administration, finding that subcutaneous silastic capsules and per-oral nut-cream Nutella are superior to commercially available slow-release pellets (produced by the company Innovative Research of America) and daily injections in terms of producing physiological serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol. Amongst the advantages of the nut-cream method, that previously has been used for buprenorphine administration, is that when used for estrogen administration it resembles peroral hormone replacement therapy and is non-invasive. The subcutaneous silastic capsules are convenient and produce the most stable serum concentrations. This video article contains step-by-step demonstrations of ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol hormone replacement by silastic capsules and peroral Nutella in rats and mice, followed by a discussion of important aspects of the administration procedures. PMID:22710371

  10. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol Replacement in Rats and Mice: A Visual Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Ström, Jakob O.; Theodorsson, Annette; Ingberg, Edvin; Isaksson, Ida-Maria; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens are a family of female sexual hormones with an exceptionally wide spectrum of effects. When rats and mice are used in estrogen research they are commonly ovariectomized in order to ablate the rapidly cycling hormone production, replacing the 17β-estradiol exogenously. There is, however, lack of consensus regarding how the hormone should be administered to obtain physiological serum concentrations. This is crucial since the 17β-estradiol level/administration method profoundly influences the experimental results1-3. We have in a series of studies characterized the different modes of 17β-estradiol administration, finding that subcutaneous silastic capsules and per-oral nut-cream Nutella are superior to commercially available slow-release pellets (produced by the company Innovative Research of America) and daily injections in terms of producing physiological serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol4-6. Amongst the advantages of the nut-cream method, that previously has been used for buprenorphine administration7, is that when used for estrogen administration it resembles peroral hormone replacement therapy and is non-invasive. The subcutaneous silastic capsules are convenient and produce the most stable serum concentrations. This video article contains step-by-step demonstrations of ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol hormone replacement by silastic capsules and peroral Nutella in rats and mice, followed by a discussion of important aspects of the administration procedures. PMID:22710371

  11. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Kiyama, T; Nishi, K; Mizutani, T; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N; Akimoto, M

    1990-02-15

    Thirty-two surgical specimens and three cell lines of human gastric cancers were used for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice, resulting in the establishment of eight (25%) xenografts from the surgical specimens and two (67%) from the cell lines. The localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the surgical specimens and cell lines of the gastric cancers and their xenografts in nude mice was then investigated immunohistochemically. Epidermal growth factor was stained in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, being detected in 16 (50%) of the 32 surgical specimens and in all of the cell lines. Seven (44%) of the sixteen EGF-positive surgical specimens and one (6%) of the 16 EGF-negative ones were tumorigenic in nude mice. All of the xenografts in nude mice were positive for EGF. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice may, therefore, be correlated with the presence of EGF in cancer cells.

  12. Compared with DBA/2J mice, C57BL/6J mice demonstrate greater preference for saccharin and less avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue.

    PubMed

    Freet, Christopher S; Arndt, Amanda; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-06-01

    Rats avoid intake of a saccharin cue when paired with a drug of abuse. While this is true for most subjects, the degree of avoidance of the drug-paired cue depends upon many factors including an individual rat's preference for rewards. That said, the direction of this effect is complex. For example, reward-preferring Lewis rats exhibit greater cocaine-induced avoidance of a saccharin cue relative to Fischer 344 rats; while reward-preferring mice that overexpress ΔFosB (NSE-tTA × TetOp-ΔFosB) exhibit less avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue compared to controls. The aim here was to use two strains of commonly used mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, to determine whether known differences in sensitivity to rewards will facilitate or attenuate drug-induced suppression of intake of a drug-paired taste cue. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrate that C57BL/6J mice, compared with DBA/2J mice, exhibit attenuated suppression of saccharin intake when it is paired with cocaine. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that strain differences in impulsivity are not likely to account for these differences. It is proposed that, while the C57BL/6J mice typically are more responsive to drug, they also are more responsive to natural rewards (in this case saccharin), and the stronger preference for saccharin serves to militate against drug.

  13. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-deficient mice demonstrate reduced hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Florquin, Sandrine; de Beer, Regina; Pater, Jennie M; Verstege, Marleen I; Meijers, Joost C M; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-06-01

    Patients with respiratory failure often require supplemental oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation. Although both supportive measures are necessary to guarantee adequate oxygen uptake, they can also cause or worsen lung inflammation and injury. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury is characterized by neutrophil infiltration into the lungs. The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been deemed important for leukocyte trafficking. To determine the expression and function of neutrophil uPAR during hyperoxia-induced lung injury, uPAR expression was determined on pulmonary neutrophils of mice exposed to hyperoxia. Hyperoxia exposure (O2>80%) for 4 days elicited a pulmonary inflammatory response as reflected by a profound rise in the number of neutrophils that were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung cell suspensions, as well as increased bronchoalveolar keratinocyte-derived chemokine, interleukin-6, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase levels. In addition, hyperoxia induced the migration of uPAR-positive granulocytes into lungs from wild-type mice compared with healthy control mice (exposed to room air). uPAR deficiency was associated with diminished neutrophil influx into both lung tissues and bronchoalveolar spaces, which was accompanied by a strong reduction in lung injury. Furthermore, in uPAR(-/-) mice, activation of coagulation was diminished. These data suggest that uPAR plays a detrimental role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury and that uPAR deficiency is associated with diminished neutrophil influx into both lung tissues and bronchoalveolar spaces, accompanied by decreased pulmonary injury. PMID:19435793

  14. [DEMONSTRATION OF LIKELIHOOD OF THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PROTECTION DURING TOTAL PROTON IRRADIATION OF MICE].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Bulynina, T M; Molokanov, A G; Vorozhtsova, S V; Utina, D M; Severyukhin, Yu S; Ushakov, I B

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were performed with outbred CD-1 male mice (SPF category). Total irradiation at 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 Gy by protons with the average energy of 170 MeV was conducted in a level medical beam of the phasotron at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Investigations. Targets were 2 points of in-depth dose distribution, i.e. beam entrance of the object, and modified Bragg peak. As a physical protector, the comb filter increases linear energy transfer (LET) of 170 MeV entrance protons from 0.49 keV/μm to 1.6 keV/μm and, according to the bone marrow test, doubles the biological effectiveness of protons when comparing radiation doses that cause 37% inhibition of blood cell formation in the bone marrow. Physical protection increases dose rate from 0.37 Gy/min for entrance protons to 0.8 Gy/min for moderated protons which more than in thrice reduces time of irradiation needed to reach an equal radiobiological effect.

  15. [DEMONSTRATION OF LIKELIHOOD OF THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PROTECTION DURING TOTAL PROTON IRRADIATION OF MICE].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Bulynina, T M; Molokanov, A G; Vorozhtsova, S V; Utina, D M; Severyukhin, Yu S; Ushakov, I B

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were performed with outbred CD-1 male mice (SPF category). Total irradiation at 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 Gy by protons with the average energy of 170 MeV was conducted in a level medical beam of the phasotron at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Investigations. Targets were 2 points of in-depth dose distribution, i.e. beam entrance of the object, and modified Bragg peak. As a physical protector, the comb filter increases linear energy transfer (LET) of 170 MeV entrance protons from 0.49 keV/μm to 1.6 keV/μm and, according to the bone marrow test, doubles the biological effectiveness of protons when comparing radiation doses that cause 37% inhibition of blood cell formation in the bone marrow. Physical protection increases dose rate from 0.37 Gy/min for entrance protons to 0.8 Gy/min for moderated protons which more than in thrice reduces time of irradiation needed to reach an equal radiobiological effect. PMID:26554131

  16. Cocaine Hydrolase Gene Transfer Demonstrates Cardiac Safety and Efficacy against Cocaine-Induced QT Prolongation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vishakantha; Reyes, Santiago; Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine addiction is associated with devastating medical consequences, including cardiotoxicity and risk-conferring prolongation of the QT interval. Viral gene transfer of cocaine hydrolase engineered from butyrylcholinesterase offers therapeutic promise for treatment-seeking drug users. Although previous preclinical studies have demonstrated benefits of this strategy without signs of toxicity, the specific cardiac safety and efficacy of engineered butyrylcholinesterase viral delivery remains unknown. Here, telemetric recording of electrocardiograms from awake, unrestrained mice receiving a course of moderately large cocaine doses (30 mg/kg, twice daily for 3 weeks) revealed protection against a 2-fold prolongation of the QT interval conferred by pretreatment with cocaine hydrolase vector. By itself, this prophylactic treatment did not affect QT interval duration or cardiac structure, demonstrating that viral delivery of cocaine hydrolase has no intrinsic cardiac toxicity and, on the contrary, actively protects against cocaine-induced QT prolongation.

  17. In vivo studies of Scn5a+/− mice modeling Brugada syndrome demonstrate both conduction and repolarization abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claire A.; Zhang, Yanmin; Grace, Andrew A.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigate the extent to which the electrocardiographic (ECG) properties of intact Scn5a+/− mice reproduce the corresponding clinical Brugada syndrome phenotype and use this model to investigate the role of conduction and repolarization abnormalities in the arrhythmogenic mechanism. Methods and Results The ECGs were obtained from anesthetized wild-type and Scn5a+/− mice, before and after administration of the known pro- and antiarrhythmic agents flecainide and quinidine. The ECG intervals were measured and their dispersions calculated. Scn5a+/− hearts showed ventricular arrhythmias, ST elevation, and conduction disorders including increased QT dispersion, accentuated by flecainide. Quinidine did not cause ventricular arrhythmias but exerted variable effects on ST segments and worsened conduction abnormalities. Conclusions The ECG features in an Scn5a+/− mouse establish it as a suitable model for Brugada syndrome and demonstrate abnormal conduction and repolarization phenomena. Altered QT dispersion, taken to indicate increased transmural repolarization gradients, may be useful in clinical risk stratification. PMID:20638671

  18. Expansion of natural killer cells in mice transgenic for IgM antibody to ganglioside GD2: demonstration of prolonged survival after challenge with syngeneic tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Ikuo; Yoshida, Yukiko; Taya, Chouji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Karasuyama, Hajime; Tada, Nobuhiko; Furukawa, Koichi; Tai, Tadashi

    2003-08-01

    IgM antibodies to gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, have been shown to mediate anti-tumor effects in cancer patients with melanoma and neuroblastoma and to correlate with survival. Mechanisms by which the antibodies induce tumor suppression, however, have not been systematically studied. To investigate this point, we produced and characterized C57BL/6 mice transgenic for IgM antibody to ganglioside GD2. The transgenic (TG) mice showed high IgM, but not IgG antibody titers against GD2 in their sera. No significant clinical symptoms were observed. When EL4 cells, syngeneic T lymphoma that express ganglioside GD2, were injected into TG mice, prolonged survival was observed. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of EL4 cells was mediated with TG mice sera. Neither antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity with their sera nor cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to EL4 cells was shown in TG mice. Spleen lymphocytes from TG mice had increased numbers of natural killer (NK) cells, but not T cells, B cells, or macrophages compared with wild-type mice. Depletion of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 rabbit serum reduced or abrogated the observed anti-tumor effects, suggesting that NK cells play a major role in tumor eradication or suppression. NK cell activity in TG mice was much higher than wild-type mice. Moreover, TG mice showed prolonged survival after injection with syngeneic B16 melanoma cells, which express GM3, but not GD2 or GD3. Taking these results together, our studies demonstrate that the TG mice have significant anti-tumor characteristics, probably due to CDC and NK cell expansion and activation with anti-ganglioside GD2 antibody.

  19. α2-Null mutant mice have altered levels of neuronal activity in restricted midbrain and limbic brain regions during nicotine withdrawal as demonstrated by cfos expression.

    PubMed

    Upton, Montana; Lotfipour, Shahrdad

    2015-10-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the primary binding sites for nicotine within the brain. Using alpha(α)2 nAChR subunit-null mutant mice, the current study evaluates whether the absence of this gene product during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal eliminates neuronal activity within selective midbrain and limbic brain regions, as determined by the expression of the immediate early gene, cfos. Our results demonstrate that nicotine withdrawal enhances neuronal activity within the interpeduncular nucleus and dorsal hippocampus, which is absent in mice null for α2-containing nAChRs. In contrast, we observe that α2-null mutant mice exhibit a suppression of neuronal activity in the dentate gyrus in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. Interestingly, α2-null mutant mice display potentiated neuronal activity specifically within the stratum lacunosum moleculare layer of the hippocampus, independent of nicotine withdrawal. Overall, our findings demonstrate that α2-null mutant mice have altered cfos expression in distinct populations of neurons within selective midbrain and limbic brain structures that mediate baseline and nicotine withdrawal-induced neuronal activity.

  20. Huntingtons Disease Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrate Early Kynurenine Pathway Activation, Altered CD8+ T-Cell Responses, and Premature Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David W.; Olson, Andrew R.; Raisbeck, Merl F.; Fox, Jonathan H.; Gigley, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation is implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the oxidation of tryptophan to kynurenine, the first step in this pathway. The prevalent, neuroinvasive protozoal pathogen Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) results in clinically silent life-long infection in immune-competent individuals. T. gondii infection results in activation of IDO which provides some protection against the parasite by depleting tryptophan which the parasite cannot synthesize. The kynurenine pathway may therefore represent a point of synergism between HD and T. gondii infection. We show here that IDO activity is elevated at least four-fold in frontal cortex and striata of non-infected N171-82Q HD mice at 14-weeks corresponding to early–advanced HD. T. gondii infection at 5 weeks resulted in elevation of cortical IDO activity in HD mice. HD-infected mice died significantly earlier than wild-type infected and HD control mice. Prior to death, infected HD mice demonstrated decreased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation in brain and spleen compared to wild-type infected mice. We demonstrate for the first time that HD mice have an altered response to an infectious agent that is characterized by premature mortality, altered immune responses and early activation of IDO. Findings are relevant to understanding how T. gondii infection may interact with pathways mediating neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:27611938

  1. Huntingtons Disease Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrate Early Kynurenine Pathway Activation, Altered CD8+ T-Cell Responses, and Premature Mortality.

    PubMed

    Donley, David W; Olson, Andrew R; Raisbeck, Merl F; Fox, Jonathan H; Gigley, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation is implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the oxidation of tryptophan to kynurenine, the first step in this pathway. The prevalent, neuroinvasive protozoal pathogen Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) results in clinically silent life-long infection in immune-competent individuals. T. gondii infection results in activation of IDO which provides some protection against the parasite by depleting tryptophan which the parasite cannot synthesize. The kynurenine pathway may therefore represent a point of synergism between HD and T. gondii infection. We show here that IDO activity is elevated at least four-fold in frontal cortex and striata of non-infected N171-82Q HD mice at 14-weeks corresponding to early-advanced HD. T. gondii infection at 5 weeks resulted in elevation of cortical IDO activity in HD mice. HD-infected mice died significantly earlier than wild-type infected and HD control mice. Prior to death, infected HD mice demonstrated decreased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation in brain and spleen compared to wild-type infected mice. We demonstrate for the first time that HD mice have an altered response to an infectious agent that is characterized by premature mortality, altered immune responses and early activation of IDO. Findings are relevant to understanding how T. gondii infection may interact with pathways mediating neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:27611938

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy demonstrated in mice bearing EMT6 tumors following selective delivery of boron by rationally designed liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kueffer, Peter J.; Maitz, Charles A.; Khan, Aslam A.; Schuster, Seth A.; Shlyakhtina, Natalia I.; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Brockman, John D.; Nigg, David W.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) following liposomal delivery of a 10B-enriched polyhedral borane and a carborane against mouse mammary adenocarcinoma solid tumors was investigated. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 134 nm or less, composed of an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and incorporating Na3[1-(2′-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] in the aqueous interior and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, were injected into the tail veins of female BALB/c mice bearing right flank EMT6 tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that two identical injections given 24 h apart resulted in tumor boron levels exceeding 67 µg/g tumor at 54 h—with tumor/blood boron ratios being greatest at 96 h (5.68:1; 43 µg boron/g tumor)—following the initial injection. For BNCT experiments, tumor-bearing mice were irradiated 54 h after the initial injection for 30 min with thermal neutrons, resulting in a total fluence of 1.6 × 1012 neutrons per cm2 (±7%). Significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in mice given BNCT vs. control mice (only 424% increase in tumor volume at 14 d post irradiation vs. 1551% in untreated controls). In a separate experiment in which mice were given a second injection/irradiation treatment 7 d after the first, the tumor growth was vastly diminished (186% tumor volume increase at 14 d). A similar response was obtained for mice irradiated for 60 min (169% increase at 14 d), suggesting that neutron fluence was the limiting factor controlling BNCT efficacy in this study. PMID:23536304

  3. Plasma biomarkers of liver injury and inflammation demonstrate a lack of apoptosis during obstructive cholestasis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Park, B. Kevin; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-12-15

    Cholestasis is a pathological common component of numerous liver diseases that results in hepatotoxicity, inflammation, and cirrhosis when untreated. While the predominant hypothesis in cholestatic liver injury remains hepatocyte apoptosis due to direct toxicity of hydrophobic bile acid exposure, recent work suggests that the injury occurs through inflammatory necrosis. In order to resolve this controversy, we used novel plasma biomarkers to assess the mechanisms of cell death during early cholestatic liver injury. C57Bl/6 mice underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) for 6–72 h, or sham operation. Another group of mice were given D-galactosamine and endotoxin as a positive control for apoptosis and inflammatory necrosis. Plasma levels of full length cytokeratin-18 (FL-K18), microRNA-122 (miR-122) and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) increased progressively after BDL with peak levels observed after 48 h. These results indicate extensive cell necrosis after BDL, which is supported by the time course of plasma alanine aminotransferase activities and histology. In contrast, plasma caspase-3 activity, cleaved caspase-3 protein and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 fragments (cK18) were not elevated at any time during BDL suggesting the absence of apoptosis. In contrast, all plasma biomarkers of necrosis and apoptosis were elevated 6 h after Gal/End treatment. In addition, acetylated HMGB1, a marker for macrophage and monocyte activation, was increased as early as 12 h but mainly at 48–72 h. However, progressive neutrophil accumulation in the area of necrosis started at 6 h after BDL. In conclusion, these data indicate that early cholestatic liver injury in mice is an inflammatory event, and occurs through necrosis with little evidence for apoptosis. - Highlights: • The mechanism of cell death during cholestasis remains a controversial topic. • Plasma biomarkers offer new insight into cell death after bile duct ligation. • Cytokeratin-18, microRNA-122 and HMGB

  4. Meta-Analysis Identifies Gene-by-Environment Interactions as Demonstrated in a Study of 4,965 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jong Wha J.; Shih, Diana; Davis, Richard C.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    Identifying environmentally-specific genetic effects is a key challenge in understanding the structure of complex traits. Model organisms play a crucial role in the identification of such gene-by-environment interactions, as a result of the unique ability to observe genetically similar individuals across multiple distinct environments. Many model organism studies examine the same traits but under varying environmental conditions. For example, knock-out or diet-controlled studies are often used to examine cholesterol in mice. These studies, when examined in aggregate, provide an opportunity to identify genomic loci exhibiting environmentally-dependent effects. However, the straightforward application of traditional methodologies to aggregate separate studies suffers from several problems. First, environmental conditions are often variable and do not fit the standard univariate model for interactions. Additionally, applying a multivariate model results in increased degrees of freedom and low statistical power. In this paper, we jointly analyze multiple studies with varying environmental conditions using a meta-analytic approach based on a random effects model to identify loci involved in gene-by-environment interactions. Our approach is motivated by the observation that methods for discovering gene-by-environment interactions are closely related to random effects models for meta-analysis. We show that interactions can be interpreted as heterogeneity and can be detected without utilizing the traditional uni- or multi-variate approaches for discovery of gene-by-environment interactions. We apply our new method to combine 17 mouse studies containing in aggregate 4,965 distinct animals. We identify 26 significant loci involved in High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, many of which are consistent with previous findings. Several of these loci show significant evidence of involvement in gene-by-environment interactions. An additional advantage of our meta

  5. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  6. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  7. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  8. FVB/NJ mice demonstrate a youthful sensitivity to noise-induced hearing loss and provide a useful genetic model for the study of neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ho, Maria K; Li, Xin; Wang, Juemei; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Friedman, Rick A

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP), a panel of 100 strains, has been employed in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to study complex traits in mice. Hearing is a complex trait and the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is a widely used model for age-related hearing loss (ARHI) and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The CBA/CaJ strain's youthful sensitivity to noise and limited age-related loss led us to attempt to identify additional strains segregating a similar phenotype for our panel. FVB/NJ is part of the HMDP and has been previously described as having a similar ARHI phenotype to CBA/CaJ. For these reasons, we have studied the FVB/NJ mouse for ARHI and NIHL phenotypes in hopes of incorporating its phenotype into HMDP studies. We demonstrate that FVB/NJ exhibits ARHI at an earlier age than CBA/CaJ and young FVB/NJ mice are vulnerable to NIHL up until 10 to 12 weeks. This suggests that FVB/NJ may be used as an additional genetic model for neural forms of progressive hearing loss and for the study of youthful sensitivity to noise.

  9. FVB/NJ mice demonstrate a youthful sensitivity to noise-induced hearing loss and provide a useful genetic model for the study of neural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Maria K.; Li, Xin; Wang, Juemei; Ohmen, Jeffrey D.; Friedman, Rick A.

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP), a panel of 100 strains, has been employed in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to study complex traits in mice. Hearing is a complex trait and the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is a widely used model for age-related hearing loss (ARHI) and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The CBA/CaJ strain's youthful sensitivity to noise and limited age-related loss led us to attempt to identify additional strains segregating a similar phenotype for our panel. FVB/NJ is part of the HMDP and has been previously described as having a similar ARHI phenotype to CBA/CaJ. For these reasons, we have studied the FVB/NJ mouse for ARHI and NIHL phenotypes in hopes of incorporating its phenotype into HMDP studies. We demonstrate that FVB/NJ exhibits ARHI at an earlier age than CBA/CaJ and young FVB/NJ mice are vulnerable to NIHL up until 10 to 12 weeks. This suggests that FVB/NJ may be used as an additional genetic model for neural forms of progressive hearing loss and for the study of youthful sensitivity to noise. PMID:24707282

  10. Carbohydrate-remodelled acid α-glucosidase with higher affinity for the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor demonstrates improved delivery to muscles of Pompe mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    To enhance the delivery of rhGAA (recombinant GAA, where GAA stands for acid α-glucosidase) to the affected muscles in Pompe disease, the carbohydrate moieties on the enzyme were remodelled to exhibit a high affinity ligand for the CI-MPR (cation-independent M6P receptor, where M6P stands for mannose 6-phosphate). This was achieved by chemically conjugating on to rhGAA, a synthetic oligosaccharide ligand bearing M6P residues in the optimal configuration for binding the receptor. The carbonyl chemistry used resulted in the conjugation of approx. six synthetic ligands on to each enzyme. The resulting modified enzyme [neo-rhGAA (modified recombinant human GAA harbouring synthetic oligosaccharide ligands)] displayed near-normal specific activity and significantly increased affinity for the CI-MPR. However, binding to the mannose receptor was unaffected despite the introduction of additional mannose residues in neo-rhGAA. Uptake studies using L6 myoblasts showed neo-rhGAA was internalized approx. 20-fold more efficiently than the unmodified enzyme. Administration of neo-rhGAA into Pompe mice also resulted in greater clearance of glycogen from all the affected muscles when compared with the unmodified rhGAA. Comparable reductions in tissue glycogen levels in the Pompe mice were realized using an approx. 8-fold lower dose of neo-rhGAA in the heart and diaphragm and an approx. 4-fold lower dose in the skeletal muscles. Treatment of older Pompe mice, which are more refractory to enzyme therapy, with 40 mg/kg neo-rhGAA resulted in near-complete clearance of glycogen from all the affected muscles as opposed to only partial correction with the unmodified rhGAA. These results demonstrate that remodelling the carbohydrate of rhGAA to improve its affinity for the CI-MPR represents a feasible approach to enhance the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease. PMID:15839836

  11. THE PATHOGENESIS OF HERPES VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS. I. VIRUS PATHWAYS TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OF SUCKLING MICE DEMONSTRATED BY FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY STAINING.

    PubMed

    JOHNSON, R T

    1964-02-01

    The pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis and myelitis was studied in suckling mice using routine titration procedures and fluorescent antibody staining for the identification of infected cells. After intracerebral inoculation virus was shown to disperse rapidly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), multiply in meninges and ependyma, and then invade the underlying parenchyma infecting both neurons and glia. Following extraneural inoculation virus gained access to the central nervous system (CNS) by both hematogenous and neural pathways. After intraperitoneal and intranasal inoculation virus was found to multiply in viscera and produce viremia; foci of CNS infection then developed around small cerebral vessels. After subcutaneous and intranasal inoculation neural spread of virus was demonstrated along corresponding peripheral and cranial nerves. This spread resulted from the centripetal infection of endoneural cells (Schwann cells and fibroblasts). Antigen was not found in axons even after infection of the corresponding ganglion cell perikaryon. Subsequent spread within the CNS was unrelated to neural tracts, and there was no evidence of axonal spread of virus in the host-virus system studied. These findings are discussed in relation to previous and current theories of the viral "blood-brain barrier" and neural pathways of infection.

  12. [11C]-Labeled Metformin Distribution in the Liver and Small Intestine Using Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography in Mice Demonstrates Tissue-Specific Transporter Dependency.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jonas B; Sundelin, Elias I; Jakobsen, Steen; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole L; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Jessen, Niels

    2016-06-01

    Metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic drug, with well-documented beneficial preventive effects on diabetic complications. Despite being in clinical use for almost 60 years, the underlying mechanisms for metformin action remain elusive. Organic cation transporters (OCT), including multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATE), are essential for transport of metformin across membranes, but tissue-specific activity of these transporters in vivo is incompletely understood. Here, we use dynamic positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-labeled metformin ([(11)C]-metformin) in mice to investigate the role of OCT and MATE in a well-established target tissue, the liver, and a putative target of metformin, the small intestine. Ablation of OCT1 and OCT2 significantly reduced the distribution of metformin in the liver and small intestine. In contrast, inhibition of MATE1 with pyrimethamine caused accumulation of metformin in the liver but did not affect distribution in the small intestine. The demonstration of OCT-mediated transport into the small intestine provides evidence of direct effects of metformin in this tissue. OCT and MATE have important but separate roles in uptake and elimination of metformin in the liver, but this is not due to changes in biliary secretion. [(11)C]-Metformin holds great potential as a tool to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of metformin in clinical studies.

  13. An Intradermal Inoculation Model of Scrub Typhus in Swiss CD-1 Mice Demonstrates More Rapid Dissemination of Virulent Strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi

    PubMed Central

    Sunyakumthorn, Piyanate; Paris, Daniel H.; Chan, Teik-Chye; Jones, Margaret; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Anantatat, Tippawan; Turner, Gareth D. H.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Richards, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease of the Asia-Pacific region caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. To develop an effective vaccine to prevent scrub typhus infection, a better understanding of the initial host-pathogen interaction is needed. The objective of this study was to investigate early bacterial dissemination in a CD-1 Swiss outbred mouse model after intradermal injection of O. tsutsugamushi. Three human pathogenic strains of O. tsutsugamushi (Karp, Gilliam, and Woods) were chosen to investigate the early infection characteristics associated with bacterial virulence. Tissue biopsies of the intradermal injection site and draining lymph nodes were examined using histology and immunohistochemistry to characterize bacterial dissemination, and correlated with quantitative real-time PCR for O. tsutsugamushi in blood and tissue from major organs. Soluble adhesion molecules were measured to examine cellular activation in response to infection. No eschar formation was seen at the inoculation site and no clinical disease developed within the 7 day period of observation. However, O. tsutsugamushi was localized at the injection site and in the draining lymph nodes by day 7 post inoculation. Evidence of leukocyte and endothelial activation was present by day 7 with significantly raised levels of sL-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1. Infection with the Karp strain was associated with earlier and higher bacterial loads and more extensive dissemination in various tissues than the less pathogenic Gilliam and Woods strains. The bacterial loads of O. tsutsugamushi were highest in the lungs and spleens of mice inoculated with Karp and Gilliam, but not Woods strains. Strains of higher virulence resulted in more rapid systemic infection and dissemination in this model. The CD-1 mouse intradermal inoculation model demonstrates features relevant to early scrub typhus infection in humans, including the development of regional lymphadenopathy, leukocyte activation and distant

  14. Use of mice tolerant to lipopolysaccharide to demonstrate requirement of cooperation between macrophages and lymphocytes to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Z; Hertogs, C F; Pluznik, D H

    1983-01-01

    Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice was followed by a rapid elevation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in the serum. A second, challenging injection of LPS given 3 to 4 days later failed to induce elevated levels of CSF in the serum. Such mice tolerant to LPS were used as an experimental tool to identify the CSF-producing cells which respond to LPS. We observed that generation of LPS-induced CSF in mice tolerant to LPS could be restored by an intraperitoneal injection of spleen cells 24 h before the challenging injection of LPS. Depletion of the adherent cells from the spleen cells reduced the ability of the splenic lymphocytes to restore the capacity of the mice tolerant to LPS to generate serum CSF. Reconstitution of the splenic lymphocytes with 5% thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, however, reestablished the restorative capacity of these cells, whereas almost no restoration was observed after direct injection of elicited peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that the spleen cells are active in generating CSF, provided that macrophages are present and can interact with the splenic lymphocytes to generate LPS-induced CSF in the serum. PMID:6602767

  15. Direct demonstration of P-selectin- and VCAM-1-dependent mononuclear cell rolling in early atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C L; Huo, Y; Jung, U; Ghosh, S; Manka, D R; Sarembock, I J; Ley, K

    1999-06-11

    Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice develop atherosclerotic lesions throughout the arterial tree, including the carotid bifurcation. Although the expression of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin on endothelium that overlie atherosclerotic plaques has been implicated in monocyte recruitment to developing lesions, monocyte adhesion in atherosclerotic vessels has not been observed directly. To investigate which adhesion molecules may be important in monocyte adhesion to atherosclerotic lesions, an isolated mouse carotid artery preparation was developed and perfused with mononuclear cells. We show rolling and attachment of the human monocytic cell line U937 and the mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line P388D1 in carotid arteries from 10- to 12-week-old ApoE-/- and C57BL/6 wild-type mice fed a Western-type diet (21% fat wt/wt) for 4 to 5 weeks. No rolling was observed in carotid arteries from C57BL/6 or BALB/c wild-type mice fed a chow diet and little was observed in BALB/c mice fed a Western-type diet. This model represents early lesion development as shown by minimal macrophage infiltration in the intima of carotid arteries from ApoE-/- mice fed a Western-type diet. Rolling was observed at shear stresses that were characteristic of the low-shear recirculation zone near the carotid bifurcation. Mononuclear cell attachment and rolling were significantly inhibited by monoclonal antibody blockade of P-selectin or its leukocyte ligand P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. Rolling velocities increased after monoclonal antibody blockade of mononuclear cell alpha4-integrin or VCAM-1, which indicates that alpha4-integrin interacting with VCAM-1 stabilizes rolling interactions and prolongs monocyte transit times.

  16. Near infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute vs. chronic phases of arthritis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Wood, Ronald; Schwarz, Edward M.; Wang, Yong-Jun; Xing, Lianping

    2010-01-01

    Objective Development of an in vivo imaging method to assess lymphatic draining function in the K/B×N mouse model of inflammatory arthritis. Methods Indocyanine green (ICG), a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, was injected intradermally into the footpad of wild-type mice, the limb was illuminated with an 806 nm NIR laser, and the movement of ICG from the injection site to the draining popliteal lymph node (PLN) was recorded with a CCD camera. ICG-NIR images were analyzed to obtain 5 measures of lymphatic function across time. K/B×N arthritic mice and control non-arthritic littermates were imaged at one-month of age when acute joint inflammation commenced, and repeated at 3 months when joint inflammation became chronic. Lymphangiogenesis in PLNs was assessed by immunochemistry. Results ICG and its transport within lymphatic vessels were readily visualized and quantitative measures derived. During the acute phase of arthritis, the lymphatic vessels were dilated with increased ICG signal intensity and lymphatic pulses, and PLNs became fluorescent quickly. During the chronic phase, new lymphatic vessels were present near the foot. However, ICG appearance in lymphatic vessels was delayed. The size and area of PLN lymphatic sinuses progressively increased in the K/B×N mice. Conclusion ICG-NIR lymphatic imaging is a valuable method to assess the lymphatic draining function in mice with inflammatory arthritis. ICG-NIR imaging of K/B×N mice identified two distinct lymphatic phenotypes during the acute and chronic phase of inflammation. This technique can be used to assess new therapies for lymphatic disorders. PMID:20309866

  17. Cloning and sequencing of yajC and secD homologs of Brucella abortus and demonstration of immune responses to YajC in mice vaccinated with B. abortus RB51.

    PubMed

    Vemulapalli, R; Duncan, A J; Boyle, S M; Sriranganathan, N; Toth, T E; Schurig, G G

    1998-12-01

    To identify Brucella antigens that are potentially involved in stimulating a protective cell-mediated immune response, a gene library of Brucella abortus 2308 was screened for the expression of antigens reacting with immunoglobulin G2a antibodies from BALB/c mice vaccinated with B. abortus RB51. One selected positive clone (clone MCB68) contained an insert of 2.6 kb; nucleotide sequence analysis of this insert revealed two open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences of the first and second ORFs had significant similarities with the YajC and SecD proteins, respectively, of several bacterial species. Both the YajC and SecD proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with maltose binding protein (MBP). In Western blots, sera from mice vaccinated with B. abortus RB51 recognized YajC but not SecD. Further Western blot analysis with purified recombinant YajC protein indicated that mice inoculated with B. abortus 19 or 2308 or B. melitensis RM1 also produced antibodies to YajC. In response to in vitro stimulation with recombinant MBP-YajC fusion protein, splenocytes from mice vaccinated with B. abortus RB51 were able to proliferate and produce gamma interferon but not interleukin-4. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the involvement of YajC protein in an immune response to an infectious agent.

  18. Effects of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice: demonstration of caffeine as a biologically important constituent of tea.

    PubMed

    Huang, M T; Xie, J G; Wang, Z Y; Ho, C T; Lou, Y R; Wang, C X; Hard, G C; Conney, A H

    1997-07-01

    Oral administration of green or black tea inhibited UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in the skin of SKH-1 mice. Green tea was a more effective inhibitor than black tea. Oral administration of decaffeinated green or black tea resulted in substantially less inhibitory activity than did administration of the regular teas, and in one experiment, administration of a high-dose level of the decaffeinated teas enhanced the tumorigenic effect of UVB. Oral administration of caffeine alone had a substantial inhibitory effect on UVB-induced carcinogenesis, and adding caffeine to the decaffeinated teas restored the inhibitory effects of these teas on UVB-induced carcinogenesis. In additional studies, topical application of a green tea polyphenol fraction after each UVB application inhibited UVB-induced tumorigenesis. The results indicate that caffeine contributes in an important way to the inhibitory effects of green and black tea on UVB-induced complete carcinogenesis.

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  3. Cell volume control in phospholemman (PLM) knockout mice: do cardiac myocytes demonstrate a regulatory volume decrease and is this influenced by deletion of PLM?

    PubMed

    Bell, James R; Lloyd, David; Curl, Claire L; Delbridge, Lea M D; Shattock, Michael J

    2009-03-01

    In addition to modulatory actions on Na+-K+-ATPase, phospholemman (PLM) has been proposed to play a role in cell volume regulation. Overexpression of PLM induces ionic conductances, with 'PLM channels' exhibiting selectivity for taurine. Osmotic challenge of host cells overexpressing PLM increases taurine efflux and augments the cellular regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response, though a link between PLM and cell volume regulation has not been studied in the heart. We recently reported a depressed cardiac contractile function in PLM knockout mice in vivo, which was exacerbated in crystalloid-perfused isolated hearts, indicating that these hearts were osmotically challenged. To address this, the present study investigated the role of PLM in osmoregulation in the heart. Isolated PLM wild-type and knockout hearts were perfused with a crystalloid buffer supplemented with mannitol in a bid to prevent perfusate-induced cell swelling and maintain function. Accordingly, and in contrast to wild-type control hearts, contractile function was improved in PLM knockout hearts with 30 mM mannitol. To investigate further, isolated PLM wild-type and knockout cardiomyocytes were subjected to increasing hyposmotic challenges. Initial validation studies showed the IonOptix video edge-detection system to be a simple and accurate 'real-time' method for tracking cell width as a marker of cell size. Myocytes swelled equally in both genotypes, indicating that PLM, when expressed at physiological levels in cardiomyocytes, is not essential to limit water accumulation in response to a hyposmotic challenge. Interestingly, freshly isolated adult cardiomyocytes consistently failed to mount RVDs in response to cell swelling, adding to conflicting reports in the literature. A proposed perturbation of the RVD response as a result of the cell isolation process was not restored, however, with short-term culture in either adult or neonatal cardiomyocytes.

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student demonstrations. (CW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  7. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  11. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for college level chemistry courses including: "Electrochemical Cells Using Sodium Silicate" and "A Simple, Vivid Demonstration of Selective Precipitation." Lists materials, preparation, procedures, and precautions. (CW)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  20. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations used in laboratory chemistry courses. Discusses a "pH-activated" display used to chemically and visually supplement lecture demonstrations. Outlines another demonstration designed to show that copper(II) chloride is made of two ions, blue and yellow, which are combined to produce green. (TW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Described are demonstrations designed to reveal the important "nonsolvent" properties of water through its interaction with a toy called "Magic Sand" and other synthetic silica derivatives, especially those bonded with organic moities. The procedures for seven demonstrations along with a discussion of the effects are presented. (CW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  19. Complete Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations suitable for chemistry instruction. One involves fractal structures obtained by electrodeposition of silver at an air-water interface and the other deals with molecular weights and music. (TW)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Two demonstrations are presented: a verification of the discontinuity of matter based on the law of definite proportions, and a series of consecutive chemical reactions featuring reversible equilibria. (BB)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  14. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in chemistry instruction. The first illustrates the preparation of a less common oxide of iron, showing why this oxide is rare. The second is an explosion reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that is recommended for use as an attention-getting device. (TW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  1. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  5. GASIS demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vidas, E.H.

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  6. Transgenic Mice Expressing MCP-1 by the Urothelium Demonstrate Bladder Hypersensitivity, Pelvic Pain and Voiding Dysfunction: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaoqin; Lutgendorf, Susan; Bradley, Catherine; Schrepf, Andrew; Kreder, Karl; O'Donnell, Michael; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is one of the key chemokines that play important roles in diverse inflammatory and chronic pain conditions. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder characterized by the hallmark symptoms of pelvic pain and voiding dysfunction. To facilitate IC/BPS research, we used transgenic technology to develop a novel urothelial MCP-1 secretion mouse model (URO-MCP-1). A transgene consisting of the uroplakin II gene promoter and the mouse MCP-1 coding sequence with a secretory element was constructed and microinjected. URO-MCP-1 mice were found to express MCP-1 mRNA in the bladder epithelium and MCP-1 protein in the urine, and developed bladder inflammation 24 hours after intravesical administration of a single sub-noxious dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inflamed bladders of URO-MCP-1 mice exhibited elevated mRNAs for interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, substance P precursor, and nerve growth factor as well as increased macrophage infiltration. In parallel with these phenotypic changes, URO-MCP-1 mice manifested significant functional changes at days 1 and 3 after cystitis induction. These functional changes included pelvic pain as measured by von Frey filament stimulation and voiding dysfunction (increased urinary frequency, reduced average volume voided per micturition, and reduced maximum volume voided per micturition) as measured by micturition cages. Micturition changes remained evident at day 7 after cystitis induction, although these changes were not statistically significant. Control wild-type C57BL/6 mice manifested no clear changes in histological, biochemical and behavioral features after similar cystitis induction with LPS. Taken together, our results indicate that URO-MCP-1 mice are hypersensitive to bladder irritants such as LPS and develop pelvic pain and voiding dysfunction upon cystitis induction, providing a novel model for IC

  7. Synthetic viability by BRCA2 and PARP1/ARTD1 deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xia; Chaudhuri, Arnab Ray; Callen, Elsa; Pang, Yan; Biswas, Kajal; Klarmann, Kimberly D.; Martin, Betty K.; Burkett, Sandra; Cleveland, Linda; Stauffer, Stacey; Sullivan, Teresa; Dewan, Aashish; Marks, Hanna; Tubbs, Anthony T.; Wong, Nancy; Buehler, Eugen; Akagi, Keiko; Martin, Scott E.; Keller, Jonathan R.; Nussenzweig, André; Sharan, Shyam K.

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib has been approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated cells, which are homologous recombination (HR) deficient, are hypersensitive to PARPi through the mechanism of synthetic lethality. Here we examine the effect of PARPi on HR-proficient cells. Olaparib pretreatment, PARP1 knockdown or Parp1 heterozygosity of Brca2cko/ko mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), carrying a null (ko) and a conditional (cko) allele of Brca2, results in viable Brca2ko/ko cells. PARP1 deficiency does not restore HR in Brca2ko/ko cells, but protects stalled replication forks from MRE11-mediated degradation through its impaired recruitment. The functional consequence of Parp1 heterozygosity on BRCA2 loss is demonstrated by a significant increase in tumorigenesis in Brca2cko/cko mice. Thus, while olaparib efficiently kills BRCA2-deficient cells, we demonstrate that it can also contribute to the synthetic viability if PARP is inhibited before BRCA2 loss. PMID:27498558

  8. Synthetic viability by BRCA2 and PARP1/ARTD1 deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xia; Ray Chaudhuri, Arnab; Callen, Elsa; Pang, Yan; Biswas, Kajal; Klarmann, Kimberly D; Martin, Betty K; Burkett, Sandra; Cleveland, Linda; Stauffer, Stacey; Sullivan, Teresa; Dewan, Aashish; Marks, Hanna; Tubbs, Anthony T; Wong, Nancy; Buehler, Eugen; Akagi, Keiko; Martin, Scott E; Keller, Jonathan R; Nussenzweig, André; Sharan, Shyam K

    2016-08-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib has been approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated cells, which are homologous recombination (HR) deficient, are hypersensitive to PARPi through the mechanism of synthetic lethality. Here we examine the effect of PARPi on HR-proficient cells. Olaparib pretreatment, PARP1 knockdown or Parp1 heterozygosity of Brca2(cko/ko) mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), carrying a null (ko) and a conditional (cko) allele of Brca2, results in viable Brca2(ko/ko) cells. PARP1 deficiency does not restore HR in Brca2(ko/ko) cells, but protects stalled replication forks from MRE11-mediated degradation through its impaired recruitment. The functional consequence of Parp1 heterozygosity on BRCA2 loss is demonstrated by a significant increase in tumorigenesis in Brca2(cko/cko) mice. Thus, while olaparib efficiently kills BRCA2-deficient cells, we demonstrate that it can also contribute to the synthetic viability if PARP is inhibited before BRCA2 loss.

  9. Partial Return Yoke for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Witte H.; Plate, S

    2013-05-03

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.

  10. Intracellular demonstration of active TGFbeta1 in B cells and plasma cells of autoimmune mice. IgG-bound TGFbeta1 suppresses neutrophil function and host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Caver, T E; O'Sullivan, F X; Gold, L I; Gresham, H D

    1996-01-01

    Infection remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. To investigate this, previously we assessed the host defense status of autoimmune MRL/lpr mice and found that elaboration of active TGFbeta suppressed neutrophil function and decreased survival in response to Staphylococcus aureus infection. The purpose of the present work was to elucidate the molecular form and the cellular source of the active TGFbeta involved. Here, we report for the first time that TGFbeta1 is found in the active form inside B cells and plasma cells and that it circulates in the plasma complexed with IgG in two murine models of systemic autoimmunity and in some patients with SLE. IgG-bound active TGFbeta1 is many times more potent than uncomplexed active TGFbeta1 for suppression of neutrophil function in vitro and host defense against S. aureus infection in vivo. These data indicate that TGFbeta1 is in the active form inside B cells and plasma cells, that the formation of a complex of IgG and active TGFbeta1 is greatly accelerated in autoimmunity, and that this complex is extremely potent for suppression of PMN function and host defense against bacterial infection. PMID:8958212

  11. A Fluorescence Lecture Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Kemp, Marwin

    1982-01-01

    Describes fluorescence demonstrations related to several aspects of molecular theory and quantitized energy levels. Demonstrations use fluorescent chemical solutions having luminescence properties spanning the visible spectrum. Also describes a demonstration of spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine. (JN)

  12. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  13. Herschel's Interference Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S.; Freeman, J. Reuben

    2000-01-01

    Describes Herschel's demonstration of interference arising from many coherent rays. Presents a method for students to reproduce this demonstration and obtain beautiful multiple-beam interference patterns. (CCM)

  14. Why Demonstrations Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Richard

    2005-01-01

    With the current focus on constructivist perspectives, science demonstrations have fallen out of favor in some circles. Demonstrations are easy to do and offer many benefits and unique opportunities in the constructivist classroom. With careful use, demonstrations can be powerful teaching tools. A wonderful quality of a demonstration (or a series…

  15. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  16. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes several chemistry demonstrations that use an overhead projector. Some of the demonstrations deal with electrochemistry, and another deals with the reactions of nonvolatile immiscible liquid in water. (TW)

  17. Traveling Wave Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger-Bell, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Describes a traveling-wave demonstration that uses inexpensive materials (crepe-paper streamers) and is simple to assemble and perform. Explains how the properties of light waves are illustrated using the demonstration apparatus. (LZ)

  18. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  19. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  20. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  1. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  2. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  3. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.

    2006-08-01

    By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

  4. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  5. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  6. Status of MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2010-03-30

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an experiment currently under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. The aim of the experiment is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling for a beam of muons, crucial for the requirements of a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider. Muon cooling is achieved by measuring the reduction of the four dimensional transverse emittance for a beam of muons passing through low density absorbers and then accelerating the longitudinal component of the momentum using RF cavities. The absorbers are maintained in a focusing magnetic field to reduce the beta function of the beam and the RF cavities are kept inside coupling coils. The main goal of MICE is to measure a fractional drop in emittance, of order -10% for large emittance beams, with an accuracy of 1%(which imposes a requirement that the absolute emittance be measured with an accuracy of 0.1%). This paper will discuss the status of MICE, including the progress in commissioning the muon beam line at the ISIS accelerator at RAL, the construction of the different detector elements in MICE and the prospects for the future.

  7. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  8. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  9. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  10. Demonstrating Phase Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Presents two experiments that demonstrate phase changes. The first experiment explores phase changes of carbon dioxide using powdered dry ice sealed in a piece of clear plastic tubing. The second experiment demonstrates an equilibrium process in which a crystal grows in equilibrium with its saturated solution. (PVD)

  11. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  12. USFWS demonstration fees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Jonathan; Vaske, Jerry; Donnelly, Maureen; Shelby, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This study examined National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) visitors' reactions to changes in fees implemented as part of the fee demonstration program. Visitors' evaluations of the fees paid were examined in addition to their beliefs about fees and the fee demonstration program, and the impact of fees paid on their intention to return. All results were analyzed relative to socio-demographic characteristics.

  13. A Stellar Demonstrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

  14. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  15. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  16. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  17. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  18. A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Osman; Donahue, Trisha M.; Mitchell, Miguel O.

    2011-01-01

    Because they are dramatic and intriguing, chemiluminescence demonstrations have been used for decades to stimulate interest in chemistry. One of the most intense chemiluminescent reactions is the oxidation of diaryl oxalate diesters with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescer. In typical lecture demonstrations, the commercially…

  19. Demonstration Experiments in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    This book represents a "cookbook" for teachers of physics, a book of recipes for the preparation of demonstration experiments to illustrate the principles that make the subject of physics so fascinating. Illustrations and explanations of each demonstration are done in an easy-to-understand format. Each can be adapted to be used as a demonstration…

  20. The Microgravity Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Wargo, Michael J.

    The Microgravity Demonstrator is a tool used to create microgravity conditions in the classroom. A series of demonstrations is used to provide a dramatically visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions in order to understand why various types of experiments are performed under microgravity conditions. The manual is…

  1. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  2. MICE Staging and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick

    2010-03-01

    Ionization cooling will be a key technique for a high-intensity Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a high-precision, staged accelerator experiment being performed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. Its goal is the first demonstration, with 0.1% resolution, of the feasibility of reducing the transverse emittance of a beam of muons by ionization cooling in low-Z absorbers. MICE is being staged in the following steps: I. Creating and characterizing a beam of muons; II. Measuring their emittance; III. Systematic comparison of successive measurements; IV. Inserting absorber; V. Reaccelerating longitudinally; and VI. Complete "10%-cooling" test. Step I is currently in progress with Step II to commence next year; completion of Step VI is anticipated in ˜2012.

  3. Demonstrating Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, David S.; Amundson, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes laboratory exercises with chickens selecting their food from dyed and natural corn kernels as a method of demonstrating natural selection. The procedure is based on the fact that organisms that blend into their surroundings escape predation. (BR)

  4. Flagship Technology Demonstrations (FTD)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Mike Conley delivers a presentation from the Flagship Technology Demonstrations (FTD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of t...

  5. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  6. Floating Magnet Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

  7. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  8. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  9. Commissioning the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenqin; Majorana Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator deploys high purity germanium (HPGe) detector modules to search for neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay in 76Ge. The experiment is aimed at demonstrating the technical feasibility and low backgrounds for a next generation Ge-based BBz experiment. The program of testing and commissioning the Demonstrator modules is a critical step to debug and improve the experimental apparatus, to establish and refine operational procedures, and to develop data analysis tools. In this talk, we will discuss our experience commissioning the Demonstrator modules and show how this program leads to successful data-taking. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  10. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  11. Five amazing physics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, Neil

    2015-04-01

    There's nothing better than a good physics demonstration to illustrate the subject's fundamental principles. Neil Downie, who has run Saturday science clubs for children for more than two decades, presents his five best demos of all time.

  12. Demonstration of Surface Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface tension is a fundamental obstacle in the spontaneous formation of bubbles, droplets, and crystal nuclei in liquids. Describes a simple overhead projector demonstration that illustrates the power of surface tension that can prevent so many industrial processes. (ASK)

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon F.; Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a method of demonstrating the optical activity of glucose using an overhead projector and easily obtainable materials. Explores the difference between reflected and transmitted light (Tyndall Effect) using sodium thiosulfate, hydrochloric acid, and an overhead projector. (ML)

  14. Classroom Demonstration of Sunspots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, Thomas O.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An overhead projector, projection screen, and clear tungsten Filament light bulb operated through a dimmer or variac switch are used to demonstrate the fact that black appearance of sunspots is due only to contrast and that sunspots are bright. (SK)

  15. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  16. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  17. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  18. Demonstrations in Introductory Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Stein, S.; van der Lee, S.; Swafford, L.; Klosko, E.; Delaughter, J.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Geophysical concepts are challenging to teach at introductory levels, because students need to understand both the underlying physics and its geological application. To address this, our introductory courses include class demonstrations and experiments to demonstrate underlying physical principles and their geological applications. Demonstrations and experiments have several advantages over computer simulations. First, computer simulations "work" even if the basic principle is wrong. In contrast, simple demonstrations show that a principle is physically correct, rather than a product of computer graphics. Second, many students are unfamiliar with once-standard experiments demonstrating ideas of classical physics used in geophysics. Demonstrations are chosen that we consider stimulating, relevant, inexpensive, and easy to conduct in a non-lab classroom. These come in several groups. Many deal with aspects of seismic waves, using springs, light beams, and other methods such as talking from outside the room to illustrate the frequency dependence of diffraction (hearing but not seeing around a corner). Others deal with heat and mass transfer, such as illustrating fractional crystallization with apple juice and the surface/volume effect in planetary evolution with ice. Plate motions are illustrated with paper cutouts showing effects like motion on transform faults and how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence along the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska. Radioactive decay is simulated by having the class rise and sit down as a result of coin flips (one tail versus two gives different decay rates and hence half lives). This sessions' goal of exchanging information about demonstrations is an excellent idea: some of ours are described on http://www.earth.nwu.edu/people/seth/202.

  19. Progress of the MICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesini, M.

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. The demonstration is based on a simplified version of a neutrino factory cooling channel. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation has been developed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. The muon beamline has been characterized and a preliminary measure of the beam emittance, using a particle-by-particle method with only the TOF detector system, has been performed (MICE STEP I). Data taking for the study of the properties that determine the cooling performance (MICE Step IV) has just started in 2015, while the demonstration of ionization cooling with re-acceleration is foreseen for 2017.

  20. Dealer model site demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, H.C.

    1992-08-01

    Model site demonstrations are joint efforts between TVA and cooperating organizations to improve the industry's environmental stewardship. Program objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and management practices to help retail fertilizer/agricultural chemical dealers minimize adverse environmental impacts. The model site demonstrations serve as 'real life' laboratories for researchers, technologists, educators and participants. The retail dealership is treated as a complete unit. The program recognizes the need to: Develop information and experience to guide others; Test numerous methods of containment, materials of construction, management practices, and monitoring techniques; Strengthen and highlight industry's commitment to envirorunental stewardship; Identify future research needs; and Provide a catalyst for cooperation across a broad spectrum of groups and organizations to identify problems and develop solutions appropriate for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers. Emphasis is on transferring current technology and developing and introducing needed new technologies. Field testing and applied research are encouraged at demonstration sites. One of the key concepts is to bridge the gap between research findings and their practical application and evaluation in field settings. Primary audiences include fertilizer dealers and professional workers in agriculture, the fertilizer industry, the environmental arena, and related institutions across the nation. Experiences at participating dealer sites are shared through organized tours, open houses, news articles and publications. Sixteen sites have been selected for demonstrations, and at least four more are planned. TVA provides assistance in engineering, design and educational forums. Dealers pay for installation of needed containment and related features.

  1. TRUEX hot demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  2. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  3. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, R. J.

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  4. Organic Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

  5. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  6. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  7. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  8. Demonstrating carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Qader, A.; Hooper, B.; Stevens, G.

    2009-11-15

    Australia is at the forefront of advancing CCS technology. The CO2CRC's H3 (Post-combustion) and Mulgrave (pre-combustion) capture projects are outlined. The capture technologies for these 2 demonstration projects are described. 1 map., 2 photos.

  9. Demonstrating Poisson Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetterling, William T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an apparatus that offers a very lucid demonstration of Poisson statistics as applied to electrical currents, and the manner in which such statistics account for shot noise when applied to macroscopic currents. The experiment described is intended for undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  10. Passive damping technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  11. The "Golden Penny" Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the view that the explanation of the Golden Penny Experiment found in popular chemistry textbooks is insufficient or incorrect in part. Reports a series of electrochemical measurements that lead to a logical explanation for this demonstration and to a simplified design that makes it safer. (DDR)

  12. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Provides two demonstrations: (1) electrolyte migration of ions using colored ions which cross a strip of gelatin allowing for noticeable migration; and (2) photochemical reduction of Fe+3 by the citrate ion. Points out both reactions can be done in a Petri dish using common lab materials. (MVL)

  13. Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckroth, Charles A.

    Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

  14. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Described are three chemistry demonstrations: (1) a simple qualitative technique for taste pattern recognition in structure-activity relationships; (2) a microscale study of gaseous diffusion using bleach, HCl, ammonia, and phenolphthalein; and (3) the rotation of polarized light by stereoisomers of limonene. (MVL)

  15. Why Demonstrations Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The author remembers how exciting it was when the teacher had "stuff" on the front desk: unfamiliar objects and other things out of place in the traditional classroom. Years later, as a new teacher, the author learned the importance of building lessons around concepts and that demonstrations are an integral part of concept development in science.…

  16. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations using the overhead projector: (1) describes how to build a projecting voltmeter and presents uses for the classroom; and (2) investigates the color of fluorescent solutions by studying the absorption and transmission of light through the solutions. (MVL)

  17. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  18. A Biofeedback Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Michael K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a demonstration for measurement of biophysical signals produced by the human body. The signals, after amplification, could provide acoustical feedback through a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), or they could be seen either with an oscilloscope or a high speed chart recorder. (GA)

  19. A Fruity Biochemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Classroom demonstrations are a great vehicle for getting students to apply information they have heard in a lecture. Educational research is replete with data showing that concept application in an inquiry setting reinforces long-term science content retention. This means that students learn best when they experience applications of concepts and…

  20. The Breaking Broomstick Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamola, Karl C.; Pollock, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    Describes and explains the breaking broomstick demonstration first reported in 1532. A needle is fixed at each end of the broomstick, and these needles are made to rest on two glasses, placed on chairs. If the broomstick is struck violently with another stout stick, the former will be broken, but the glasses will remain intact. (PR)

  1. The MICE Run Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick; Mice Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a demonstration experiment to prove the feasibility of cooling a beam of muons for use in a Neutrino Factory and/or Muon Collider. The MICE cooling channel is a section of a modified Study II cooling channel which will provide a 10% reduction in beam emittance. In order to ensure a reliable measurement, MICE will measure the beam emittance before and after the cooling channel at the level of 1%, or a relative measurement of 0.001. This renders MICE a precision experiment which requires strict controls and monitoring of all experimental parameters in order to control systematic errors. The MICE Controls and Monitoring system is based on EPICS and integrates with the DAQ, Data monitoring systems, and a configuration database. The new MICE Run Control has been developed to ensure proper sequencing of equipment and use of system resources to protect data quality. A description of this system, its implementation, and performance during recent muon beam data collection will be discussed.

  2. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  3. AVNG system demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan Louis; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Kondratov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Razinkov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  4. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Mitigation Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  5. Chemical Domino Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. Dale

    1998-04-01

    The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus. These reactions include the reduction of water by an active metal, the oxidation of a moderately active metal by an acid, reduction of metallic ions by a metal of greater activity, acid-base neutralization reactions in solution monitored with indicators, a gas-phase acid-base neutralization reaction, decomposition of a compound, precipitation of an insoluble salt, substitution reactions of coordination complexes, and pyrotechnic oxidation-reduction reactions including a hypergolic oxidation-reduction reaction, an intramolecular oxidation-reduction reaction, and the combustion of a flammable gas.

  6. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Space Fabrication Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The completion of assembly of the beam builder and its first automatic production of truss is discussed. A four bay, hand assembled, roll formed members truss was built and tested to ultimate load. Detail design of the fabrication facility (beam builder) was completed and designs for subsystem debugging are discussed. Many one bay truss specimens were produced to demonstrate subsystem operation and to detect problem areas.

  8. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

  9. The Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  10. Projectile Motion Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Erlend H.

    2008-12-01

    For a recent lecture, I went to our apparatus stock room and took out our venerable Sargent-Welch projectile apparatus that demonstrates that a dropped ball and a horizontally launched ball hit the floor at the same time, if they are simultaneously released. A problem with this apparatus is that its small size makes it difficult for a large class to see what is going on. Furthermore, the projectiles are ball bearings, which tend to roll under chairs, benches, etc.

  11. Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolson, David A.; Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Pegel, K. H.; Revaprasadu, N.

    1995-10-01

    The "charring reaction" of a carbohydrate with concentrated H2SO4 is a demonstration of the dehydrating power of H2SO4. In this paper several sugars and supermarket carbohydrates are systematically studied with respect to size of particles, addition of water, and amount of H2SO4 added. The results are tabulated as to the amount of time to blackening and to the attainment of a particular volume of the charred material. Detailed safety precautions are included.

  12. Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris

    1988-01-01

    Describes two oscillating reactions: the Briggs-Raucher reaction using H202, KIO3, malonic acid, and MnSO4 which changes from yellow to blue, and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction uses NaBrO3, NaBr, malonic acid, and ferroin solution and changes from red to blue. Includes a third color demonstration on the six oxidation states of manganese. (MVL)

  14. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  15. The MICE Particle Identification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomilov, M.; MICE Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at the ISIS accelerator located at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, will be the first experiment to study muon cooling at high precision. Demonstration of muon ionization cooling is a major technological step towards the construction of a neutrino factory or a muon collider. A muon beam is produced via pion decay in the MICE beam line within a range of emittances and momenta. Muon purity is assured by a system of detectors for particle identification (PID). We describe briefly the PID system here.

  16. TRW utility demonstration unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. During this report period, activity continued to address the total program funding shortfall. Ideas and responsibilities for further evaluation have been put forward to reduce the shortfall. In addition, an effort aimed at gaining additional program sponsorships, was initiated.

  17. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  18. Demonstrating induced recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Caswell, B. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes an attempt by a New England community to explore for an aquifer that would yield 1 million gallons of ground water per day. After the discovery of a glacial sand and gravel aquifer, a demonstration of a hydraulic coupling between the aquifer and an adjacent stream was undertaken. This connection was needed to maintain recharge capacity of the well. The paper goes on to describe the techniques needed and used to determine the induced recharge caused by drawdown in these test wells.

  19. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  20. Space Research Benefits Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Angie Jackman, a NASA project manager in microgravity research, demonstrates the enhanced resilience of undercooled metal alloys as compared to conventional alloys. Experiments aboard the Space Shuttle helped scientists refine their understanding of the physical properties of certain metal alloys when undercooled (i.e., kept liquid below their normal solidification temperature). This new knowledge then allowed scientists to modify a terrestrial production method so they can now make limited quantities marketed under the Liquid Metal trademark. The exhibit was a part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  1. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-09-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does not fly a significant distance. When the starting point is closer to the lips, the straw is projected 2-3 m. If two or three straws are connected to form a longer blowgun, the cotton swab flies even farther.

  2. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-05-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than 100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

  3. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  4. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  5. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  6. Demonstration of microfiltration technology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.F.; Topudurti, K.; Labunski, S.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in cooperation with E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Inc. (DuPont) and the Oberlin Filter Company (Oberlin), undertook a field demonstration project to evaluate microfiltration technology for removal of zinc and suspended solids from wastewater. The microfiltration system utilized DuPont's Tyvek T-980 membrane filter media in conjunction with the Oberlin automatic pressure filter. The project was undertaken at the Palmerton Zinc Superfund site in April, 1990. Analysis of the treated filtrate indicated that the system removed precipitated zinc and other suspended solids at an efficiency greater than 99.9 percent. (Copyright (c) 1991--Air and Waste Management Association.)

  7. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    SciTech Connect

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  8. Fusion-power demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.; Carlson, G. A.; Neef, W. S.; Moir, R. W.; Campbell, R. B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I. R.; Carpenter, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  9. Shuttle bay telerobotics demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, W.; Cogeos, P.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of NASA's robotics capabilities should be a balanced agenda of servicing and assembly tasks combined with selected key technical experiments. The servicing tasks include refueling and module replacement. Refueling involves the mating of special fluid connectors while module replacement requires an array of robotic technologies such as special tools, the arm of a logistics tool, and the precision mating of orbital replacement units to guides. The assembly task involves the construction of a space station node and truss structure. The technological experiments will focus on a few important issues: the precision manipulation of the arms by a teleoperator, the additional use of several mono camera views in conjunction with the stereo system, the use of a general purpose end effector versus a caddy of tools, and the dynamics involved with using a robot with a stabilizer.

  10. The GLORIA demonstrator experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcher, A.; Ćwiek, A.; Ćwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Zaremba, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2013-10-01

    GLORIA stands for "GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array" and it is the first free and open-access network of robotic telescopes on the world. Based on a Web 2.0 environment amateur and professional users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes, and/or analyzing data acquired with GLORIA, or from other free access databases. GLORIA project develops free standards, protocols and tools for controlling Robotic Telescopes and related instrumentation, for scheduling observations in the telescope network, and for conducting so-called off-line experiments based on the analysis of astronomical data. This contribution summarizes the implementation and results from the first research level off-line demonstrator experiment implemented in GLORIA, which was base on the data collected with the "Pi of the Sky" telescope in Chile.

  11. Space Research Benefits Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An entranced youngster watches a demonstration of the enhanced resilience of undercooled metal alloys as compared to conventional alloys. Steel bearings are dropped onto plates made of steel, titanium alloy, and zirconium liquid metal alloy, so-called because its molecular structure is amorphous and not crystalline. The bearing on the liquid metal plate bounces for a minute or more longer than on the other plates. Experiments aboard the Space Shuttle helped scientists refine their understanding of the physical properties of certain metal alloys when undercooled (i.e., kept liquid below their normal solidification temperature). This new knowledge then allowed scientists to modify a terrestrial production method so they can now make limited quantities marketed under the Liquid Metal trademark. The exhibit was a part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  12. ARJIS satellite demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severance, Steve; Williams, Carl

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the California Space Authority (CSA) was provided funding by the U. S. Congress through the Defense Appropriations Act to develop a project that would demonstrate the U.S. space enterprise capability that would contribute to the effectiveness of those engaged in Homeland Security. The project was given broad latitude in selecting the area of Homeland Security to be addressed and the nature of the space technology to be applied. CSA became aware of a nascent law enforcement data-sharing project in the San Diego region known as the Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS). First developed by the police departments in San Diego, ARJIS is an innovative system that shares criminal justice information among 50 federal, state, and local agencies. ARJIS was completing a pilot project that enabled officers to receive information on handheld computers, which was transmitted wirelessly through cellular networks. The accessed information came from several databases that collectively contained the entire region's crime and arrest reports, traffic citations, and incidents, as well as state and county wants and warrants. The fundamental limitations that plague all cellular-based devices caught CSA's attention and resulted in a cooperative effort to harden the communications link between the patrol officer and critical data. The principal goal of the SATCOM development task was to create a proof-of-concept application that would use SATCOM links to augment the current ARJIS handheld wireless (cellular) capability. The successful technical demonstration and the positive support for satellite communications from the law enforcement community showed that this project filled a need-both for improved information sharing and for highly reliable communications systems.

  13. Transformation During Mixed Pneumococcal Infection of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Conant, James E.; Sawyer, William D.

    1967-01-01

    The recent demonstration by others of transformation during peritoneal infection of mice by two genetically distinct pneumococcal strains supports the notion that transformation may be significant in pneumococcal infection in nature. These studies confirm the occurrence of transformation during mixed infection of mice and define some conditions for its occurrence and its significance. Mice were inoculated with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) donor (small type III capsule, low virulence, streptomycin-susceptible) and recipient (noncapsulated, low virulence, streptomycin-resistant) pneumococci, and the bacteremia in mice that died was evaluated. Transformants (large type III capsule, virulent, streptomycin-resistant) were isolated from up to 80% of mice that died from mixed peritoneal infection. Transformation occurred in mice that received donor and recipient 6 hr apart; hence, active DNA was released and competence developed during growth in vivo. Transformation was detected only with progressive infection by both strains, and then transformants were few in the blood and apparently were not responsible for the death of the animals. In doubly infected mice treated with streptomycin, transformation was enhanced; transformants numerically dominated the bacteremia and seemed to cause the death of the mice. Transformation was also demonstrated for the first time during infection of the respiratory tract. PMID:4381631

  14. Elevated plus maze for mice.

    PubMed

    Komada, Munekazu; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Although the mouse genome is now completely sequenced, the functions of most of the genes expressed in the brain are not known. The influence of a given gene on a specific behavior can be determined by behavioral analysis of mutant mice. If a target gene is expressed in the brain, behavioral phenotype of the mutant mice could elucidate the genetic mechanism of normal behaviors. The elevated plus maze test is one of the most widely used tests for measuring anxiety-like behavior. The test is based on the natural aversion of mice for open and elevated areas, as well as on their natural spontaneous exploratory behavior in novel environments. The apparatus consists of open arms and closed arms, crossed in the middle perpendicularly to each other, and a center area. Mice are given access to all of the arms and are allowed to move freely between them. The number of entries into the open arms and the time spent in the open arms are used as indices of open space-induced anxiety in mice. Unfortunately, the procedural differences that exist between laboratories make it difficult to duplicate and compare results among laboratories. Here, we present a detailed movie demonstrating our protocol for the elevated plus maze test. In our laboratory, we have assessed more than 90 strains of mutant mice using the protocol shown in the movie. These data will be disclosed as a part of a public database that we are now constructing. Visualization of the protocol will promote better understanding of the details of the entire experimental procedure, allowing for standardization of the protocols used in different laboratories and comparisons of the behavioral phenotypes of various strains of mutant mice assessed using this test.

  15. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Marrocco, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  16. Plug cluster module demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    The low pressure, film cooled rocket engine design concept developed during two previous ALRC programs was re-evaluated for application as a module for a plug cluster engine capable of performing space shuttle OTV missions. The nominal engine mixture ratio was 5.5 and the engine life requirements were 1200 thermal cycles and 10 hours total operating life. The program consisted of pretest analysis; engine tests, performed using residual components; and posttest analysis. The pretest analysis indicated that operation of the operation of the film cooled engine at O/F = 5.5 was feasible. During the engine tests, steady state wall temperature and performance measurement were obtained over a range of film cooling flow rates, and the durability of the engine was demonstrated by firing the test engine 1220 times at a nominal performance ranging from 430 - 432 seconds. The performance of the test engine was limited by film coolant sleeve damage which had occurred during previous testing. The post-test analyses indicated that the nominal performance level can be increased to 436 seconds.

  17. Orbital construction demonstration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design and program plan for an Orbital Construction Demonstration Article (OCDA) was developed that can be used for evaluating and establishing practical large structural assembly operations. A flight plan for initial placement and continued utility is presented as a basic for an entirely new shuttle payload line-item having great future potential benefit for space applications. The OCDA is a three-axis stabilized platform in low-earth orbit with many structural nodals for mounting large construction and fabrication equipments. This equipment would be used to explore methods for constructing the large structures for future missions. The OCDA would be supported at regular intervals by the shuttle. Construction experiments and consumables resupply are performed during shuttle visit periods. A 250 kw solar array provides sufficient power to support the shuttle while attached to the OCDA and to run construction experiments at the same time. Wide band communications with a Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite compatible high gain antenna can be used between shuttle revisits to perform remote controlled, TV assisted construction experiments.

  18. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  19. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  20. VLBI2010 Demonstrator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niell, A.

    2008-12-01

    . Observations demonstrating the full four-band configuration are planned for October. In this talk the results of these tests, the improvements that are anticipated for the operational VLBI2010 network, and the status of other developments in the next generation of geodetic VLBI systems will be presented. * Bruce Whittier, Mike Titus, Jason SooHoo, Dan Smythe, Alan Rogers, Jay Redmond, Mike Poirier, Chuck Kodak, Alan Hinton, Ed Himwich, Skip Gordon, Mark Evangelista, Irv Diegel, Brian Corey, Tom Clark, Chris Beaudoin (in reverse alphabetical order)

  1. Of Mice and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dewald, Oliver; Ren, Guofeng; Duerr, Georg D.; Zoerlein, Martin; Klemm, Christina; Gersch, Christine; Tincey, Sophia; Michael, Lloyd H.; Entman, Mark L.; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.

    2004-01-01

    Large animal models have provided much of the descriptive data regarding the cellular and molecular events in myocardial infarction and repair. The availability of genetically altered mice may provide a valuable tool for specific cellular and molecular dissection of these processes. In this report we compare closed chest models of canine and mouse infarction/reperfusion qualitatively and quantitatively for temporal, cellular, and spatial differences. Much like the canine model, reperfused mouse hearts are associated with marked induction of endothelial adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. Reperfused mouse infarcts show accelerated replacement of cardiomyocytes by granulation tissue leading to a thin mature scar at 14 days, when the canine infarction is still cellular and evolving. Infarcted mouse hearts demonstrate a robust but transient postreperfusion inflammatory reaction, associated with a rapid up-regulation of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Unlike canine infarcts, infarcted mouse hearts show only transient macrophage infiltration and no significant mast cell accumulation. In correlation, the growth factor for macrophages, M-CSF, shows modest and transient up-regulation in the early days of reperfusion; and the obligate growth factor for mast cells, stem cell factor, SCF, is not induced. In summary, the postinfarction inflammatory response and resultant repair in the mouse heart shares many common characteristics with large mammalian species, but has distinct temporal and qualitative features. These important species-specific differences should be considered when interpreting findings derived from studies using genetically altered mice. PMID:14742270

  2. Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

  3. The MICE luminosity monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Forrest, D.; Soler, F. J. P.

    2013-02-01

    The MICE experiment will provide the first measurement of ionisation cooling, a technique suitable for reducing the transverse emittance of a tertiary muon beam in a future neutrino factory accelerator facility. MICE is presently in the final stages of commissioning its beam line. The MICE luminosity monitor has proved an invaluable tool throughout this process, providing independent measurements of particle rate from the MICE target, normalisation for beam line detectors and verification of simulation codes.

  4. Stress inoculation modeled in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brockhurst, J; Cheleuitte-Nieves, C; Buckmaster, C L; Schatzberg, A F; Lyons, D M

    2015-01-01

    Stress inoculation entails intermittent exposure to mildly stressful situations that present opportunities to learn, practice and improve coping in the context of exposure psychotherapies and resiliency training. Here we investigate behavioral and hormonal aspects of stress inoculation modeled in mice. Mice randomized to stress inoculation or a control treatment condition were assessed for corticosterone stress hormone responses and behavior during open-field, object-exploration and tail-suspension tests. Stress inoculation training sessions that acutely increased plasma levels of corticosterone diminished subsequent immobility as a measure of behavioral despair on tail-suspension tests. Stress inoculation also decreased subsequent freezing in the open field despite comparable levels of thigmotaxis in mice from both treatment conditions. Stress inoculation subsequently decreased novel-object exploration latencies and reduced corticosterone responses to repeated restraint. These results demonstrate that stress inoculation acutely stimulates glucocorticoid signaling and then enhances subsequent indications of active coping behavior in mice. Unlike mouse models that screen for the absence of vulnerability to stress or presence of traits that occur in resilient individuals, stress inoculation training reflects an experience-dependent learning-like process that resembles interventions designed to build resilience in humans. Mouse models of stress inoculation may provide novel insights for new preventive strategies or therapeutic treatments of human psychiatric disorders that are triggered and exacerbated by stressful life events. PMID:25826112

  5. Simple Buoyancy Demonstrations Using Saltwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosby, Ronald M.; Petry, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of saline solutions for demonstrations of buoyancy showing oscillations of the Cartesian diver. Describes the physical principles, preparation, and instructional uses for the demonstration. (YP)

  6. Light/dark transition test for mice.

    PubMed

    Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2006-12-01

    Although all of the mouse genome sequences have been determined, we do not yet know the functions of most of these genes. Gene-targeting techniques, however, can be used to delete or manipulate a specific gene in mice. The influence of a given gene on a specific behavior can then be determined by conducting behavioral analyses of the mutant mice. As a test for behavioral phenotyping of mutant mice, the light/dark transition test is one of the most widely used tests to measure anxiety-like behavior in mice. The test is based on the natural aversion of mice to brightly illuminated areas and on their spontaneous exploratory behavior in novel environments. The test is sensitive to anxiolytic drug treatment. The apparatus consists of a dark chamber and a brightly illuminated chamber. Mice are allowed to move freely between the two chambers. The number of entries into the bright chamber and the duration of time spent there are indices of bright-space anxiety in mice. To obtain phenotyping results of a strain of mutant mice that can be readily reproduced and compared with those of other mutants, the behavioral test methods should be as identical as possible between laboratories. The procedural differences that exist between laboratories, however, make it difficult to replicate or compare the results among laboratories. Here, we present our protocol for the light/dark transition test as a movie so that the details of the protocol can be demonstrated. In our laboratory, we have assessed more than 60 strains of mutant mice using the protocol shown in the movie. Those data will be disclosed as a part of a public database that we are now constructing. Visualization of the protocol will facilitate understanding of the details of the entire experimental procedure, allowing for standardization of the protocols used across laboratories and comparisons of the behavioral phenotypes of various strains of mutant mice assessed using this test.

  7. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations.

  8. Social transfer of pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Monique L.; Hostetler, Caroline M.; Heinricher, Mary M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2016-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between the psychosocial environment and the perception and experience of pain, and the mechanisms of the social communication of pain have yet to be elucidated. The present study examined the social communication of pain and demonstrates that “bystander” mice housed and tested in the same room as mice subjected to inflammatory pain or withdrawal from morphine or alcohol develop corresponding hyperalgesia. Olfactory cues mediate the transfer of hyperalgesia to the bystander mice, which can be measured using mechanical, thermal, and chemical tests. Hyperalgesia in bystanders does not co-occur with anxiety or changes in corticosterone and cannot be explained by visually dependent emotional contagion or stress-induced hyperalgesia. These experiments reveal the multifaceted relationship between the social environment and pain behavior and support the use of mice as a model system for investigating these factors. In addition, these experiments highlight the need for proper consideration of how experimental animals are housed and tested. PMID:27774512

  9. IL-4 Knock out Mice Display Anxiety-like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Blevins, Neil A.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Gainey, Stephen J.; Towers, Albert E.; McNeil, Leslie K.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a recognized antecedent and coincident factor when examining the biology of anxiety. Little is known, however, about how reductions in endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators impact anxiety. Therefore, mood- cognition- and anxiety-associated/like behaviors were examined in IL-4 knock out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In comparison to WT mice, IL-4 KO mice demonstrated decreased burrowing and increased social exploration. No differences were seen in forced swim or saccharine preference testing. IL-4 KO mice had similar performance to WT mice in the Morris water maze and during object location and novel object recognition. In the elevated zero-maze, IL-4 KO mice, in comparison to WT mice, demonstrated anxiety-like behavior. Anxiety-like behavior in IL-4 KO mice was not observed, however, during open-field testing. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-4 KO mice display state, but not trait, anxiety suggesting that reductions in endogenous anti-inflammatory bioactives can engender subtypes of anxiety. PMID:25772794

  10. IL-4 Knock Out Mice Display Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    PubMed

    Moon, Morgan L; Joesting, Jennifer J; Blevins, Neil A; Lawson, Marcus A; Gainey, Stephen J; Towers, Albert E; McNeil, Leslie K; Freund, Gregory G

    2015-07-01

    Inflammation is a recognized antecedent and coincident factor when examining the biology of anxiety. Little is known, however, about how reductions in endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators impact anxiety. Therefore, mood- cognition- and anxiety-associated/like behaviors were examined in IL-4 knock out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In comparison to WT mice, IL-4 KO mice demonstrated decreased burrowing and increased social exploration. No differences were seen in forced swim or saccharine preference testing. IL-4 KO mice had similar performance to WT mice in the Morris water maze and during object location and novel object recognition. In the elevated zero-maze, IL-4 KO mice, in comparison to WT mice, demonstrated anxiety-like behavior. Anxiety-like behavior in IL-4 KO mice was not observed, however, during open-field testing. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-4 KO mice display state, but not trait, anxiety suggesting that reductions in endogenous anti-inflammatory bioactives can engender subtypes of anxiety.

  11. Hepatic immunophenotyping for streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sun; Eun, Hyuk Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Jeong, Jong-Min; Seo, Wonhyo; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Won-Il; Yi, Hyon-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence revealed that diabetes induces abnormal immune responses that result in serious complications in organs. However, the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic immunity remains obscure. We evaluated the population and function of hepatic immune cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic mice. CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-knockout mice and mice with a depletion of regulatory T cells (DEREG) were used to investigate the migration and role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in hyperglycemic mice. The inflammatory cytokines and hepatic transaminase levels were significantly increased in the hyperglycemic mice. The population and number of infiltrating monocytes, granulocytes, and Tregs were enhanced in the livers of the hyperglycemic mice. Hepatic monocytes other than macrophages showed the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the hyperglycemic mice. The CCR2 knockout and DEREG chimeric mice exhibited increased populations of activated T cells and neutrophils compared to the WT chimeric mice, which promoted hepatic inflammation in the hyperglycemic mice. The migration of CCR2 knockout Tregs into the liver was significantly reduced compared to the WT Tregs. We demonstrated that hyperglycemia contributes to increase in infiltrating monocytes and Tregs, which are associated with hepatic immune dysfunction in mice. CCR2-mediated migration of Tregs regulates hyperglycemia-induced hepatic inflammation. PMID:27464894

  12. A Dramatic Flame Test Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristin A.; Schreiner, Rodney

    2001-01-01

    Flame tests are used for demonstration of atomic structure. Describes a demonstration that uses spray bottles filled with methanol and a variety of salts to produce a brilliantly colored flame. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

  13. Revisiting the Electric Pickle Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The electric pickle is a classic demonstration that is widely used in both high school and college settings to explain the general principles behind atomic emission. The demonstration fails to provide an interesting multi-line spectrum.

  14. Favorite Demonstrations for College Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Peer-reviewed, classroom-tested, and tailored specifically for introductory science courses, Favorite Demonstrations is a complement to every college instructor's lesson plans. The book is an all-in-one compilation of 36 popular classroom demonstrations published since 1993 in the "Favorite Demonstration" column of NSTA's Journal of College …

  15. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  16. Partial return yoke for MICE step IV and final step

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H.; Plate, S.; Berg, J. S.; Tarrant, J.; Bross, A.

    2015-05-03

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  17. Partial Return Yoke for MICE Step IV and Final Step

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, Holger; Plate, Stephen; Berg, J.Scott; Tarrant, Jason; Bross, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  18. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  19. Progress of the MICE experiment at RAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesini, M.

    2013-04-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. The demonstration comprises one cell of the US Neutrino Factory Study II cooling channel. Results obtained on the construction of the beamline and its instrumentation (STEP I) will be reviewed, together with progress towards final measurements of ionization cooling (STEP IV and VI).

  20. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.L.; Brown, T.A.; Brown, R.D.; Munson, A.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment.

  1. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Jae Hyung Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-11-16

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca{sup 2+}/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.

  2. Diet-induced obese mice retain endogenous leptin action.

    PubMed

    Ottaway, Nickki; Mahbod, Parinaz; Rivero, Belen; Norman, Lee Ann; Gertler, Arieh; D'Alessio, David A; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is characterized by hyperleptinemia and decreased response to exogenous leptin. This has been widely attributed to the development of leptin resistance, a state of impaired leptin signaling proposed to contribute to the development and persistence of obesity. To directly determine endogenous leptin activity in obesity, we treated lean and obese mice with a leptin receptor antagonist. The antagonist increased feeding and body weight (BW) in lean mice, but not in obese models of leptin, leptin receptor, or melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency. In contrast, the antagonist increased feeding and BW comparably in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, an increase associated with decreased hypothalamic expression of Socs3, a primary target of leptin. These findings demonstrate that hyperleptinemic DIO mice retain leptin suppression of feeding comparable to lean mice and counter the view that resistance to endogenous leptin contributes to the persistence of DIO in mice.

  3. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, Gregg A; McGinley, Matthew J; McCormick, David A

    2016-03-16

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/-) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/- mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/- mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/- song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene's role in general vocal motor control.

  4. Status of MICE, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Alan D.; MICE Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate transverse muon ionization cooling and is thus a strategic R&D project for future muon facilities. It is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom.

  5. Understanding Statistics Using Computer Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses programs that clarify some statistical ideas often discussed yet poorly understood by students. The programs adopt the approach of demonstrating what is happening, rather than using the computer to do the work for the students (and hide the understanding). The programs demonstrate normal probability plots, overfitting of…

  6. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  7. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  8. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  9. A Demonstration on Every Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that inclusion of demonstrations on examinations increases students' ability to observe carefully the physical world around them, translate from observation in terms of models, and make quantitative estimates and physicist-type "back-of-the-envelope" calculations. Presents demonstration ideas covering the following topics: mechanics,…

  10. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  11. A Demonstration of Sample Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Mark D.; Brumbach, Stephen B.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of sample segregation, which is simple, and visually compelling illustrates the importance of sample handling for students studying analytical chemistry and environmental chemistry. The mixture used in this demonstration has two components, which have big particle size, and different colors, which makes the segregation graphic.

  12. Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2002-01-01

    Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

  13. Rocket Ignition Demonstrations Using Silane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert; Watkins, William B.; Kincaid, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Rocket ignition demonstration tests using silane were performed at the Penn State Combustion Research Laboratory. A heat sink combustor with one injection element was used with gaseous propellants. Mixtures of silane and hydrogen were used as fuel, and oxygen was used as oxidizer. Reliable ignition was demonstrated using fuel lead and and a swirl injection element.

  14. Three Mechanical Demonstrations of Chaos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations showing chaotic motion, which makes long-term prediction impossible. Discusses the apparatus for the demonstrations and procedures for illustrating chaotic motion of pendulum, balls rolling in a double potential well, and a ball rolling on a balanced beam. (YP)

  15. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  16. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration: Selection of potential demonstration locations

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The first step towards identifying primary Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration locations is the selection of potential demonstration sites within the Subsurface Disposal Area. The sites selected are Pits 4, 5, 6, and 9, containing transuranic waste of Rocky Flats origin, the Acid Pit, and Pad A. The criteria and methodology for selection of these sites, as well as a description of the wastes present in each area, are included in this report. At a later date, technology-specific demonstration locations will be selected from these six potential sites. The selected locations will be used as necessary to demonstrate technologies whose potential abilities may be optimal on waste forms present at these identified locations.

  17. Reliability prediction for the SLOWPOKE demonstration reactor building heating demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, D.J. ); Cole, D.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE demonstration reactor (SDR) is a new prototype heating reactor, nominally 2 MW(thermal), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at the Whiteshell Laboratories. This project is part of a program to demonstrate the concept of supplying low-grade heat up to 10 MW(thermal) to localized district heating grids from an unpressurized nuclear heating source using a low-enriched, CANDU-type fuel. Reactor thermal-hydraulic and core physics commissioning experiments and analysis up to 1.2 MW(thermal) were completed in 1990. This report presents that part of the safety and reliability analysis program that provided reliability predictions for the associated building heating demonstration (BHD) systems. Proposed upgrades to test the 10-MW(thermal) core design have delayed the long-term heat demonstration commissioning tests.

  18. Tested Demonstrations. A Chemiluminescence Demonstration - Oxalyl Chloride Oxidation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilber, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive, effective chemiluminescence demonstration requires minimal preparation. It is based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an appropriate fluorescent sensitizer. The reaction mechanism is not completely understood. (BB)

  19. Tested Demonstrations: A Simple Demonstration of Reversible Oxygenation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kildahl, Nicholas K.

    1983-01-01

    Materials needed, reaction involved, and potential hazards are provided for a demonstration of reversible oxygenation. Also discusses the importance of the reaction in biological systems, focusing on hemoglobin/myoglobin and their function in mammals. (JM)

  20. Narp knockout mice show normal reactivity to novelty but attenuated recovery from neophobia.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Ashley M; Lee, Jongah J; Tao, Bo; Smith, Dani R; Johnson, Alexander W; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2013-11-15

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate cognitive inflexibility and addictive behavior, which are associated with abnormal reactivity to a novel stimulus. To assess reactivity to novelty, we tested Narp KO and wild-type (WT) mice on a neophobia procedure. Both Narp KO and WT mice showed a similar decrease in consumption upon initial exposure to a novel flavor, but Narp KO mice did not increase consumption with subsequent exposures to the novel flavor like the WT mice. Therefore, Narp KO mice do not have abnormal reactivity to novelty but show deficits in adapting behavior to reflect the updated value of a stimulus.

  1. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  2. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  3. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  4. Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration (OCSD) project addresses two cross-cutting capabilities of value to many future small spacecraft missions: high-speed optical transmission of data and small spacecraft proximity operations. Optical data rates demonstrated by OCSD are expected to be 200 megabits persecond (Mbs) or higher, a factor of 100 increase over current high-end CubeSat communications systems. The proximity sensors developed for this mission enable relative position measurement between two small satellites - a capability not previously demonstrated.

  5. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  6. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  8. Demonstration of the Fenton Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luehrs, Dean C.; Roher, Alex E.

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates the Fenton reaction, which is carried out using the Fenton reagent that is used for groundwater and soil remediation. The Fenton reaction can be implicated in DNA damage, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease and ageing in general.

  9. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.

    1990-01-01

    Classroom demonstrations of selected mechanical properties of polymers are described that can be used to make quantitative measurements. Stiffness, strength, and extensibility are mechanical properties used to distinguish one polymer from another. (KR)

  10. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGES

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-08-06

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. Lastly, the current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  11. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  12. Rubens Flame-Tube Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficken, George W.; Stephenson, Francis C.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates and explains the phenomenon associated with Rubens flame-tube demonstration, specifically the persistance of flames at regular intervals along the tube for few minutes after the gas is turned off. (GA)

  13. Teacher Training: The Demonstration Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Alan C.

    1977-01-01

    A teacher training technique is discussed involving a demonstration class given by a local teacher and observed by prospective teachers. After the class a discussion is held analyzing lesson content and teaching techniques. (CHK)

  14. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-08-06

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. Lastly, the current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  15. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-09

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  16. Novel Third-Law Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, William

    1995-01-01

    Presents an easy method to demonstrate Third-Law interactions using identical button magnets sliding along a smooth (nonmagnetic) knitting needle. Explains the gravitational and magnetic interactions in the case of horizontal and vertical positions of the needle. (JRH)

  17. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leonova, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  18. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  19. Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, Deborah; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) mission is to demonstrate interactive satellite swarms capable of collecting, exchanging and transmitting multi-point scientific measurements. Satellite swarms enable a wide array of scientific, commercial and academic research not achievable with a single satellite. The EDSN satellites are scheduled to be launched into space as secondary payloads on the first flight of the Super Strypi launch vehicle no earlier than Oct. 29, 2015.

  20. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  1. Yo-Yo Pull Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2013-01-01

    A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in…

  2. Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

  3. Favorite Demonstrations: A Macroscopic Demonstration of a Microscopic Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellen, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Finding ways to demonstrate microscopic phenomena and contending with life science students' lack of interest in physical principles are two problems in laboratory courses. Describes a clinical laboratory test for parasite infection that can be used to effectively solve both of them. (RT)

  4. Demonstration Extension: Copper-to-Silver-to-Gold Penny Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    This demonstration, if done in the original way, can lead to fires in waste containers (sometimes in the middle of the night after the experiment has been conducted), because pyrophoric zinc is generated by suspending powdered zinc in hot sodium hydroxide. This is avoided by using hot ZnSO[subscript 4].

  5. Tested Demonstrations. Brownian Motion: A Classroom Demonstration and Student Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirksey, H. Graden; Jones, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how video recordings of the Brownian motion of tiny particles may be made. Describes a classroom demonstration and cites a reported experiment designed to show the random nature of Brownian motion. Suggests a student experiment to discover the distance a tiny particle travels as a function of time. (MVL)

  6. Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

  7. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  9. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y.-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-10-28

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg {sup 76}Ge and 15 kg {sup nat}Ge) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, is already in progress.

  10. Long distance laser communications demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northcott, Malcolm J.; McClaren, A.; Graves, J. E.; Phillips, John; Driver, Don; Abelson, David; Young, David W.; Sluz, Joseph E.; Juarez, Juan C.; Airola, Marc B.; Sova, Raymond M.; Hurt, Harry; Foshee, James

    2007-04-01

    AOptix demonstrated a simulated air-to-air laser communications (laser-com) system over a 147Km distance by establishing a laser communication link between the islands of Hawaii and Maui. We expect the atmospheric conditions encountered during this demonstration to be representative of the worst seeing conditions that could be expected for an actual air to air link. AOptix utilized laser-com terminal incorporating Adaptive Optics (AO) to perform high speed tracking and aberration correction to reduce the effects of the seeing. The demonstration showed the feasibility of establishing high data rate point to point laser-com links between aircraft. In conjunction with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory networking equipment we were able to demonstrate a 40Gbit DWDM link, providing significantly more data throughput than is available using RF technologies. In addition to being very high data rate, the link demonstrates very low beam spread, which gives very high covertness, and a high degree of data security. Since the link is based on 1550nm optical wavelengths it is inherently resistant to jamming.

  11. Histochemical demonstration of methamphetamine by immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, I; Mukaida, M; Yoshii, T; Suyama, H

    1987-05-01

    A method for the demonstration of methamphetamine (MA) by immunocytochemistry was established. The tissues of intoxicated mice, administered various amounts of MA in single doses of from 0.01 to 1 mg of MA-HCl, were fixed in glutaraldehyde-containing fixatives. Cryostat and paraffin slices gave a positive reaction of MA localization by staining the brain, liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, and so forth, with the aid of the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Those of animals administered a single dose of 0.1 mg or more (over 3 to 4 mg/kg--the usual dose of MA in acute intoxication death in forensic medicine), in particular, gave a strong strong reaction, so that the diagnosis of MA intoxication can be performed by macroscopic observation of stained slices. The histochemical diagnosis of MA intoxication in clinical toxicology and pathology might be regarded as a useful tool, especially in forensic pathology. The following cells gave a strong positive reaction: nerve cells and myelin sheaths, hepatocytes, epithelial cells of the distal part of the renal tubule and of the collecting tubule, alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells of the lung, chief and parietal cells of the gastric gland, capillaries of the renal glomerulus, macrophages in the blood and tissues, and striated muscle cells including cardiocytes. The morphological evidence of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of MA can be determined at the cellular level by immunocytochemistry.

  12. The selective advantage of crypsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Vignieri, Sacha N; Larson, Joanna G; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2010-07-01

    The light color of mice that inhabit the sandy dunes of Florida's coast have served as a textbook example of adaptation for nearly a century, despite the fact that the selective advantage of crypsis has never been directly tested or quantified in nature. Using plasticine mouse models of light and dark color, we demonstrate a strong selective advantage for mice that match their local background substrate. Further our data suggest that stabilizing selection maintains color matching within a single habitat, as models that are both lighter and darker than their local environment are selected against. These results provide empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that visual hunting predators shape color patterning in Peromyscus mice and suggest a mechanism by which selection drives the pronounced color variation among populations. PMID:20163447

  13. Loudspeaker line array educational demonstration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Moser, Brad; Gee, Kent L

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a physical demonstration of an audio-range line array used to teach interference of multiple sources in a classroom or laboratory exercise setting. Software has been developed that permits real-time control and steering of the array. The graphical interface permits a user to vary the frequency, the angular response by phase shading, and reduce sidelobes through amplitude shading. An inexpensive, eight-element loudspeaker array has been constructed to test the control program. Directivity measurements of this array in an anechoic chamber and in a large classroom are presented. These measurements have good agreement with theoretical directivity predictions, thereby allowing its use as a quantitative learning tool for advanced students as well as a qualitative demonstration of arrays in other settings. Portions of this paper are directed toward educators who may wish to implement a similar demonstration for their advanced undergraduate or graduate level course in acoustics.

  14. Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, I. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixtures of materials of different specific gravities would remain stable in the liquid state and during freezing in low g and not segregate as they do on earth. An inflight demonstration was performed on the Apollo 14 mission during the translunar and and transearth coast periods. The apparatus consisted of an electrical heater, a heat sink device for cooling, and sealed metal capsules containing matrix materials having a low-melting point and dispersants. The evaluation of the demonstration samples was accomplished by comparing space processed (flight) samples with (control) samples processed on the ground under otherwise similar conditions. In the low q environment of space flight the dispersions of particles, fibers, and gases in a liquid metal matrix were maintained during solidification. Dispersions of normally immiscible liquids were also maintained during solidification.

  15. Report on modular hydropower demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, F.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes an Energy Authority project to demonstrate the use of modular small hydropower systems at two sites. The project demonstrated that 'off-the-shelf' components can be used to construct a functionally reliable, cost-effective hydropower system at a significant savings over custom-designed systems. A key feature of the modular system is the replacement of the conventional hydroelectric turbine with a pump operated in reverse. Also, the construction of a water-intake system in the dam is replaced with a siphon penstock. Further cost and time savings are gained from the use of a prefabricated powerhouse and automated control equipment. The project demonstrated that modular systems are an attractive option for sites with capacities from under 100 to 500 kilowatts. The modular concept is applicable at about 250 sites Statewide, with a combined capacity of up to 400 MW.

  16. Yo-yo Pull Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William

    2013-03-01

    A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in its lowest position.2,3 As well as pulling the yo-yo horizontally, often the string is lifted until the angle it makes with the table causes no motion. This occurs when the line extended from the string intersects the point of contact of the yo-yo with the table.4 This paper describes an apparatus that extends these demonstrations to the situation where the force pulling the yo-yo is still horizontal yet is below the level of the table.

  17. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  18. Laithwaite's Heavy Spinning Disk Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2014-09-01

    In 1974, Professor Eric Laithwaite demonstrated an unusually heavy gyroscope at a Royal Institution lecture in London. The demonstration was televised and can be viewed on YouTube.1 A recent version of the same experiment, together with partial explanations, attracted two million YouTube views in the first few months.2 In both cases, the gyroscope consisted of a 40-lb (18-kg) spinning disk on the end of a 3-ft (0.91-m) long axle. The most remarkable feature of the demonstration was that Laithwaite was able to lift the disk over his head with one hand, holding onto the far end of the axle. The impression was given that the 40-lb disk was almost weightless, or "as light as a feather" according to Laithwaite.

  19. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  20. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  1. TRUEX hot demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  2. SECURES: Austin, Texas demonstration results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Glynn; Shaw, Scott; Scharf, Peter; Stellingworth, Bob

    2003-09-01

    The Law Enforcement technology development community has a growing interest in the technologies associated with gunshot detection and localization. These interests revolve around community-oriented policing. Technologies of interest include those associated with muzzle blast and bullet shockwave detection and the inter-netting of these acoustic sensors with electro-optic sensors. To date, no one sensor technology has proven totally effective for a complete solution. PSI has a muzzle blast detection and localization product which is wireless, highly mobile and reconfigurable, with a user-friendly laptop processor and display unit, which completed a one-year demonstration in Austin, Texas on July 6, 2002. This demonstration was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice and in cooperation with the Austin Police Department. This paper will discuss the details of the demonstrations, provide a summarized evaluation, elucidate the lessons learned, make recommendations for future deployments and discuss the developmental directions indicated for the future.

  3. Cognitive dysfunction in mice deficient for TNF- and its receptors.

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Wiede, Florian; Braun, Anja; Golledge, Jonathan; Arolt, Volker; Koerner, Heinrich

    2008-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests a role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) in the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this work was to examine the effect of a deficiency of TNF (TNF(-/-)) and its main receptors (TNF-R1(-/-) and TNF-R2(-/-)) on cognitive function. A standardized survey on cognition-like behavior assessing learning and retention, spatial learning/memory, cognitive flexibility, and learning effectiveness was used in B6.WT and B6.TNF gene targeted mice strains (B6.wild-type, B6.TNF(-/-), B6.TNF-R1(-/-), B6.TNF-R2(-/-) mice). All studied mice strains demonstrated successful exploration and learning processes during the training phases of the tests, which made the specific cognition-like tests valid in these mice strains. In the specific cognition-like tests, the B6.TNF(-/-) mice demonstrated significantly poorer learning and retention in the novel object test compared to B6.WT, B6.TNF-R1(-/-) and B6.TNF-R2(-/-) mice. In addition, spatial learning and learning effectiveness were significantly poorer in B6.TNF(-/-) mice compared to B6.WT mice. Moreover, the moderately impaired cognitive performance with similar degrees in B6.TNF-R1(-/-) or B6.TNF-R2(-/-) mice was generally better than in TNF(-/-) mice but also poorer than in B6.WT mice. While the absence of TNF was correlated with poor cognitive functioning, the deletion of both TNF-receptors was involved in partially reduced cognitive functioning. Low-levels of TNF under non-inflammatory immune conditions appear essential for normal cognitive function. TNF displays an interesting candidate gene for cognitive function. Translational research is required to investigate associations between genetic variants of TNF and cognitive function in healthy subjects and neuropsychiatric samples.

  4. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  5. Macrophage functions in Biozzi mice.

    PubMed Central

    Dockrell, H M; Taverne, J; Lelchuk, R; Depledge, P; Brown, I N; Playfair, J H

    1985-01-01

    The faster degradation of antigen by macrophages in Biozzi low (L) responder mice, compared to Biozzi high (H) responder mice, is thought to be responsible for their lower antibody response. We have measured four functions associated with macrophages to see whether macrophages from L mice were generally more active than those from H mice. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from normal mice were compared with those from groups of mice given Mycobacterium bovis BCG or Propionibacterium acnes. Cells from normal H mice gave a stronger oxidative burst when triggered with phorbol myristate acetate, and were more cytotoxic for tumour cells than cells from L mice. Cells from all mice injected with BCG or P. acnes gave a stronger oxidative burst, and were more cytotoxic for tumour cells; again, both responses were higher in H mice than in L mice. By contrast, when groups of mice that had received P. acnes were given endotoxin and bled, higher titres of tumour necrosis factor were found in the sera of L mice. Spleen cells from both lines of mice released similar levels of interleukin-1, both spontaneously and in response to lipopolysaccharide. Our results suggest that these various macrophage responses are expressed independently in H and L mice. PMID:3894222

  6. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  7. Unmanned space vehicle technology demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, U.; Accardo, D.; Grassi, M.; Curreri, F.

    2007-02-01

    The unmanned space vehicle (USV) program has been undertaken by the Italian Center for Aerospace Research with the aim of developing flying test beds of next generation reentry launch vehicles. In this framework, the development of small demonstrators is also foreseen to validate technological and operational aspects of full-scale vehicles and missions. In this paper, a small-scale demonstrator of the sub-orbital re-entry test mission of the USV program is described. Both mission profile and objectives are very challenging in terms of demonstrator guidance, navigation and control. After a short description of the mission and demonstrator architectures, particular emphasis is given to the guidance and navigation analysis. To this end, mission objectives and reduced-scale system constaints are integrated and translated into innovative guidance solutions relying on optimization techniques. Then, performance of a commercial-off-the-shelf GPS-aided, miniature inertial navigation system over the proposed trajectories is evaluated by Monte Carlo analysis. Standalone inertial and GPS-aided inertial navigation performance is also compared considering GPS loss conditions due to antenna plasma effects.

  8. RADON MITIGATION STUDIES: NASHVILLE DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation demonstration project involving 14 houses in the Nashville, TN, area with indoor radon levels of 5.6-47.6 pCi/L, using a variety of techniques, designed to be the most cost effective methods possible to implement, and yet adequa...

  9. Demonstrations with an "LCR" Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The "LCR" circuit is an important topic in the course of electricity and magnetism. Papers in this field consider mainly the forced oscillations and resonance. Our aim is to show how to demonstrate the free and self-excited oscillations in an "LCR" circuit. (Contains 4 figures.)

  10. Solar heating demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bonicatto, L.; Kozak, C.

    1980-01-01

    The demonstration involved a 4-panel solar collector mounted on the industrial arts building. A 120 gallon storage tank supplements a 66 gallon electric hot water heater which supplies hot water for 5 shop wash basins, girl's and boy's lavatories, and a pressure washer in the auto shop. The installation and educational uses of the system are described. (MHR)

  11. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  12. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  13. Diffraction Plates for Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the computer generation of random and regular arrays of apertures on photographic film and their applications for classroom demonstrations of the Fraunhofer patterns produced by simple and complex apertures, Babinet's principle, resolution according to the Rayleigh criterion, and many other aspects of diffraction. (LC)

  14. A Demonstration of Simultaneous Electrochemiluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sotomayor-Martinez Barranco, Biaani; Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Camacho-Zuniga, Claudia; Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Paired (simultaneous) electrochemical processes can increase energy savings in selected cases by using the reactions at both electrodes of an electrochemical cell to perform a desired process, as is the case in the commercially successful chlor-alkali process. In the demonstration described herein, simultaneous blue electrochemiluminescence (ECL)…

  15. Demonstrations To Save the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Dias, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents two environmental modeling activities, biosphere bubbles and a crystal ball of population growth, along with a related online exercise and explains proven teaching methods that make demonstrations less teacher-centered and more engaging for groups of collaborating students. (KHR)

  16. Demonstrating Fermat's principle in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either maximum or minimum geometrical lengths.

  17. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  18. International Space Station technology demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an ISS Pre-Planned Program Improvement (P3I), Technology/Improvement Roadmap. The P3I roadmap is an integrated set of technology and improvement requirements for: (1) ISS subsystem upgrades and improvements (addressing maintenance, logistics, sustainability, and enhancement functions), (2) payload hardware technology infusion, (3) ISS/Exploration technology development and tests (dual use/benefits), and (4) Engineering Research and Technology payloads. As examples of the International Space Station's technology testbed capabilities, implementation approaches for three types of propulsion technology demonstrations and research are described: (1) electric and electromagnetic propulsion technologies and systems (NASA Lewis Research Center), (2) technologies and sub-systems for a variable specific impulse (Isp), magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), (Advanced Propulsion Lab, Sonny Carter Training Facility, Houston, Tx), and (3) candidates for innovative, deep space propulsion technology research and demonstrations (projections based on NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, Propulsion Research and other R.&D activities.).

  19. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes several techniques to help students visualize the principles of polymer chemistry. Outlines demonstrations using simple materials (such as pop-it beads, thread, and wire) to illustrate the size of macromolecules, the composition of copolymers, and the concept of molecular mass. (TW)

  20. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  1. Satellite Technology Demonstration; Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federation of Rocky Mountain States, Inc., Denver, CO.

    The goal of the Satellite Technology Demonstration project (STD) was to show the feasibility of a satellite-based media system for isolated, rural populations and to test and evaluate user acceptance and the cost of various delivery modes using a variety of materials. The STD amalgamated the resources of government, health, education, and…

  2. Demonstrating Sound Impulses in Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymer, M. G.; Micklavzina, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple, direct method to demonstrate the effects of the boundary conditions on sound impulse reflections in pipes. A graphical display of the results can be made using a pipe, cork, small hammer, microphone, and fast recording electronics. Explains the principles involved. (LZ)

  3. Methylphenidate restores novel object recognition in DARPP-32 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Heyser, Charles J; McNaughton, Caitlyn H; Vishnevetsky, Donna; Fienberg, Allen A

    2013-09-15

    Previously, we have shown that Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa (DARPP-32) knockout mice required significantly more trials to reach criterion than wild-type mice in an operant reversal-learning task. The present study was conducted to examine adult male and female DARPP-32 knockout mice and wild-type controls in a novel object recognition test. Wild-type and knockout mice exhibited comparable behavior during the initial exploration trials. As expected, wild-type mice exhibited preferential exploration of the novel object during the substitution test, demonstrating recognition memory. In contrast, knockout mice did not show preferential exploration of the novel object, instead exhibiting an increase in exploration of all objects during the test trial. Given that the removal of DARPP-32 is an intracellular manipulation, it seemed possible to pharmacologically restore some cellular activity and behavior by stimulating dopamine receptors. Therefore, a second experiment was conducted examining the effect of methylphenidate. The results show that methylphenidate increased horizontal activity in both wild-type and knockout mice, though this increase was blunted in knockout mice. Pretreatment with methylphenidate significantly impaired novel object recognition in wild-type mice. In contrast, pretreatment with methylphenidate restored the behavior of DARPP-32 knockout mice to that observed in wild-type mice given saline. These results provide additional evidence for a functional role of DARPP-32 in the mediation of processes underlying learning and memory. These results also indicate that the behavioral deficits in DARPP-32 knockout mice may be restored by the administration of methylphenidate.

  4. Effect of low frequency low energy pulsing electromagnetic fields on mice injected with cyclophosphamide

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Franceschi, C.; Cossarizza, A.; Santantonio, M.; Mandolini, G.; Torelli, G. )

    1991-03-01

    C3H mice have been used to investigate the effect of a combination of cyclophosphamide (CY) and electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Mice were injected i.p. with a single dose of 200 mg/kg body weight of CY and then exposed to PEMF 24 h per day. In an initial series of experiments immediately after CY injection mice were exposed to PEMF until sacrifice. WBC counts in the peripheral blood demonstrated a quicker decline in WBC at days 1 and 2 in mice exposed to PEMF. Groups of mice were sacrificed at days 1, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after CY injection. In mice exposed to PEMF the spleen weight was less than in controls at days 6, 8, and 10. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that the labeling index of bone marrow smears did not significantly differ between controls and experimental mice exposed to PEMF, whereas the spleen labeling index proved to be higher among control mice versus mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, and higher among mice exposed to PEMF versus controls at day 8. In a second series of experiments mice were exposed to PEMF only over the 24 h following CY injection. We found that the spleens of mice exposed to PEMF weighed less than those of controls at days 6 and 8. The labeling index of bone marrow did evidence a slight decrease among mice exposed to PEMF at days 8 and 10 after CY injection versus control mice. The spleen labeling index proved to be lower in experimental mice exposed to PEMF than in controls at days 4, 6, and 8. Mice were then injected with CY, half were exposed to PEMF, and 24 h later bone marrow was recovered from both groups of animals. The same number of bone marrow cells was injected via the tail vein into recipient mice irradiated to 8.5 Gy.

  5. Natural Hazard Demonstrations for Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents several demonstrations that have been developed or gathered from other sources in the general area of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, tsunamis, mass movements, asteroid impacts, etc.). There are many methods of teaching, but as university lecturers, particularly for large class sizes, we find ourselves too often presenting material to students by direct speaking, or some combination of blackboard/whiteboard/slide projector/digital projector. There are certainly a number of techniques to more actively involve students, so that teaching is not just `receiving of information', including breaking up students into small group discussions, encouraging students to actively participate in class through comments and questions, and/or some combination of hands-on activities and demonstrations. It is this latter which is concentrated on here. As a teaching tool, the students themselves became much more excited about what they are learning if use is made of 5--10 minute demonstrations, even if only peripherally related to the subject at hand. The resultant discussion with questions and comments by students keeps both the students and the lecturer (in this case the author) motivated and intrigued about the subjects being discussed. Days, weeks, and months later, the students remember these `demonstrations', but to set these up takes time, effort, and resources of equipment, although not necessarily a large amount of the latter. Several natural hazards demonstrations are presented here, most inexpensive, that have been used in front of large university classes and smaller `break-out groups', and which can also be adapted for secondary-school students.

  6. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yinger, Robert; Irwin, Mark

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  7. NSG Mice Provide a Better Spontaneous Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis than Athymic (Nude) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Puchalapalli, Madhavi; Zeng, Xianke; Mu, Liang; Anderson, Aubree; Hix Glickman, Laura; Zhang, Ming; Sayyad, Megan R.; Mosticone Wangensteen, Sierra; Clevenger, Charles V.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of mortality in breast cancer patients worldwide. To identify improved mouse models for breast cancer growth and spontaneous metastasis, we examined growth and metastasis of both estrogen receptor positive (T47D) and negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM1315, and CN34BrM) human breast cancer cells in nude and NSG mice. Both primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastases were increased in NSG mice compared to nude mice. In addition, a pattern of metastasis similar to that observed in human breast cancer patients (metastases to the lungs, liver, bones, brain, and lymph nodes) was found in NSG mice. Furthermore, there was an increase in the metastatic burden in NSG compared to nude mice that were injected with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in an intracardiac experimental metastasis model. This data demonstrates that NSG mice provide a better model for studying human breast cancer metastasis compared to the current nude mouse model. PMID:27662655

  8. Plasma hearth process demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Geimer, R.M.; Gillins, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is a high temperature thermal treatment process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form, greatly improving the disposability of the waste. This paper describes the PHP system and summarizes test results to date, including volume reduction, destruction and removal efficiencies for organic wastes, and emission characteristics. Tests performed so far demonstrate that the PHP adresses DOE mixed waste final waste form requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure requirements.

  9. The Seasat commercial demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandless, S. W.; Miller, B. P.; Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The background and development of the Seasat commercial demonstration program are reviewed and the Seasat spacecraft and its sensors (altimeter, wind field scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer) are described. The satellite data distribution system allows for selected sets of data, reformatted or tailored to specific needs and geographical regions, to be available to commercial users. Products include sea level and upper atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, marine winds, significant wave heights, primary wave direction and period, and spectral wave data. The results of a set of retrospective case studies performed for the commercial demonstration program are described. These are in areas of application such as marine weather and ocean condition forecasting, offshore resource exploration and development, commercial fishing, and marine transportation.

  10. Electrophoresis demonstration on Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Free fluid electrophoresis, a process used to separate particulate species according to surface charge, size, or shape was suggested as a promising technique to utilize the near zero gravity condition of space. Fluid electrophoresis on earth is disturbed by gravity-induced thermal convection and sedimentation. An apparatus was developed to demonstrate the principle and possible problems of electrophoresis on Apollo 14 and the separation boundary between red and blue dye was photographed in space. The basic operating elements of the Apollo 14 unit were used for a second flight demonstration on Apollo 16. Polystyrene latex particles of two different sizes were used to simulate the electrophoresis of large biological particles. The particle bands in space were extremely stable compared to ground operation because convection in the fluid was negligible. Electrophoresis of the polystyrene latex particle groups according to size was accomplished although electro-osmosis in the flight apparatus prevented the clear separation of two particle bands.

  11. Performance demonstration by ROC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Hannelore; Nockemann, Christina; Tillack, Gerd-Rüdiger; Mattis, Arne

    1994-12-01

    The question of the efficiency of a material testing system is important, when a competing or advanced system appears at the market. The comparison of the different systems can be done partly by the comparison of the technical specification of the systems, but not all parameters can be expressed by measured values, especially not the influence of human inspectors. A testing system in the field of NDT - for example weld inspection - often consists of several different devices and components (radiographic film, its irradiation and development, conventional inspection with a light box, human inspector). The demonstration of the performance of such a system with similar or advanced methods can be done by a statistical method, the ROC method. This quantitative measure for testing performance allows the comparison of complex NDT systems which will be demonstrated in detail by the comparison of conventional weld inspection with inspection of welds using the digitised image of the radiographs.

  12. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, H. O.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, D.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-08-01

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  13. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, David L.; Mills, Raymond A.; Bowden, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) was to create a near-term Shuttle flight experiment focusing on the deployment and erection of structural truss elements. The activities of the MIT Space Systems Laboratory consist of three major areas: preparing and conducting neutral buoyancy simulation test series; producing a formal SADE Experiment plan; and studying the structural dynamics issues of the truss structure. Each of these areas is summarized.

  14. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  15. Technology demonstration for reusable launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiocco, P.; Bonnal, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    Reusable launchers have been studied under CNES contracts for more than 30 years, with early concepts such as STS-2000 or Oriflamme, more recently with very significant efforts devoted to Liquid Fly Back Boosters as with the Bargouzin project led with Tsniimash, TSTO with the Everest concept studied by Airbus-DS as prime contractor or the RFS Reusable First Stage concept of a large first stage associated to a cryotechnic second stage. These investigations, summarized in the first part of the paper, enabled CNES to identify clearly the technology requirements associated to reusability, as well as cost efficiency through detailed non-recurring costs and mission costs analysis. In parallel, CNES set in place development logic for sub-systems and equipment based on demonstrators, hardware test benches enabling maturation of technologies up to a TRL such that an actual development can be decided with limited risk. This philosophy has been applied so far to a large number of cases, such as TPTech and TPX for Hydrogen turbo pump, GGPX as demonstrator of innovative gas generator, HX demonstrator of modern cryotechnic upper stage with a dozen of different objectives (Thermal Protection, 20K Helium storage, measurements …). This virtuous approach, "learn as you test", is currently applied in the phased approach towards scaled down reusable booster stage, whose possibility to be used as first stage of a microlaunch vehicle is under investigation. The selected technologies allow paving the way towards reusable booster stages for Ariane 6 evolutions or main reusable stage for a further generation of heavy launchers. The paper describes the logic behind this project, together with the demonstration objectives set for the various sub-systems as well as operations.

  16. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

  17. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

  18. Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS, T.L.

    2003-02-01

    Among the highest priorities for action under the ''Hanford Federal Facility and Agreement and Consent Order'', hereafter referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, is the retrieval, treatment and disposal of Hanford Site tank waste. Tank waste is recognized as one of the primary threats to the Columbia River and one of the most complex technical challenges. Progress has been made in resolving safety issues, characterizing tank waste and past tank leaks, enhancing double-shell tank waste transfer and operations systems, retrieving single-shell tank waste, deploying waste treatment facilities, and planning for the disposal of immobilized waste product. However, limited progress has been made in developing technologies and providing a sound technical basis for tank system closure. To address this limitation the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project was created to develop information through technology demonstrations in support of waste retrieval and closure decisions. To complete its mission the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project has adopted performance objectives that include: protecting human health and the environment; minimizing/eliminating potential waste releases to the soil and groundwater; preventing water infiltration into the tank; maintaining accessibility of surrounding tanks for future closure; maintaining tank structural integrity; complying with applicable waste retrieval, disposal, and closure regulations; and maintaining flexibility for final closure options in the future.

  19. Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-04-01

    The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

  20. Dexterous end effector flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L.; Monford, Leo G.

    1994-01-01

    The Dexterous End Effector Flight Experiment is a flight demonstration of newly developed equipment and methods which make for more dexterous manipulation of robotic arms. The following concepts are to be demonstrated: The Force Torque Sensor is a six axis load cell located at the end of the RMS which displays load data to the operator on the orbiter CCTV monitor. TRAC is a target system which provides six axis positional information to the operator. It has the characteristic of having high sensitivity to attitude misalignment while being flat. AUTO-TRAC is a variation of TRAC in which a computer analyzes a target, displays translational and attitude misalignment information, and provides cues to the operator for corrective inputs. The Magnetic End Effector is a fault tolerant end effector which grapples payloads using magnetic attraction. The Carrier Latch Assembly is a fault tolerant payload carrier, which uses mechanical latches and/or magnetic attraction to hold small payloads during launch/landing and to release payloads as desired. The flight experiment goals and objectives are explained. The experiment equipment is described, and the tasks to be performed during the demonstration are discussed.

  1. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  2. Hepatic Mttp deletion reverses gallstone susceptibility in L-Fabp knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Fung, Ho Yee Joyce; Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that L-Fabp KO mice are more susceptible to lithogenic diet (LD)-induced gallstones because of altered hepatic cholesterol metabolism and increased canalicular cholesterol secretion. Other studies demonstrated that liver-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-LKO) reduced LD-induced gallstone formation by increasing biliary phospholipid secretion. Here we show that mice with combined deletion (i.e., DKO mice) are protected from LD-induced gallstone formation. Following 2 weeks of LD feeding, 73% of WT and 100% of L-Fabp KO mice developed gallstones versus 18% of Mttp-LKO and 23% of DKO mice. This phenotype was recapitulated in both WT and L-Fabp KO mice treated with an Mttp antisense oligonucleotide (M-ASO). Biliary cholesterol secretion was increased in LD-fed L-Fabp KO mice and decreased in DKO mice. However, phospholipid secretion was unchanged in LD-fed Mttp-LKO and DKO mice as well as in M-ASO-treated mice. Expression of the canalicular export pump ABCG5/G8 was reduced in LD-fed DKO mice and in M-ASO-treated L-Fabp KO mice. We conclude that liver-specific Mttp deletion not only eliminates apical lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes but also attenuates canalicular cholesterol secretion, which in turn decreases LD-induced gallstone susceptibility.

  3. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  4. Coherent electron cooling demonstration experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, R.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Poelker, M.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.; Kholopov M.; Shevchenko, O.; McIntosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-09-04

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  5. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  6. Integrated Payload Data Handling Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGeorge, T.; Wishart, A.; Hann, M.; Phan, N.; Carr, C. M.; Cupido, E.; Fox, P.; Oddy, T.; McGregor, A.; Marshall, A.; Waltham, N.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (IPDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirement, as opposed to the decentralised architecture where the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processor. This paper describes a joint programme by Astrium Ltd, SCISYS UK Limited, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and a camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the centralised data processing technique by addressing the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Programme SpaceCITI scheme. The demonstration system is set up at the UK Space Agency's International Space Innovation Centre (ISIC) at Harwell and makes use of the ISIC Concurrent Design Facility (CDF).

  7. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. )

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  8. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H.

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  9. ASTP science demonstration data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Bourgeois, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of the Apollo-Soyuz science demonstrations on chemical foams and liquid spreading are presented. The chemical foams demonstation showed that aqueous foams and gas/liquid dispersions are more stable in low-g than on the ground. Unique chemical reactions in low-g foams and gas/liquid dispersions are therefore possible. Further ground tests on the formaldehyde clock reaction led to the rather surprising conclusions that surfaces can exert a nucleation effect and that long-range surface influences on chemical reaction rates are apparently operative.

  10. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  11. Engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents results from an engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration test. The electrostatic enclosure is part of an overall in-depth contamination control strategy for transuranic (TRU) waste recovery operations. TRU contaminants include small particles of plutonium compounds associated with defense-related waste recovery operations. Demonstration test items consisted of an outer Perma-con enclosure, an inner tent enclosure, and a ventilation system test section for testing electrostatic curtain devices. Three interchangeable test fixtures that could remove plutonium from the contaminated dust were tested in the test section. These were an electret filter, a CRT as an electrostatic field source, and an electrically charged parallel plate separator. Enclosure materials tested included polyethylene, anti-static construction fabric, and stainless steel. The soil size distribution was determined using an eight stage cascade impactor. Photographs of particles containing plutonium were obtained with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM also provided a second method of getting the size distribution. The amount of plutonium removed from the aerosol by the electrostatic devices was determined by radiochemistry from input and output aerosol samplers. The inner and outer enclosures performed adequately for plutonium handling operations and could be used for full scale operations.

  12. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, Raymond; Howland, James; Venkiteswaran, Prasad

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  13. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  14. Myeloperoxidase deficiency ameliorates progression of chronic kidney disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Lehners, Alexander; Lange, Sascha; Niemann, Gianina; Rosendahl, Alva; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Oh, Jun; Stahl, Rolf; Ehmke, Heimo; Benndorf, Ralf; Klinke, Anna; Baldus, Stephan; Wenzel, Ulrich Otto

    2014-08-15

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme expressed in neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Beside its well-defined role in innate immune defence, it may also be responsible for tissue damage. To identify the role of MPO in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we investigated CKD in a model of renal ablation in MPO knockout and wild-type mice. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Mice were followed for 10 wk to evaluate the impact of MPO deficiency on renal morbidity. Renal ablation induced CKD in wild-type mice with increased plasma levels of MPO compared with controls. No difference was found between MPO-deficient and wild-type mice regarding albuminuria 1 wk after renal ablation, indicating similar acute responses to renal ablation. Over the next 10 wk, however, MPO-deficient mice developed significantly less albuminuria and glomerular injury than wild-type mice. This was accompanied by a significantly lower renal mRNA expression of the fibrosis marker genes plasminogen activator inhibitor-I, collagen type III, and collagen type IV as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. MPO-deficient mice also developed less renal inflammation after renal ablation, as indicated by a lower infiltration of CD3-positive T cells and F4/80-positive monocytes/macrophages compared with wild-type mice. In vitro chemotaxis of monocyte/macrophages isolated from MPO-deficient mice was impaired compared with wild-type mice. No significant differences were observed for mortality and blood pressure after renal ablation. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that MPO deficiency ameliorates renal injury in the renal ablation model of CKD in mice.

  15. Lumican overexpression exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced renal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Ling; Jin, Yu-Nan; Yu, Yan-Qiu

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of lumican in mice with endotoxin-induced acute renal failure (ARF). Lumican transgenic mice and wild‑type mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg) to establish a model of ARF. The mice were sacrificed at 24 h and the blood and renal tissue samples were collected. The value of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured to determine renal function. An ELISA was used to determined the concentrations of renal cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑4 and IL‑10. The protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)κB in renal tissues were assessed using western blot analysis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling was performed to monitor apoptosis of renal tissue. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used to observe structural changes in the renal tissues. Following the administration of LPS, the SCr and BUN values of mice in the lumican transgenic group were higher compared with those in the control group. The expression levels of renal TLR4, NFκB, TNFα, IL‑6, IL‑4 and IL‑10 were upregulated in the lumican transgenic mice compared with those in the wild‑type control group. Apoptosis was detected predominantly on the renal tubule. There was a significant difference in the optical density of apoptotic bodies between the control mice and the lumican transgenic mice. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated more severe renal tissue injury in the lumican transgenic mice compared with that in the control mice. In conclusion, LPS may cause excessive apoptosis in the renal tubular cells via the TLR4 signal transduction pathway, a decrease in the number of renal tubular cells and ARF. Lumican may be important in mice with LPS-induced ARF.

  16. Equine strangles modelled in mice.

    PubMed

    Chanter, N; Smith, K C; Mumford, J A

    1995-02-01

    Small animal models of Streptococcus equi infection have been confined to parenteral injection of mice which subsequently develop a septicaemia. To devise a model of infection more closely resembling strangles, 4.9 x 10(6) cfu of S. equi were placed on the nares of C3H and Balb/c mice (fifteen of each). Compared with ten uninfected controls, infected mice sneezed more often and their daily weight gain was significantly reduced. Histopathological examination seven days after infection revealed varying degrees of nasopharyngeal and regional lymphoid pathology in twenty two mice. Eleven mice had an early or mild rhinitis in which the nasal epithelium presented microabscesses containing polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Another eleven mice had a suppurative rhinitis or pharyngitis associated in most with regional lymphadenitis; in two mice, abscessated lymph nodes had erupted into perinodal connective tissues. Two mice had a vestibular abscess. The suppurative rhinitis was associated with extensive necrosis of nasal propria which occasionally extended to conchal bone, resulting in osteomyelitis. Multiple bacterial abscesses were seen in the spleen of one mouse. Histological lesions were not detected in control mice or in eight infected mice. S. equi was re-isolated from the nares of fourteen of the twenty two affected mice but not from the eight unaffected challenged mice or control mice. The close resemblance of this model to strangles in horses may justify its further use for the investigation of pathogenesis and protective immunity.

  17. Effects of simulated heat waves on ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunling; Zhang, Shuyu; Tian, Ying; Wang, Baojian; Shen, Shuanghe

    2014-02-01

    The effects of simulated heat waves on body weight, body temperature, and biomarkers of cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice were investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a meteorological environment simulation chamber according to data from a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen ApoE-/- mice were divided into control group, heat wave group, and heat wave BH4 group. Mice in the heat wave and BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. Mice in BH4 group were treated with gastric lavage with BH4 2 h prior to heat wave exposure. Results showed that the heat waves did not significantly affect body weight or ET-1 levels. However, mice in the heat wave group had significantly higher rectal temperature and NO level and lower SOD activity compared with mice in the control group (p < 0.01), indicating that heat wave had negative effects on cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice. Gastric lavage with BH4 prior to heat wave exposure significantly reduced heat wave-induced increases in rectal temperature and decreases in SOD activity. Additionally, pretreatment with BH4 further increased NO level in plasma. Collectively, these beneficial effects demonstrate that BH4 may potentially mitigate the risk of coronary heart disease in mice under heat wave exposure. These results may be useful when studying the effects of heat waves on humans. PMID:24477215

  18. Effects of simulated heat waves on ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunling; Zhang, Shuyu; Tian, Ying; Wang, Baojian; Shen, Shuanghe

    2014-02-01

    The effects of simulated heat waves on body weight, body temperature, and biomarkers of cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice were investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a meteorological environment simulation chamber according to data from a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen ApoE-/- mice were divided into control group, heat wave group, and heat wave BH4 group. Mice in the heat wave and BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. Mice in BH4 group were treated with gastric lavage with BH4 2 h prior to heat wave exposure. Results showed that the heat waves did not significantly affect body weight or ET-1 levels. However, mice in the heat wave group had significantly higher rectal temperature and NO level and lower SOD activity compared with mice in the control group (p < 0.01), indicating that heat wave had negative effects on cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice. Gastric lavage with BH4 prior to heat wave exposure significantly reduced heat wave-induced increases in rectal temperature and decreases in SOD activity. Additionally, pretreatment with BH4 further increased NO level in plasma. Collectively, these beneficial effects demonstrate that BH4 may potentially mitigate the risk of coronary heart disease in mice under heat wave exposure. These results may be useful when studying the effects of heat waves on humans.

  19. Gene expression: RNA interference in adult mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Anton P.; Meuse, Leonard; Pham, Thu-Thao T.; Conklin, Douglas S.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Kay, Mark A.

    2002-07-01

    RNA interference is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance mechanism that responds to double-stranded RNA by sequence-specific silencing of homologous genes. Here we show that transgene expression can be suppressed in adult mice by synthetic small interfering RNAs and by small-hairpin RNAs transcribed in vivo from DNA templates. We also show the therapeutic potential of this technique by demonstrating effective targeting of a sequence from hepatitis C virus by RNA interference in vivo.

  20. Method for accelerated identification of arboviruses after inoculation of mice.

    PubMed

    David-West, T S

    1972-03-01

    Sequential titration of infective virus and complement-fixing antigen in brain and liver of suckling mice infected with the following virus strains-Dugbe (a new arbovirus), Congo (related to Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus), yellow fever, dengue 1 and dengue 2-showed a progressive increase in titer after infection. High titers of both infective virus and complement-fixing antigen were demonstrated long before the mice showed clinical signs of infection. It is suggested that earlier isolation and identification of arboviruses from clinical and field specimens can be made if serological tests are done before mice are moribund.

  1. Coping with parvovirus infections in mice: health surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Janus, Lydia M; Bleich, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses of mice, minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV), are challenging pathogens to eradicate from laboratory animal facilities. Due to the impediment on rodent-based research, recent studies have focused on the assessment of re-derivation techniques and parvoviral potential to induce persistent infections. Summarizing recent data, this review gives an overview on studies associated with parvoviral impact on research, diagnostic methods, parvoviral persistence and re-derivation techniques, demonstrating the complex nature of parvovirus infection in mice and unfolding the challenge of controlling parvovirus infections in laboratory animal facilities.

  2. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  3. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  4. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration.

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    A successful technical demonstration of simulated reactor vessel sectioning was completed using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel: an air arc gouger was chosen to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. After the simulated vessel was successfully cut from the SS side, another cut was made, starting from the carbon steel side. This cut was also successful. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction since the air arc gouging step is eliminated and contamination controlled because the molten metal is blown inward.

  5. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  6. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  7. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  8. Demonstration of integrated optimization software

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    NeuCO has designed and demonstrated the integration of five system control modules using its proprietary ProcessLink{reg_sign} technology of neural networks, advanced algorithms and fuzzy logic to maximize performance of coal-fired plants. The separate modules control cyclone combustion, sootblowing, SCR operations, performance and equipment maintenance. ProcessLink{reg_sign} provides overall plant-level integration of controls responsive to plant operator and corporate criteria. Benefits of an integrated approach include NOx reduction improvement in heat rate, availability, efficiency and reliability; extension of SCR catalyst life; and reduced consumption of ammonia. All translate into cost savings. As plant complexity increases through retrofit, repowering or other plant modifications, this integrated process optimization approach will be an important tool for plant operators. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  9. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  10. Miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator concept demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. E.; Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    High concentration ratio photovoltaic systems for space applications have generally been considered impractical because of perceived difficulties in controlling solar cell temperatures to reasonably low values. A miniaturized concentrator system is now under development which surmounts this objection by providing acceptable solar cell temperatures using purely passive cell cooling methods. An array of identical miniaturized, rigid Cassegrainian optical systems having a low f-number with resulting short dimensions along their optical axes are rigidly mounted into a frame to form a relatively thin concentrator solar array panel. A number of such panels, approximately 1.5 centimeters thick, are wired as an array and are folded against one another for launch in a stowed configuration. Deployment on orbit is similar to the deployment of conventional planar honeycomb panel arrays or flexible blanket arrays. The miniaturized concept was conceived and studied in the 1978-80 time frame. Progress in the feasibility demonstration to date is reported.

  11. Performance Demonstration Program Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-07-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste characterization program, each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP serves as a quality control check against expected results and provides information about the quality of data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed by an independent organization to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. There are three elements within the PDP: analysis of simulated headspace gases, analysis of solids for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents, and analysis for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Because the analysis for TRU radionuclides using NDA techniques involves both the counting of drums and standard waste boxes, four PDP plans are required to describe the activities of the three PDP elements. In accordance with these PDP plans, the reviewing and approving authority for PDP results and for the overall program is the CBFO PDP Appointee. The CBFO PDP Appointee is responsible for ensuring the implementation of each of these plans by concurring with the designation of the Program Coordinator and by providing technical oversight and coordination for the program. The Program Coordinator will designate the PDP Manager, who will coordinate the three elements of the PDP. The purpose of this management plan is to identify how the requirements applicable to the PDP are implemented during the management and coordination of PDP activities. The other participants in the program (organizations that perform site implementation and activities under CBFO contracts or interoffice work orders) are not covered under this management plan. Those activities are governed by the organization’s quality assurance (QA) program and procedures or as otherwise directed by

  12. SpaceCube Demonstration Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Daniel; Hosler, Jeffrey; Geist, Alessandro; Patrick, David; Buenfil, Manuel; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses how the HST SM4 SpaceCube flight spare was modified to create an experiment called the Space- Cube Demonstration Platform (SC DP) for use on the MISSE7 Space Station payload (in collaboration with NRL). It is designed to serve as an on-orbit platform for demonstrating advanced fault tolerance technologies. A simple C&DH (command and data handling) system was developed for the Virtex4 FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays). Both Virtex4s on each SpaceCube run the same program, and both receive incoming telemetry. The rad-hard service FPGA performs simple error checking to verify that the incoming telemetry is valid. The SpaceCube framework was modified to allow for new program files to be sent from the ground, to be stored on the SpaceCube, and to be executed through ground commands. Each SpaceCube Virtex4 FPGA has resources set aside for experiments that are functionally isolated from the C&DH system. The experiments communicate to the C&DH system through a set of dual port memories, and this area is where the fault-tolerance experiments are executed. With the use of Xilinx commercial Virtex4 FX60 FPGAs, the fault tolerant framework allows the system to recover from radiation upsets that occur in the rad-soft parts (Virtex4 FPGA logic, embedded PPCs in Virtex4 FPGAs, SDRAM and Flash), the C&DH system that runs simultaneously on both Virtex4 FPGAs that uses a robust telemetry packet structure, checksums, and the rad-hard service FPGA to validate incoming telemetry. The ability to be reconfigured from the ground while in orbit is a novel benefit, as well as is the onboard compression capabilities that allow compressed files from the ground to be uploaded to the SpaceCube.

  13. Colorful Kindergarten Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

  14. Mice and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Shively; Thompson, Charles L.

    Observations and experiments with mice, developed and tested at the Pennsylvania Advancement School with underachieving boys in grades seven and eight, are described in this teachers' guide which includes copies of student worksheets for exercises needing them. In addition to lists of materials and procedural suggestions, ideas for guiding…

  15. Immunotherapy toxic in obese mice.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    New research shows immunotherapy can cause lethal inflammation in both young and aged mice that are obese. Restricting calories in aged mice protected them from toxicity, and giving young obese mice a drug for autoimmune disease prevented the fatal reactions. PMID:25583780

  16. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  17. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  18. The Habitat Demonstration Unit Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy; Tri, Terry; Howe, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper will describe an overview of the NASA-led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Project. The HDU project is a technology-pull project that integrates technologies and innovations from numerous NASA centers. This project will be used to investigate and validate surface architectures, operations concepts, and requirements definition. The HDU project will be part of the 2010 Desert Research and Technologies Simulations (DRATS). The purpose of this project is to develop, integrate, test, and evaluate a HDU in the context of the mission architectures and surface operation concepts. This HDU is based on the Constellation Architecture Scenario 12.1 concept of a vertically oriented habitat module. A multi-center approach with be utilized to build, integrate, and test the HDU project through a shared collaborative effort of multiple NASA centers. This project is part of the strategic plan from the ESMD Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) to test surface elements in a surface analog environment which includes two Lunar Electric Rovers and the HDU during the 2010 analog field test. This paper will describe the overall objectives, its various configurations, strategic plan, and technology integration as it pertains to the 2010 and 2011 field analog tests.

  19. Demonstration of new PCSD capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    The new, more flexible and more friendly graphics capabilities to be available in later releases of the Pilot Climate Data System were demonstrated. The LIMS-LAMAT data set was chosen to illustrate these new capabilities. Pseudocolor and animation were used to represent the third and fourth dimensions, expanding the analytical capabilities available through the traditional two-dimensional x-y plot. In the new version, variables for the axes are chosen by scrolling through viable selections. This scrolling feature is a function of the new user interface customization. The new graphics are extremely user friendly and should free the scientist to look at data and converse with it, without doing any programming. The system is designed to rapidly plot any variable versus any other variable and animate by any variable. Any one plot in itself is not extraordinary; however, the fact that a user can generate the plots instead of a programmer distinguishes the graphics capabilities of the PCDS from other software packages. In addition, with the new CDF design, the system will become more generic, and the new graphics will become much more rigorous in the area of correlative studies.

  20. Deep Space 1 Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The completely assembled Deep Space 1 (DS-1) technology demonstrator spacecraft. The DS-1 spacecraft incorporates a number of advanced technology concepts in its mission, but none so 'high profile' as its Ion propulsion system. The name itself evokes visions of Star Trek and science fiction fantasy, although the idea actually dates from the 1950s. However, unlike the 'Warp Drive' propulsion system that zings the fictional starship Enterprise across the cosmos in minutes, the almost imperceptible thrust from the ion propulsion system is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a sheet of paper held in the palm of your hand. The ion engine is very slow to pick up speed, but over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as more traditional rockets. Unlike the fireworks of most chemical rockets using solid or liquid fuels, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized (electrically charged) atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. Xenon is the same gas found in photo flash tubes and many lighthouse bulbs. Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA.

  1. Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This program assisted in the design and implementation of the composite casting demonstration for the Apollo 14 mission. Both flight and control samples were evaluated. Some conclusions resulting from a comparison of the flight and control samples were: (1) Solidification in neither the flight nor control samples was truly directional. (2) Apparent intermittent contact of the melt with the container in the flight samples led to unusual nucleation and growth structures. (3) There was greater uniformity, on a macro scale, of both pores and structural features in the flight sample; presumably the result of the reduced gravity conditions. (4) It seems quite feasible to produce enhanced dispersions of gases and dense phases in a melt which is solidified in reduced gravity. (5) A two-stage heating/cooling cycle may help directional solidification. (6) Sample materials should be selected from materials in which the dispersant fully wets the matrix material. (7) Experiments should be conducted in two modes: (1) where the melt is in good thermal contact with the container, and (2) where the melt is in a free-float condition.

  2. Structural Alignment Sensor Feasibility Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. H.; Huang, C. C.; Hodor, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A structural alignment sensor (SAS) was developed for use with large deployable antenna systems for contour measurement and/or active control. The SAS is a laser ranging system using frequency modulation and accurate phase measurement to determine distance. Work was done with a CO2 and HeNe laser. The capability of the SAS to measure antenna rib contours was studied over ranges of 50 meters to a resolution of 100 microns. Initial resolution data was taken with the CO2 system. This data shows that it will indeed meet the SAS requirements. The development of the HeNe system was initiated because it offers substantial improvement in size, weight, and power over the CO2 system. The final demonstration was made with the HeNe system and it too showed that the SAS requirements could be met with this alternate approach. The projection of these results to a conceptual design for a flight system and its application are described.

  3. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Brecht, T. Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  4. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, T.; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of memantine in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Beconi, Maria G; Howland, David; Park, Larry; Lyons, Kathryn; Giuliano, Joseph; Dominguez, Celia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Pacifici, Robert

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the potential of memantine as a therapeutic agent for Huntington's disease (HD) we have undertaken a series of in vitro, ex vivo and whole animal studies to characterize its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in rats and mice. Results from these studies will enable determination of memantine exposures needed to engage the related functional PD marker and help predict the dose regimen for clinical trials to test its proposed mechanism of action; the selective blockade of extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, NMDA receptors. The studies reported here describe the PK of memantine in rats and mice at low (1 mg/kg) and high (10 mg/kg) doses. Our studies indicate that the clearance mechanisms of memantine in rats and mice are different from those in human, and that clearance needs to be taken into account when extrapolating to the human. In rats only, there is a significant metabolic contribution to memantine clearance at lower dose levels. While memantine is primarily cleared renally in all three species, the proportion of total systemic clearance above the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is much higher in rats and mice (~13, 4.5, and 1.4 times higher than GFR in rats, mice, and humans, respectively), suggesting that the contribution of active transport to memantine elimination in rats and mice is more significant than in the human. In rats and mice, memantine had a short half-life (<4 h) and steep Cmax/Cmin ratios (>100). In the human, the half-life of memantine was reported to be very long (60-80 h) with a Cmax/Cmin ratio at steady state concentrations of ~1.5. A small change in the clearance of memantine - for example due to renal impairment or competition for the elimination pathway with a co-administered drug - will likely affect exposure and, therefore, the selectivity of memantine on NMDA receptors . The PK differences observed between these species demonstrate that the PK in mice and rats cannot be directly extrapolated to the human. Further

  6. Progress with the MICE scintillating fiber trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overton, Edward

    2013-12-01

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a proof of principle demonstration of ionization cooling, for application in a future neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), where a dedicated beam line has been commissioned to transport particles produced inside the ISIS accelerator facility. The beam emittance will be measured using two scintillating fiber trackers on each side of the cooling channel, which will be mounted inside a 4 T solenoid. As particles pass through the tracker, their position will be measured at 5 stations, each of which provides a position resolution of less than 0.5 mm. The fiber trackers have been validated using cosmic ray tests, which have allowed the light yield to be found. In addition, a spare tracking station was exposed to the MICE beam, which has enabled the tracker readout to be integrated with the MICE DAQ for the first time. This test required the integration gate on the D0 AFE-IIt readout boards to be synchronized with particle arrival by using diagnostic signals from the ISIS accelerator.

  7. Hyperalgesic activity of kisspeptin in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide known for its role in the hypothalamic regulation of the reproductive axis. Following the recent description of kisspeptin and its 7-TM receptor, GPR54, in the dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horns of the spinal cord, we examined the role of kisspeptin in the regulation of pain sensitivity in mice. Results Immunofluorescent staining in the mouse skin showed the presence of GPR54 receptors in PGP9.5-positive sensory fibers. Intraplantar injection of kisspeptin (1 or 3 nmol/5 μl) induced a small nocifensive response in naive mice, and lowered thermal pain threshold in the hot plate test. Both intraplantar and intrathecal (0.5 or 1 nmol/3 μl) injection of kisspeptin caused hyperalgesia in the first and second phases of the formalin test, whereas the GPR54 antagonist, p234 (0.1 or 1 nmol), caused a robust analgesia. Intraplantar injection of kisspeptin combined with formalin enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation at Ser800 at the injection site, and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral dorsal horn as compared to naive mice and mice treated with formalin alone. Conclusion These data demonstrate for the first time that kisspeptin regulates pain sensitivity in rodents and suggest that peripheral GPR54 receptors could be targeted by novel drugs in the treatment of inflammatory pain. PMID:22112588

  8. Immunopathogenesis of environmentally induced lupus in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, V M; Satoh, M; Richards, H B; Yoshida, H; Shaw, M; Jennette, J C; Reeves, W H

    1999-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune syndrome defined by clinical and serologic features, including arthritis, glomerulonephritis, and certain autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein (nRNP)/Smith antigen (Sm), DNA, and ribosomal P. Although lupus is considered primarily a genetic disorder, we recently demonstrated the induction of a syndrome strikingly similar to spontaneous lupus in many nonautoimmune strains of mice exposed to the isoprenoid alkane pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane), a component of mineral oil. Intraperitoneal injection of pristane leads to the formation of lipogranulomas consisting of phagocytic cells that have engulfed the oil and collections of lymphocytes. Subsequently, pristane-treated BALB/c and SJL mice develop autoantibodies characteristic of SLE, including anti-nRNP/Sm, antiribosomal P, anti-Su, antichromatin, anti-single-stranded DNA, and anti-double-stranded DNA. This is accompanied by a severe glomerulonephritis with immune complex deposition, mesangial or mesangiocapillary proliferation, and proteinuria. All inbred mice examined appear to be susceptible to this novel form of chemically induced lupus. Pristane-induced lupus is the only inducible model of autoimmunity associated with the clinical syndrome as well as with the characteristic serologic abnormalities of SLE. Defining the immunopathogenesis of pristane-induced lupus in mice may provide insight into the causes of spontaneous (idiopathic) lupus and also may lead to information concerning possible risks associated with the ingestion or inhalation of mineral oil and exposure to hydrocarbons in the environment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10502537

  9. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogeneis imperfecta mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J. Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J.; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (Po, Po/mg and Po/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased Po and an inability to sustain Po for the 300 ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. PMID:20619344

  10. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  11. Role of connexin 32 in acetaminophen toxicity in a knockout mice model.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Isao; Maejima, Takanori; Kai, Kiyonori; Arakawa, Shingo; Teranishi, Munehiro; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), by which glutathione (GSH) and inorganic ions are transmitted to neighboring cells, is recognized as being largely involved in toxic processes of chemicals. We examined acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity clinicopathologically using male wild-type mice and mice lacking the gene for connexin32, a major gap junction protein in the liver [knockout (Cx32KO) mice]. When APAP was intraperitoneally administered at doses of 100, 200, or 300mg/kg, hepatic centrilobular necrosis with elevated plasma aminotransferase activities was observed in wild-type mice receiving 300mg/kg, and in Cx32KO mice given 100mg/kg or more. At 200mg/kg or more, hepatic GSH and GSSG contents decreased significantly and the effect was more severe in wild-type mice than in Cx32KO mice. On the other hand, markedly decreased GSH staining was observed in the hepatic centrilobular zones of Cx32KO mice compared to that of wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that Cx32KO mice are more susceptible to APAP hepatotoxicity than wild-type mice, and indicate that the distribution of GSH of the centrilobular zones in the hepatic lobules, rather than GSH and GSSG contents in the liver, is important in APAP hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, Cx32 protects against APAP-induced hepatic centrilobular necrosis in mice, which may be through the GSH transmission to neighboring hepatocytes by GJIC.

  12. Long-lived crowded-litter mice exhibit lasting effects on insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Landeryou, Taylor; Blandino-Rosano, Manuel; Cady, Gillian; Elghazi, Lynda; Meister, Daniel; See, Lauren; Bartke, Andrzej; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Miller, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The action of nutrients on early postnatal growth can influence mammalian aging and longevity. Recent work has demonstrated that limiting nutrient availability in the first 3 wk of life [by increasing the number of pups in the crowded-litter (CL) model] leads to extension of mean and maximal lifespan in genetically normal mice. In this study, we aimed to characterize the impact of early-life nutrient intervention on glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis in CL mice. In our study, we used mice from litters supplemented to 12 or 15 pups and compared those to control litters limited to eight pups. At weaning and then throughout adult life, CL mice are significantly leaner and consume more oxygen relative to control mice. At 6 mo of age, CL mice had low fasting leptin concentrations, and low-dose leptin injections reduced body weight and food intake more in CL female mice than in controls. At 22 mo, CL female mice also have smaller adipocytes compared with controls. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests show an increase in insulin sensitivity in 6 mo old CL male mice, and females become more insulin sensitive later in life. Furthermore, β-cell mass was significantly reduced in the CL male mice and was associated with reduction in β-cell proliferation rate in these mice. Together, these data show that early-life nutrient intervention has a significant lifelong effect on metabolic characteristics that may contribute to the increased lifespan of CL mice. PMID:24735888

  13. Myogenin Regulates Exercise Capacity but Is Dispensable for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Adult mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myogflox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myogflox/flox mice (mdx), Myogflox/flox mice (wild-type), and mdx:MyogfloxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted). mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function. PMID:21264243

  14. Mechanical Forces Exacerbate Periodontal Defects in Bsp-null Mice.

    PubMed

    Soenjaya, Y; Foster, B L; Nociti, F H; Ao, M; Holdsworth, D W; Hunter, G K; Somerman, M J; Goldberg, H A

    2015-09-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, cell attachment, and hydroxyapatite-nucleating properties. BSP expression in mineralized tissues is upregulated at onset of mineralization. Bsp-null (Bsp(-/-)) mice exhibit reductions in bone mineral density, bone turnover, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. Furthermore, Bsp(-/-) mice have marked periodontal tissue breakdown, with a lack of acellular cementum leading to periodontal ligament detachment, extensive alveolar bone and tooth root resorption, and incisor malocclusion. We hypothesized that altered mechanical stress from mastication contributes to periodontal destruction observed in Bsp(-/-) mice. This hypothesis was tested by comparing Bsp(-/-) and wild-type mice fed with standard hard pellet diet or soft powder diet. Dentoalveolar tissues were analyzed using histology and micro-computed tomography. By 8 wk of age, Bsp(-/-) mice exhibited molar and incisor malocclusion regardless of diet. Bsp(-/-) mice with hard pellet diet exhibited high incidence (30%) of severe incisor malocclusion, 10% lower body weight, 3% reduced femur length, and 30% elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity compared to wild type. Soft powder diet reduced severe incisor malocclusion incidence to 3% in Bsp(-/-) mice, supporting the hypothesis that occlusal loading contributed to the malocclusion phenotype. Furthermore, Bsp(-/-) mice in the soft powder diet group featured normal body weight, long bone length, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting that tooth dysfunction and malnutrition contribute to growth and skeletal defects reported in Bsp(-/-) mice. Bsp(-/-) incisors also erupt at a slower rate, which likely leads to the observed thickened dentin and enhanced mineralization of dentin and enamel toward the apical end. We propose that the decrease in eruption rate is due to a lack of acellular cementum and associated defective periodontal attachment. These data demonstrate the

  15. Mechanical Forces Exacerbate Periodontal Defects in Bsp-null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soenjaya, Y.; Foster, B.L.; Nociti, F.H.; Ao, M.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Hunter, G.K.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, cell attachment, and hydroxyapatite-nucleating properties. BSP expression in mineralized tissues is upregulated at onset of mineralization. Bsp-null (Bsp-/-) mice exhibit reductions in bone mineral density, bone turnover, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. Furthermore, Bsp-/- mice have marked periodontal tissue breakdown, with a lack of acellular cementum leading to periodontal ligament detachment, extensive alveolar bone and tooth root resorption, and incisor malocclusion. We hypothesized that altered mechanical stress from mastication contributes to periodontal destruction observed in Bsp-/- mice. This hypothesis was tested by comparing Bsp-/- and wild-type mice fed with standard hard pellet diet or soft powder diet. Dentoalveolar tissues were analyzed using histology and micro–computed tomography. By 8 wk of age, Bsp-/- mice exhibited molar and incisor malocclusion regardless of diet. Bsp-/- mice with hard pellet diet exhibited high incidence (30%) of severe incisor malocclusion, 10% lower body weight, 3% reduced femur length, and 30% elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity compared to wild type. Soft powder diet reduced severe incisor malocclusion incidence to 3% in Bsp-/- mice, supporting the hypothesis that occlusal loading contributed to the malocclusion phenotype. Furthermore, Bsp-/- mice in the soft powder diet group featured normal body weight, long bone length, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting that tooth dysfunction and malnutrition contribute to growth and skeletal defects reported in Bsp-/- mice. Bsp-/- incisors also erupt at a slower rate, which likely leads to the observed thickened dentin and enhanced mineralization of dentin and enamel toward the apical end. We propose that the decrease in eruption rate is due to a lack of acellular cementum and associated defective periodontal attachment. These data demonstrate the importance of BSP

  16. Salty taste deficits in CALHM1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Ellis, Hillary T; Aleman, Tiffany R; Downing, Arnelle; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J Kevin; Dana, Rachel M; McCaughey, Stuart A

    2014-07-01

    Genetic ablation of calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate from Type 2 taste cells, severely compromises the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to tastes detected by G protein-coupled receptors, such as sweet and bitter. However, the contribution of CALHM1 to salty taste perception is less clear. Here, we evaluated several salty taste-related phenotypes of CALHM1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) controls: 1) In a conditioned aversion test, CALHM1 WT and KO mice had similar NaCl avoidance thresholds. 2) In two-bottle choice tests, CALHM1 WT mice showed the classic inverted U-shaped NaCl concentration-preference function but CALHM1 KO mice had a blunted peak response. 3) In brief-access tests, CALHM1 KO mice showed less avoidance than did WT mice of high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NH(4)Cl, and sodium lactate (NaLac). Amiloride further ameliorated the NaCl avoidance of CALHM1 KO mice, so that lick rates to a mixture of 1000 mM NaCl + 10 µM amiloride were statistically indistinguishable from those to water. 4) Relative to WT mice, CALHM1 KO mice had reduced chorda tympani nerve activity elicited by oral application of NaCl, NaLac, and sucrose but normal responses to HCl and NH(4)Cl. Chorda tympani responses to NaCl and NaLac were amiloride sensitive in WT but not KO mice. These results reinforce others demonstrating that multiple transduction pathways make complex, concentration-dependent contributions to salty taste perception. One of these pathways depends on CALHM1 to detect hypertonic NaCl in the mouth and signal the aversive taste of concentrated salt.

  17. Salty taste deficits in CALHM1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Ellis, Hillary T; Aleman, Tiffany R; Downing, Arnelle; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J Kevin; Dana, Rachel M; McCaughey, Stuart A

    2014-07-01

    Genetic ablation of calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate from Type 2 taste cells, severely compromises the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to tastes detected by G protein-coupled receptors, such as sweet and bitter. However, the contribution of CALHM1 to salty taste perception is less clear. Here, we evaluated several salty taste-related phenotypes of CALHM1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) controls: 1) In a conditioned aversion test, CALHM1 WT and KO mice had similar NaCl avoidance thresholds. 2) In two-bottle choice tests, CALHM1 WT mice showed the classic inverted U-shaped NaCl concentration-preference function but CALHM1 KO mice had a blunted peak response. 3) In brief-access tests, CALHM1 KO mice showed less avoidance than did WT mice of high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NH(4)Cl, and sodium lactate (NaLac). Amiloride further ameliorated the NaCl avoidance of CALHM1 KO mice, so that lick rates to a mixture of 1000 mM NaCl + 10 µM amiloride were statistically indistinguishable from those to water. 4) Relative to WT mice, CALHM1 KO mice had reduced chorda tympani nerve activity elicited by oral application of NaCl, NaLac, and sucrose but normal responses to HCl and NH(4)Cl. Chorda tympani responses to NaCl and NaLac were amiloride sensitive in WT but not KO mice. These results reinforce others demonstrating that multiple transduction pathways make complex, concentration-dependent contributions to salty taste perception. One of these pathways depends on CALHM1 to detect hypertonic NaCl in the mouth and signal the aversive taste of concentrated salt. PMID:24846212

  18. Mice Drawer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancedda, Ranieri

    2008-01-01

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions (from 100 to 150-days) by living space, food, water, ventilation and lighting. Mice can be accommodated either individually (maximum 6) or in groups (4 pairs). MDS is integrated in the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation (uploading and downloading) to the ISS and in an EXPRESS Rack in Destiny, the US Laboratory during experiment execution. Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton. This bone loss experienced by astronauts is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population. MDS will help investigate the effects of unloading on transgenic (foreign gene that has been inserted into its genome to exhibit a particular trait) mice with the Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1, OSF-1, a growth and differentiation factor, and to study the genetic mechanisms underlying the bone mass pathophysiology. MDS will test the hypothesis that mice with an increased bone density are likely to be more protected from osteoporosis, when the increased bone mass is a direct effect of a gene involved in skeletogenesis (skeleton formation). Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton, a loss that is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population on Earth. Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1 (OSF-1), also known as pleiotrophin (PTN) or Heparin-Binding Growth- Associated Molecule (HB-GAM) belongs to a family of secreted heparin binding proteins..OSF-1 is an extracellular matrix-associated growth and

  19. Rubus coreanus Miquel ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairments in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ran; Lee, Min Young; Hong, Ji Eun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Chun, Jang Woo; Shin, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Eun Ji

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) on scopolamine-induced memory impairments in ICR mice. Mice were orally administrated RCM for 4 weeks and scopolamine was intraperitoneally injected into mice to induce memory impairment. RCM improved the scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. The increase of acetylcholinesterase activity caused by scopolamine was significantly attenuated by RCM treatment. RCM increased the levels of acetylcholine in the brain and serum of mice. The expression of choline acetyltransferase, phospho-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase was significantly increased within the brain of mice treated with RCM. The brain antioxidant enzyme activity decreased by scopolamine was increased by RCM. These results demonstrate that RCM exerts a memory-enhancing effect via the improvement of cholinergic function and the potentiated antioxidant activity in memory-impaired mice. The results suggest that RCM may be a useful agent for improving memory impairment.

  20. Psychopharmacological Studies in Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Since 1998, when the laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology was established in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, I have been interested in psychopharmacological research topics. During this period, we identified a number of novel regulatory mechanisms that control the prefrontal dopamine system through functional interaction between serotonin1A and dopamine D2 receptors or between serotonin1A and σ1 receptors. Our findings suggest that strategies that enhance the prefrontal dopamine system may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We also found that environmental factors during development strongly impact the psychological state in adulthood. Furthermore, we clarified the pharmacological profiles of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine, providing novel insights into their mechanisms of action. Finally, we developed the female encounter test, a novel method for evaluating motivation in mice. This simple method should help advance future psychopharmacological research. In this review, we summarize the major findings obtained from our recent studies in mice.

  1. Mice with human livers.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections.

  2. Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Leonor I.; Friedman, Lorraine

    1972-01-01

    Virulence and infectivity of nine strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were investigated in groups of mice which were inoculated intranasally or intravenously, and some of each were treated with corticosteroids. Fatal infections were not often seen among untreated mice, but mortality usually occurred when corticosteroids were given, regardless of the route of fungus inoculation. Prior treatment did not uniformly increase the incidence of infection, however; only in the case of intranasally inoculated mice was this effect seen. Most strains appeared to be more virulent when administered intravenously, with the exception of a single strain which, under the influence of corticosteroids, repeatedly displayed greatest virulence when given intranasally. All animals that died early in the course of the disease, irrespective of route of inoculation, always had acute pulmonary lesions and usually no other organ was involved. Animals which died later or were sacrificed always had chronic lung lesions. Whether or not chronically diseased animals had additional organ involvement correlated with how the organisms were administered; intravenously inoculated animals usually had extrapulmonary as well as pulmonary lesions, but lesions of those inoculated intranasally were almost exclusively pulmonary. Corticosteroids did not alter the histologic characteristics of either the acute or the chronic type of lesion, but the lesions of treated animals were usually more extensive. Most of the survivors appeared healthy even when infection was extensive. Images PMID:4637603

  3. Phenotype of cloned mice: development, behavior, and physiology.

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Akutsu, Hidenori; Woods, Stephen C; Kondo, Sylvia; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Sakai, Randall R

    2003-11-01

    Cloning technology has potential to be a valuable tool in basic research, clinical medicine, and agriculture. However, it is critical to determine the consequences of this technique in resulting offspring before widespread use of the technology. Mammalian cloning using somatic cells was first demonstrated in sheep in 1997 and since then has been extended to a number of other species. We examined development, behavior, physiology, and longevity in B6C3F1 female mice cloned from adult cumulus cells. Control mice were naturally fertilized embryos subjected to the same in vitro manipulation and culture conditions as clone embryos. Clones attained developmental milestones similar to controls. Activity level, motor ability and coordination, and learning and memory skills of cloned mice were comparable with controls. Interestingly, clones gained more body weight than controls during adulthood. Increased body weight was attributable to higher body fat and was associated with hyperleptinemia and hyperinsulinemia indicating that cloned mice are obese. Cloned mice were not hyperphagic as adults and had hypersensitive leptin and melanocortin signaling systems. Longevity of cloned mice was comparable with that reported by the National Institute on Aging and the causes of death were typical for this strain of mouse. These studies represent the first comprehensive set of data to characterize cloned mice and provide critical information about the long-term effects of somatic cell cloning. PMID:14610260

  4. Assessment of Dental Fluorosis in Mmp20+/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, R.; Tye, C.E.; Arun, A.; MacDonald, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Abrazinski, T.; Everett, E.T.; Whitford, G.M.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie dental fluorosis are poorly understood. The retention of enamel proteins hallmarking fluorotic enamel may result from impaired hydrolysis and/or removal of enamel proteins. Previous studies have suggested that partial inhibition of Mmp20 expression is involved in the etiology of dental fluorosis. Here we ask if mice expressing only one functional Mmp20 allele are more susceptible to fluorosis. We demonstrate that Mmp20+/− mice express approximately half the amount of MMP20 as do wild-type mice. The Mmp20 heterozygous mice have normal-appearing enamel, with Vickers microhardness values similar to those of wild-type control enamel. Therefore, reduced MMP20 expression is not solely responsible for dental fluorosis. With 50-ppm-fluoride (F−) treatment ad libitum, the Mmp20+/− mice had F− tissue levels similar to those of Mmp20+/+ mice. No significant difference in enamel hardness was observed between the F−-treated heterozygous and wild-type mice. Interestingly, we did find a small but significant difference in quantitative fluorescence between these two groups, which may be attributable to slightly higher protein content in the Mmp20+/− mouse enamel. We conclude that MMP20 plays a nominal role in dental enamel fluorosis. PMID:21386097

  5. Assessment of dental fluorosis in Mmp20 +/- mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R; Tye, C E; Arun, A; MacDonald, D; Chatterjee, A; Abrazinski, T; Everett, E T; Whitford, G M; Bartlett, J D

    2011-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie dental fluorosis are poorly understood. The retention of enamel proteins hallmarking fluorotic enamel may result from impaired hydrolysis and/or removal of enamel proteins. Previous studies have suggested that partial inhibition of Mmp20 expression is involved in the etiology of dental fluorosis. Here we ask if mice expressing only one functional Mmp20 allele are more susceptible to fluorosis. We demonstrate that Mmp20 (+/-) mice express approximately half the amount of MMP20 as do wild-type mice. The Mmp20 heterozygous mice have normal-appearing enamel, with Vickers microhardness values similar to those of wild-type control enamel. Therefore, reduced MMP20 expression is not solely responsible for dental fluorosis. With 50-ppm-fluoride (F(-)) treatment ad libitum, the Mmp20 (+/-) mice had F(-) tissue levels similar to those of Mmp20 (+/+) mice. No significant difference in enamel hardness was observed between the F(-)-treated heterozygous and wild-type mice. Interestingly, we did find a small but significant difference in quantitative fluorescence between these two groups, which may be attributable to slightly higher protein content in the Mmp20 (+/-) mouse enamel. We conclude that MMP20 plays a nominal role in dental enamel fluorosis.

  6. ACUTE HEPATIC NECROSIS INDUCED BY BRUCELLA INFECTION IN HYPERTHYROID MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G. Mary; Spink, Wesley W.

    1959-01-01

    When small numbers of Brucella melitensis were inoculated into ABC mice, occasional hepatic granulomas without necrosis were demonstrated. The greatest multiplication of brucellae was detected in the spleens. Because it had been previously observed that ACTH or cortisone markedly accelerated the multiplication of brucellae in the livers of infected mice with destruction of liver cells, it was considered that triiodothyronine might likewise exaggerate a brucella infection by stimulating endogenous adrenal secretion. Although adrenal hypertrophy was produced, infection of mice treated with triiodothyronine resulted in severe hepatic necrosis or infarcts without the multiplication of brucellae in either the livers or spleens. The lesions were not encountered in untreated infected mice or in control mice treated with triiodothyronine. The necrosis was associated with minimal inflammatory reaction. The necrosis was not induced in mice treated with triiodothyronine and given brucella endotoxin. The precise genesis of the acute hepatic necrosis cited in these experiments remains undefined. Triiodothyronine did not cause deaths in mice infected with Br. melitensis. The infection was neither enhanced nor suppressed. PMID:13803714

  7. A Forceful Demonstration by FORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    .). In addition, detailed computer software was provided to prepare the complex astronomical observations with FORS in advance and to monitor the instrument performance by quality checks of the scientific data accumulated. In return for building FORS for the community of European astrophysicists, the scientists in the three institutions of the FORS Consortium have received a certain amount of Guaranteed Observing Time at the VLT. This time will be used for various research projects concerned, among others, with minor bodies in the outer solar system, stars at late stages of their evolution and the clouds of gas they eject, as well as galaxies and quasars at very large distances, thereby permitting a look-back towards the early epoch of the universe. First tests of FORS1 at the VLT UT1: a great success After careful preparation, the FORS consortium has now started the so-called commissioning of the instrument. This comprises the thorough verification of the specified instrument properties at the telescope, checking the correct functioning under software control from the Paranal control room and, at the end of this process, a demonstration that the instrument fulfills its scientific purpose as planned. While performing these tests, the commissioning team at Paranal were able to obtain images of various astronomical objects, some of which are shown here. Two of these were obtained on the night of "FORS First Light". The photos demonstrate some of the impressive posibilities with this new instrument. They are based on observations with the FORS standard resolution collimator (field size 6.8 x 6.8 armin = 2048 x 2048 pixels; 1 pixel = 0.20 arcsec). Spiral galaxy NGC 1288 ESO PR Photo 37a/98 ESO PR Photo 37a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 908 pix - 224k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3406 pix - 1.5Mb] A colour image of spiral galaxy NGC 1288, obtained on the night of "FORS First Light". The first photo shows a reproduction of a colour composite image of the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC

  8. Theiler's virus infection of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fiette, L; Aubert, C; Brahic, M; Rossi, C P

    1993-01-01

    Theiler's virus, a murine picornavirus, persists in the central nervous systems of susceptible mice and induces a chronic demyelinating disease. Susceptibility or resistance to this disease is controlled in part by the H2-D locus of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). For this reason, it has been proposed that CD8+ class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells play a main role in the pathogenesis of this viral infection. We recently reported the existence of anti-virus CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in the course of Theiler's virus infection. In the present study, we examined the role of these effector cells in mice in which the beta 2-microglobulin gene had been disrupted. These mice fail to express class I MHC molecules and therefore lack CD8+ T cells. The mice are derived from a C57BL/6 x 129/Ola cross and are H-2b, a haplotype associated with resistance to Theiler's virus infection. beta 2-Microglobulin-deficient mice (beta 2m-/-mice) failed to clear the virus, developed demyelination, and, interestingly, did not succumb to early infection. These results demonstrate that CD8+ T cells are required to clear Theiler's virus infection. In contrast with a current hypothesis, they also demonstrate that CD8+ T cells are not major mediators of the demyelinating disease. Images PMID:8416386

  9. Nrf2 deficiency impairs fracture healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Lippross, Sebastian; Beckmann, Rainer; Streubesand, Nadine; Ayub, Ferda; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Campbell, Graeme; Kan, Yuet Wai; Horst, Fischer; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Varoga, Deike; Lichte, Philipp; Jahr, Holger; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in wound healing but data relating oxidative stress to fracture healing are scarce. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the major transcription factor that controls the cellular defence essential to combat oxidative stress by regulating the expression of antioxidative enzymes. This study examined the impact of Nrf2 on fracture healing using a standard closed femoral shaft fracture model in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO)-mice. Healing was evaluated by histology, real-time RT-PCR, µCT and biomechanical measurements. We showed that Nrf2 expression is activated during fracture healing. Bone healing and remodelling were retarded in the Nrf2-KO compared to the WT-mice. Nrf2-KO-mice developed significantly less callus tissue compared to WT-mice. In addition, biomechanical testing demonstrated lower strength against shear stress in the Nrf2-KO-group compared to WT. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteocalcin is reduced during fracture healing in Nrf2-KO-mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Nrf2 deficiency in mice results in impaired fracture healing suggesting that Nrf2 plays an essential role in bone regeneration. Pharmacological activation of Nrf2 may have therapeutic potential for the enhancement of fracture healing.

  10. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies.

  11. A complex dietary supplement extends longevity of mice.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Jennifer A; Boreham, Douglas R; Rollo, C David

    2005-03-01

    Key factors implicated in aging include reactive oxygen species, inflammatory processes, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. All are exaggerated in transgenic growth hormone mice (TGM), which display a syndrome resembling accelerated aging. We formulated a complex dietary supplement containing 31 ingredients known to ameliorate all of the above features. We previously showed that this supplement completely abolished the severe age-related cognitive decline expressed by untreated TGM. Here we report that longevity of both TGM and normal mice is extended by this supplement. Treated TGM showed a 28% increase (p < .00008) in mean longevity. An 11% increase in mean longevity was also significant (p < .002093) for treated normal mice, compared to untreated normal mice. These data support the hypothesis that TGM are a model of accelerated aging, and demonstrate that complex dietary supplements may be effective in ameliorating aging or age-related pathologies where simpler formulations have generally failed.

  12. Broad protection against influenza infection by vectored immunoprophylaxis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, Alejandro B.; Bloom, Jesse D.; Hong, Christin M.; Rao, Dinesh S.; Baltimore, David

    2014-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies that target epitopes conserved among many strains of influenza virus have been recently isolated from humans. Here we demonstrate that adeno-associated viruses (AAV) encoding two such broadly neutralizing antibodies are protective against diverse influenza strains. Serum from mice that received a single intramuscular AAV injection efficiently neutralized all H1, H2 and H5 influenza strains tested. After infection with diverse strains of H1N1 influenza, treated mice showed minimal weight loss and lung inflammation. Protection lasted for at least 11 months after AAV injection. Notably, even immunodeficient and older mice were protected by this method, suggesting that expression of a monoclonal antibody alone is sufficient to protect mice from illness. If translated to humans, this prophylactic approach may be uniquely capable of protecting immunocompromised or elderly patient populations not reliably protected by existing vaccines. PMID:23728362

  13. Impaired clot lysis in copper-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, S.M.; Klevay, L.M. )

    1991-03-15

    Cu-deficient mice exhibit atrial thrombosis but have significantly lowered plasma coagulation factor V and VIII activities. To investigate the effects of a dietary Cu deficiency on clot lysis, groups of adult male and female Swiss-Webster mice were fed Cu-supplemented or -deficient diets with deionized water for 49 days. Animals were exsanguinated under pentobarbital anesthesia; platelet-poor plasma prepared and assayed for euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and antithrombin III activity. A protamine sulfate test was also performed. The highly significant ECLT prolongation in Cu-deficient mice clearly demonstrates that critical components of the physiological clot-lysing mechanism must be severely impaired in these animals. These results may help to explain the thrombotic sequelae of a dietary Cu deficiency in mice.

  14. Evaluation of Common Anesthetic and Analgesic Techniques for Tail Biopsy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

    2012-01-01

    Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

  15. Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

    2012-11-01

    Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice.

  16. Analysis of PFOA in Dosed CD-1 Mice Part 2: Disposition of PFOA in Tissues and fluids from pregnant and lactating mice and their pups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies in mice with multiple gestational exposures to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) demonstrate numerous dose dependent growth and developmental effects which appeared to worsen if offspring exposed in utero nursed from PFOA-exposed dams. To evaluate the disposition of ...

  17. The Polg Mutator Phenotype Does Not Cause Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in DJ-1-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David N; Primiani, Christopher T; Langston, Rebekah G; Kumaran, Ravindran; Cookson, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the DJ-1 gene cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism in humans. Several mouse models of DJ-1 deficiency have been developed, but they do not have dopaminergic neuron cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage occurs frequently in the aged human SNpc but not in the mouse SNpc. We hypothesized that the reason DJ-1-deficient mice do not have dopaminergic cell death is due to an absence of mtDNA damage. We tested this hypothesis by crossing DJ-1-deficient mice with mice that have similar amounts of mtDNA damage in their SNpc as aged humans (Polg mutator mice). At 1 year of age, we counted the amount of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in the mouse brains using both colorimetric and fluorescent staining followed by unbiased stereology. No evidence of dopaminergic cell death was observed in DJ-1-deficient mice with the Polg mutator mutation. Furthermore, we did not observe any difference in dopaminergic terminal immunostaining in the striatum of these mice. Finally, we did not observe any changes in the amount of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the SNpc of these mice, indicative of a lack of astrogliosis. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the DJ-1-deficient mice, Polg mutator mice, and DJ-1-deficient Polg mutator mice have intact nigrastriatal pathways. Thus, the lack of mtDNA damage in the mouse SNpc does not underlie the absence of dopaminergic cell death in DJ-1-deficient mice.

  18. Leishmania tropica major in mice: vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice of high genetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G F; Handman, E

    1983-02-01

    BALB/c and BALB/c.H-2b mice are genetically susceptible to development of persistent and severe disease following cutaneous injection of promastigotes of the protozoan parasite, Leishmania tropica major, whereas C57BL/6 are relatively resistant. Resistance in C57BL/6 can be further increased by intraperitoneal injection of living, but not killed, promastigotes prior to cutaneous challenge. Severely diseased BALB/c mice can show resistance to development of a second cutaneous lesion but apparently only in the advanced stages of systemic life-threatening disease. A striking level of resistance to persistent disease has been demonstrated in BALB/c.H-2b mice pre-injected with frozen and thawed L. t. major-infected macrophages of the continuous macrophage cell line IC-21 (H-2b) together with Corynebacterium parvum. No resistance is seen in recipients of either C. parvum or the crude antigen mixture alone. Protection is afforded by intraperitoneal and not subcutaneous injection of crude antigen plus adjuvant. In these vaccination studies all evidence points to the infected macrophage as most appropriate source of 'host-protective' antigens as well as being the most likely target of host-protective immunity. Resistance is expressed in vaccinated mice as minimal signs of cutaneous disease and rapid resolution of any small lesions which do develop. Frozen and thawed promastigotes plus C. parvum will not induce resistance to persistent disease in BALB/c.H-2b mice and preincubation of promastigotes with sera from resistant vaccinated mice does not influence their capacity to cause cutaneous disease. The results provide baseline data for vaccination attempts in genetically susceptible hosts using isolated L. t. major antigens (and, in particular, infected macrophage antigens) and highlight the utility of the intraperitoneal route of injection and the use of the therapeutic biological, C. parvum, as an adjuvant in such studies. PMID:6870673

  19. State Machine Operation of the MICE Cooling Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick; Mice Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a demonstration experiment to prove the feasibility of cooling a beam of muons for use in a Neutrino Factory and/or Muon Collider. The MICE cooling channel is a section of a modified Study II cooling channel which will provide a 10% reduction in beam emittance. In order to ensure a reliable measurement, MICE will measure the beam emittance before and after the cooling channel at the level of 1%, a relative measurement of 0.001. This renders MICE a precision experiment which requires strict controls and monitoring of all experimental parameters in order to control systematic errors. The MICE Controls and Monitoring system is based on EPICS and integrates with the DAQ, Data monitoring systems, and a configuration database. The cooling channel for MICE has between 12 and 18 superconductnig solenoid coils in 3 to 7 magnets, depending on the staged development of the experiment. The magnets are coaxial and in close proximity which requires coordinated operation of the magnets when ramping, responding to quench conditions, and quench recovery. To reliably manage the operation of the magnets, MICE is implementing state machines for each magnet and an over-arching state machine for the magnets integrated in the cooling channel. The state machine transitions and operating parameters are stored/restored to/from the configuration database and coupled with MICE Run Control. Proper implementation of the state machines will not only ensure safe operation of the magnets, but will help ensure reliable data quality. A description of MICE, details of the state machines, and lessons learned from use of the state machines in recent magnet training tests will be discussed.

  20. Identification of a neurovascular signaling pathway regulating seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Linda; Stevenson, Tamara K; Su, Enming J; Ragsdale, Margaret; Moore, Shannon; Craciun, Stefan; Schielke, Gerald P; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Lawrence, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability can contribute to the development of seizures. The protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been shown to promote BBB permeability and susceptibility to seizures. In this study, we examined the pathway regulated by tPA in seizures. Methods An experimental model of kainate-induced seizures was used in genetically modified mice, including mice deficient in tPA (tPA−/−), its inhibitor neuroserpin (Nsp−/−), or both (Nsp:tPA−/−), and in mice conditionally deficient in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Results Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, Nsp−/− mice have significantly reduced latency to seizure onset and generalization; whereas tPA−/− mice have the opposite phenotype, as do Nsp:tPA−/− mice. Furthermore, interventions that maintain BBB integrity delay seizure propagation, whereas osmotic disruption of the BBB in seizure-resistant tPA−/− mice dramatically reduces the time to seizure onset and accelerates seizure progression. The phenotypic differences in seizure progression between WT, tPA−/−, and Nsp−/− mice are also observed in electroencephalogram recordings in vivo, but absent in ex vivo electrophysiological recordings where regulation of the BBB is no longer necessary to maintain the extracellular environment. Finally, we demonstrate that these effects on seizure progression are mediated through signaling by PDGFRα on perivascular astrocytes. Interpretation Together, these data identify a specific molecular pathway involving tPA-mediated PDGFRα signaling in perivascular astrocytes that regulates seizure progression through control of the BBB. Inhibition of PDGFRα signaling and maintenance of BBB integrity might therefore offer a novel clinical approach for managing seizures. PMID:26273685

  1. String & Sticky Tape Experiments: A Siphon Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a simple demonstration of siphon action by using straws without sucking, or filling and closing one end. Includes the method, figures of the demonstration, and four questions for students on the demonstration. (YP)

  2. Defective CD8+ T cell peripheral tolerance in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kreuwel, H T; Biggs, J A; Pilip, I M; Pamer, E G; Lo, D; Sherman, L A

    2001-07-15

    Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice develop spontaneous autoimmune diabetes that involves participation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Previous studies have demonstrated spontaneous reactivity to self-Ags within the CD4+ T cell compartment in this strain. Whether CD8+ T cells in NOD mice achieve and maintain tolerance to self-Ags has not previously been evaluated. To investigate this issue, we have assessed the extent of tolerance to a model pancreatic Ag, the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule of influenza virus, that is transgenically expressed by pancreatic islet beta cells in InsHA mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that BALB/c and B10.D2 mice that express this transgene exhibit tolerance of HA and retain only low-avidity CD8+ T cells specific for the dominant peptide epitope of HA. In this study, we present data that demonstrate a deficiency in peripheral tolerance within the CD8+ T cell repertoire of NOD-InsHA mice. CD8+ T cells can be obtained from NOD-InsHA mice that exhibit high avidity for HA, as measured by tetramer (K(d)HA) binding and dose titration analysis. Significantly, these autoreactive CD8+ T cells can cause diabetes very rapidly upon adoptive transfer into NOD-InsHA recipient mice. The data presented demonstrate a retention in the repertoire of CD8+ T cells with high avidity for islet Ags that could contribute to autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

  3. Selenium status alters the immune response and expulsion of adult Heligmosomodies bakeri in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heligmosomoides bakeri is a nematode with parasitic development exclusively in the small intestine of infected mice that induces a potent STAT6-dependent Th2 immune response. We previously demonstrated that host protective expulsion of adult H. bakeri was delayed in selenium (Se) deficient mice. ...

  4. An inbred line of transgenic mice expressing an internally deleted gene for type II procollagen (COL2A1). Young mice have a variable phenotype of a chondrodysplasia and older mice have osteoarthritic changes in joints.

    PubMed Central

    Helminen, H J; Kiraly, K; Pelttari, A; Tammi, M I; Vandenberg, P; Pereira, R; Dhulipala, R; Khillan, J S; Ala-Kokko, L; Hume, E L

    1993-01-01

    Studies were carried out on a line of transgenic mice that expressed an internally deleted COL2A1 gene and developed a phenotype resembling human chondrodysplasias (Vandenberg et al. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:7640-7644. Marked differences in phenotype were observed with propagation of the mutated gene in an inbred strain of mice in that approximately 15% of the transgenic mice had a cleft palate and a lethal phenotype, whereas the remaining mice were difficult to distinguish from normal littermates. 1-d- and 3-mo-old transgenic mice that were viable showed microscopic signs of chondrodysplasia with reduced amounts of collagen fibrils in the cartilage matrix, dilatation of the rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the chondrocytes, and decrease of optical path difference in polarized light microscopy. The transgenic mice also showed signs of disturbed growth as evidenced by lower body weight, lower length and weight of the femur, decreased bone collagen, decreased bone mineral, and decreased resistance of bone to breakage. Comparisons of mice ranging in age from 1 d to 15 mo demonstrated that there was decreasing evidence of a chondrodysplasia as the mice grew older. Instead, the most striking feature in the 15-mo-old mice were degenerative changes of articular cartilage similar to osteoarthritis. Images PMID:8349798

  5. Long-term effects of ovariectomy on osteoporosis and obesity in estrogen-receptor-β-deleted mice.

    PubMed

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Nguyen, Ba Tiep; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Untreated BERKO mice demonstrate few abnormalities in bone phenotype and recent ovariectomy has few effects on various bone characteristics in these mice. Long-term studies on the bone phenotype of intact and ovariectomized mice are unavailable. Using quantitative computed tomography (qCT), we determined various parameters of the metaphysis of the tibia in sham-ovariectomized (intact) and ovariectomized BERKO and wildtype mice. Body weight and estrogen-regulated fat were also measured. Mice underwent surgery (ovariectomy or sham) at 3 mo of age, and qCT analysis was performed every 2 to 4 mo until mice were 12 mo old. Ovariectomized wildtype mice gained body weight and their fat depot increased in size within 2 mo after ovariectomy. Obesity developed later in ovariectomized BERKO mice, which became significantly heavier than their wildtype counterparts. Ovariectomized wildtype mice lost trabecular density more rapidly than did ovariectomized BERKO mice, which did not show similar loss in trabecular density until at least 7 mo after ovariectomy. At the latest studied time point (9 mo after surgery), cortical area was significantly larger in ovariectomized BERKO mice than ovariectomized wildtype mice. The absence of ERβ in ovariectomized BERKO mice during the first 3 to 5 mo after ovariectomy had protective effects against obesity and trabecular rarification; this protective effect disappeared at later time points.

  6. Xpa knockout mice.

    PubMed

    de Vries, A; van Steeg, H

    1996-10-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group A correcting (XPA) gene encodes a DNA binding zinc-finger protein that recognizes DNA damage. As such the XPA protein participates in the initial step of the process of nucleotide excision repair. The multicomponent nucleotide excision repair pathway is one of the most thoroughly studied mechanisms that defends both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells against the deleterious effects of UV-B and several chemical components. In the absence of nucleotide excision repair common cellular processes like transcription and replication are disturbed by persisting (unrepaired) DNA lesions (adducts), which may lead to the accumulation of gene mutations and ultimately to cancer. Xeroderma pigmentosum patients have a > 2000 fold increased risk to develop skin cancer at sun-exposed areas. Here we describe that XPA-deficient transgenic mice show features that mimic the phenotype found in humans. Furthermore, the possible use of Xpa- and other nucleotide excision repair deficient mice in cancer research will be outlined in more detail. PMID:9110400

  7. Psychopharmacological Studies in Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Since 1998, when the laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology was established in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, I have been interested in psychopharmacological research topics. During this period, we identified a number of novel regulatory mechanisms that control the prefrontal dopamine system through functional interaction between serotonin1A and dopamine D2 receptors or between serotonin1A and σ1 receptors. Our findings suggest that strategies that enhance the prefrontal dopamine system may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We also found that environmental factors during development strongly impact the psychological state in adulthood. Furthermore, we clarified the pharmacological profiles of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine, providing novel insights into their mechanisms of action. Finally, we developed the female encounter test, a novel method for evaluating motivation in mice. This simple method should help advance future psychopharmacological research. In this review, we summarize the major findings obtained from our recent studies in mice. PMID:27150930

  8. MANX, A 6-D Muon Cooling Demonstration Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts,Thomas; Alsharo'a, Mohammad; Hanlet, Pierrick M; Johnson, Rolland P; Kuchnir, Moyses; Paul, Kevin; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Moretti, Alfred; Popovic, Milorad; Yarba, Victor; Kaplan, Daniel; Yonehara, Katsuya

    2005-04-01

    Most ionization cooling schemes now under consideration are based on using many large flasks of liquid hydrogen energy absorber. One important example is the proposed Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which has recently been approved to run at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). In the work reported here, a potential muon cooling demonstration experiment based on a continuous liquid energy absorber in a helical cooling channel (HCC) is discussed. The original HCC used a gaseous energy absorber for the engineering advantage of combining the energy absorption and RF energy regeneration in hydrogen-filled RF cavities. In the Muon And Neutrino eXperiment (MANX) that is proposed here, a liquid-filled HCC is used without RF energy regeneration to achieve the largest possible cooling rate in six dimensions. In this case, the magnetic fields of the HCC must diminish as the muons lose momentum as they pass through the liquid energy absorber. The length of the MANX device is determined by the maximum momentum of the muon test beam and the maximum practical field that can be sustained at the magnet coils. We have studied a 3 meter-long HCC example that could be inserted between the MICE spectrometers at RAL.

  9. Subacute exposure to 50-Hz electromagnetic fields affect prenatal and neonatal mice's motor coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama; Ali, Hassan Al; Qassab, Narjis Al; Arab, Eman Al; Kamal, Amer

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the possible effect of ELF-EMFs on motor performance in mice (prenatal and neonatal exposed mice). The mice performance is evaluated after 5 days of subacute exposure. Immature mice have been chosen for this study because the immature rodent brain still has the capacity to undergo proliferation, differentiation, and reorganization. Results from the rotarod experiments demonstrated a pronounced deficit in the learning abilities of the prenatal exposed groups, but no pronounced effect was observed for the neonatal exposed group.

  10. Deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist promotes spontaneous femoral artery aneurysm formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kikuo; Kitagaki, Manabu; Niida, Tomiharu; Kondo, Harumi; Matsubara, Osamu; Kikuchi, Makoto; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Adachi, Takeshi

    2012-03-01

    Femoral artery aneurysms (FAAs) are very rare, and their natural history is not well understood. In this study, we sought to analyze the pathogenesis of inflammatory FAAs in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist-deficient (IL-1Ra(-/-)) B6 mice. Systolic arterial pressures and plasma lipid levels of IL-1Ra(-/-) mice and wild-type (WT) mice did not differ significantly. However, IL-1Ra(-/-) mice spontaneously developed fusiform FAAs. Real-time PCR of 9-month-old IL-1Ra(-/-) mice revealed significantly increased mRNA levels of IL-1β (6.6-fold), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (12.4-fold), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (6.0-fold) compared with WT mice. Histological analysis revealed numerous inflammatory cells around the FAAs in IL-1Ra(-/-) mice, and elastin staining showed destruction of both the internal and external elastic lamina in IL-1Ra(-/-) mice. Afterward, macrophage function was studied. After lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/mL) stimulation, IL-1Ra-deficient macrophages produced much higher levels of TNF-α than those from WT mice. Finally, we performed bone marrow cell transplantation. FAAs with many inflammatory cells in the adventitia were detected in several WT mice that received bone marrow cells from IL-1Ra(-/-) mice (44%), but not from WT mice (0%). Our study is the first to demonstrate that IL-1Ra deficiency in inflammatory cells disrupts immune system homeostasis and induces inflammatory FAAs in IL-1Ra(-/-) B6 mice. We believe that these mice will provide much information about the natural history and management of FAAs.

  11. Genetic background but not metallothionein phenotype dictates sensitivity to cadmium-induced testicular injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Corton, C; Dix, D J; Liu, Y; Waalkes, M P; Klaassen, C D

    2001-10-01

    Sensitivity to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular injury varies greatly among mouse strains. For instance, 129/SvJ (129) mice are highly sensitive while C57BL/6J (C57) mice are refractory to Cd-induced testicular injury. Metallothionein (MT), a Cd-binding protein, is thought to be responsible for the strain susceptibility to Cd toxicity. In this study, MT-I/II knockout (MT-null) and wild-type 129 mice were used to determine the role of MT in Cd-induced testicular injury. Two additional strains of mice (C57 and the C57 x 129 F1cross) were also used to help define the role of genetic background in Cd toxicity. Mice were given 5-20 micromol/kg ip CdCl(2) and testicular injury was examined 24 h later by histopathology and testicular hemoglobin concentration. Cd produced dose-dependent testicular injury in all strains of mice, except for C57 mice, in which testicular injury could not be produced. MT-null mice were more sensitive than C57 x 129 mice but were equally sensitive as 129 mice to Cd-induced testicular injury. Fourteen days after 15 micromol/kg ip Cd administration, testicular atrophy was evident in MT-null, 129, and C57 x 129 mice but was absent in C57 mice. The resistance of C57 mice to Cd-induced testicular injury could not be attributed solely to a decreased uptake of (109)Cd nor to a greater amount of testicular MT. Microarray analysis revealed a higher expression of glutathione peroxidase in the testes of C57 mice, as well as genes encoding antioxidant components and DNA damage/repair, but their significance to Cd-induced injury is not immediately clear. Thus, this study demonstrates that it is genetic strain, not MT genotype, that is mechanistically important in determining susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:11578143

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury Precipitates Cognitive Impairment and Extracellular Aβ Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Toru; Arendash, Gary W.; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a signature wound of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many American soldiers, even those undiagnosed but likely suffering from mild TBI, display Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like cognitive impairments, suggesting a pathological overlap between TBI and AD. This study examined the cognitive and neurohistological effects of TBI in presymptomatic APP/PS1 AD-transgenic mice. AD mice and non-transgenic (NT) mice received an experimental TBI on the right parietal cortex using the controlled cortical impact model. Animals were trained in a water maze task for spatial memory before TBI, and then reevaluated in the same task at two and six weeks post-TBI. The results showed that AD mice with TBI made significantly more errors in the task than AD mice without TBI and NT mice regardless of TBI. A separate group of AD mice and NT mice were evaluated neurohistologically at six weeks after TBI. The number of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ)-deposits significantly increased by at least one fold in the cortex of AD mice that received TBI compared to the NT mice that received TBI or the AD and NT mice that underwent sham surgery. A significant decrease in MAP2 positive cells, indicating neuronal loss, was observed in the cortex of both the AD and NT mice that received TBI compared to the AD and NT mice subjected to sham surgery. Similar changes in extracellular Aβ deposits and MAP2 positive cells were also seen in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate for the first time that TBI precipitates cognitive impairment in presymptomatic AD mice, while also confirming extracellular Aβ deposits following TBI. The recognition of this pathological link between TBI and AD should aid in developing novel treatments directed at abrogating cellular injury and extracellular Aβ deposition in the brain. PMID:24223856

  13. Traumatic brain injury precipitates cognitive impairment and extracellular Aβ aggregation in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Naoki; Kellogg, S Leilani; Shimizu, Toru; Arendash, Gary W; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a signature wound of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many American soldiers, even those undiagnosed but likely suffering from mild TBI, display Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like cognitive impairments, suggesting a pathological overlap between TBI and AD. This study examined the cognitive and neurohistological effects of TBI in presymptomatic APP/PS1 AD-transgenic mice. AD mice and non-transgenic (NT) mice received an experimental TBI on the right parietal cortex using the controlled cortical impact model. Animals were trained in a water maze task for spatial memory before TBI, and then reevaluated in the same task at two and six weeks post-TBI. The results showed that AD mice with TBI made significantly more errors in the task than AD mice without TBI and NT mice regardless of TBI. A separate group of AD mice and NT mice were evaluated neurohistologically at six weeks after TBI. The number of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ)-deposits significantly increased by at least one fold in the cortex of AD mice that received TBI compared to the NT mice that received TBI or the AD and NT mice that underwent sham surgery. A significant decrease in MAP2 positive cells, indicating neuronal loss, was observed in the cortex of both the AD and NT mice that received TBI compared to the AD and NT mice subjected to sham surgery. Similar changes in extracellular Aβ deposits and MAP2 positive cells were also seen in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate for the first time that TBI precipitates cognitive impairment in presymptomatic AD mice, while also confirming extracellular Aβ deposits following TBI. The recognition of this pathological link between TBI and AD should aid in developing novel treatments directed at abrogating cellular injury and extracellular Aβ deposition in the brain. PMID:24223856

  14. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hundahl, Christian A; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Georg, Birgitte; Faltoft, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night.

  15. Heart regeneration in adult MRL mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leferovich, John M.; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Samulewicz, Stefan; Zhang, Xiang-Ming; Zwas, Donna; Lankford, Edward B.; Heber-Katz, Ellen

    2001-08-01

    The reaction of cardiac tissue to acute injury involves interacting cascades of cellular and molecular responses that encompass inflammation, hormonal signaling, extracellular matrix remodeling, and compensatory adaptation of myocytes. Myocardial regeneration is observed in amphibians, whereas scar formation characterizes cardiac ventricular wound healing in a variety of mammalian injury models. We have previously shown that the MRL mouse strain has an extraordinary capacity to heal surgical wounds, a complex trait that maps to at least seven genetic loci. Here, we extend these studies to cardiac wounds and demonstrate that a severe transmural, cryogenically induced infarction of the right ventricle heals extensively within 60 days, with the restoration of normal myocardium and function. Scarring is markedly reduced in MRL mice compared with C57BL/6 mice, consistent with both the reduced hydroxyproline levels seen after injury and an elevated cardiomyocyte mitotic index of 10-20% for the MRL compared with 1-3% for the C57BL/6. The myocardial response to injury observed in these mice resembles the regenerative process seen in amphibians.

  16. Circadian Behaviour in Neuroglobin Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hundahl, Christian A.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Georg, Birgitte; Faltoft, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night. PMID:22496809

  17. Induction of Overt Menstruation in Intact Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Marion; Döcke, Wolf-Dietrich; Müller, Andrea; Menning, Astrid; Röse, Lars; Zollner, Thomas Matthias; Gashaw, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    The complex tissue remodeling process of menstruation is experienced by humans and some primates, whereas most placental mammals, including mice, go through an estrous cycle. How menstruation and the underlying mechanisms evolved is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that the process of menstruation is not just species-specific but also depends on factors which can be induced experimentally. In intact female mice endogenous progesterone levels were raised by the induction of pseudopregnancy. Following an intrauterine oil injection, the decidualization of the endometrium was reliably induced as a prerequisite for menstruation. The natural drop of endogenous progesterone led to spontaneous breakdown of endometrial tissue within an average of 3 days post induction of decidualization. Interestingly, morphological changes such as breakdown and repair of the endometrial layer occurred in parallel in the same uterine horn. Most importantly, endometrial breakdown was accompanied by vaginally visible (overt) bleeding and flushing out of shed tissue comparable to human menstruation. Real-time PCR data clearly showed temporal changes in the expression of multiple factors participating in inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue modulation, proliferation, and apoptosis, as has been described for human menstruating endometrium. In conclusion, human menstruation can be mimicked in terms of extravaginally visible bleeding, tissue remodeling, and gene regulation in naturally non-menstruating species such as intact female mice without the need for an exogenous hormone supply. PMID:22412950

  18. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    MedlinePlus

    ... to mice that had already begun to lose pigment. They found that the vitiligo-prone mice did ... disorder at all, and 76 percent of normal pigment returned among the vitiligo-affected mice, essentially reversing ...

  19. Norepinephrine transporter heterozygous knockout mice exhibit altered transport and behavior.

    PubMed

    Fentress, H M; Klar, R; Krueger, J J; Sabb, T; Redmon, S N; Wallace, N M; Shirey-Rice, J K; Hahn, M K

    2013-11-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET(+/-) ), demonstrating that they display an approximately 50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET(+/-) mouse establishes an activated state of existing surface NET proteins. The NET(+/-) mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that recovery of near basal activity in NET(+/-) mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET(+/-) mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders.

  20. Severe pulmonary metastasis in obese and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akinori; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Choo, Min-Kyung; Obi, Ryosuke; Koizumi, Keiichi; Yoshida, Chiho; Shimada, Yutaka; Saiki, Ikuo

    2006-12-15

    Although obesity is known as a risk factor for several human cancers, the association of obesity with cancer recurrence and metastasis remains to be characterized. Here, B16-BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma cells were intravenously injected into diabetic (db/db) and obese (ob/ob) mice. The number of experimental lung colonies was markedly promoted in these mice when compared with C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, tumor growth at the implanted site was comparable when cells were inoculated orthotopically. The use of B16-BL6 cells stably transfected with the luciferase gene revealed that the increased metastasis reflected a difference mainly within 6 hr after the intravenous inoculation of tumor cells. Administration of recombinant leptin in ob/ob mice abolished the increase in metastasis early on as well as the decrease in the splenic NK cell number. In addition, depletion of NK cells by an anti-asialo-GM1 antibody abrogated the enhanced metastasis in db/db mice. These results demonstrate that metastasis is markedly promoted in diabetic and obese mice mainly because of decreased NK cell function during the early phase of metastasis. PMID:16998795

  1. Genistein treatment increases bone mass in obese, hyperglycemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, Richard M; Al-Nakkash, Layla; Broderick, Tom L; Plochocki, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with elevated risk of limb bone fracture. Incidences of these conditions are on the rise worldwide. Genistein, a phytoestrogen, has been shown by several studies to demonstrate bone-protective properties and may improve bone health in obese type 2 diabetics. Methods In this study, we test the effects of genistein treatment on limb bone and growth plate cartilage histomorphometry in obese, hyperglycemic ob/ob mice. Six-week-old ob/ob mice were divided into control and genistein-treated groups. Genistein-treated mice were fed a diet containing 600 mg genistein/kg for a period of 4 weeks. Cross-sectional geometric and histomorphometric analyses were conducted on tibias. Results Genistein-treated mice remained obese and hyperglycemic. However, histomorphometric comparisons show that genistein-treated mice have greater tibial midshaft diameters and ratios of cortical bone to total tissue area than the controls. Genistein-treated mice also exhibit decreased growth plate thickness of the proximal tibia. Conclusion Our results indicate that genistein treatment affects bone of the tibial midshaft in the ob/ob mouse, independent of improvements in the hyperglycemic state and body weight. PMID:27042131

  2. Host microbiota modulates development of social preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Arentsen, Tim; Raith, Henrike; Qian, Yu; Forssberg, Hans; Heijtz, Rochellys Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Mounting evidence indicates that the indigenous gut microbiota exerts long-lasting programming effects on brain function and behaviour. Objective In this study, we used the germ-free (GF) mouse model, devoid of any microbiota throughout development, to assess the influence of the indigenous microbiota on social preference and repetitive behaviours (e.g. self-grooming). Methods and results Using the three-chambered social approach task, we demonstrate that when adult GF mice were given a choice to spend time with a novel mouse or object, they spent significantly more time sniffing and interacting with the stimulus mouse compared to conventionally raised mice (specific pathogen-free, SPF). Time spent in repetitive self-grooming behaviour, however, did not differ between GF and SPF mice. Real-time PCR–based gene expression analysis of the amygdala, a key region that is part of the social brain network, revealed a significant reduction in the mRNA levels of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), BDNF exon I-, IV-, VI-, IX-containing transcripts, and NGFI-A (a signalling molecule downstream of BDNF) in GF mice compared to SPF mice. Conclusion These results suggest that differential regulation of BDNF exon transcripts in the amygdala by the indigenous microbes may contribute to the altered social development of GF mice. PMID:26679775

  3. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb−/− mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb−/− mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb−/− mice (1–2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb−/− mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb−/− mice. Moreover, compared with HSC+/+, HSC−/− showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1–6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence. PMID:27146058

  4. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Castellucci, Gregg A.; McGinley, Matthew J.; McCormick, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/−) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/− mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/− mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/− song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene’s role in general vocal motor control. PMID:26980647

  5. [BEHAVIOR, MEMORY AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STATUS IN MICE MODEL OF DESYNCHRONOSIS].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Shurlygina, A V; Litvinenko, G I; Melnikova, E V; Tenditnik, M V; Chasovskich, M I; Trufakin, V A

    2015-05-01

    Interstrain differences in behavior and parameters of the immune system of CBA and C57BL/6 mice with round the clock coverage (KO) were investigated. Open field, light/dark, acoustic startle response, forced swimming, elevated plus-maze, passive avoidance were used for measuring emotional behavior and memory. The number of lymphocyte subpopulations CD3+, CD4+8-, CD4-8+, CD4+8+, CD19+, CD3+hi spleen and thymus, the ratio of cells in different phases of the cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. C57BL/6J mice strictly increased anxiety in response to the KO compared to CBA mice. Moreover, KO-treated C57BL/6J mice impaired the passive avoidance learning. We found that KO evoked significant changes in the cellular composition of the thymus and decrease of thymocytes proliferation in C57BL/6J mice. In opposite KO-treated CBA mice showed change of splenic cellular structure with increased % CD19+ cells and the proliferation of splenocytes. Our study demonstrated genotype-dependent reactions of the nervous and immune systems in response chronic constant light.

  6. Enhanced malignant tumorigenesis in Cdk4 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2004-03-11

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target.

  7. Immunosuppressive activity of tilmicosin on the immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shuang; Song, Yu; Guo, Weixiao; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Wang, Dacheng; Lu, Jing; Deng, Xuming

    2011-06-01

    Tilmicosin, a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic that is only used in the veterinary clinic, was evaluated for its immunosuppressive activity on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Tilmicosin suppressed concanavalin A (Con A)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA on day 1 and 4. Beginning on the day of boosting immunization, the mice were administered intraperitoneally with tilmicosin at a single dose of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days. On day 14, blood samples were collected for measuring specific total-immunoglobulin G (total-IgG), IgG1, IgG2b, and splenocytes were harvested for determining lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4 production. The results demonstrated that tilmicosin could significantly suppress Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, decrease LPS-and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation only at high concentration, produced less IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ as compared to the control in the OVA-immunized mice. Moreover, the OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b levels in the OVA-immunized mice were reduced by tilmicosin. These results suggest that tilmicosin could suppress the cellular and humoral immune response in mice.

  8. Enhanced Malignant Tumorigenesis in Cdk4-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of CDK4 in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target. PMID:14647432

  9. Norepinephrine Transporter Heterozygous Knockout Mice Exhibit Altered Transport and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fentress, HM; Klar, R; Krueger, JK; Sabb, T; Redmon, SN; Wallace, NM; Shirey-Rice, JK; Hahn, MK

    2013-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically-driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET+/−), demonstrating that they display an ~50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity, assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET+/− mouse establishes an activated state of existing, surface NET proteins. NET+/− mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze. These data suggest recovery of near basal activity in NET+/− mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET+/− mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. PMID:24102798

  10. Neurobiological Sequelae of Witnessing Stressful Events in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Brandon L.; Vialou, Vincent F.; Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Wright, Katherine N.; Feng, Jiang; Kennedy, Pamela J.; LaPlant, Quincey; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that exposure to severe stress increases the risk for developing mood disorders. However, most chronic stress models in rodents involve at least some form of physically experiencing traumatic events. Methods This study assessed the effects of a novel social stress paradigm that is insulated from the effects of physical stress. Specifically, adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either emotional (ES) or physical stress (PS) for ten minutes per day for ten days. ES mice were exposed to the social defeat of a PS mouse by a larger more aggressive CD-1 mouse from the safety of an adjacent compartment. Results Like PS mice, ES mice exhibited a range of depression- and anxiety-like behaviors both 24 hr and 1 month after the stress. Increased levels of serum corticosterone, part of the stress response, accompanied these behavioral deficits. Based on prior work which implicated gene expression changes in the ventral tegmental area (a key brain reward region) in the PS phenotype, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression patterns in this brain region of ES and PS mice using RNA-seq. We found significant overlap between these conditions, which suggests several potential gene targets for mediating the behavioral abnormalities observed. Conclusions Together, these findings demonstrate that witnessing traumatic events is a potent stress in adult male mice capable of inducing long-lasting neurobiological perturbations. PMID:22795644

  11. Evaluation of bone quality and quantity in osteoporotic mice--the effects of genistein and equol.

    PubMed

    Sehmisch, S; Uffenorde, J; Maehlmeyer, S; Tezval, M; Jarry, H; Stuermer, K M; Stuermer, E K

    2010-05-01

    The technology of gene manipulation is often used in mice. A crucial point for osteoporosis research is the evaluation of biomechanical and morphologic parameters. These parameters, however, are difficult to measure in mice. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates the capability of using techniques for the evaluation of bone quality and quantity after various treatments in osteopenic mice. After ovariectomy, 60 C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups and were fed a soy-free diet (C) supplemented with estradiol, genistein or equol for 3 months. To analyze the osteoprotective effects of the tested supplements, we evaluated the bone biomechanical properties, histomorphometric changes and bone mineral density of the proximal tibiae metaphysis. The biomechanical parameters of genistein (GEN) were shown to be similar to those levels observed with estradiol (E). The biomechanical parameters of both GEN and E were significantly superior to those observed with C. Supplementation with equol (EQO) demonstrated higher mean biomechanical values than those observed with C. The histomorphometric evaluation demonstrated an increased number of nodes in mice treated with GEN and E as compared to the mice treated with EQO and C. Treatment with E and EQO led to improved cortical bone, which was only partly seen with the mice treated with GEN. The analysis of the bone mineral density (BMD) demonstrated that treatment with GEN and E resulted in a significant improvement as compared to the mice treated with C, while the cancellous density was significantly increased in all of the supplementation groups. This study conclusively demonstrated that bone quality and quantity parameters can be measured in mice. Furthermore, biomechanical and morphologic evaluations were shown to be reliable for use in mice. Further studies may combine these techniques with gene manipulation technology to better understand osteoporosis. Treatment with GEN resulted in improved biomechanical results and

  12. Decreased lung compliance and air trapping in heterozygous SP-B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Clark, J C; Weaver, T E; Iwamoto, H S; Ikegami, M; Jobe, A H; Hull, W M; Whitsett, J A

    1997-01-01

    Genetic ablation of the murine SP-B gene in transgenic mice caused lethal perinatal respiratory distress in homozygous offspring, whereas heterozygous SP-B (+/-) mice survived postnatally. In adult SP-B(+/-) mice, surfactant protein B mRNA and the alveolar lavage SP-B protein were reduced by 50% compared with wild-type littermates, consistent with the inactivation of a single SP-B allele. Expression of SP-A, SP-C, and SP-D proteins was not affected in SP-B(+/-) mice. Heterozygous SP-B(+/-) mice reached maturity in numbers expected by Mendelian inheritance of a recessive gene. Lung morphology and both intracellular and extracellular phospholipid pool size and composition were unaltered in the SP-B(+/-) mice. Despite normal survival, pulmonary function studies demonstrated a consistent decrease in lung compliance in SP-B(+/-) mice. Abnormalities of inflation/deflation curves demonstrated airway collapse at low deflation pressures. Residual volumes were increased in the SP-B(+/-) mice. In summary, SP-B mRNA and SP-B protein were reduced by 50% in SP-B(+/-) mice, resulting in abnormalities of lung compliance and air trapping, suggesting a potential susceptibility to pulmonary dysfunction associated with SP-B deficiency.

  13. MICE data handling on the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyniak, J.; Mice Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionisation cooling for the first time, for application to a future Neutrino factory or Muon Collider. The experiment is currently under construction at the ISIS synchrotron at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), UK. In this paper we present a system - the Raw Data Mover, which allows us to store and distribute MICE raw data - and a framework for offline reconstruction and data management. The aim of the Raw Data Mover is to upload raw data files onto a safe tape storage as soon as the data have been written out by the DAQ system and marked as ready to be uploaded. Internal integrity of the files is verified and they are uploaded to the RAL Tier-1 Castor Storage Element (SE) and placed on two tapes for redundancy. We also make another copy at a separate disk-based SE at this stage to make it easier for users to access data quickly. Both copies are check-summed and the replicas are registered with an instance of the LCG File Catalog (LFC). On success a record with basic file properties is added to the MICE Metadata DB. The reconstruction process is triggered by new raw data records filled in by the mover system described above. Off-line reconstruction jobs for new raw files are submitted to RAL Tier-1 and the output is stored on tape. Batch reprocessing is done at multiple MICE enabled Grid sites and output files are shipped to central tape or disk storage at RAL using a custom File Transfer Controller.

  14. Immunomodulatory activities of gemifloxacin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Umair, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Ghafoor, Aamir; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Gemifloxacin is a broad spectrum antibiotic and has shown excellent coverage against a wide variety of microorganisms. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of gemifloxacin in male swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Three doses of gemifloxacin 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg were used intraperitoneally (IP) for the evaluation of immune responses in mice. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), heamagglutination assay, jerne hemolytic plaque formation assay and cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia assay were performed to evaluate the effect of gemifloxacin on immune responses. Results: DTH assay has shown the significant immune suppressant potential of gemifloxacin at 25 mg/kg dose and 75mg/kg dose. Total leukocyte count (TLC) has shown decrease in leukocyte count (P<0.05) in drug treatment groups before cyclophosphamide administration and significant decrease (P<0.001) in leukocyte count after cyclophosphamide administration as compared to negative control group. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) has shown significant decrease (P<0.001) in percentage count of lymphocytes in 75 mg/kg treatment group in leukopenic mice while increase (P<0.01) in monocytes percentage in 50 mg/kg treatment group in leukopenic mice and increase in neutrophil percentage count (P<0.05) in all treatment groups was observed after cyclophosphamide administration. Humoral immune response is shown to be suppressed in dose dependent manner by both heamagglutination titre values (P<0.001) and jerne hemolytic plaque formation assay (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of this work clearly demonstrate that gemifloxacin has significant immunomodulatory potential. PMID:27803786

  15. Effect of sclerostin removal in vivo on experimental periodontitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianrui; Han, Xianglong; Shu, Rui; Jiang, Fulin; Xu, Li; Xue, Chaoran; Chen, Tian; Bai, Ding

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effects of sclerostin removal in vivo on experimental periodontitis in mice. A ligature of Porphyromonas gingivalis-saturated collagen silk was applied to the cervical region of the first molar tooth in 10 wild-type (WT) mice and 10 sclerostin-knockout (SOST-KO) mice, and the animals were fed 10% sucrose for 2 months. Another 10 WT mice and 10 SOST-KO mice were similarly treated, but then fed a normal diet for 2 months. The maxillae were then harvested for morphological and molecular examinations. The mice with periodontitis showed significantly more severe alveolar bone loss than control mice, the most significant absorption being observed in WT mice. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of RANKL and ERK1/2-MAPK expression and downregulation of OPG expression in mice with periodontitis, especially WT mice. Therefore, removal of sclerostin appears to modestly protect the alveolar bone from resorption in this experimental setting. (J Oral Sci 58, 271-276, 2016). PMID:27349550

  16. The susceptibility of Aire(-/-) mice to experimental myasthenia gravis involves alterations in regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Aricha, Revital; Feferman, Tali; Scott, Hamish S; Souroujon, Miriam C; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Fuchs, Sara

    2011-02-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) is involved in the prevention of autoimmunity by promoting thymic expression of tissue restricted antigens which leads to elimination of self-reactive T cells. We found that Aire knockout (KO) mice as well as mouse strains that are susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) have lower thymic expression of acetylcholine receptor (AChR- the main autoantigen in MG), compared to wild type (WT) mice and EAMG-resistant mouse strains, respectively. We demonstrated that Aire KO mice have a significant and reproducible lower frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ cells and a higher expression of Th17 markers in their thymus, compared to wild type (WT) mice. These findings led us to expect that Aire KO mice would display increased susceptibility to EAMG. Surprisingly, when EAMG was induced in young (2 month-old) mice, EAMG was milder in Aire KO than in WT mice for several weeks until the age of about 5 months. However, when EAMG was induced in relatively aged (6 month-old) mice, Aire KO mice presented higher disease severity than WT controls. This age-related change in susceptibility to EAMG correlated with an elevated proportion of Treg cells in the spleens of young but not old KO, compared to WT mice, suggesting a role for peripheral Treg cells in the course of disease. Our observations point to a possible link between Aire and Treg cells and suggest an involvement for both in the pathogenesis of myasthenia.

  17. Disposition of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Pregnant and Lactating CD-1 Mice and Their Pups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies in mice prenatally-exposed to PFOA demonstrate growth and developmental effects, including impaired body weight gain and mammary gland development, delayed eye opening, and increased mortality. Those dose dependent effects appeared to worsen if offspring exposed ...

  18. ROCK insufficiency attenuates ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, David I; Mathews, Joel A; Park, Chan Y; Cho, Youngji; Hunt, Gabrielle; Wurmbrand, Allison P; Liao, James K; Shore, Stephanie A

    2015-10-01

    Ozone causes airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and pulmonary inflammation. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell contraction and inflammatory cell migration. To determine the contribution of the two ROCK isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2 to ozone-induced AHR, we exposed wild-type, ROCK1(+/-), and ROCK2(+/-) mice to air or ozone (2 ppm for 3 h) and evaluated mice 24 h later. ROCK1 or ROCK2 haploinsufficiency did not affect airway responsiveness in air-exposed mice but significantly reduced ozone-induced AHR, with a greater reduction in ROCK2(+/-) mice despite increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory cells in ROCK2(+/-) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, ozone-induced increases in BAL hyaluronan, a matrix protein implicated in ozone-induced AHR, were lower in ROCK1(+/-) but not ROCK2(+/-) mice. Ozone-induced increases in other inflammatory moieties reported to contribute to ozone-induced AHR (IL-17A, osteopontin, TNFα) were not different in wild-type vs. ROCK1(+/-) or ROCK2(+/-) mice. We also observed a dose-dependent reduction in ozone-induced AHR after treatment with the ROCK1/ROCK2 inhibitor fasudil, even though fasudil was administered after induction of inflammation. Ozone increased pulmonary expression of ROCK2 but not ROCK1 or RhoA. A ROCK2 inhibitor, SR3677, reduced contractile forces in primary human airway smooth muscle cells, confirming a role for ROCK2 in airway smooth muscle contraction. Our results demonstrate that ozone-induced AHR requires ROCK. Whereas ROCK1-dependent changes in hyaluronan may contribute to ROCK1's role in O3-induced AHR, the role of ROCK2 is downstream of inflammation, likely at the level of airway smooth muscle contraction.

  19. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Qian; Sun, Li-Li; Xiang, Fen-Fen; Gao, Li; Jia, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Tao, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Wen-Jie

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2{sup −/−}) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2{sup −/−} female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells.

  20. Endocranial and masticatory muscle volumes in myostatin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Nathan; Mendias, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Structural and functional trade-offs are integral to the evolution of the mammalian skull and its development. This paper examines the potential for enlargement of the masticatory musculature to limit the size of the endocranial cavity by studying a myostatin-deficient mouse model of hypermuscularity (MSTN−/−). The study tests the null prediction that the larger MSTN−/− mice have larger brains compared with wild-type (WT) mice in order to service the larger muscles. Eleven post-mortem MSTN−/− mice and 12 WT mice were imaged at high resolution using contrast enhanced micro-CT. Masticatory muscle volumes (temporalis, masseter, internal and external pterygoids) and endocranial volumes were measured on the basis of two-dimensional manual tracings and the Cavalieri principle. Volumes were compared using Kruskal–Wallis and Student's t-tests. Results showed that the masticatory muscles of the MSTN−/− mice were significantly larger than in the WT mice. Increases were in the region of 17–36% depending on the muscle. Muscles increased in proportion to each other, maintaining percentages in the region of 5, 10, 21 and 62% of total muscle volume for the external ptyergoid, internal pterygoid, temporalis and masseter, respectively. Kruskal–Wallis and t-tests demonstrated that the endocranial volume was significantly larger in the WT mice, approximately 16% larger on average than that seen in the MSTN−/− mice. This comparative reduction of MSTN−/− endocranial size could not be explained in terms of observer bias, ageing, sexual dimorphism or body size scaling. That the results showed a reduction of brain size associated with an increase of muscle size falsifies the null prediction and lends tentative support to the view that the musculature influences brain growth. It remains to be determined whether the observed effect is primarily physical, nutritional, metabolic or molecular in nature. PMID:26064569

  1. Pair housing reverses post-stroke depressive behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajkumar; Friedler, Brett D; Harris, Nia M; McCullough, Louise D

    2014-08-01

    Social isolation (SI) has been linked epidemiologically to high rates of morbidity and mortality following stroke. In contrast, strong social support enhances recovery and lowers stroke recurrence. However, the mechanism by which social support influences stroke recovery has not been adequately explored. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of post-stroke pair housing and SI on behavioral phenotypes and chronic functional recovery in mice. Young male mice were paired for 14 days before a 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham surgery and assigned to various housing environments immediately after stroke. Post-stroke mice paired with either a sham or stroke partner showed significantly higher (P<0.05) sociability after MCAO than isolated littermates. Sociability deficits worsened over time in isolated animals. Pair-housed mice showed restored sucrose consumption (P<0.05) and reduced immobility in the tail suspension test compared to isolated cohorts. Pair-housed stroked mice demonstrated significantly reduced cerebral atrophy after 6 weeks (17.5 ± 1.5% in PH versus 40.8 ± 1.3% in SI; P<0.001). Surprisingly, total brain arginase-1, a marker of a M2 "alternatively activated" myeloid cells was higher in isolated mice. However, a more detailed assessment of cellular expression showed a significant increase in the number of microglia that co-labeled with arginase-1 in the peri-infarct region in PH stroke mice compared to SI mice. Pair housing enhances sociability and reduces avolitional and anhedonic behavior. Pair housing reduced serum IL-6 and enhanced peri-infarct microglia arginase-1 expression. Social interaction reduces post-stroke depression and improves functional recovery.

  2. Immune response to intrapharyngeal LPS in neonatal and juvenile mice.

    PubMed

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Lee, Seakwoo; Gibbs, Kevin; Lopez, Armando; Collaco, Joseph M; Neptune, Enid; Soloski, Mark J; Scott, Alan; D'Alessio, Franco

    2015-03-01

    Neonates and infants have a higher morbidity and mortality associated with lower respiratory tract illnesses compared with older children. To identify age-related and longitudinal differences in the cellular immune response to acute lung injury (ALI), neonatal and juvenile mice were given Escherichia coli LPS using a novel, minimally invasive aspiration technique. Neonatal and juvenile mice received between 3.75 and 7.5 mg/kg LPS by intrapharyngeal aspiration. Airway and lung cells were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry, cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression from lung homogenates was quantified, and lung morphometry and injury scores were performed. LPS-treated neonatal mice underwent adoptive transfer with adult T regulatory cells (Tregs). After LPS aspiration, lung monocytes isolated from neonatal mice had a predominant M2 phenotype, whereas lung monocytes from juvenile mice displayed a mixed M1/M2 phenotype. At 72 hours after LPS exposure, neonatal lungs were slower to resolve inflammation and expressed lower mRNA levels of CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, and IL-10. Juvenile, but not neonatal, mice demonstrated a significant increase in airway Tregs after LPS exposure. Adoptive transfer of adult Tregs into LPS-challenged neonatal mice resulted in reduced lung inflammation and improved weight gain. These findings underscore several vulnerabilities in the neonatal immune response to LPS-induced ALI. Most striking was the deficiency in airway Tregs after LPS aspiration. Adoptive transfer of adult Tregs mitigated LPS-induced ALI in neonatal mice, highlighting the importance of age-related differences in Tregs and their response to ALI during early postnatal development.

  3. Induction of hepatic metallothionein I in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kloth, D M; Chin, J L; Cherian, M G

    1995-04-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an intracellular metal-binding protein which has been implicated in various biological roles, including heavy-metal detoxification and zinc and copper homeostasis, and has putative antioxidant properties. High levels of MT have been detected in certain human tumours, but its functions are unclear. The presence of tumour may cause stress conditions along with alterations in host metabolism, such as the redistribution of metals and, subsequently, in changes in hepatic MT isoforms. The distribution of basal levels of MT-1 and MT-11 isoforms in livers of different strains of mice and their induction in mice inoculated with tumour cells are investigated. While Balb-c, C57/BL and CD1 mice strains had an equal distribution of both hepatic MT isoforms, MT-I and MT-II. In addition, MT-I was the predominant isoform synthesised (> 88%) in the livers of all strains of mice at 24 h after injection with either cadmium or zinc salts. After inoculation with human testicular T7800 or T7799 tumour cells, the major form of MT induced in the livers of nude (nu/nu) mice was Zn-MT-I, and its concentration was positively correlated with the size of the inoculated tumours (r2 = 0.85). A similar positive relation was found in the livers of Balb-c mice inoculated with MM45T mouse bladder tumour cells (r2 = 0.96). Following surgical removal of T7800 tumour, hepatic MT concentrations returned to basal values. There was an increase in plasma MT levels in tumour-bearing mice and it was positively correlated with the increase in hepatic MT levels. These results demonstrate a specific increase in hepatic MT-I isoform in tumour-bearing mice, and this may be due to a generalised stress during tumour growth. PMID:7710933

  4. Assessing Cognition in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hölter, Sabine M; Garrett, Lillian; Einicke, Jan; Sperling, Bettina; Dirscherl, Petra; Zimprich, Annemarie; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Wurst, Wolfgang

    2015-12-02

    Genetically modified mouse models have proven useful to study learning and memory processes and the neurocircuitry and molecular mechanisms involved, as well as to develop therapies for diseases involving cognitive impairment. A variety of tests have been developed to measure cognition in mice, and here we present those established and regularly used in the German Mouse Clinic. The test paradigms have been carefully chosen according to reliability of results and disease relevance of the cognitive functions assessed. Further criteria were time efficiency and ease of application. All tests assess slightly different but also overlapping or interacting aspects of learning and memory so that they can be used to complement each other in a comprehensive assessment of cognitive function. The five protocols described are for spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, social discrimination, object recognition, automated assessment of learning and memory using the IntelliCage, and olfactory discrimination learning.

  5. Status of MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.D.; Kaplan, D.M.; / /IIT, Chicago

    2008-11-01

    Muon ionization cooling is the only practical method for preparing high-brilliance beams needed for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory comprises a dedicated beamline to generate a range of input emittance and momentum, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance is performed in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating-fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in liquid hydrogen with RF acceleration. A second spectrometer identical to the first and a particle identification system will measure the outgoing emittance. Plans for measurements of emittance and cooling are described.

  6. Chronic stress does not further exacerbate the abnormal psychoneuroendocrine phenotype of Cbg-deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Gabriela F; Minni, Amandine M; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Chronic stress leads to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which can constitute a base for pathophysiological consequences. Using mice totally deficient in Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), we have previously demonstrated the important role of CBG in eliciting an adequate response to an acute stressor. Here, we have studied its role in chronic stress situations. We have submitted Cbg ko and wild-type (WT) male mice to two different chronic stress paradigms - the unpredictable chronic mild stress and the social defeat. Then, their impact on neuroendocrine function - through corticosterone and CBG measurement - and behavioral responses - via anxiety and despair-like behavioral tests - was evaluated. Both chronic stress paradigms increased the display of despair-like behavior in WT mice, while that from Cbg ko mice - which was already high - was not aggravated. We have also found that control and defeated (stressed) Cbg ko mice show no difference in the social interaction test, while defeated WT mice reduce their interaction time when compared to unstressed WT mice. Interestingly, the same pattern was observed for corticosterone levels, where both chronic stress paradigms lowered the corticosterone levels of WT mice, while those from Cbg ko mice remained low and unaltered. Plasma CBG binding capacity remained unaltered in WT mice regardless of the stress paradigm. Through the use of the Cbg ko mice, which only differs genetically from WT mice by the absence of CBG, we demonstrated that CBG is crucial in modulating the effects of stress on plasma corticosterone levels and consequently on behavior. In conclusion, individuals with CBG deficiency, whether genetically or environmentally-induced, are vulnerable to acute stress but do not have their abnormal psychoneuroendocrine phenotype further affected by chronic stress.

  7. Origin and course of the coronary arteries in normal mice and in iv/iv mice

    PubMed Central

    ICARDO, JOSÉ M.; COLVEE, ELVIRA

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the origin and distribution of the coronary arteries in normal mice and in mice of the iv/iv strain, which show situs inversus and heterotaxia. The coronary arteries were studied by direct observation of the aortic sinuses with the scanning electron microscope, and by examination of vascular corrosion casts. In the normal mouse, the left and right coronaries (LC, RC) arise from the respective Valsalva sinus and course along the ventricular borders to reach the heart apex. Along this course the coronary arteries give off small branches at perpendicular or acute angles to supply the ventricles. The ventricular septum is supplied by the septal artery, which arises as a main branch from the right coronary. Conus arteries arise from the main coronary trunks, from the septal artery and/or directly from the Valsalva sinus. The vascular casts demonstrate the presence of intercoronary anastomoses. The origin of the coronary arteries was found to be abnormal in 84% of the iv/iv mice. These anomalies included double origin, high take-off, slit-like openings and the presence of a single coronary orifice. These anomalies occurred singly or in any combination, and were independent of heart situs. The septal artery originated from RC in most cases of situs solitus but originated predominantly from LC in situs inversus hearts. Except for this anomalous origin no statistical correlation was found between the coronary anomalies and heart situs or a particular mode of heterotaxia. The coronary anomalies observed in the iv/iv mice are similar to those found in human hearts. Most coronary anomalies appear to be due to defective connections between the aortic root and the developing coronaries. iv/iv mice may therefore constitute a good model to study the development of similar anomalies in the human heart. PMID:11693308

  8. Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakala, Isaac G.; Chaudhri, Geeta; Scalzo, Anthony A.; Eldi, Preethi; Newsome, Timothy P.; Buller, Robert M.; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-01-01

    Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice. We provide evidence that ECTV causes a persistent infection in some susceptible strains of mice in which low levels of virus genomes were detected in various tissues late in infection. The bone marrow (BM) and blood appeared to be key sites of persistence. Contemporaneous with virus persistence, antiviral CD8 T cell responses were demonstrable over the entire 25-week study period, with a change in the immunodominance hierarchy evident during the first 3 weeks. Some virus-encoded host response modifiers were found to modulate virus persistence whereas host genes encoded by the NKC and MHC class I reduced the potential for persistence. When susceptible strains of mice that had apparently recovered from infection were subjected to sustained immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CTX), animals succumbed to mousepox with high titers of infectious virus in various organs. CTX treated index mice transmitted virus to, and caused disease in, co-housed naïve mice. The most surprising but significant finding was that immunosuppression of disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice several weeks after recovery from primary infection generated high titers of virus in multiple tissues. Resistant mice showed no evidence of a persistent infection. This is the strongest evidence that ECTV can persist in inbred mice, regardless of their resistance status. PMID

  9. Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice.

    PubMed

    Sakala, Isaac G; Chaudhri, Geeta; Scalzo, Anthony A; Eldi, Preethi; Newsome, Timothy P; Buller, Robert M; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-12-01

    Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice. We provide evidence that ECTV causes a persistent infection in some susceptible strains of mice in which low levels of virus genomes were detected in various tissues late in infection. The bone marrow (BM) and blood appeared to be key sites of persistence. Contemporaneous with virus persistence, antiviral CD8 T cell responses were demonstrable over the entire 25-week study period, with a change in the immunodominance hierarchy evident during the first 3 weeks. Some virus-encoded host response modifiers were found to modulate virus persistence whereas host genes encoded by the NKC and MHC class I reduced the potential for persistence. When susceptible strains of mice that had apparently recovered from infection were subjected to sustained immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CTX), animals succumbed to mousepox with high titers of infectious virus in various organs. CTX treated index mice transmitted virus to, and caused disease in, co-housed naïve mice. The most surprising but significant finding was that immunosuppression of disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice several weeks after recovery from primary infection generated high titers of virus in multiple tissues. Resistant mice showed no evidence of a persistent infection. This is the strongest evidence that ECTV can persist in inbred mice, regardless of their resistance status. PMID

  10. First wild XXY house mice.

    PubMed

    Hauffe, Heidi C; Giménez, Mabel D; Garagna, Silvia; Searle, Jeremy B

    2010-07-01

    Laboratory house mice (Mus musculus) with the XXY condition can be generated with ease and have been used as a biomedical model. However, although the XXY constitution has been described in humans and many domestic and wild mammal species, and a very large number of wild house mice have been karyotyped previously, no wild individuals of M. musculus with an XXY karyotype have ever been reported. Therefore, it is rather extraordinary that two wild XXY house mice were caught by us on two different farms in northern Italy in 2008. Except for the extra X chromosome, one male had a standard karyotype (2n = 40) and the other, the karyotype of the Cremona metacentric population (2n = 22). In this paper, the phenotype of these two individuals is described. Observations for both of these wild males agree with those of laboratory XXY mice, i.e., they had a normal body mass and appearance, but significantly smaller testes than normal, and no visible germ cells. The incidence of the XXY chromosome anomaly in wild mice (two among 5,123 wild mice surveyed by us and our colleagues, i.e., approximately 0.08% among wild-caught males) is intermediate between that found in male laboratory mice (approximately 0.04%) and that found in male humans (0.2%).

  11. Learning Demonstration Progress Report -- September 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Thomas, H.

    2007-11-01

    This report documents the key results from the DOE Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration project. This project is also referred to as the fuel cell vehicle and infrastructure learning demonstration.

  12. Introduction to Methods Demonstrations for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Pitts, W. K.

    2002-07-15

    During the Trilateral Initiative Technical Workshop on Authentication & Certification, PNNL will demonstrate some authentication technologies. This paper briefly describes the motivation for these demonstrations and provide background on them.

  13. Useful Demonstrations for a Medial Biochemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragatz, Barth H.; Modrak, Gina

    1986-01-01

    Describes six demonstrations used in a medical biochemistry course. These demonstrations focus on: (1) platelet aggregometry; (2) ion-transporting antibiotics; (3) glycosylated hemoglobin; (4) molecular models; (5) serum preparation; and (6) bioluminescence. (JN)

  14. Transparency Film for Demonstration of Biaxial Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Explains why transparency film demonstrates biaxial optical properties. Provides detailed descriptions of the procedure and equipment needed for large-scale optics demonstrations of the polarization interference pattern produced by biaxial crystals. (DDR)

  15. Introduction to Atomic Structure: Demonstrations and Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciparick, Joseph D.

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates a variety of electrical phenomena to help explain atomic structure. Topics include: establishing electrical properties, electrochemistry, and electrostatic charges. Recommends demonstration equipment needed and an explanation of each. (MVL)

  16. HTI retrieval demonstration project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1997-09-04

    This plan describes the process for demonstrating the retrieval of difficult Hanford tank waste forms utilizing commercial technologies and the private sector to conduct the operations. The demonstration is to be conducted in Tank 241-C-106.

  17. Induction of lymphomas on implantation of human oral squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Teni, T R; Saranath, D; Mahale, A M; Pai, S A; Ahire, S D; Ingle, A D

    2001-02-01

    Cancer cells from five oral cancer patients and pleomorphic adenoma cells from one individual were inoculated as single cell suspension into subcutis of 30 Swiss nude mice and tail vein of additional 30 mice. Further, tumor tissue pieces from three oral cancer patients were xenografted s.c. in 18 nude mice, and 10 mice were kept as controls. In animals implanted with tumor pieces, 7/18 (39%) mice, developed squamous cell carcinoma at the site of inoculation within 8-15 days, while tumors were not observed in mice inoculated with single cell suspension, up to 60/90 days. In 8/68 (12%) mice, white foci were observed in several tissues, with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly noted in 27/68 (39%) mice. Histopathological examination of various tissues revealed presence of large cell lymphoma in several organs in 14/68 (21%) mice. No regional or distant metastasis of the implanted oral tumor cells was detected. Mice injected with cells from pleomorphic adenoma, also demonstrated large cell lymphoma in 2/10 (20%) mice, whereas none of the 10 control animals showed any gross abnormalities or microscopic abnormalities in several organs. 2/16 (12%) lymphomas exhibited positive reaction with mouse B cell antibodies illustrating the murine origin of the lymphomas, and these were immunophenotyed as B cell lymphomas. The lymphomas were also examined with mouse T cell antibodies and none reacted positively with the mouse T cell antibodies. The lymphomas also failed to react with human T cell, B cell and human Leucocyte common antigen (LCA) antibodies, indicating that the induced lymphomas were not of human origin. The tumor specimens from seven of eight oral cancer patients and the pleomorphic adenoma patient induced lymphomas in nude mice. Thus it appears that xenografting oral tumor cells into nude mice may cause induction of the murine lymphomas, and this needs further investigation.

  18. Disease course in mdx:utrophin+/- mice: comparison of three mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Abby A; Hebert, Sadie L; Kunz, Matthew D; Ralles, Steven J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-04-01

    The mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is used to study disease mechanisms and potential treatments, but its pathology is less severe than DMD patients. Other mouse models were developed to more closely mimic the human disease based on knowledge that upregulation of utrophin has a protective effect in mdx muscle. An mdx:utrophin(-/-) (dko) mouse was created, which had a severe disease phenotype and a shortened life span. An mdx:utrophin(+/-) mouse was also created, which had an intermediate disease phenotype compared to the mdx and dko mice. To determine the usefulness of mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice for long-term DMD studies, limb muscle pathology and function were assessed across the life span of wild-type, mdx, mdx:utrophin(+/-), and dko mice. Muscle function assessment, specifically grip duration and rotarod performance, demonstrated that mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice were weaker for a longer time than mdx mice. Mean myofiber area was smaller in mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice compared to mdx mice at 12 months. Mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice had a higher percentage of centrally nucleated myofibers compared to mdx mice at 6 and 12 months. Collagen I and IV density was significantly higher in mdx:utrophin(+/-) muscle compared to mdx at most ages examined. Generally, mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice showed an intermediate disease phenotype over a longer time course compared to the mdx and dko mice. While they do not genetically mirror human DMD, mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice may be a more useful animal model than mdx or dko mice for investigating long-term efficacy of potential treatments when fibrosis or muscle function is the focus.

  19. 40 CFR 117.14 - Demonstration projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Demonstration projects. 117.14 Section... DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Applicability § 117.14 Demonstration projects... research or demonstration projects relating to the prevention, control, or abatement of hazardous...

  20. 40 CFR 117.14 - Demonstration projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Demonstration projects. 117.14 Section... DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Applicability § 117.14 Demonstration projects... research or demonstration projects relating to the prevention, control, or abatement of hazardous...

  1. 40 CFR 117.14 - Demonstration projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Demonstration projects. 117.14 Section... DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Applicability § 117.14 Demonstration projects... research or demonstration projects relating to the prevention, control, or abatement of hazardous...

  2. 40 CFR 117.14 - Demonstration projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Demonstration projects. 117.14 Section... DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Applicability § 117.14 Demonstration projects... research or demonstration projects relating to the prevention, control, or abatement of hazardous...

  3. Demonstrations to Wake Up Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Ruth; Watson, James

    1982-01-01

    A general strategy and specific examples for demonstrations in large physics classes are given. Such "action" demonstrations may involve students moving around the class to demonstrate molecular behavior in different states of matter, and effect of heat in changing state. (JN)

  4. 40 CFR 117.14 - Demonstration projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demonstration projects. 117.14 Section... DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Applicability § 117.14 Demonstration projects... research or demonstration projects relating to the prevention, control, or abatement of hazardous...

  5. Cone penetrometer demonstration standard startup review checklist

    SciTech Connect

    KRIEG, S.A.

    1998-11-09

    Startup readiness for the Cone Penetrometer Demonstration in AX Tank Farm will be verified through the application of a Standard Startup Review Checklist. This is a listing of those items essential to demonstrating readiness to start the Cone Penetrometer Demonstration in AX Tank Farm.

  6. PEOR--Engaging Students in Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonello, Charles; Scaife, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrations are a core part of science teaching. In 1980 a three-part assessment method using demonstrating was proposed. Known as DOE this consisted of demonstration, observation and explanation. DOE quickly evolved into POE: predict, observe, explain. In the light of experiences with POE and insights from constructivist theory we set out in…

  7. Dutch and English Demonstratives: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piwek, P. L. A.; Cremers, A. H. M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the differences between English and Dutch demonstratives and concludes that English proximate demonstratives ("this") are used when the referent is identifiable by the addressee, whereas in Dutch they are used for low-accessibility referents, as opposed to distal demonstratives ("that") that are also used for readily accessible terms. (11…

  8. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shank, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) was to show, in a simulated spacecraft environment, the feasibility of using a microprocessor to automate the onboard orbit determination functions. The software and hardware configuration used to support FEDS during the demonstration and the results of the demonstration are discussed.

  9. Comparative virulence of three species of Exophiala in mice.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Enrique; Rodríguez, M Mar; Mariné, Marçal; Mayayo, Emilio; Pastor, F Javier; Guarro, Josep

    2010-09-01

    The virulence of Exophiala dermatitidis, E. oligosperma and E. xenobiotica, three of the most common members of the genus that cause human infections, was evaluated using experimental models of disseminated infection in immunocompromised mice. Exophiala dermatitidis, and to a lesser extent E. oligosperma, were the two species causing the highest mortality, while mice infected with E. xenobiotica had the lowest mortality. Tissue burden and histopathology studies demonstrated the neurotropism of E. dermatitidis, while E. oligosperma and E. xenobiotica had a limited capacity for invading brain tissue. These models could be useful for testing new therapies against Exophiala infections. PMID:20144129

  10. Neurochemical, behavioral and physiological effects of pharmacologically enhanced serotonin levels in serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Meredith A.; Jensen, Catherine L.; French, Helen T.; Stein, Alison R.; Huang, Su-Jan; Tolliver, Teresa J.; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout (−/−) mice have an altered phenotype in adulthood, including high baseline anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, associated with increased baseline extracellular serotonin levels throughout life. Objectives To examine the effects of increases in serotonin following administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) in SERT wildtype (+/+), heterozygous (+/−) and −/− mice. Results 5-HTP increased serotonin in all five brain areas examined, with ~2–5-fold increases in SERT +/+ and +/− mice, and greater 4.5–11.7-fold increases in SERT −/− mice. Behaviorally, 5-HTP induced exaggerated serotonin syndrome behaviors in SERT −/− mice, with similar effects in male and female mice. Studies suggest promiscuous serotonin uptake by the dopamine transporter (DAT) in SERT −/− mice, and here, the DAT blocker GBR 12909 enhanced 5-HTP-induced behaviors in SERT −/− mice. Physiologically, 5-HTP induced exaggerated temperature effects in SERT-deficient mice. The 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635 decreased 5-HTP-induced hypothermia in SERT +/+ and +/− mice, with no effect in SERT −/− mice, whereas the 5-HT7 antagonist SB 269970 decreased this exaggerated response in SERT −/− mice only. WAY 100635 and SB 269970 together completely blocked 5-HTP-induced hypothermia in SERT +/− and −/− mice. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that SERT −/− mice have exaggerated neurochemical, behavioral and physiological responses to further increases in serotonin, and provide the first evidence of intact 5-HT7 receptor function in SERT −/− mice, with interesting interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors. As roles for 5-HT7 receptors in anxiety and depression were recently established, the current findings have implications for understanding the high anxiety and depressive-like phenotype of SERT-deficient mice. PMID:18712364

  11. Using Food to Demonstrate Earth Science Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Francek, M.

    2001-12-01

    One way to better engage K-16 students with the earth sciences is through classroom demonstrations with food. We summarize references from journals and the world wide web that use food to illustrate earth science concepts. Examples of how edible substances have been used include using candy bars to demonstrate weathering concepts, ice cream to mimic glaciers, and grapes to demonstrate evaporation. We also categorize these demonstrations into geology, weather, space science, and oceanography categories. We further categorize the topics by grade level, web versus traditional print format, amount of time necessary to prepare a lesson plan, and whether the activity is better used as a demonstration or hands on activity.

  12. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice. PMID:27598994

  13. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice. PMID:27598994

  14. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-01

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  15. Improved Engraftment of Human Spleen Cells in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid Mice as Compared with C.B-17-scid/scid Mice

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Yates, Jon; Appel, Michael C.; Perdrizet, George; Hesselton, RuthAnn M.; Schweitzer, Isabelle; Beamer, Wes G.; Shultz, Kathryn L.; Pelsue, Stephen C.; Leif, Jean H.; Rajan, Thiruchandurai V.

    1995-01-01

    T and B lymphocyte-deficient mice homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mutation can be immunologically engrafted with human lymphocytes. However, low levels of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell engraftment are commonly observed, impeding full use of this model We now demonstrate that strain background in mice homozygous for the scid mutation is a strong determinant of levels of human lymphocyte engraftment. NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice support higher levels of engraftment of both human spleen and peripheral blood mononuclear cells than do C.B-17-scid/scid mice. We observed, using human spleen cell injected scid mice, 1), high levels of engraftment of the host peripheral lymphoid tissues with human CD45+ (leukocytes), CD3+ (T cells), CD4+ (helper/inducer), and CD8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphoid cells for up to 24 weeks in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice; 2), migration of high numbers of human lymphocytes to peripheral lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid, but not in C.B-17-scid/scid mice; 3), higher levels of serum immunoglobulin of human origin in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice than in C.B-17-scid/scid mice; 4), histological lesions character-istic of human anti-mouse xenoreactivity in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice; and 5), human origin antibodies against filarial antigens after engraftment with naive human spleen cells. The use of NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice as recipients to achieve significantly enhanced human lymphopoietic cell engraftment will now enable human immunity to be more easily studied in animal models. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 12 PMID:7717456

  16. Tamoxifen administration to mice.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jonathan; Littlewood, Trevor; Soucek, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The strategy of fusing a protein of interest to a hormone-binding domain (HBD) of a steroid hormone receptor allows fine control of the activity of the fused protein. Such fusion proteins are inactive in the absence of ligand, because they are complexed with a variety of intracellular polypeptides. Upon ligand binding, the receptor is released from its inhibitory complex and the fusion protein becomes functional. In the murine estrogen receptor (ER) fusion system, proteins are fused to the HBD of the ER. The system relies on the use of a mutant ER known as ER(TAM). Compared to the wild-type HBD, ER(TAM) has 1000-fold lower affinity for estrogen, yet remains responsive to activation by the synthetic steroid 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Because 4-OHT is expensive, animals can be treated with the cheaper precursor tamoxifen, which is converted into 4-OHT by a liver enzyme. Here we present an overview of the methods used to deliver tamoxifen to mice. The most used method is intraperitoneal injection, because the amount of administered compound can be better controlled, but delivery by oral gavage is also possible. For short-term and immediate-effect studies or when conversion of tamoxifen by the liver is to be avoided, 4-OHT can be used directly. PMID:25734062

  17. Inborn anemias in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, S.E.; Barker, J.E.; Russell, E.S.

    1981-06-01

    hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, five hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia, and a new target-cell anemia. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus our wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse. Each anemia is studied through: (a) characterization of peripheral blood values, (b) determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions, (c) measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis, (d) histological and biochemical study of blood-forming tissue, (e) functional tests of the stem cell component, (f) examination of responses to erythroid stimuli, and (g) transplantation of tissue between individuals of differently affected genotypes.

  18. Assessing hoarding in mice.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Robert M J

    2006-01-01

    Hoarding is a species-typical behavior shown by rodents, as well as other animals. By hoarding, the rodent secures a food supply for times of emergency (for example, when threatened by a predator) or for times of seasonal adversity such as winter. Scatter hoarding, as seen typically in squirrels and birds, involves placing small caches of food in hidden places, generally underground. Most rodents, however, hoard a supply of food in or near the home base--for example, in 'larders' near the sleeping quarters in a burrow. In the laboratory, measurement of hoarding involves simply weighing the food transported into the home cage from an external source, but the route to that source must be secure and animal-proof; for example, there should be no holes large enough to permit escape of a mouse, and no weak points that could be enlarged by gnawing. A suitable and easily constructed apparatus is described in the protocol. Hoarding has been shown to be sensitive to brain lesions and pharmacological agents, and is a suitable test for species-typical behavior in genetically modified mice.

  19. Neuregulin 3 Knockout Mice Exhibit Behaviors Consistent with Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lindsay N; Shevelkin, Alexey; Zeledon, Mariela; Steel, Gary; Chen, Pei-Lung; Obie, Cassandra; Pulver, Ann; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Valle, David; Sawa, Akira; Pletnikov, Mikhail V

    2016-07-01

    Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) is a paralog of NRG1. Genetic studies in schizophrenia demonstrate that risk variants in NRG3 are associated with cognitive and psychotic symptom severity, and several intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms in NRG3 are associated with delusions in patients with schizophrenia. In order to gain insights into the biological function of the gene, we generated a novel Nrg3 knockout (KO) mouse model and tested for neurobehavioral phenotypes relevant to psychotic disorders. KO mice displayed novelty-induced hyperactivity, impaired prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, and deficient fear conditioning. No gross cytoarchitectonic or layer abnormalities were noted in the brain of KO mice. Our findings suggest that deletion of the Nrg3 gene leads to alterations consistent with aspects of schizophrenia. We propose that KO mice will provide a valuable animal model to determine the role of the NRG3 in the molecular pathogenesis of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. PMID:27606322

  20. Pleiotropic defects in ataxia-telangiectasia protein-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Elson, Ari; Wang, Yaoqi; Daugherty, Cathie J.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Zhou, Fen; Campos-Torres, Juanita; Leder, Philip

    1996-01-01

    We have generated a mouse model for ataxia-telangiectasia by using gene targeting to generate mice that do not express the Atm protein. Atm-deficient mice are retarded in growth, do not produce mature sperm, and exhibit severe defects in T cell maturation while going on to develop thymomas. Atm-deficient fibroblasts grow poorly in culture and display a high level of double-stranded chromosome breaks. Atm-deficient thymocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis in vitro significantly more than controls. Atm-deficient mice then exhibit many of the same symptoms found in ataxia-telangiectasia patients and in cells derived from them. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Atm protein exists as two discrete molecular species, and that loss of one or of both of these can lead to the development of the disease. PMID:8917548