Science.gov

Sample records for partial conservation vector current

  1. An Unbroken Axial-Vector Current Conservation Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-04-01

    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space in which a neutrino is characterized by left as well as by right space-time coordinates. Therefore, it is not surprising that whatever the main purposes experiments about a quasielastic axial-vector mass say in favor of an axial-vector mirror Minkowski space-time.

  2. An Unbroken Axial-Vector Current Conservation Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-03-01

    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space in which a neutrino is characterized by left as well as by right space-time coordinates. Therefore, it is not surprising that whatever the main purposes experiments about a quasielastic axial-vector mass say in favor of an axial-vector mirror Minkowski space-time.

  3. New conserved currents for vacuum space-times in dimension four with a Killing vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso García-Parrado

    2016-10-01

    A new family of conserved currents for vacuum space-times with a Killing vector is presented. The currents are constructed from the superenergy tensor of the Mars-Simon tensor and using the positivity properties of the former we find that the conserved charges associated to the currents have natural positivity properties in certain cases. Given the role played by the Mars-Simon tensor in local and semi-local characterisations of the Kerr solution, the currents presented in this work are useful to construct non-negative scalar quantities characterising Kerr initial data (known in the literature as non-Kerrness) which in addition are conserved charges.

  4. Accurate verification of the conserved-vector-current and standard-model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Sirlin, A.; Zucchini, R.

    1986-10-20

    An approximate analytic calculation of O(Z..cap alpha../sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays is presented. When the analysis of Koslowsky et al. is modified to take into account the new results, it is found that each of the eight accurately studied scrFt values differs from the average by approx. <1sigma, thus significantly improving the comparison of experiments with conserved-vector-current predictions. The new scrFt values are lower than before, which also brings experiments into very good agreement with the three-generation standard model, at the level of its quantum corrections.

  5. Fits combining hyperon semileptonic decays, magnetic moments, and the conserved-vector-current hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, A.; Kielanowski, P.

    1983-06-01

    We have performed a test of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis (CVC) by determining the baryon charges and magnetic moments from the hyperon semileptonic data. Then CVC was applied in order to make a joint fit of all baryon semileptonic decay data and baryon magnetic moments for the spectrum-generating-group (SG) model as well as for the conventional (Cabibbo and magnetic moments in nuclear magnetons) model. The SG model gives a very good fit with chi/sup 2//n/sub D/ = 25/20/sup triangle-open//sub 21% C.L. whereas the conventional model gives a fit with chi/sup 2//n/sub D/approx. =244/20.

  6. Breakdown of partial conservation of axial current in diffractive neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Siddikov, M.

    2011-08-15

    We test the hypothesis of partially conserved axial current in high-energy diffractive neutrino production of pions. Since the pion pole contribution to the Adler relation (AR) is forbidden by conservation of the lepton current, the heavier states, like the a{sub 1} pole, {rho}-{pi} cut, etc., control the lifetime of the hadronic fluctuations of the neutrino. We evaluate the deviation from the AR in diffractive neutrino production of pions on proton and nuclear targets. At high energies, when all the relevant time scales considerably exceed the size of the target, the AR explicitly breaks down on an absorptive target, such as a heavy nucleus. In this regime, close to the black disk limit, the off-diagonal diffractive amplitudes vanish, while the diagonal one, {pi}{yields}{pi}, which enters the AR, maximizes and saturates the unitarity bound. At lower energies, in the regime of short lifetime of heavy hadronic fluctuations the AR is restored, i.e., it is not altered by the nuclear effects.

  7. New analysis of 14O β decay: Branching ratios and conserved vector current consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towner, I. S.; Hardy, J. C.

    2005-11-01

    The ground-state Gamow-Teller transition in the decay of 14O is strongly hindered and the electron spectrum shape deviates markedly from the allowed shape. A reanalysis of the only available data on this spectrum changes the branching ratio assigned to this transition by seven standard deviations: Our new result is (0.54±0.02)%. The Kurie plot data from two earlier publications are also examined, and a revision to their published branching ratios is recommended. The required nuclear matrix elements are calculated with the shell model, and, for the first time, consistency is obtained between the M1 matrix element deduced from the analog γ transition in 14N and that deduced from the slope in the shape-correction function in the β transition, a requirement of the conserved-vector current hypothesis. This consistency is obtained, however, only if renormalized rather than free-nucleon operators are used in the shell-model calculations. In the mirror decay of 14C, a similar situation occurs. Consistency among the 14C lifetime, the slope of the shape-correction function, and the M1 matrix element from γ decay can be achieved only with renormalized operators in the shell-model calculation.

  8. Test of the conserved vector current hypothesis by a {beta}-ray angular distribution measurement in the mass-8 system

    SciTech Connect

    Sumikama, T.; Matsuta, K.; Ogura, M.; Iwakoshi, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Nagatomo, T.; Minamisono, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Minamisono, T.

    2011-06-15

    The {beta}-ray angular correlations for the spin alignments of {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B have been observed in order to test the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The alignment correlation terms were combined with the known {beta}-{alpha} angular correlation terms to determine all the matrix elements contributing to the correlation terms. The weak magnetism term, 7.5{+-}0.2, deduced from the {beta}-ray correlation terms was consistent with the CVC prediction 7.3{+-}0.2, deduced from the analog-{gamma} decay measurement based on the CVC hypothesis. However, there was no consistent CVC prediction for the second-forbidden term associated with the weak vector current. The experimental value for the second-forbidden term was 1.0{+-}0.3, while the CVC prediction was 0.1{+-}0.4 or 2.1{+-}0.5.

  9. Test of the conserved vector current hypothesis by a β-ray angular distribution measurement in the mass-8 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikama, T.; Matsuta, K.; Nagatomo, T.; Ogura, M.; Iwakoshi, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Minamisono, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Minamisono, T.

    2011-06-01

    The β-ray angular correlations for the spin alignments of Li8 and B8 have been observed in order to test the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The alignment correlation terms were combined with the known β-α angular correlation terms to determine all the matrix elements contributing to the correlation terms. The weak magnetism term, 7.5±0.2, deduced from the β-ray correlation terms was consistent with the CVC prediction 7.3±0.2, deduced from the analog-γ decay measurement based on the CVC hypothesis. However, there was no consistent CVC prediction for the second-forbidden term associated with the weak vector current. The experimental value for the second-forbidden term was 1.0±0.3, while the CVC prediction was 0.1±0.4 or 2.1±0.5.

  10. Current approaches to managing partial breast defects: the role of conservative breast surgery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Filassi, José Roberto; Gemperli, Rolf

    2014-03-01

    Recently breast surgeons can offer patients a variety of treatment and reconstructive alternatives when early breast cancer is diagnosed. In fact, advances in reconstructive techniques have reduced surgical trauma and thus are capable of preserving the breast form as well as quality of life. Depending on a variety of different factors, including stage, tumor size, location, hystological type, but also breast volume, a reconstructive schedule is established. The main techniques are related to volume displacement or replacement procedures including local flaps, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and reduction mammaplasty/ masthopexy. Regardless of the fact that there are is no consensus over the best approach, the criteria are determined by the surgeon's experience and the size of the defect in relation to the size of the remaining breast. Aim of every reconstructive procedure decision should be breast preservation and an adequate aesthetic outcome. Additionally, reconstruction permits wider excision of the tumor, with a superior mean volume of the specimen and potentially reducing the incidence of margin involvement. The objective of this review is to give an overview of reconstructive modalities for conservative breast surgery, based not only on traditional but also on the latest studies regarding the outcome of the main techniques employed. Surgical approaches, as well as conservative treatment options, such as lumpectomy and quadrantectomy, are further discussed. Surgical planning should include the patients' preferences, while chiefly addressing individual reconstructive requirements, and enabling each patient to receive an individual "custom-made" reconstruction.

  11. Remarks concerning the O(Zα2) corrections to Fermi decays, conserved-vector-current predictions, and universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirlin, A.

    1987-06-01

    Finite-nuclear-size contributions to the O(Zα2) corrections to Fermi decays are studied for realistic nuclear-charge distributions. In conjunction with the results of Koslowsky et al. and recent papers by the author and Zucchini and by Jaus and Rasche, these refinements lead to an average value scrFt=3070.6+/-1.6 s for the accurately measured superallowed Fermi transitions. Correspondingly, Vud=0.9744+/-0.0010 and Vud 2+Vus 2+Vub 2=0.9979+/-0.0021 in good agreement with the three-generation standard model at the level of its quantum corrections. The agreement with conserved-vector-current predictions is very good, with each of the eight transitions differing from the average by <1σ. The consequences of using two other calculations of the nuclear mismatch correction δc, Wilkinson's microscopic analysis and the recent results of Ormand and Brown, are briefly discussed. A useful upper bound on scrFt, independent of the δc calculation, is given.

  12. Remarks concerning the O(Z. cap alpha. /sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays, conserved-vector-current predictions, and universality

    SciTech Connect

    Sirlin, A.

    1987-06-01

    Finite-nuclear-size contributions to the O(Z..cap alpha../sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays are studied for realistic nuclear-charge distributions. In conjunction with the results of Koslowsky et al. and recent papers by the author and Zucchini and by Jaus and Rasche, these refinements lead to an average value scrFt = 3070.6 +- 1.6 s for the accurately measured superallowed Fermi transitions. Correspondingly, V/sub u//sub d/ = 0.9744 +- 0.0010 and V/sub u//sub d/ /sup 2/+V/sub us/ /sup 2/+V/sub ub/ /sup 2/ = 0.9979 +- 0.0021 in good agreement with the three-generation standard model at the level of its quantum corrections. The agreement with conserved-vector-current predictions is very good, with each of the eight transitions differing from the average by <1sigma. The consequences of using two other calculations of the nuclear mismatch correction delta/sub c/, Wilkinson's microscopic analysis and the recent results of Ormand and Brown, are briefly discussed. A useful upper bound on scrFt, independent of the delta/sub c/ calculation, is given.

  13. Conservation Development in the Partially Sighted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of conservation development in partially sighted, sighted, and sighted blindfolded children at four age levels was assessed. Conservation on tasks of mass, weight, and volume were evaluated using Piaget and Inhelder's prediction, judgment, and explanation questions. The significant differences were found between groups, task,…

  14. Lattice calculation of coordinate-space vector and axial-vector current correlators in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomii, M.; Cossu, G.; Fahy, B.; Fukaya, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Noaki, J.; Jlqcd Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    We study the vector and axial-vector current correlators in perturbative and nonperturbative regimes of QCD. The correlators in Euclidean coordinate space are calculated on the lattice using the Möbius domain-wall fermion formulation at three lattice spacings covering 0.044-0.080 fm. The dynamical quark effects of 2 +1 light flavors are included. The sum V +A and the difference V -A of the vector (V ) and axial-vector (A ) current correlators calculated on the lattice after extrapolating to the physical point agree with those converted from the ALEPH experimental data of hadronic τ decays. The level of the agreement in the V +A channel is about 1.3 σ or smaller in the region of |x |≥0.4 fm , while that in the V -A channel is about 1.8 σ at |x |=0.74 fm and smaller at other distances. We also extract the chiral condensate from the short-distance correlators on the lattice using the partially conserved axial current relation. Its result extrapolated to the chiral and continuum limit is compatible with other estimates at low energies.

  15. On the Partical Conservation of the U(1) Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawarabayashi, K.; Ohta, N.

    1981-11-01

    Recently proposed partial conservation of the U(1) current(PCU1C) is applied to estimate the decay rates of various OZIforbidden processes. The results obtained are in good agreement withexperiments and thus indicate the important role played by the U(1)axial-vector anomaly in these decay processes. Octet Jp = (1/2)+ baryons are next introduced into this scheme and low energy theorems related to the θ dependence of the matrix elements are investigated. Physical consequences of non-zero θ (strong CP-violation) are also discussed with the help of the PCU1C. The results are used to give the bound on θ.

  16. Conservation laws for partially coherent free fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kowarz, M.W.; Wolf, E. )

    1993-01-01

    Very good approximation to many optical fields are provided by free fields, i.e., fields that do not contain any evanescent waves. New conservation laws are derived for partially coherent fields of this kind, propagating into a half-space. It is found that the cross-spectral density, integrated over either the average or the difference of spatial coordinates in any cross section of the field, is invariant on propagation. It is also shown that, as a consequence of these conservation laws, both the spectrum and the so-called antispectrum of the field, integrated over cross-sectional planes, are conserved. The new conservation laws are illustrated by application to Gaussian Schell-model beams. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Analysis of Partial Recombinants in Lentiviral Vector Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Kuate, Seraphin; Marino, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The presence of replication-competent lentivirus (RCL) in lentiviral vector preparations is a major safety concern for clinical applications of such vectors. RCL are believed to emerge from rare recombinant vector genomes that are referred to as partial recombinants or Psi-Gag recombinants. To quantitatively determine the fraction of partial recombinants in lentiviral vector preparations and to analyze them at the DNA sequence level, we established a drug selection assay involving a lentiviral packaging construct containing a drug-resistance gene encoding blasticidin (BSD) resistance. Upon transduction of target cells, the BSD resistance gene confers BSD resistance to the transduced cells. The results obtained indicate that there were up to 156 BSD-resistant colonies in a total of 106 transducing vector particles. The predicted recombination events were verified by polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA obtained from BSD-resistant cell clones and by DNA sequence analysis. In an attempt to reduce the emergence of partial recombinants, sequence overlaps between the packaging and the vector constructs were reduced by substituting the Rev response element (RRE) present in the vector construct using a heterologous RRE element derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239). The results obtained showed that a reduction of sequence overlaps resulted in an up to sevenfold reduction of the frequency of BSD-resistant colonies, indicating that the capacity to form partial recombinants was diminished. PMID:24367910

  18. Curved manifolds with conserved Runge-Lenz vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ngome, J.-P.

    2009-12-15

    van Holten's algorithm is used to construct Runge-Lenz-type conserved quantities, induced by Killing tensors, on curved manifolds. For the generalized Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino metric, the most general external potential such that the combined system admits a conserved Runge-Lenz-type vector is found. In the multicenter case, the subclass of two-center metric exhibits a conserved Runge-Lenz-type scalar.

  19. Conserved Current for General Teleparallel Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itin, Y.

    The obstruction for the existence of an energy-momentum tensor for the gravitational field in GR is connected with vanishing of first order invariants in (pseudo) Riemannian geometry. This specific geometric property is not valid in alternative geometrical structures1,2. A parallelizable differentiable 4D-manifold endowed with a class of smooth coframe fields ϑa is considered. A general 3-parameter class of global Lorentz invariant teleparallel models is considered. It includes a 1-parameter subclass of models with the Schwarzschild coframe solution (generalized teleparallel equivalent of gravity) 3. By introducing the notion of a 3-parameter conjugate field strength F linear in the strength Ca = dϑa the coframe Lagrangian is rewritten in the Maxwell-Yang-Mills form L = 1/2Fa ∧ Ca. The field equation turns out to have a form d * Fa = Ta completely similar to the Maxwell field equation. By applying the Noether procedure, the source 3-form Ta is shown to be connected with the diffeomorphism invariance of the Lagrangian. Thus the source Ta of the coframe field is interpreted as the total conserved energy-momentum current of the coframe field and matter4. The energy-momentum tensor is defined as a map of the module of current 3-forms into the module of vector fields 5. Thus an energy-momentum tensor for the coframe is defined in a diffeomorphism invariant and a translational covariant way. The total energy-momentum current of a system is conserved. Thus a redistribution of the energy-momentum current between material and coframe (gravity) field is possible in principle, unlike as in the standard GR. The result is: The standard GR has a neighborhood of viable models with the same Schwarzschild solutions. These models however have a better Lagrangian behavior and produce an invariant energy-momentum tensor.

  20. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: the case for current use

    PubMed Central

    Keisch, Martin E

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of early stage breast cancer is evolving from traditional breast conservation techniques, employing conventionally fractionated whole breast irradiation, to techniques in which partial breast irradiation is used in an accelerated fractionation scheme. A growing body of evidence exists, including favorable findings. Additional studies are under way that may ultimately prove equivalence. The logic behind this approach is reviewed, and the currently available data are presented to support the current use of carefully applied partial breast irradiation techniques in appropriately selected and informed patients. PMID:15987439

  1. Multipole structure of current vectors in curved space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Abraham I.

    2007-01-01

    A method is presented which allows the exact construction of conserved (i.e., divergence-free) current vectors from appropriate sets of multipole moments. Physically, such objects may be taken to represent the flux of particles or electric charge inside some classical extended body. Several applications are discussed. In particular, it is shown how to easily write down the class of all smooth and spatially bounded currents with a given total charge. This implicitly provides restrictions on the moments arising from the smoothness of physically reasonable vector fields. We also show that requiring all of the moments to be constant in an appropriate sense is often impossible. This likely limits the applicability of the Ehlers-Rudolph-Dixon notion of quasirigid motion. A simple condition is also derived that allows currents to exist in two different space-times with identical sets of multipole moments (in a natural sense).

  2. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  3. Solution of partial differential equations on vector and parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.; Voigt, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The present status of numerical methods for partial differential equations on vector and parallel computers was reviewed. The relevant aspects of these computers are discussed and a brief review of their development is included, with particular attention paid to those characteristics that influence algorithm selection. Both direct and iterative methods are given for elliptic equations as well as explicit and implicit methods for initial boundary value problems. The intent is to point out attractive methods as well as areas where this class of computer architecture cannot be fully utilized because of either hardware restrictions or the lack of adequate algorithms. Application areas utilizing these computers are briefly discussed.

  4. Gauge invariance, current conservation, and GIAO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S. T.

    1972-01-01

    The well known relationship between gauge invariance and current conservation is exhibited within the usual quantum mechanical formalism. It is then shown that the use of gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO) does not necessarily lead to the expected current conservation. The reason is found to lie in the constrained nature of the gauge invariance which is provided by the use of GIAO's. It is concluded that this invariance is, of itself, no argument in favor of their use.

  5. Current conserving theory at the operator level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiangtao; Wang, Yin; Wang, Jian

    The basic assumption of quantum transport in mesoscopic systems is that the total charge inside the scattering region is zero. This means that the potential deep inside reservoirs is effectively screened and therefore the electric field at interface of scattering region is zero. Thus the current conservation condition can be satisfied automatically which is an important condition in mesoscopic transport. So far the current conserving ac theory is well developed by considering the displacement current which is due to Coulomb interaction if we just focus on the average current. However, the frequency dependent shot noise does not satisfy the conservation condition since we do not consider the current conservation at the operator level. In this work, we formulate a generalized current conserving theory at the operator level using non-equilibrium Green's function theory which could be applied to both average current and frequency dependent shot noise. A displacement operator is derived for the first time so that the frequency dependent correlation of displacement currents could be investigated. Moreover, the equilibrium shot noise is investigated and a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relationship is presented.

  6. A numerical method that conserves the Runge-Lenz vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fu-yao; Wu, Xin; Lu, Ben-kui

    An exhaustive discussion is carried out on isolating integrals and the trapezoidal formula which can conserve the Runge-Lenz vector. An isolating integral is an invariant that restricts the region of particle motion. The autonomous integrable Hamiltonian system with n degrees of freedom has only n mutually involutive independent isolating integrals, and the existence of other isolating integrals is meaningful to the particle motion. In the Kepler two-body system there exist the energy integral, the angular momentum integral and the Runge-Lenz vector. These correspond to 3 independent isolating integrals in the case of plane motion, and to 5 in the case of space motion. In the former, the integrals makes up the symmetry group SO (3) of the system, which can be transformed into the symmetry group of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator through the Levi-Civita transformation, which is accurately conserved by the trapezoidal formula. On the other hand, in the case of space motion, the strict conservation of the energy and angular momentum inegrals and the Runge-Lenz vector by the trapezoidal formula is manifested in the 5 Kepler orbital elements a, e, i,and ω.

  7. Partial conservation law in a schematic single j shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wesley; Garcia, Ricardo; Zamick, Larry; Escuderos, Alberto; Neergård, Kai

    We report the discovery of a partial conservation law obeyed by a schematic Hamiltonian of two protons and two neutrons in a j shell. In our Hamiltonian, the interaction matrix element of two nucleons with combined angular momentum J is linear in J for even J and constant for odd J. It turns out that in some stationary states, the sum of the angular momenta Jp and Jn of the proton and neutron pairs is conserved. The energies of these states are given by a linear function of Jp + Jn. The systematics of their occurrence is described and explained.

  8. Symmetries and conservation laws of space-times admitting two commuting killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Balraj

    In this dissertation, we determined all first-order generalized symmetries of the vacuum Einstein equations for spacetimes admitting two commuting Killing vector fields. The field equations for the two Killing vector models, referred to as the reduced Einstein equations, were first derived using a projection formalism first developed by Geroch. In the derivation of the reduced Einstein equations, we assumed the two-dimensional distribution orthogonal to the vector spaces spanned by the Killing vector fields admits integral submanifolds. Prior to embarking on the symmetry analysis, the reduced Einstein equations were expressed in harmonic-null coordinates. A brief survey of the theory of symmetry groups of differential equations, variational symmetries, and local conservation laws preceded the generalized symmetry analysis of the reduced Einstein equation. These concepts were motivated and presented through their application to a variety of physical systems drawn from classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, classical electromagnetism, and general relativity. We obtained partial results from a preliminary analysis of kth-order generalized symmetries (for k ≥ 1) of the reduced Einstein equations. This was followed by the determination of all first-order generalized symmetries admitted by the reduced Einstein equations. We showed that all first-order generalized symmetries of the reduced Einstein equations are, in fact, prolonged point symmetries. Since the reduced Einstein equations admit a Lagrangian formulation, the variational symmetries and local conservation laws associated with the first-order symmetries were also determined and discussed.

  9. Conservative inlay fixed partial denture: a clinical and laboratory technique.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Raed; Ajlouni, Khaldoun; Oonsombat, Charuphan; Ruder, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) fixed partial dentures (FPDs) offer a clinical alternative for the restoration of single missing teeth and short-span posterior and anterior FPDs. This treatment modality is conservative and cost-efficient. The continuous improvement of adhesives and resin-based composite systems makes this type of restoration successful with good esthetic and functional results. This article reports the case of a patient who received an FRC FPD as a treatment modality and illustrates the clinical procedure as well as a new laboratory technique utilizing a clear matrix for the fabrication of the prosthesis.

  10. Partial reconstitution of a replication-competent retrovirus in helper cells with partial overlaps between vector and helper cell genomes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, I; Dornburg, R

    1996-04-10

    Contamination of retroviral vector preparations with replication-competent retroviruses is a major safety concern in human gene therapy. These can arise by recombination between retroviral vectors and packaging cell sequences. Recently, we constructed new packaging lines, derived from spleen necrosis virus (SNV) that do not contain overlapping regions of homology between these two components (DSH134G and DSH29B cells). These cell lines were tested for the presence of recombination products and replication-competent viruses in comparison to a similar packaging line (DSN) that contains a partial overlap between vector and viral protein coding regions. No recombination products were detected in DSH cells. However, we found that recombination had occurred in DSN cells, partially reconstituting a provirus-like structure that was capable of being spread, although inefficiently, through an infected cell culture. Our data indicate that even small regions of sequence homology eventually allow homologous recombination between vector and helper cell genomes.

  11. Current Trends in Vector Control: Adapting to Selective Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-16

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP023975 TITLE: Current Trends in Vector Control: Adapting to Selective...ADP023967 thru ADP023976 UNCLASSIFIED Current Trends in Vector Control: Adapting to Selective Pressure Kendra Lawrence MAJ, Medical Service Corps...of Research, is to mitigate the products to the forefront that may fulfill risk posed by arthropods to DoD mission needs. The Department of personnel

  12. A Random Variable Related to the Inversion Vector of a Partial Random Permutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghate, Kavita; Deshpande, M. N.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we define the inversion vector of a permutation of the integers 1, 2,..., n. We set up a particular kind of permutation, called a partial random permutation. The sum of the elements of the inversion vector of such a permutation is a random variable of interest.

  13. A Random Variable Related to the Inversion Vector of a Partial Random Permutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghate, Kavita; Deshpande, M. N.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we define the inversion vector of a permutation of the integers 1, 2,..., n. We set up a particular kind of permutation, called a partial random permutation. The sum of the elements of the inversion vector of such a permutation is a random variable of interest.

  14. Geometry of Conservation Laws for a Class of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clelland, Jeanne Nielsen

    1996-08-01

    I consider the problem of computing the space of conservation laws for a second-order, parabolic partial differential equation for one function of three independent variables. The PDE is formulated as an exterior differential system {cal I} on a 12 -manifold M, and its conservation laws are identified with the vector space of closed 3-forms in the infinite prolongation of {cal I} modulo the so -called "trivial" conservation laws. I use the tools of exterior differential systems and Cartan's method of equivalence to study the structure of the space of conservation laws. My main result is:. Theorem. Any conservation law for a second-order, parabolic PDE for one function of three independent variables can be represented by a closed 3-form in the differential ideal {cal I} on the original 12-manifold M. I show that if a nontrivial conservation law exists, then {cal I} has a deprolongation to an equivalent system {cal J} on a 7-manifold N, and any conservation law for {cal I} can be expressed as a closed 3-form on N which lies in {cal J}. Furthermore, any such system in the real analytic category is locally equivalent to a system generated by a (parabolic) equation of the formA(u _{xx}u_{yy}-u_sp {xy}{2}) + B_1u_{xx }+2B_2u_{xy} +B_3u_ {yy}+C=0crwhere A, B_{i}, C are functions of x, y, t, u, u_{x}, u _{y}, u_{t}. I compute the space of conservation laws for several examples, and I begin the process of analyzing the general case using Cartan's method of equivalence. I show that the non-linearizable equation u_{t} = {1over2}e ^{-u}(u_{xx}+u_ {yy})has an infinite-dimensional space of conservation laws. This stands in contrast to the two-variable case, for which Bryant and Griffiths showed that any equation whose space of conservation laws has dimension 4 or more is locally equivalent to a linear equation, i.e., is linearizable.

  15. Generation of Vector Partially Coherent Optical Sources Using Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Milo W.; Bose-Pillai, Santasri; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng

    2016-12-01

    A simple and flexible optical system for generating electromagnetic or vector partially coherent sources or beams is presented. The alternative design controls field amplitude (beam shape), coherence, and polarization using only spatial light modulators. This improvement makes the apparatus simpler to construct and significantly increases the flexibility of vector partially coherent source generators by allowing many different types of sources to be produced without changing the physical setup. The system's layout and theoretical foundations are thoroughly discussed. The utility and flexibility of the proposed system are demonstrated by producing a vector Schell-model and non-Schell-model source. The experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions to validate the design. Lastly, design aspects, which must be considered when building a vector partially coherent source generator for a specific application, are discussed.

  16. Twistor-inspired construction of electroweak vector boson currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, Zvi; Forde, Darren; Kosower, David A.; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2005-07-01

    We present an extension of the twistor-motivated MHV vertices and accompanying rules presented by Cachazo, Svrček and Witten to the construction of vector-boson currents coupling to an arbitrary source. In particular, we give rules for constructing off-shell vector-boson currents with one fermion pair and n gluons of arbitrary helicity. These currents may be employed directly in the computation of electroweak amplitudes. The rules yield expressions in agreement with previously-obtained results for Z,W,γ*→q¯q+n gluons (analytically up to n=3, beyond via the Berends-Giele recursion relations). We also confirm that the contribution to a seven-point amplitude containing the nonabelian triple vector-boson coupling obtained using the next-to-MHV currents matches the previous result in the literature.

  17. Current status of genome editing in vector mosquitoes: A review.

    PubMed

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-01-16

    Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases. Presently, three types of genome editing tools viz., zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) are widely used for the editing of the genomes of diverse organisms. These tools are also applied in vector mosquitoes to control the spread of vector-borne diseases. A few studies have been carried out on genome editing to control the diseases spread by vector mosquitoes and more studies need to be performed with the utilization of more recently invented tools like CRISPR/Cas9 to combat the spread of deadly diseases by vector mosquitoes. The high specificity and flexibility of CRISPR/Cas9 system may offer possibilities for novel genome editing for the control of important diseases spread by vector mosquitoes. In this review, we present the current status of genome editing research on vector mosquitoes and also discuss the future applications of vector mosquito genome editing to control the spread of vectorborne diseases.

  18. Axial vector current of exact chiral symmetry on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikukawa, Yoshio; Yamada, Atsushi

    1999-05-01

    We consider the exact chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breakdown in lattice QCD with the Dirac operators satisfying the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. The axial vector current, which turns out to be related to the vector current simply by the insertion of the operator γ5 (1 - aD), is explicitly constructed in the cases of the Neuberger-Dirac operator and its rational approximation. We also discuss a Euclidean proof of the Nambu-Goldstone theorem using the axial Ward-Takahashi identity of this symmetry.

  19. Nonparaxial propagation properties of a vector partially coherent dark hollow beam.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yangsheng; Du, Shengcai; Dong, Yiming; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2013-07-01

    Based on the generalized Raleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integrals, analytical nonparaxial propagation formulas for the elements of the cross-spectral density matrix of a vector partially coherent dark hollow beam (DHB) in free space are derived. The effect of spatial coherence and beam waist sizes on the statistical properties of a nonparaxial vector DHB is studied numerically. It is found that one can modulate the statistical properties of a nonparaxial vector DHB by varying its initial spatial coherence, which will be useful in some applications where nonparaxial beams are commonly encountered.

  20. Conserved currents for electromagnetic fields in the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Alexander; Flanagan, Eanna

    2017-01-01

    For any classical linear Lagrangian field theory, the symplectic product provides a conserved current that is bilinear on the space of solutions. Given a linear mapping from the space of solutions into itself, a ``symmetry operator'', one can therefore generate quadratic conserved currents for any linear classical field theory. We apply this procedure to the case of electromagnetism on a Kerr background, showing that this procedure can generate the conserved currents given by Andersson, Bäckdahl, and Blue, as well as two new conserved currents. These currents reduce to the sum of (positive powers of) the Carter constants of the photons in the geometric optics limit, and generalize the current for scalar fields discovered by Carter. We furthermore show that the fluxes of these new currents through null infinity and the horizon are finite.

  1. Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

  2. On the Magnetic Flux Conservation in the Partially Ionzied Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsap, Yu.; Kopylova, Yu.

    2014-12-01

    The Ohm, Hall, and ambipolar diffusions in the partially ionized plasma are considered. It has been shown that the statement of Pandey and Wardle that only the Ohm diffusion is capable to decrease the magnetic flux is not sufficiently correct due to the formal dependence of the magnetic diffusion on a selected frame of reference. Thes ignificance of understanding of the physical nature for the dissipation and diffusion of the magnetic field in the partially ionized plasma as well as consequences of obtained results are discussed.

  3. Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

  4. Current status of conservative treatment of deep carious lesions.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Juliana; Soares, Giulia Marins; Ribeiro, Apoena de Aguiar

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, deep carious lesions are treated by removal of all carious tissue, which may lead to pulp exposure. To minimize this risk, conservative carious tissue removal techniques have been proposed, including partial removal and stepwise excavation. However, there is no consensus in the literature about which is the better technique. Thus, the aim of this article is to describe and discuss the main techniques for carious tissue removal, according to scientific evidence. It was observed that both stepwise excavation and partial carious tissue removal presented lower pulp exposure rates and higher success rates. Clinical Relevance: Clinicians must be aware that conservative carious tissue removal techniques, such as stepwise excavation and partial carious tissue removal, present lower pulp exposure rates and higher success rates than traditional methods.

  5. Current status of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-10-01

    Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is increasingly carried out in an attempt to improve the cosmetic outcome of minimally-invasive procedures. However, the actual role of this novel technique remains to be determined. The present article reviews evidence and examines updates of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy outcomes reported in more contemporary studies. A comprehensive online systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses criteria recommendations was carried out in January 2014, identifying data from 2008 to 2014 regarding robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy. The majority of medical evidence to date is based on case reports or retrospective studies. Current studies show that robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is a feasible procedure carried out in an acceptable length of operative time, and resulting in a desirable cosmetic outcome and less postoperative pain. However, comparable studies show that robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is inferior to the conventional approach, especially with regard to warm ischemia time. Furthermore, the numerous limitations that exist with the utilization of the current commercial single-site devices make robotic laparoendoscopic single-site PN more challenging and more complicated for surgeons compared with conventional procedures. Further significant improvements, along with more studies, are required in order to develop the ideal robotic laparoendoscopic single-site robotic platform and overcome the current limitations. For the time being, robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy procedures could be applicable in patients with low tumor size and complexity, and should not be routinely applied in all cases.

  6. Optimized AAV rh.10 Vectors That Partially Evade Neutralizing Antibodies during Hepatic Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Selot, Ruchita; Arumugam, Sathyathithan; Mary, Bertin; Cheemadan, Sabna; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.

    2017-01-01

    Of the 12 common serotypes used for gene delivery applications, Adeno-associated virus (AAV)rh.10 serotype has shown sustained hepatic transduction and has the lowest seropositivity in humans. We have evaluated if further modifications to AAVrh.10 at its phosphodegron like regions or predicted immunogenic epitopes could improve its hepatic gene transfer and immune evasion potential. Mutant AAVrh.10 vectors were generated by site directed mutagenesis of the predicted targets. These mutant vectors were first tested for their transduction efficiency in HeLa and HEK293T cells. The optimal vector was further evaluated for their cellular uptake, entry, and intracellular trafficking by quantitative PCR and time-lapse confocal microscopy. To evaluate their potential during hepatic gene therapy, C57BL/6 mice were administered with wild-type or optimal mutant AAVrh.10 and the luciferase transgene expression was documented by serial bioluminescence imaging at 14, 30, 45, and 72 days post-gene transfer. Their hepatic transduction was further verified by a quantitative PCR analysis of AAV copy number in the liver tissue. The optimal AAVrh.10 vector was further evaluated for their immune escape potential, in animals pre-immunized with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Our results demonstrate that a modified AAVrh.10 S671A vector had enhanced cellular entry (3.6 fold), migrate rapidly to the perinuclear region (1 vs. >2 h for wild type vectors) in vitro, which further translates to modest increase in hepatic gene transfer efficiency in vivo. More importantly, the mutant AAVrh.10 vector was able to partially evade neutralizing antibodies (~27–64 fold) in pre-immunized animals. The development of an AAV vector system that can escape the circulating neutralizing antibodies in the host will substantially widen the scope of gene therapy applications in humans. PMID:28769791

  7. Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ondeto, Benyl M; Nyundo, Christopher; Kamau, Luna; Muriu, Simon M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan M; Ochanda, Horace; Mbogo, Charles M

    2017-09-19

    Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. Data was obtained from published literature through PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar searches and unpublished literature from government reports, research institutions reports and malaria control programme reports. Each data source was assigned a unique identification code and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 datasheets. Base maps on the distribution of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms among malaria vectors in Kenya were generated using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). Insecticide resistance status among the major malaria vectors in Kenya was reported in all the four classes of insecticides including pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines and organophosphates. Resistance to pyrethroids has been detected in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to carbamates was limited to An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis. Resistance to the organochlorine was reported in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to organophosphates was reported in An. gambiae (s.l.) only. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors reported include the kdr mutations (L 1014S and L 1014F) and elevated activity in carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and monooxygenases. The kdr mutations L 1014S and L 1014F were detected in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis populations. Elevated activity of monooxygenases has been detected in both An. arabiensis and An. gambiae (s.s.) populations while

  8. Vectorization of an applicative language: Current results and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Cann, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The most important and challenging problem facing researchers today is the effective use of parallel processors. Few would deny that the biggest obstacle is the inadequacy of current software tools -- an inadequacy born of imperative programming. As an alternative, applicative and functional programming languages provide a cleaner and simpler parallel programming model. They hide architectural idiosyncrasies, guarantee determinancy, enforce software engineering principles, and in many ways simplify compilation. Regrettably these languages have acquired a reputation for inefficiency. In this report, we show that applicative programs do not require special hardware for efficient execution, and with little effort can automatically exploit concurrent and vector processors. 17 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Modified vector control algorithm for increasing partial-load efficiency of fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface PM machines

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman M; Jahns, Thomas M; Reddy, Patel; McKeever, John W

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. By increasing the amplitude of the negative d-axis current, the resulting increase in the stator copper losses can be more than offset by the reduction in the iron core losses achieved by lowering the stator d-axis flux amplitude. The effectiveness of this technique has been demonstrated using both analytical models and finite element analysis for a 55-kW (peak) SPM machine design developed for a demanding set of traction drive performance requirements. For this example, the modified control strategy increases the partial-load efficiency at 20% of rated torque by > 6% at 2000 r/min compared to the maximum torque/ampere algorithm, making the machine much more attractive for its intended application.

  10. Multidimensional partial differential equation systems: Generating new systems via conservation laws, potentials, gauges, subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.; Bluman, George W.

    2010-10-01

    For many systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), including nonlinear ones, one can construct nonlocally related PDE systems. In recent years, such nonlocally related systems have proven to be useful in applications. In particular, they have yielded systematically nonlocal symmetries, nonlocal conservation laws, noninvertible linearizations, and new exact solutions for many different PDE systems of interest. However, the overwhelming majority of new results and theoretical understanding pertain only to PDE systems with two independent variables. The situation for PDE systems with more than two independent variables turns out to be much more complicated due to gauge freedom relating potential variables. The current paper, together with the companion paper [A. F. Cheviakov and G. W. Bluman, J. Math. Phys. 51, 103522 (2010)], synthesizes and systematically extends known results for nonlocally related systems arising for multidimensional PDE systems, i.e., for PDE systems with three or more independent variables. The presented framework includes potential systems arising from lower-degree conservation laws of a given PDE system. Nonlocally related multidimensional PDE systems are discussed in terms of their construction, properties, and applications.

  11. Support Vector Algorithms for Optimizing the Partial Area under the ROC Curve.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Harikrishna; Agarwal, Shivani

    2017-07-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a widely used performance measure in machine learning. Increasingly, however, in several applications, ranging from ranking to biometric screening to medicine, performance is measured not in terms of the full area under the ROC curve but in terms of the partial area under the ROC curve between two false-positive rates. In this letter, we develop support vector algorithms for directly optimizing the partial AUC between any two false-positive rates. Our methods are based on minimizing a suitable proxy or surrogate objective for the partial AUC error. In the case of the full AUC, one can readily construct and optimize convex surrogates by expressing the performance measure as a summation of pairwise terms. The partial AUC, on the other hand, does not admit such a simple decomposable structure, making it more challenging to design and optimize (tight) convex surrogates for this measure. Our approach builds on the structural SVM framework of Joachims ( 2005 ) to design convex surrogates for partial AUC and solves the resulting optimization problem using a cutting plane solver. Unlike the full AUC, where the combinatorial optimization needed in each iteration of the cutting plane solver can be decomposed and solved efficiently, the corresponding problem for the partial AUC is harder to decompose. One of our main contributions is a polynomial time algorithm for solving the combinatorial optimization problem associated with partial AUC. We also develop an approach for optimizing a tighter nonconvex hinge loss-based surrogate for the partial AUC using difference-of-convex programming. Our experiments on a variety of real-world and benchmark tasks confirm the efficacy of the proposed methods.

  12. A partial Hamiltonian approach for current value Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, R.; Mahomed, F. M.; Chaudhry, Azam

    2014-10-01

    We develop a partial Hamiltonian framework to obtain reductions and closed-form solutions via first integrals of current value Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The approach is algorithmic and applies to many state and costate variables of the current value Hamiltonian. However, we apply the method to models with one control, one state and one costate variable to illustrate its effectiveness. The current value Hamiltonian systems arise in economic growth theory and other economic models. We explain our approach with the help of a simple illustrative example and then apply it to two widely used economic growth models: the Ramsey model with a constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) utility function and Cobb Douglas technology and a one-sector AK model of endogenous growth are considered. We show that our newly developed systematic approach can be used to deduce results given in the literature and also to find new solutions.

  13. Vector Magnetic Fields and Electric Currents From the Imaging Vector Magnetograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Mickey, Don

    2009-02-01

    First, we describe a general procedure to produce high-quality vector magnetograms using the Imaging Vector Magnetograph (IVM) at Mees Solar Observatory. Two IVM effects are newly discussed and taken into account: (1) the central wavelength of the Fabry-Pérot is found to drift with time as a result of undiagnosed thermal or mechanical instabilities in the instrument; (2) the Stokes V-sign convention built into the IVM is found to be opposite to the conventional definition used in the study of radiative transfer of polarized radiation. At the spatial resolution 2'' × 2'', the Stokes Q, U, V uncertainty reaches ~1 × 10-3 to 5 × 10-4 in time-averaged data over 1 hr in the quiet Sun. When vector magnetic fields are inferred from the time-averaged Stokes spectral images of FeI 6302.5 Å, the resulting uncertainties are on the order of 10 G for the longitudinal fields (B par), 40 G for the transverse field strength (B bottom) and ~9° for the magnetic azimuth (phi). The magnetic field inversion used in this work is the "Triplet" code, which was developed and implemented in the IVM software package by the late B. J. LaBonte. The inversion code is described in detail in the Appendix. Second, we solve for the absolute value of the vertical electric current density, |Jz |, accounting for the above IVM problems, for two different active regions. One is a single sunspot region (NOAA 10001 observed on 2002 June 20) while the other is a more complex, quadrupolar region (NOAA10030 observed on 2002 July 15). We use a calculation that does not require disambiguation of 180° in the transverse field directions. The |Jz | uncertainty is on the order of ~7.0 mA m-2. The vertical current density increases with increasing vertical magnetic field. The rate of increase is about 1-2 times as large in the quadrupolar NOAA 10030 region as in the simple NOAA 10001, and it is more spatially variable over NOAA 10030 than over NOAA 10001.

  14. Symmetries and generalized higher order conserved vectors of the wave equation on Bianchi I spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim; Jhangeer, Adil

    Conservation laws of various systems have been studied for decades due to their unparalleled importance in unraveling systems’ intricacies without having to go into microscopic details of the physical process involved. Their association with symmetries has not only had a stupendous impact in the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics, but also open doors to further explorations and unifications of others. In this study, we present the Lie symmetries and nonlinearly self-adjoint classifications of the wave equation on Bianchi I spacetime. For different forms of the metric potentials, generalized higher order non-trivial conserved vectors are constructed. Some exact invariant solutions are also exhibited.

  15. Extending the trend vector: The trend matrix and sample-based partial least squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Robert P.; Nachbar, Robert B.; Bush, Bruce L.

    1994-06-01

    Trend vector analysis [Carhart, R.E. et al., J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 25 (1985) 64], in combination with topological descriptors such as atom pairs, has proved useful in drug discovery for ranking large collections of chemical compounds in order of predicted biological activity. The compounds with the highest predicted activities, upon being tested, often show a several-fold increase in the fraction of active compounds relative to a randomly selected set. A trend vector is simply the one-dimensional array of correlations between the biological activity of interest and a set of properties or `descriptors' of compounds in a training set. This paper examines two methods for generalizing the trend vector to improve the predicted rank order. The trend matrix method finds the correlations between the residuals and the simultaneous occurrence of descriptors, which are stored in a two-dimensional analog of the trend vector. The SAMPLS method derives a linear model by partial least squares (PLS), using the `sample-based' formulation of PLS [Bush, B.L. and Nachbar, R.B., J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Design, 7 (1993) 587] for efficiency in treating the large number of descriptors. PLS accumulates a predictive model as a sum of linear components. Expressed as a vector of prediction coefficients on properties, the first PLS component is proportional to the trend vector. Subsequent components adjust the model toward full least squares. For both methods the residuals decrease, while the risk of overfitting the training set increases. We therefore also describe statistical checks to prevent overfitting. These methods are applied to two data sets, a small homologous series of disubstituted piperidines, tested on the dopamine receptor, and a large set of diverse chemical structures, some of which are active at the muscarinic receptor. Each data set is split into a training set and a test set, and the activities in the test set are predicted from a fit on the training set. Both the trend

  16. Shock structure simulation using hyperbolic moment models in partially-conservative form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koellermeier, Julian; Torrilhon, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The Boltzmann equation is often used to model rarefied gas flow in the transition or kinetic regime for moderate to large Knudsen numbers. However, standard moment methods like Grad's approach lack hyperbolicity of the equations. We point out the failure of Grad's method and overcome the deficiencies with the help of the new hyperbolic moment models called QBME and HME, derived by an operator projection framework. The new model equations are in partially-conservative form meaning that a subset of the equations cannot be written in conservative form due to some changes in these equations. This leads to additional numerical difficulties. The influence of the partially-conservative terms on the solution is analyzed and we present a numerical scheme for the solution of the partially-conservative PDE systems, namely the PRICE-C scheme by Canestrelli. Furthermore, a shock structure test case is used to compare the accuracy of the different hyperbolic moment models to a discrete velocity reference solution. The results show that the new hyperbolic models achieve higher accuracy than the standard Grad model despite the fact that the model equations cannot be fully written in conservative form.

  17. Open partial nephrectomy: ancient art or currently available technique?

    PubMed

    Seveso, Mauro; Grizzi, Fabio; Bozzini, Giorgio; Mandressi, Alberto; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Taverna, Gianluigi

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3 % of adult solid tumors, with the highest incidence between 50 and 70 years of age. Nephron-sparing surgery was initially reserved to patients with small renal masses detected in anatomically or functionally solitary kidney or in the presence of multiple bilateral tumors or hereditary forms of RCC, which posed a high risk of developing a tumor in the contralateral kidney. Nowadays, partial nephrectomy (PN) has grown up to an established approach for the treatment of small renal masses. In patients with T1a-staged RCCs, PN has proven to be associated with better survival, long-term renal function preservation with lower dialysis need or renal transplantation. Currently, most of the kidney masses are incidentally detected, up to 40 %, with smaller size due to the widespread use of imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. Here we review the role of open PN in the management of small renal masses particularly focusing on indications, oncological outcomes and comparison with laparoscopic and robotic PN. Recent studies demonstrate that PN confers better survival, oncologic equivalence and lower risk of severe chronic kidney disease compared to radical nephrectomy becoming then the gold-standard surgical technique, even if increasingly challenged by laparoscopic and/or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy which in the hands of experts seems to achieve comparable outcome results albeit with slightly higher complication rate.

  18. Current conservative management and classification of club foot: A review.

    PubMed

    Balasankar, Ganesan; Luximon, Ameersing; Al-Jumaily, Adel

    2016-11-30

    Clubfoot, known as congenital talipes equinovarus, is one of the complex paediatric foot deformity with the incidence of 1 in every 1000 live births. It consists of four complex foot abnormalities such as forefoot adductus, midfoot cavus, and hindfoot varus and ankle equinus. There are a number of surgical techniques (soft tissue releases, arthrodesis) used to correct clubfoot. However currently the conservative management (manipulation, serial casting, and braces) of clubfoot is considered as the best choice and it is widely accepted among orthopaedists. Clubfoot treated with surgical techniques might suffer various complications such as soft tissues contractures, neurovascular complications, infections, and shortening of the limbs. Although conservative method is generally considered as an effective method, it is still challenging to cure clubfoot in advance stages. Also, the classification of the initial severity of clubfoot is essential to evaluate the outcome of the treatment. In this review, the aim is to review the different types of conservative method and the assessment of clubfoot severity.

  19. Viral vectors for gene transfer: current status of gene therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Heilbronn, Regine; Weger, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy for the correction of inherited or acquired disease has gained increasing importance in recent years. Successful treatment of children suffering from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was achieved using retrovirus vectors for gene transfer. Encouraging improvements of vision were reported in a genetic eye disorder (LCA) leading to early childhood blindness. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors were used for gene transfer in these trials. This chapter gives an overview of the design and delivery of viral vectors for the transport of a therapeutic gene into a target cell or tissue. The construction and production of retrovirus, lentivirus, and AAV vectors are covered. The focus is on production methods suitable for biopharmaceutical upscaling and for downstream processing. Quality control measures and biological safety considerations for the use of vectors in clinical trials are discussed.

  20. Flux-vector splitting algorithm for chain-rule conservation-law form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Willis, E. A.; Steinthorsson, E.; Li, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A flux-vector splitting algorithm with Newton-Raphson iteration was developed for the 'full compressible' Navier-Stokes equations cast in chain-rule conservation-law form. The algorithm is intended for problems with deforming spatial domains and for problems whose governing equations cannot be cast in strong conservation-law form. The usefulness of the algorithm for such problems was demonstrated by applying it to analyze the unsteady, two- and three-dimensional flows inside one combustion chamber of a Wankel engine under nonfiring conditions. Solutions were obtained to examine the algorithm in terms of conservation error, robustness, and ability to handle complex flows on time-dependent grid systems.

  1. [Prevention and control of leishmaniasis vectors: current approaches].

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Khoury, C

    2004-06-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the suspected or proven vectors of Leishmania spp. in at least 88 countries, including over 40 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and a further 30 belonging to the genus Lutzomyia in the New World. In recent years, both cutaneous (CL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) have become increasingly prevalent in urban areas, including large Latin American cities. A similar trend has been recorded in all Mediterranean areas during the last decade. Based on mathematical models, insecticidal control of sandflies appears to represent a more effective way of reducing Leishmania infantum transmission than the present strategy of culling infected dogs in Latin America as well as being more acceptable to the human population. Since man is a dead-end host of most Leishmania species, treatment of existing human cases generally does not affect transmission. Interruption of the cycle by vector control may offer a cheaper, more practical solution to treatment and improved knowledge of the alternatives available could lead to preventative measures being undertaken in more leishmaniasis foci. In this note a review of current knowledge on sandfly control is presented. Different measures to control phlebotomine sandflies, including residual spraying of dwellings and animal shelters, insecticide treated nets, application of repellents/insecticides to skin or to fabrics and impregnated dog collars are discussed. Although effective in urban areas with high concentrations of sandflies, residual spraying of insecticides is no often longer tenable in most situations. In rural areas where dwellings are more dispersed and surrounded by large, untargeted "reservoir" populations of sandflies, residual spraying of houses may be both impractical for logistic reasons and ineffective. Actually, this control measure depends on the availability of a suitable public health infrastructure, including adequate supplies of insecticide, spraying

  2. Vector Along-Track Interferometry for Ocean Current mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Imel, David; Madsen, Soren

    1996-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of measuring Along-Track Interferometric (ATI) vector ocean velocities using the azimuth beamwidth of the SAR antenna to obtain angular diversity, at the expense of spatial resolution. A simple model of the measurement is introduced for point targets and moving ocean surfaces to help interpret the velocity measurements.

  3. Overview of current situation of dengue and dengue vector control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dengue is the most important arbovirus of humans in the world. It is caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes whose primary vector is Aedes aegypti and secondarily by Ae. albopictus. A global dengue pandemic began in Southeast Asia after World War II and has intensified during the las...

  4. Simple vector considerations to assess the polarity of partially fluorinated alkyl and alkoxy groups.

    PubMed

    Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    While H/F exchange at aryl groups or introduction of CF3 units have dominated medicinal chemistry for decades, the use of partially fluorinated alkyl and alkoxy groups has come into focus more recently. A simple bond vector analysis scheme, based on the assumption of context-independent bond polarities as well as idealized configurational and conformational geometries, is applied to small alkyl and alkoxy groups with prototypic fluorination patterns for qualitative assessments of relative polarities as well as polarity modulation by conformational change. Combined with a constant volume increase for each hydrogen/fluorine exchange these polarity estimates can be translated into expected lipophilicity shifts (ΔlogP), using a simple parameterization scheme derived from experimental logP values. While terminal monofluoro- and gem-difluoromethyl groups in small aliphatic units are correctly predicted to show lower lipophilicity compared to their tri- or non-fluorinated congeners, vicinal difluoro and bis-vicinal trifluoro patterns are identified to exhibit significantly lower lipophilicities than their respective geminal di- and trifluoro substituted counterparts. The trifluoromethoxy group is diagnosed as an intrinsically lipophilic unit compared to the parent methoxy group. The difluoromethoxy group is of particular interest as it can easily interconvert between a highly lipophilic and a polar conformation, thus enabling this unit to adjust to polarity changes of the molecular environment. For di- and trifluoroalkoxy groups, again the vic-difluoro and bis-vic-trifluoro substitution patterns stand out as most promising to keep lipophilicity low. The 1,3-difluoro pattern next to an ether moiety shows an interesting conformational dependence of polarity, similar to the difluoromethoxy group. While very qualitative in nature, the simple bond vector analysis promises to be a useful tool for the identification of lipophilicity-lowering fluorinated alkyl or alkoxy groups

  5. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: current perspectives and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Gagan; Benway, Brian M; Bhayani, Sam B; Zorn, Kevin C

    2009-10-01

    The widespread adoption of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has been curtailed by its technical complexity. With the introduction of robotic technology, there is a potential for a shorter learning curve for minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Initial published data on robot-assisted partial nephrectomy show promising perioperative outcomes comparable to large LPN series performed by highly experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Intraoperative parameters (operating room time, warm ischemia time, and blood loss) and short-term oncologic results demonstrate that this technique, unlike LPN, has a relatively short learning curve. Economic factors, as well as the necessity of an experienced bedside assistant, present the potential shortcomings of the procedure.

  6. Analysis of surface currents on the CTX mesh flux conserver

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.L.

    1984-02-01

    The use of discharge cleaning and a mesh structure for the flux conserver have led to hotter, less resistive, spheromak configurations in the CTX experiment. Achievement of these conditions has been accompanied by the appearance of oscillations - most notably seen on magnetic probe signals - that were previously not present. These oscillations are observed both during the sustainment (V/sub gun/ not equal to 0) and the decaying (V/sub gun/ = 0) phases of the discharge and are attributed to the presence of internal kink modes driven by the departure of the plasma current distribution from the Taylor state: j/B = const. Computations suggest that an n-1 mode becomes unstable when j/B increases away from the magnetic axis (sustained spheromak) whereas an n=2 mode becomes unstable for radially decreasing j/B (decaying spheromak). The results reported are from an 80-cm-diameter mesh flux conserver constructed form 0.5''-diameter copper stock. It is of the same oblate rooftop design as used for previous work with a dimension of 40 cm from front to back.

  7. Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy: Current State and Clinical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lukashev, A N; Zamyatnin, A A

    2016-07-01

    Gene therapy is the straightforward approach for the application of recent advances in molecular biology into clinical practice. One of the major obstacles in the development of gene therapy is the delivery of the effector to and into the target cell. Unfortunately, most methods commonly used in laboratory practice are poorly suited for clinical use. Viral vectors are one of the most promising methods for gene therapy delivery. Millions of years of evolution of viruses have resulted in the development of various molecular mechanisms for entry into cells, long-term survival within cells, and activation, inhibition, or modification of the host defense mechanisms at all levels. The relatively simple organization of viruses, small genome size, and evolutionary plasticity allow modifying them to create effective instruments for gene therapy approaches. This review summarizes the latest trends in the development of gene therapy, in particular, various aspects and prospects of the development of clinical products based on viral delivery systems.

  8. A note on the numerical method for conserving the Runge-Lenz vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. Y.; Wu, X.; Lu, B. K.

    2005-07-01

    An intensive discussion is given here on an isolating integral and the trapezoidal rule applied to the preservation of the Runge-Lenz vector introduced by Minesaki and Nakamura. The isolating integral is an integral of a dynamical system which can further restrict the motion region of a particle in the system. It is well known that an integrable autonomous Hamiltonian system with n degrees of freedom must hold n independent isolating integrals in involution each other. If there exist other independent isolating integrals in this system, these isolating integrals have significance. It is clear that a bound Kepler problem contains energy integral, angular momentum integral and the Runge-Lenz vector. It is found that a symmetry group SO(3) formed by three independent isolating integrals in a dynamical system of two-dimensional Kepler motion is to be identified with a group of two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator derived from the orginal Kepler system in terms of Levi-Civita transformation. As a result, the group of the isotropic harmonic oscillator can be strictly conserved by the trapezoidal rule. In addition, the trapezoidal rule can preserve exactly five orbital elements a, e, i, Ω and ω in a three-dimensional Kepler motion with five independent isolating integrals.

  9. [The current role of partial surgery as a strategy for functional preservation in laryngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Suárez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    With the current advances and recent organ preservation protocols for intermediate or advanced stage laryngeal cancer, based on chemotherapy, the role of surgery seemed replaced except for surgical rescue of tumours not responding to these treatments, total laryngectomy being the surgical option. This type of non-surgical treatment is offered as a strategy for organ preservation, as opposed to total laryngectomy. However, we believe that there are two organ-preservation strategies, surgical and non-surgical. A wide spectrum of surgical techniques is available and such techniques lead to excellent results, both oncological and functional (speech and swallowing). The aim of this paper is to present options for organ-preserving surgery for laryngeal cancer. A review of surgical techniques available for functional preservation in cancer of the larynx at intermediate or advanced stage is presented. In addition to classic approaches such as vertical partial laryngectomy and horizontal or supraglottic laryngectomy, options for conservative laryngeal surgery have improved significantly over the past two decades. Minimally invasive surgery, transoral laser surgery, and supracricoid partial laryngectomy have become important laryngeal preservation approaches for patients with laryngeal cancer. Surgery must define its role in the multidisciplinary treatment of advanced cancers of the larynx, which at present often favours (chemo)radiotherapy protocols.

  10. Solving the Poisson partial differential equation using vector space projection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marendic, Boris

    This research presents a new approach at solving the Poisson partial differential equation using Vector Space Projection (VSP) methods. The work attacks the Poisson equation as encountered in two-dimensional phase unwrapping problems, and in two-dimensional electrostatic problems. Algorithms are developed by first considering simple one-dimensional cases, and then extending them to two-dimensional problems. In the context of phase unwrapping of two-dimensional phase functions, we explore an approach to the unwrapping using a robust extrapolation-projection algorithm. The unwrapping is done iteratively by modification of the Gerchberg-Papoulis (GP) extrapolation algorithm, and the solution is refined by projecting onto the available global data. An important contribution to the extrapolation algorithm is the formulation of the algorithm with the relaxed bandwidth constraint, and the proof that such modified GP extrapolation algorithm still converges. It is also shown that the unwrapping problem is ill-posed in the VSP setting, and that the modified GP algorithm is the missing link to pushing the iterative algorithm out of the trap solution under certain conditions. Robustness of the algorithm is demonstrated through its performance in a noisy environment. Performance is demonstrated by applying it to phantom phase functions, as well as to the real phase functions. Results are compared to well known algorithms in literature. Unlike many existing unwrapping methods which perform unwrapping locally, this work approaches the unwrapping problem from a globally, and eliminates the need for guiding instruments, like quality maps. VSP algorithm also very effectively battles problems of shadowing and holes, where data is not available or is heavily corrupted. In solving the classical Poisson problems in electrostatics, we demonstrate the effectiveness and ease of implementation of the VSP methodology to solving the equation, as well as imposing of the boundary conditions

  11. A new conserved current for electromagnetic fields in the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Alexander; Flanagan, Eanna

    2016-03-01

    For any classical linear Lagrangian field theory, the symplectic product provides a conserved current that is bilinear on the space of solutions. Given a linear mapping from the space of solutions into itself, a ``symmetry operator'', one can therefore generate quadratic conserved currents for any linear classical field theory. We apply this procedure to the case of electromagnetism on a Kerr background, showing that this procedure generates the conserved currents given in Andersson, Bäckdahl, and Blue, as well as a new conserved current. These currents reduce to the sum of the Carter constants of the photons in the geometric optics limit, and generalize the current for scalar fields discovered by Carter.

  12. Alternative treatment option for hypopharyngeal cancer: clinical outcomes after conservative laryngeal surgery with partial pharyngectomy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun-Jae; Lee, Jong-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Dong-Jin; Jung, Chul-Hoon; Chang, Yong-Joon; Rho, Young-Soo

    2013-08-01

    The oncological and functional outcomes of hypopharyngeal cancer after conservative laryngeal surgery are fairly acceptable, making this a reasonable initial treatment option for selected patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with conservative laryngeal surgery with partial pharyngectomy. Fifty-eight patients with hypopharyngeal SCC who underwent laryngeal preservation surgery were enrolled. The tumors were classified as cT1 in 5 (8.6%) patients, cT2 in 35 (60.3%), cT3 in 14 (24.1%), and cT4a in 4 (6.9%) patients. Surgical outcomes: 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 78% and 77.6%. Recurrent disease developed in 13 patients (22.4%). Multivariate analysis revealed that level VI metastasis confirmed by histopathological analysis, close (< 5 mm) histologic margin, advanced N stage, and posterior pharyngeal wall tumor were independent factors associated with poor disease-specific survival. Functional outcomes: 50 patients (86.2%) could obtain all their nutritional needs orally. Eight patients needed the assistance of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. Oral re-alimentation was achieved within a mean of 26.1 days after surgery. Fifty-one patients (87.9%) could be decannulated after a mean of 43.8 days postoperatively.

  13. Partial Conservation between Mice and Humans in Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Transcription Factor Codes

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Nana; Cave, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian main olfactory bulb (OB) has a large population of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that contains several subtypes defined by the co-expression other neurotransmitters and calcium binding proteins. The three most commonly studied OB interneuron subtypes co-express either Calretinin, Calbindin, or Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). Combinations of transcription factors used to specify the phenotype of progenitors are referred to as transcription factor codes, and the current understanding of transcription factor codes that specify OB inhibitory neuron phenotypes are largely based on studies in mice. The conservation of these transcription factor codes in the human OB, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether transcription factor codes in OB interneurons are conserved between mice and humans. This study compared the co-expression of Foxp2, Meis2, Pax6, and Sp8 transcription factors with Calretinin, Calbindin, or Th in human and mouse OB interneurons. This analysis found strong conservation of Calretinin co-expression with Sp8 and Meis2 as well as Th co-expression with Pax6 and Meis2. This analysis also showed that selective Foxp2 co-expression with Calbindin was conserved between mice and humans, which suggests Foxp2 is a novel determinant of the OB Calbindin interneuron phenotype. Together, the findings in this study provide insight into the conservation of transcription codes for OB interneuron phenotypes between humans and mice, as well as reveal some important differences between the species. This advance in our understanding of transcription factor codes in OB interneurons provides an important complement to the codes that have been established for other regions within the mammalian central nervous system, such as the cortex and spinal cord. PMID:27489533

  14. Partial Conservation between Mice and Humans in Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Transcription Factor Codes.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Nana; Cave, John W

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian main olfactory bulb (OB) has a large population of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that contains several subtypes defined by the co-expression other neurotransmitters and calcium binding proteins. The three most commonly studied OB interneuron subtypes co-express either Calretinin, Calbindin, or Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). Combinations of transcription factors used to specify the phenotype of progenitors are referred to as transcription factor codes, and the current understanding of transcription factor codes that specify OB inhibitory neuron phenotypes are largely based on studies in mice. The conservation of these transcription factor codes in the human OB, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether transcription factor codes in OB interneurons are conserved between mice and humans. This study compared the co-expression of Foxp2, Meis2, Pax6, and Sp8 transcription factors with Calretinin, Calbindin, or Th in human and mouse OB interneurons. This analysis found strong conservation of Calretinin co-expression with Sp8 and Meis2 as well as Th co-expression with Pax6 and Meis2. This analysis also showed that selective Foxp2 co-expression with Calbindin was conserved between mice and humans, which suggests Foxp2 is a novel determinant of the OB Calbindin interneuron phenotype. Together, the findings in this study provide insight into the conservation of transcription codes for OB interneuron phenotypes between humans and mice, as well as reveal some important differences between the species. This advance in our understanding of transcription factor codes in OB interneurons provides an important complement to the codes that have been established for other regions within the mammalian central nervous system, such as the cortex and spinal cord.

  15. Improving credibility and transparency of conservation impact evaluations through the partial identification approach.

    PubMed

    McConnachie, Matthew M; Romero, Claudia; Ferraro, Paul J; van Wilgen, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    The fundamental challenge of evaluating the impact of conservation interventions is that researchers must estimate the difference between the outcome after an intervention occurred and what the outcome would have been without it (counterfactual). Because the counterfactual is unobservable, researchers must make an untestable assumption that some units (e.g., organisms or sites) that were not exposed to the intervention can be used as a surrogate for the counterfactual (control). The conventional approach is to make a point estimate (i.e., single number along with a confidence interval) of impact, using, for example, regression. Point estimates provide powerful conclusions, but in nonexperimental contexts they depend on strong assumptions about the counterfactual that often lack transparency and credibility. An alternative approach, called partial identification (PI), is to first estimate what the counterfactual bounds would be if the weakest possible assumptions were made. Then, one narrows the bounds by using stronger but credible assumptions based on an understanding of why units were selected for the intervention and how they might respond to it. We applied this approach and compared it with conventional approaches by estimating the impact of a conservation program that removed invasive trees in part of the Cape Floristic Region. Even when we used our largest PI impact estimate, the program's control costs were 1.4 times higher than previously estimated. PI holds promise for applications in conservation science because it encourages researchers to better understand and account for treatment selection biases; can offer insights into the plausibility of conventional point-estimate approaches; could reduce the problem of advocacy in science; might be easier for stakeholders to agree on a bounded estimate than a point estimate where impacts are contentious; and requires only basic arithmetic skills.

  16. Representation of topography by partial steps using the immersed boundary method in a vector vorticity equation model (VVM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Mu-Hua; Wu, Chien-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this study, representation of surface topography in the vector vorticity equation model (VVM) is updated with a partial step approach using the immersed boundary method. Compared with the full step approach, the partial step approach provides additional topography forcing to represent micro mountains while preserving the same grid structure through interpolating from adjacent grid points. It maintains the characteristics of dynamics and physics of VVM and improves the representation of gentle slope topography without increasing vertical resolution. This approach produces reasonable results on the simulation of classical mountain waves with coarse vertical resolution. Additional experiments are performed to verify our approach including density driven flow using a cold bubble and 3-D orographic precipitation over a ridge. The results show that vorticity fields in the partial step approach have a smoother response to the gentle slopes due to the improvement in the topography representation.

  17. Summary of current state industrial energy conservation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.W.; Evans, A.R.; Grogan, P.J.

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study of industrial energy conservation measures initiated by states under the State Energy Conservation Program is presented. Elements, targets, and administration of state programs are briefly examined. As the results of the study indicate, the states perceive the need for Federal assistance in programs to: establish a forum for coordination of state programs and interchange of approaches and program materials; provide to state offices direct technical assistance, including specific program information, training materials and manuals directed toward specific industries, and an energy accounting methodology; promote national industrial energy conservation measures; develop methods for providing financial assistance to companies, especially small business, for incorporating energy conserving measures; devise a plan for coordinating the state energy-related regulatory activities; and disseminate information on Federal programs and regulations that may impact energy-related decisions at the state level and within private industry.

  18. Partial mastectomy and m. latissimus dorsi reconstruction for radiation-induced fibrosis after breast-conserving cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Albertus N; Lans, Titia E; Haen, Roel; Tjong Joe Wai, Rudi; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E

    2011-03-01

    Patients with severe complaints of radiation-induced fibrosis after breast-conserving therapy and not responding to conservative therapy, were treated by partial mastectomy and m. latissimus dorsi reconstruction. To determine the feasibility and outcome of this approach, a retrospective study of nine patients was carried out. After a mean follow-up of 46 months, eight of the nine patients experienced improvement of their complaints and shape of the breast. In only one case did the procedure fail, as evidenced by continuation of all complaints. Partial mastectomy and m. latissimus dorsi reconstruction is the ultimate option in the treatment of radiation fibrosis. The procedure is safe with satisfying results.

  19. Review of Current Conservation Genetic Analyses of Northeast Pacific Sharks.

    PubMed

    Larson, Shawn E; Daly-Engel, Toby S; Phillips, Nicole M

    2017-01-01

    Conservation genetics is an applied science that utilizes molecular tools to help solve problems in species conservation and management. It is an interdisciplinary specialty in which scientists apply the study of genetics in conjunction with traditional ecological fieldwork and other techniques to explore molecular variation, population boundaries, and evolutionary relationships with the goal of enabling resource managers to better protect biodiversity and identify unique populations. Several shark species in the northeast Pacific (NEP) have been studied using conservation genetics techniques, which are discussed here. The primary methods employed to study population genetics of sharks have historically been nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial (mt) DNA. These markers have been used to assess genetic diversity, mating systems, parentage, relatedness, and genetically distinct populations to inform management decisions. Novel approaches in conservation genetics, including next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, environmental DNA (eDNA), and epigenetics are just beginning to be applied to elasmobranch evolution, physiology, and ecology. Here, we review the methods and results of past studies, explore future directions for shark conservation genetics, and discuss the implications of molecular research and techniques for the long-term management of shark populations in the NEP. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis) in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas) are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies) are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy. PMID:20145730

  1. Lentiviral vectors in gene therapy: their current status and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Escors, David; Breckpot, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Summary The concept of gene therapy originated in the mid 20th century and was perceived as a revolutionary technology with the promise to cure almost any disease of which the molecular basis was understood. Since then, several gene vectors have been developed, and the feasibility of gene therapy shown in many animal models of human disease. However, clinical efficacy could not be demonstrated until the beginning of the new century in a small-scale clinical trial curing an otherwise fatal immunodeficiency disorder in children. This first success – achieved after retroviral therapy - was later on overshadowed by the occurrence of vector-related leukaemia in a significant number of the treated children, demonstrating that the future success of gene therapy depends on our understanding of vector biology. This has led to the development of later generation vectors with improved efficiency, specificity and safety. Amongst these are HIV-1 lentivirus-based vectors (lentivectors), which are being increasingly used in basic and applied research. Human gene therapy clinical trials are currently under way using lentivectors in a wide range of human diseases. The intention of this review is to describe the main scientific steps leading to the engineering of HIV-1 lentiviral vectors, and place them in the context of current human gene therapy. PMID:20143172

  2. Lentiviral vectors in gene therapy: their current status and future potential.

    PubMed

    Escors, David; Breckpot, Karine

    2010-04-01

    The concept of gene therapy originated in the mid twentieth century and was perceived as a revolutionary technology with the promise to cure almost any disease of which the molecular basis was understood. Since then, several gene vectors have been developed and the feasibility of gene therapy has been shown in many animal models of human disease. However, clinical efficacy could not be demonstrated until the beginning of the new century in a small-scale clinical trial curing an otherwise fatal immunodeficiency disorder in children. This first success, achieved after retroviral therapy, was later overshadowed by the occurrence of vector-related leukemia in a significant number of the treated children, demonstrating that the future success of gene therapy depends on our understanding of vector biology. This has led to the development of later-generation vectors with improved efficiency, specificity, and safety. Amongst these are HIV-1 lentivirus-based vectors (lentivectors), which are being increasingly used in basic and applied research. Human gene therapy clinical trials are currently underway using lentivectors in a wide range of human diseases. The intention of this review is to describe the main scientific steps leading to the engineering of HIV-1 lentiviral vectors and place them in the context of current human gene therapy.

  3. Factors contributing to deletion within Mungbean yellow mosaic virus partial dimers in binary vectors used for agroinoculation.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, P V; Thomas, M; Balamani, V; Biswas, D; Vanitharani, R; Karthikeyan, A S; Veluthambi, K

    2006-10-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV) sequences cloned as partial dimers within the T-DNA of a binary vector were deleted at a high frequency upon conjugal mobilization from Escherichia coli into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This deletion involving the genome-length viral DNA did not occur when the binary plasmid was inside E. coli and when the binary plasmid was introduced into Agrobacterium by electroporation. Deletions occurred in both DNA A and DNA B partial dimers. A minimum of 500-nt continuity on either side of the nonanucleotide in the duplicated common region is required for deletion. A. tumefaciens cells in which deletion was complete, grew as larger colonies reflecting a growth advantage. The small, slow-growing colonies eventually lost the genome-length viral sequences after a few more cycles of growth. Partial dimers in binary plasmids pGA472 and pBin19 with RK2 replicon underwent deletion while those in pPZP with pVS1 replicon did not undergo deletion. Deletion was observed in A. tumefaciens strains C58, A136, A348 and A281 with C58 chromosome background, but not in Ach5 and T37. Interestingly, deletion did not occur in A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 with a recA mutation in C58 chromosome, implying a clear role for recombination in deletion. These observations suggest the choice of Agrobacterium strains and binary vectors for agroinoculation of geminiviruses.

  4. A sight on the current nanoparticle-based gene delivery vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Jafari, Samira; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, gene delivery for therapeutic objects is considered one of the most promising strategies to cure both the genetic and acquired diseases of human. The design of efficient gene delivery vectors possessing the high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicity is considered the major challenge for delivering a target gene to specific tissues or cells. On this base, the investigations on non-viral gene vectors with the ability to overcome physiological barriers are increasing. Among the non-viral vectors, nanoparticles showed remarkable properties regarding gene delivery such as the ability to target the specific tissue or cells, protect target gene against nuclease degradation, improve DNA stability, and increase the transformation efficiency or safety. This review attempts to represent a current nanoparticle based on its lipid, polymer, hybrid, and inorganic properties. Among them, hybrids, as efficient vectors, are utilized in gene delivery in terms of materials (synthetic or natural), design, and in vitro/ in vivo transformation efficiency.

  5. Soil conservation in Central America and Panama: current problems.

    PubMed

    Popenoe, H

    1976-06-01

    Soil conservation measures in Central America go back to the Maya civilization, in which terracing was employed. After the Spanish conquest, plowing, livestock raising, and the succession of social and political changes all contributed to accelerate erosion. Through the past few decades, awareness of the need for soil conservation has again increased; El Salvador and Costa Rica began efforts in that direction in 1943. For sometime, the use of machinery and chemical fertilizers has masked the loss of topsoil, but under recent increases in population pressures, soil conservation measures are gaining in importance. Important agents of erosion in the tropics are heavy seasonal rains at high elevations, alternating with long dry seasons; wind erosion; and landslides after saturation of the soil during prolonged rains. Modern machinery often hastens soil removal, as do also overgrazing, deforestation and vertical crop rows. Under the present energy crisis, human labor is becoming again a significant element in crop production, and soil conservation becomes thereby more feasible and more important.

  6. Magnetic Field Observations of Partial Ring Current during Storm Recovery Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Lucek, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of an extensive survey of the magnetic field observations in the inner magnetosphere using 30 years of magnetospheric magnetic field data from Polar, Cluster, ISEE, and AMPTE/CCE missions. The purpose of this study is to understand the magnetic field evolution during the recovery phase of geomagnetic storms, and its implication to the ring current recovery and loss mechanisms of ring current particles. Our previous work on global ring current distribution [Le et al., 2004] has shown that a significant partial ring current is always present at all Dst levels (regardless of storm phases) even for quiet time ring current. The total current carried by the partial ring current is much stronger than (during stormtime) or at least comparable to (during quiet time) the symmetric ring current. It is now commonly believed that a strong partial ring current is formed during the storm main phase due to the enhanced earthward convection of energetic ions from nightside plasma sheet. But the presence of a strong partial ring current throughout the recovery phase remains controversial. The magnetic field generated by the ring current inflates the inner magnetosphere and causes magnetic field depressions in the equatorial magnetosphere. During the storm recovery phase, we find that the distribution of the equatorial magnetic field depression exhibits similar local time dependence as the ring current distribution obtained from the combined dataset in the earlier study. It shows that a strong partial ring current is a permanent feature throughout the recovery phase. In the early recovery phase, the partial ring current peaks near the dusk terminator as indicated by the peak of the magnetic field depression. As the recovery phase progresses, the partial ring current decays most quickly near the dusk and results in a dusk-to-midnight moving of the peak of the partial ring current. Thus the loss mechanisms work most effectively near the dusk. The magnetic field

  7. Effects of soil conservation measures in a partially vegetated area after forest fires.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Gi; Shin, Kwangil; Joo, Kwang Yeong; Lee, Kyu Song; Shin, Seung Sook; Choung, Yeonsook

    2008-07-25

    After forest fires on the east coast of Korea in 2000, some burnt areas were left untreated. Although 80% of the area was reasonably revegetated within 3 months, about 20% of the area was partially vegetated, mainly due to a low density of sprouters and poor growing conditions (eroded soil and steep slopes). Three years after the fires, the effect of soil conservation measures, such as mulching with wood chips, seeding with native plant species and log erosion barriers (LEBs), on runoff and soil erosion were examined using runoff plots. Wood chip mulching greatly reduced runoff and sediment yields and these effects were consistent regardless of the volume of rainfall. Neither seeding nor LEBs reduced runoff and sediment yields. No positive or negative effects of mulching, seeding or LEBs on ground vegetation cover were observed. The ineffectiveness of seeding and LEBs may have been due to the steep slope, the failure of germination and establishment of seeded plants, and the small diameter of logs. Treating hill slopes with mulch should be considered where post-fire regeneration is slow and there is an absence of organic material such as litter.

  8. Comparative mapping reveals partial conservation of synteny at the apomixis locus in Paspalum spp.

    PubMed

    Pupilli, F; Martinez, E J; Busti, A; Calderini, O; Quarin, C L; Arcioni, S

    2004-01-01

    In plants, gametophytic apomixis is a form of asexual reproduction that leads to the formation of seed-derived offspring that are genetically identical to the mother plant. A common set of RFLP markers, including five rice anchor markers previously shown to be linked to apomixis in Paspalum simplex, were used to detect linkage with apomixis in P. notatum and P. malacophyllum. A comparative map of the region around the apomixis locus was constructed for the three Paspalum species, and compared to the rice map. The locus that controls apomixis in P. simplex was almost completely conserved in the closely related species P. malacophyllum, whereas it was only partially represented in the distantly related species P. notatum. Although strong synteny of markers was noted between this locus and a portion of rice chromosome 12 in both P. simplex and P. malacophyllum, the same locus in P. notatum was localized to a hybrid chromosome which carries markers that map to rice chromosomes 2 and 12. All three Paspalum species showed recombination suppression at the apomixis locus; in the case of P. notatum, this might be due to a heterozygosity for a translocation that most probably negatively interferes with chromosomal pairing near the locus. A common set of markers that show linkage with apomixis in all three Paspalum species define a portion of the apomixis-controlling locus that is likely to contain genes critical for apomictic reproduction.

  9. [Current state of conservative management of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Marin Cantu, V A; Mondragon Alcocer, H; Cherem Cherem, B; Serviere Zaragoza, C

    1996-03-01

    The ectopic pregnancy constitutes a disease that require the most diagnostic accuracy, not only for the biologic importance of its clinical manifestations, but for the sequelae of its treatment too, in relation with the fertility of a patient frequently affected with infertility so far. The increase in its frequency, by multiple factors, including treatment of infertility itself and Assisted Reproduction techniques, make the clinician must be alert and have availability of all diagnostic tools for the establishment of an oportune and conservative treatment, directed to prevent an acute alteration of the hemostasis and a shadowy reproductive future. The present review of the literature about the conservative management of the ectopic pregnancy let us have to know the criteria neccessary for giving the optimum treatment to our patients and offering them a better reproductive future.

  10. Poincaré Integral Invariant and Momentum Conservation in Symplectic Time Integration of Hamiltonian Partial Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasa, Narimasa

    2017-07-01

    The momentum conservation law is investigated in numerical time evolutions of discretized Hamiltonian partial differential equations using symplectic integrators. Our investigation is based on the equivalence between the total momentum and the Poincaré integral invariant of the system following our previous work. By introducing a Fourier interpolation method that is a canonical transformation, the total momentum of the system is shown to be an exact conserved quantity if the Hamiltonian possesses a discrete translational invariance and aliasing errors do not appear in the time evolutions. In addition, we perform numerical simulations that demonstrate the validity of our theoretical results under several conditions. Consequently, all symplectic integrators for discretized Hamiltonian partial differential equations are shown to inherit the property of the simultaneous conservation of the total momentum and approximated energy.

  11. Predicting the singlet vector channel in a partially broken gauge-Higgs theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, A.; Törek, P.

    2017-01-01

    We study a toy version of a grand-unified theory on the lattice: An S U (3 ) gauge theory, which experiences a Brout-Englert-Higgs effect due to a single Higgs field in the fundamental representation. This yields a perturbative breaking pattern S U (3 )→S U (2 ). We investigate the singlet vector channel, finding a nondegenerate and massive ground state. This is in contradistinction to the perturbative prediction of three massless and five massive vector states, even though the correlation functions of the gauge bosons exhibit a weak-coupling behavior, being almost tree-level-like. However, a combination of perturbation theory with the Fröhlich-Morchio-Strocchi mechanism, and thus passing to gauge-invariant perturbation theory, allows one to predict the physical spectrum in this channel.

  12. A quasi-current representation for information needs inspired by Two-State Vector Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Panpan; Hou, Yuexian; Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Yazhou; Song, Dawei; Li, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    Recently, a number of quantum theory (QT)-based information retrieval (IR) models have been proposed for modeling session search task that users issue queries continuously in order to describe their evolving information needs (IN). However, the standard formalism of QT cannot provide a complete description for users' current IN in a sense that it does not take the 'future' information into consideration. Therefore, to seek a more proper and complete representation for users' IN, we construct a representation of quasi-current IN inspired by an emerging Two-State Vector Formalism (TSVF). With the enlightenment of the completeness of TSVF, a ;two-state vector; derived from the 'future' (the current query) and the 'history' (the previous query) is employed to describe users' quasi-current IN in a more complete way. Extensive experiments are conducted on the session tracks of TREC 2013 & 2014, and show that our model outperforms a series of compared IR models.

  13. Artificial fertilization for amphibian conservation: current knowledge and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Kouba, A J; Vance, C K; Willis, E L

    2009-01-01

    Amphibian populations in the wild are experiencing massive die-offs that have led to the extinction of an estimated 168 species in the last several decades. To address these declines, zoological institutions are playing an important role in establishing captive assurance colonies to protect species in imminent danger of extinction. Many of the threatened species recently placed into captivity are failing to reproduce before they expire, and maintaining founder populations is becoming a formidable challenge. Assisted reproductive technologies, such as hormone synchronization, gamete storage and artificial fertilization, are valuable tools for addressing reproductive failure of amphibians in captive facilities. Artificial fertilization has been commonly employed for over 60 years in several keystone laboratory species for basic studies in developmental biology and embryology. However, there are few instances of applied studies for the conservation of threatened or endangered amphibian species. In this review, we summarize valuable technological achievements in amphibian artificial fertilization, identify specific processes that need to be considered when developing artificial fertilization techniques for species conservation, and address future concerns that should be priorities for the next decade.

  14. Partial breast irradiation as second conservative treatment for local breast cancer recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel . E-mail: jean-michel.hannoun-levi@fccc.edu; Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Ellis, Steve; Teissier, Eric; Alzieu, Claude; Lallement, Michel; Cowen, Didier

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Mastectomy is the treatment of reference for local relapse after breast cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to document the feasibility and the results of associating lumpectomy with partial breast irradiation by interstitial brachytherapy (IB) as local treatment for an isolated ipsilateral BC local recurrence (LR). Methods and materials: Between 1975 and 1996 at Marseille and Nice Cancer Institutes, 4026 patients received lumpectomy and radiotherapy (RT) (50-80 Gy) for a localized breast cancer of which 473 presented a LR. Among these patients, 69 (14.6%) received a second lumpectomy followed by IB, which delivered 30 Gy (Nice, n = 24) or 45-50 Gy (Marseille, n = 45) with 3 to 8 {sup 192}Ir wires in 1 or 2 planes on the 85% isodose. Results: Median age at LR was 58.2 years, median follow-up since primary BC was 10 years, and median follow-up after the second conservative treatment was 50.2 months (range, 2-139 months). Immediate tolerance was good in all cases. Grade 2 to 3 long-term complications (LTC) according to IB dose were 0%, 28%, and 32%, respectively, for 30 Gy, 45 to 46 Gy, and 50 Gy (p 0.01). Grade 2 to 3 LTC according to total dose were 4% and 30%, respectively, for total doses (initial RT plus IB) {<=} 100 Gy or >100 Gy (p = 0.008). Logistic regression showed that the only factor associated with Grade 2 to 3 complications was higher IB doses (p = 0.01). We noted 11 second LRs (LR2), 10 distant metastases (DM), and 5 specific deaths. LR2 occurred either in the tumor bed (50.8%) or close to the tumor bed (34.3%) or in another quadrant (14.9%). Kaplan-Meier 5-year freedom from (FF) LR2 (FFLR2), FFDM, and DFS were 77.4%, 86.7%, and 68.9%, respectively. Overall 5-year survival (OS) was 91.8%. Univariate analysis showed the following factors associated with a higher FFLR2: (1) number of wires used for IB (3-4 vs. 5-8 wires, p = 0.006), (2) IB doses (30-45 Gy vs. 46-60 Gy, p = 0.05), (3) number of planes (1 vs. 2, p = 0.05), (4) interval between

  15. RGS4 regulates partial agonism of the M2 muscarinic receptor-activated K+ currents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Shan; Furutani, Kazuharu; Inanobe, Atsushi; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Partial agonists are used clinically to avoid overstimulation of receptor-mediated signalling, as they produce a submaximal response even at 100% receptor occupancy. The submaximal efficacy of partial agonists is due to conformational change of the agonist–receptor complex, which reduces effector activation. In addition to signalling activators, several regulators help control intracellular signal transductions. However, it remains unclear whether these signalling regulators contribute to partial agonism. Here we show that regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS) 4 is a determinant for partial agonism of the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). In rat atrial myocytes, pilocarpine evoked smaller G-protein-gated K+ inwardly rectifying (KG) currents than those evoked by ACh. In a Xenopus oocyte expression system, pilocarpine acted as a partial agonist in the presence of RGS4 as it did in atrial myocytes, while it acted like a full agonist in the absence of RGS4. Functional couplings within the agonist–receptor complex/G-protein/RGS4 system controlled the efficacy of pilocarpine relative to ACh. The pilocarpine–M2R complex suppressed G-protein-mediated activation of KG currents via RGS4. Our results demonstrate that partial agonism of M2R is regulated by the RGS4-mediated inhibition of G-protein signalling. This finding helps us to understand the molecular components and mechanism underlying the partial agonism of M2R-mediated physiological responses. PMID:24421355

  16. Partial self-consistency and analyticity in many-body perturbation theory: Particle number conservation and a generalized sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Daniel; van Leeuwen, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We consider a general class of approximations which guarantees the conservation of particle number in many-body perturbation theory. To do this we extend the concept of Φ derivability for the self-energy Σ to a larger class of diagrammatic terms in which only some of the Green's function lines contain the fully dressed Green's function G . We call the corresponding approximations for Σ partially Φ derivable. A special subclass of such approximations, which are gauge invariant, is obtained by dressing loops in the diagrammatic expansion of Φ consistently with G . These approximations are number conserving but do not have to fulfill other conservation laws, such as the conservation of energy and momentum. From our formalism we can easily deduce whether commonly used approximations will fulfill the continuity equation, which implies particle number conservation. We further show how the concept of partial Φ derivability plays an important role in the derivation of a generalized sum rule for the particle number, which reduces to the Luttinger-Ward theorem in the case of a homogeneous electron gas, and the Friedel sum rule in the case of the Anderson model. To do this we need to ensure that the Green's function has certain complex analytic properties, which can be guaranteed if the spectral function is positive-semidefinite. The latter property can be ensured for a subset of partially Φ -derivable approximations for the self-energy, namely those that can be constructed from squares of so-called half diagrams. For the case in which the analytic requirements are not fulfilled we highlight a number of subtle issues related to branch cuts, pole structure, and multivaluedness. We also show that various schemes of computing the particle number are consistent for particle number conserving approximations.

  17. Malaria in Greece: historical and current reflections on a re-emerging vector borne disease.

    PubMed

    Danis, Kostas; Lenglet, Annick; Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Tsiodras, Sotiris; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2013-01-01

    Between 2009 and September 2012, locally acquired cases of P. vivax infection were reported in Greece, mostly from the agricultural area of Evrotas, Lakonia (n = 48), but also sporadically from five other regions (n = 14), suggesting that conditions in these areas are favourable for local transmission of malaria. The risk of re-establishment of malaria in Greece will depend on whether the receptivity for disease transmission (presence of the mosquito vector and adequate ecological and climatic factors) and the vulnerability (importation of the parasite in human reservoirs or presence of infected mosquito vectors) continue to be present in the country. The continuous implementation of the integrated preparedness and response plan for malaria that covers all aspects from surveillance and laboratory diagnosis to vector control and the reorganization of public health infrastructures are necessary to prevent transmission and control the disease in the long term. However, the impact of the severe economic crisis on current health-care, public health infrastructures and vector control constitute a great challenge for the future. The current threat of renewed sustained local malaria transmission in Greece (and thus in continental Europe) merits an international response, including financial and technical support, from European and international stakeholders.

  18. Conservative and esthetic cast gold fixed partial dentures-inlay, onlay, and partial veneer retainers, custom composite pontics, and stress-breakers: part I: fundamental design principles.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard G; Refela, Jane A

    2009-01-01

    Although in today's dental world implant restorations are considered the standard of care in the replacement of missing teeth, clinical contraindications and patient nonacceptance of implant placement can be encountered. Several scenarios are discussed here in which a single missing tooth can be restored with conservative fixed partial dentures (FPD) that employ cast gold retainers; each with a customized design in order to preserve tooth structure, maintain esthetics, and provide a long-term prognosis. The abutment teeth are prepared for conservative partial coverage restorations by using Brasseler burs (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA, USA). Impressions are taken of the preparations, along with any retentive features, utilizing either the Vented Pin Channel technique or the Shooshan Plastic Pin technique. The latter technique utilizes Kodex twist drills and corresponding impression pins (Coltene Whaledent Inc., Mahwah, NJ, USA). The conservative FPD with non-rigid connectors is fabricated by using type III gold alloy. The pontic cage portion is chemically prepared utilizing the Panavia F2.0 cement kit (Kuraray America Inc., Houston, TX, USA) or other dual-polymerizing resin cement and restored with any type of direct composite resin material. A palette of opaquers and tints are used for chairside characterization of the esthetic pontic facing. The final polish of the pontic is completed by using FlexiDisc and FlexiBuff discs (Cosmedent Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE In cases where an implant restoration is contraindicated for replacement of a single tooth, a semi-precision FPD is a conservative, functional, and esthetic alternative.

  19. [Currently Recommended Restorative Materials in Modern Conservative Dentistry].

    PubMed

    Kobierska-Brzoza, Joanna Monika; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Fita, Katarzyna Agnieszka; Bader-Orłowska, Dorota; Szymonowicz, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Conservative treatment which restores the function, aesthetics and protects remaining tooth structure, and what is the most important, the viability of the tooth pulp, is still needed. Dental fillings replace specialized tissues of the tooth that have been lost due to caries or injury. Any decision concerning the use of a particular restorative material should be individualized and based on the competence regarding the composition, properties and characteristics of the specific restorative material. This requires continuous updating of knowledge about available dental materials as well as education of patients who, according to actual models of dental care, should be active partners in the therapeutic process. The selection of restorative materials is often related to financial abilities of the patients, and more generally to the economic model of organized health care in a particular country. Nowadays, amalgam is increasingly dislodged by adhesive materials which permit to save more tooth structure and allow to preserve natural teeth for a longer time. In the nearest future we can expect further development of minimally invasive techniques and improvements of restorative materials, especially their mechanical properties like strength and wear resistance as well as biocompatibility. The article presents restorative materials used in modern dentistry.

  20. Augmented reality partial nephrectomy: examining the current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Mayer, Erik K; Marcus, Hani J; Cundy, Thomas P; Pratt, Philip J; Darzi, Ara W; Vale, Justin A

    2014-02-01

    A minimal access approach to partial nephrectomy has historically been under-utilized, but is now becoming more popular with the growth of robot-assisted laparoscopy. One of the criticisms of minimal access partial nephrectomy is the loss of haptic feedback. Augmented reality operating environments are forecast to play a major enabling role in the future of minimal access partial nephrectomy by integrating enhanced visual information to supplement this loss of haptic sensation. In this article, we systematically examine the current status of augmented reality in partial nephrectomy by identifying existing research challenges and exploring future agendas for this technology to achieve wider clinical translation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Bruce

    2013-03-13

    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  2. Comparison of buoy-mounted 74-kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers with vector-measuring current meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winant, Clinton; Mettlach, Theodore; Larson, Sigurd

    1994-01-01

    In December 1991, the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) deployed two meteorological buoys in the Southern California Bight on a transect between San Diego and San Clemente Island. Each buoy consisted of a 10-m discus hull instrumented to measure a suite of meteorological parameters, and, for the first time in the NDBC buoy program, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were included to gather hourly current profiles beneath the two buoys. Moorings instrumented with seven vector-measuring current meters (VMCMs) were deployed adjacent to the NDBC buoys for several months and provided current observations for comparison with the ADCP measurements. When wave-induced buoy motion is not overly large, the observations of horizontal current made by the ADCP and the VMCM are highly correlated. Time series of differences between ADCP and VMCM measurements are characterized by a mean difference (bias error) of about 0.01 m/s and standard deviation of about 0.035 m/s for 1-h observations. Estimates of current spectra from ADCP and VMCM records suggest that the ADCP system can be characterized by a white noise level of 2 x 10(exp -3) sq m/sq s/cph. However, when the in situ environment is such that large surface waves are present (including breaking waves and whitecaps), erroneous current values are usually reported by the ADCP. Mean values of vertical velocities reported by the ADCP appear to be much larger than what could be physically expected and are therefore deemed unreliable.

  3. Counter-current carbon dioxide purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  4. MHD Equilibrium with Reversed Current Density and Magnetic Islands Revisited: the Vacuum Vector Potential Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L. Braga, F.

    2013-10-01

    The solution of Grad-Shafranov equation determines the stationary behavior of fusion plasma inside a tokamak. To solve the equation it is necessary to know the toroidal current density profile. Recent works show that it is possible to determine a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium with reversed current density (RCD) profiles that presents magnetic islands. In this work we show analytical MHD equilibrium with a RCD profile and analyze the structure of the vacuum vector potential associated with these equilibria using the virtual casing principle.

  5. Three Dimensional Eddy Current Analysis by Multi-Order Vector Finite Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hano, Mitsuo; Hotta, Masashi

    In this paper, we propose new method based on multi-order vector finite elements in three dimensional eddy current analysis. Edges, faces, and volume of the multi-order element have orders of shape functions, respectively. In order to realize high efficiency of numerical calculation, high-order elements are assigned in the important area of the eddy current model, and low-order elements in the surrounding area, and multi-order elements in the middle area to bond two areas, respectively. The results obtained by multi-order elements are compared with those by full high-order elements and by full low-order elements.

  6. Meson-exchange currents including energy transfer effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, W.P.; Walker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard formalism of meson-exchange currents is extended to incorporate energy transfer effects. It is possible to make such an extension, in a chirally invariant way, for several exchange currents including those involving an intermediate isobar. It is found that the ''extended'' currents still satisfy conservation of the polar vector current (CVC) and partial conservation of the axial vector current (PCAC) where appropriate. The hypothesis of axial locality is found to be valid for the currents considered. Deuteron photodisintegration at intermediate energies is then used to illustrate the numerical importance of the energy transfer effects. A brief survey is carried out for other reactions where the inclusion of energy transfer effects in the evaluation of selected meson-exchange currents is believed important.

  7. The Electrical Current Density Vector in the Inner Penumbra of a Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Martínez Pillet, V.

    2010-09-01

    We determine the entire electrical current density vector in a geometrical three-dimensional volume of the inner penumbra of a sunspot from an inversion of spectropolarimetric data obtained with Hinode/SP. Significant currents are seen to wrap around the hotter, more elevated regions with lower and more horizontal magnetic fields that harbor strong upflows and radial outflows (the intraspines). The horizontal component of the current density vector is 3-4 times larger than the vertical; nearly all previous studies only obtain the vertical component Jz , thus strongly underestimating the current density. The current density \\vec{J} and the magnetic field \\vec{B} form an angle of about 20°. The plasma β at the 0 km level is larger than 1 in the intraspines and is one order of magnitude lower in the background component of the penumbra (spines). At the 200 km level, the plasma β is below 0.3, nearly everywhere. The plasma β surface as well as the surface optical depth unity is very corrugated. At the borders of intraspines and inside, \\vec{B} is not force-free at deeper layers and nearly force-free at the top layers. The magnetic field of the spines is close to being potential everywhere. The dissipated ohmic energy is five orders of magnitudes smaller than the solar energy flux and thus negligible for the energy balance of the penumbra.

  8. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  9. Current Good Manufacturing Practice Production of an Oncolytic Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Viral Vector for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meseck, M.; Derecho, I.; Lopez, P.; Knoblauch, C.; McMahon, R.; Anderson, J.; Dunphy, N.; Quezada, V.; Khan, R.; Huang, P.; Dang, W.; Luo, M.; Hsu, D.; Woo, S.L.C.; Couture, L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 109 plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 1010 PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 1013 PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:21083425

  10. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  11. Examining current or future trade-offs for biodiversity conservation in north-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Reside, April E; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moilanen, Atte; Graham, Erin M

    2017-01-01

    With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near- or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species.

  12. Examining current or future trade-offs for biodiversity conservation in north-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moilanen, Atte; Graham, Erin M.

    2017-01-01

    With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near- or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species. PMID:28222199

  13. Malaria vectors resistance to insecticides in Benin: current trends and mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Gnanguenon, Virgile; Agossa, Fiacre R; Badirou, Kefilath; Govoetchan, Renaud; Anagonou, Rodrigue; Oke-Agbo, Fredéric; Azondekon, Roseric; AgbanrinYoussouf, Ramziath; Attolou, Roseline; Tokponnon, Filemon T; Aïkpon, Rock; Ossè, Razaki; Akogbeto, Martin C

    2015-04-12

    Insecticides are widely used to control malaria vectors and have significantly contributed to the reduction of malaria-caused mortality. In addition, the same classes of insecticides were widely introduced and used in agriculture in Benin since 1980s. These factors probably contributed to the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vector populations reported in several localities in Benin. This insecticide resistance represents a threat to vector control tool and should be monitored. The present study reveals observed insecticide resistance trends in Benin to help for a better management of insecticide resistance. Mosquito larvae were collected in eight sites and reared in laboratory. Bioassays were conducted on the adult mosquitoes upon the four types of insecticide currently used in public health in Benin. Knock-down resistance, insensitive acetylcholinesterase-1 resistance, and metabolic resistance analysis were performed in the mosquito populations based on molecular and biochemical analysis. The data were mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with Arcgis software. Mortalities observed with Deltamethrin (pyrethroid class) were less than 90% in 5 locations, between 90-97% in 2 locations, and over 98% in one location. Bendiocarb (carbamate class) showed mortalities ranged 90-97% in 2 locations and were over 98% in the others locations. A complete susceptibility to Pirimiphos methyl and Fenitrothion (organophosphate class) was observed in all locations with 98-100% mortalities. Knock-down resistance frequencies were high (0.78-0.96) and similar between Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles melas. Insensitive acetylcholinesterase-1 was rare (0.002-0.1) and only detected in Anopheles gambiae in concomitance with Knock-down resistance mutation. The maps showed a large distribution of Deltamethrin resistance, Knock-down mutation and metabolic resistance throughout the country, a suspected resistance to

  14. Magnetically vectored platforms for the targeted delivery of therapeutics to tumors: history and current status.

    PubMed

    Seeney, Charles; Ojwang, Joshua O; Weiss, Ronald D; Klostergaard, Jim

    2012-02-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are being developed as vehicles for the selective targeting of therapeutics and bioactive compounds. Presented herein is a brief review of the history of approaches to magnetic-based drug delivery platforms, leading to current concepts of magnetically vectored therapeutics via functionalized SPION-prodrugs. With this background, recent experimental results are discussed that demonstrate the use of shaped external magnetic field gradients, generated by designed configurations of permanent magnets, to drive the concentration/accumulation of modified SPION-prodrug constructs at a tumor site, followed by tumor extravasation and activation of the prodrug within the tumor microenvironment. In order to successfully translate this approach to clinical application, one of the key requirements is the ability to magnetically drive ('vector') the SPION to human-scale tumor settings. In this review, various configurations of permanent magnets are described and models are presented that demonstrate that magnetic field gradients can potentially be focused and extended to lengths of several inches in vivo. This modification thereby increases the range of the delivery platform, and offers the potential for the treatment of visceral as well as superficial tumors and for translation from preclinical animal tumor models to clinical settings. The methodology of magnetically vectored prodrug therapeutics, as a means for selective localized targeting of tumor tissue, and minimizing harm to normal tissue, has the additional advantage of raising the therapeutic index compared with that of free drugs, thus, offering great potential as a cancer treatment modality.

  15. Vacuum current induced by an axial-vector condensate and electron anomalous magnetic moment in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, A. F.; Gubina, N. V.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider vacuum polarization effects in the model of charged fermions with anomalous magnetic moment and axial-vector interaction term in a constant and uniform magnetic field. Nontrivial corrections to the effective Lagrangian from the anomalous moment and axial-vector term are calculated with account for various configurations of parameters of the model. An analogue of the chiral magnetic effect in the axial-vector background as well as a vacuum current induced under the combined action of the anomalous magnetic moment of fermions and the axial vector background in a magnetic field is also calculated.

  16. High-speed current dq PI controller for vector controlled PMSM drive.

    PubMed

    Marufuzzaman, Mohammad; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    High-speed current controller for vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The controller is developed based on modular design for faster calculation and uses fixed-point proportional-integral (PI) method for improved accuracy. Current dq controller is usually implemented in digital signal processor (DSP) based computer. However, DSP based solutions are reaching their physical limits, which are few microseconds. Besides, digital solutions suffer from high implementation cost. In this research, the overall controller is realizing in field programmable gate array (FPGA). FPGA implementation of the overall controlling algorithm will certainly trim down the execution time significantly to guarantee the steadiness of the motor. Agilent 16821A Logic Analyzer is employed to validate the result of the implemented design in FPGA. Experimental results indicate that the proposed current dq PI controller needs only 50 ns of execution time in 40 MHz clock, which is the lowest computational cycle for the era.

  17. High-Speed Current dq PI Controller for Vector Controlled PMSM Drive

    PubMed Central

    Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    High-speed current controller for vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The controller is developed based on modular design for faster calculation and uses fixed-point proportional-integral (PI) method for improved accuracy. Current dq controller is usually implemented in digital signal processor (DSP) based computer. However, DSP based solutions are reaching their physical limits, which are few microseconds. Besides, digital solutions suffer from high implementation cost. In this research, the overall controller is realizing in field programmable gate array (FPGA). FPGA implementation of the overall controlling algorithm will certainly trim down the execution time significantly to guarantee the steadiness of the motor. Agilent 16821A Logic Analyzer is employed to validate the result of the implemented design in FPGA. Experimental results indicate that the proposed current dq PI controller needs only 50 ns of execution time in 40 MHz clock, which is the lowest computational cycle for the era. PMID:24574913

  18. Tidal Current Short-Term Prediction Based on Support Vector Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guozhen, Yang; Haifeng, Wang; Hui, Qian; Jianming, Fang

    2017-05-01

    The traditional method of short-term tidal current prediction, harmonic method, typically needs more than 18 years of history records. The method in the article uses univariate feature selection and F-test to reduce the dimension of the data fed to support vector regressor, which reduces the need of history records to less than a year. Model parameters are selected by grid searching and cross-validation. History records from two datasets are used to build prediction models, spanning 3 months and 1 year respectively. Mean average errors of both datasets after normalizing are less than 0.05.

  19. Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet.

    PubMed

    Bliokh, K Yu; Bliokh, Yu P

    2007-06-01

    We present a solution to the problem of partial reflection and refraction of a polarized paraxial Gaussian beam at the interface between two transparent media. The Fedorov-Imbert transverse shifts of the centers of gravity of the reflected and refracted beams are calculated. Our results differ in the general case from those derived previously by other authors. In particular, they obey general conservation law for the beams' total angular momentum but do not obey one-particle conservation laws for individual photons, which have been proposed by [Onoda Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083901 (2004)]. We ascertain that these circumstances relate to the artificial model accepted in the literature for the polarized beam; this model does not fit to real beams. The present paper resolves the recent controversy and confirms the results of our previous paper [Bliokh Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073903 (2006)]. In addition, a diffraction effect of angular transverse shifts of the reflected and refracted beams is described.

  20. Partial conservation of seniority and its unexpected influence on E2 transitions in g9/2 nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chong

    2017-10-01

    There exist two uniquely defined v = 4 states in systems within a j = 9 / 2 subshell, which automatically conserve seniority and do not mix with other states. Here I show that the partial conservation of seniority plays an essential role in our understanding of the electric quadrupole transitions of the semimagic nuclei involving j = 9 / 2 subshells, including the long-lived 8+ isomer in 94Ru. The effects of configuration mixing from neighboring subshells on the structure of those unique states are analyzed. It is shown that a sharp transition from pure seniority coupling to a significant mixture between the v = 2 and v = 4 states may be induced by the cross-orbital non-diagonal interaction matrix elements. Such strong mixture is essential to explain the observed E2 transition properties of N = 50 isotones 96Pd and 94Ru.

  1. Partial rupture of the distal biceps brachii tendon in elite waterpolo goalkeeper: a case report of conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Giombini, A; Innocenzi, L; Di Cesare, A; Di Salvo, W; Fagnani, F; Pigozzi, F

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a case of a 27-year-old male elite waterpolo goalkeeper, who had a partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon of his dominant arm while he was trying to save a strong outside shot. Pain on the antecubital fossa was the chief complaint. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging completed the instrumental set-up. This case had the resolution of the pain and impairment after 3 months of conservative treatment. At 1-year follow-up, the athlete is asymptomatic and the isokinetic test provided almost complete recovery of the strength for elbow flexors and supinators muscles.

  2. Determination of Cefoperazone Sodium in Presence of Related Impurities by Linear Support Vector Regression and Partial Least Squares Chemometric Models

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Ibrahim A.; Abdelaleem, Eglal A.; Zaazaa, Hala E.; Hussein, Essraa A.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison between partial least squares regression and support vector regression chemometric models is introduced in this study. The two models are implemented to analyze cefoperazone sodium in presence of its reported impurities, 7-aminocephalosporanic acid and 5-mercapto-1-methyl-tetrazole, in pure powders and in pharmaceutical formulations through processing UV spectroscopic data. For best results, a 3-factor 4-level experimental design was used, resulting in a training set of 16 mixtures containing different ratios of interfering moieties. For method validation, an independent test set consisting of 9 mixtures was used to test predictive ability of established models. The introduced results show the capability of the two proposed models to analyze cefoperazone in presence of its impurities 7-aminocephalosporanic acid and 5-mercapto-1-methyl-tetrazole with high trueness and selectivity (101.87 ± 0.708 and 101.43 ± 0.536 for PLSR and linear SVR, resp.). Analysis results of drug products were statistically compared to a reported HPLC method showing no significant difference in trueness and precision, indicating the capability of the suggested multivariate calibration models to be reliable and adequate for routine quality control analysis of drug product. SVR offers more accurate results with lower prediction error compared to PLSR model; however, PLSR is easy to handle and fast to optimize. PMID:26664764

  3. Spectroscopic Determination of Aboveground Biomass in Grasslands Using Spectral Transformations, Support Vector Machine and Partial Least Squares Regression

    PubMed Central

    Marabel, Miguel; Alvarez-Taboada, Flor

    2013-01-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) is one of the strategic biophysical variables of interest in vegetation studies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) for estimating the AGB of grasslands from field spectrometer data and to find out which data pre-processing approach was the most suitable. The most accurate model to predict the total AGB involved PLSR and the Maximum Band Depth index derived from the continuum removed reflectance in the absorption features between 916–1,120 nm and 1,079–1,297 nm (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 7.120 g/m2). Regarding the green fraction of the AGB, the Area Over the Minimum index derived from the continuum removed spectra provided the most accurate model overall (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 3.172 g/m2). Identifying the appropriate absorption features was proved to be crucial to improve the performance of PLSR to estimate the total and green aboveground biomass, by using the indices derived from those spectral regions. Ordinary Least Square Regression could be used as a surrogate for the PLSR approach with the Area Over the Minimum index as the independent variable, although the resulting model would not be as accurate. PMID:23925082

  4. PARTIAL ARTICULAR SUPRASPINATUS TENDON AVULSION (PASTA) LESION. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotator cuff pathology can contribute to shoulder pain and may affect the performance of sport activities, work, and activities of daily living. The partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion (PASTA) lesion represents a very common type of rotator cuff pathology seen in rehabilitation. When conservative treatment fails, surgery is generally required. Success of recovery depends on several factors, including: repair techniques, healing process related to timing, rehabilitation programs, and patient compliance with home exercises. To date, most treatment modalities and rehabilitation programs are based on clinical experience rather than scientific evidence. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide an overview on the PASTA lesion, discuss the common treatment approaches adopted to date and to propose a rehabilitation program based on the available scientific evidence. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:27274431

  5. The baryon vector current in the combined chiral and 1/Nc expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Mendieta, Ruben; Goity, Jose L

    2014-12-01

    The baryon vector current is computed at one-loop order in large-Nc baryon chiral perturbation theory, where Nc is the number of colors. Loop graphs with octet and decuplet intermediate states are systematically incorporated into the analysis and the effects of the decuplet-octet mass difference and SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking are accounted for. There are large-Nc cancellations between different one-loop graphs as a consequence of the large-Nc spin-flavor symmetry of QCD baryons. The results are compared against the available experimental data through several fits in order to extract information about the unknown parameters. The large-Nc baryon chiral perturbation theory predictions are in very good agreement both with the expectations from the 1/Nc expansion and with the experimental data. The effect of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking for the |Delta S|=1 vector current form factors f1(0) results in a reduction by a few percent with respect to the corresponding SU(3) symmetric values.

  6. Partial Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a Burned Patient Receiving Sevoflurane Sedation With an Anesthetic Conserving Device-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, Marie; Jennes, Serge; Morrison, Stuart; Soete, Olivier; François, Pierre-Michel; Keersebilck, Elkana; Rose, Thomas; Pantet, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case of partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a burned patient after prolonged delivery of low inspired concentrations of sevoflurane via an Anesthetic Conserving Device. Clinical observation. Case report. Relevant clinical information. A 34-year-old man was admitted with burns covering 52% of his total body surface area. Mechanical ventilation was provided during sedation with continuous infusions of sufentanil and midazolam. Sedation became increasingly difficult, and in order to limit administration of IV agents, sevoflurane was added to the inspiratory gas flow. This was provided using an Anesthetic Conserving Device and continued for 8 days. The patient rapidly developed polyuria and hypernatremia with an inappropriate decrease in urinary osmolality. Administration of desmopressin resulted in only a modest effect on renal concentrating ability. After cessation of sevoflurane, all variables returned to normal within 5 days. The results of further investigations (cerebral computed tomographic scan, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and serum arginine vasopressin concentration) were compatible with a diagnosis of partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The temporal sequence of clinical findings in relation to sevoflurane administration suggests that the sevoflurane was the probable underlying cause. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sevoflurane-induced diabetes insipidus not only during general anesthesia but also in the intensive care setting of sedation in critically ill patients. This is especially important in patients, such as those with severe burns, in whom preserved renal concentrating ability is important to ensure compensation for extrarenal fluid losses.

  7. The evolution of accelerated, partial breast irradiation as a potential treatment option for women with newly diagnosed breast cancer considering breast conservation.

    PubMed

    Dirbas, Frederick M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Goffinet, Don R

    2004-12-01

    Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a safe, effective alternative to mastectomy for many women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. This approach involves local excision of the malignancy with tumor-free margins, followed by 5-7 weeks of external beam whole breast (WB) radiotherapy (XRT) to minimize the risk of an in-breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Though clearly beneficial, the extended course of almost daily postoperative radiotherapy interrupts normal activities and lengthens care. Additional options are now available that shorten the radiotherapy treatment time to 1-5 days (accelerated) and focus an increased dose of radiation on just the breast tissue around the excision cavity (partial breast). Recent trials with accelerated, partial breast irradiation (APBI) have shown promise as a potential replacement to the longer, whole breast treatments for select women with early-stage breast cancer. Current APBI approaches include interstitial brachytherapy, intracavitary (balloon) brachytherapy, and accelerated external beam (3-D conformal) radiotherapy, all of which normally complete treatment over 5 days, while intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) condenses the entire treatment into a single dose delivered immediately after tumor excision. Each approach has benefits and limitations. This study covers over 2 decades of clinical trials exploring APBI, discusses treatment variables that appear necessary for successful implementation of this new form of radiotherapy, compares and contrasts the various APBI approaches, and summarizes current and planned randomized trials that will shape if and how APBI is introduced into routine clinical care. Some of the more important outcome variables from these trials will be local toxicity, local and regional recurrence, and overall survival. If APBI options are ultimately demonstrated to be as safe and effective as current whole breast radiotherapy approaches, breast conservation may become an even more appealing choice, and the

  8. Partial characterization of a highly conserved aspartyl kinase (AK) in normal human liver.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Díaz, G; Marshall, S H

    1990-01-01

    Subcellular fractions from human liver were assayed for aspartyl kinase (AK) activity measured by standard spectrophotometric methods. Along the purification procedure three different fractions displayed the expected enzyme activity. Interestingly, two of these fractions were specifically recognized by antibodies raised against E. coli aspartate kinases, suggesting a high degree of evolutionary conservation for these ubiquitous enzymes for prokaryotes. Since their known function in bacteria is not strictly required in eukaryotes, these observation imply that the presence and activity of aspartyl kinase(s) in mammals might represent putative regulatory roles for these enzymes in eukaryotic cell metabolism.

  9. Radiofrequency Energy in Hepatic Bed during Partial Cystectomy for Hydatid Liver Disease: Standing Out from the Usual Conservative Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Sakarellos, Panagiotis; Griniatsos, John

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgical treatment of hydatid liver disease (HLD) is divided into conservative and radical procedures. While conservative techniques are easier and faster to perform, there is an emerging need to reduce their morbidity and recurrence rates. Our aim was to present and evaluate the efficiency and safety of the application of radiofrequency energy (TissueLink® and Aquamantys® systems) in hepatic bed during partial cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Eighteen consecutive patients with hydatid liver cysts were referred to our department between April 2006 and June 2014. Data about demographics, mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rate were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Results. The mean follow-up was 38 months (range: 4–84 months). The postoperative course of most patients was uneventful. One case of recurrence was found in our series in a patient with 4 cysts in the right lobe, 3 years after initial treatment. He was reoperated on with the same method. Conclusions. Saline-linked RF energy seems to be an effective means to be employed in conservative surgical procedures of HLD, with satisfactory postoperative morbidity. Recurrence rates appear to be low, but further follow-up is needed in order to draw safer conclusions. PMID:27525000

  10. Radiofrequency Energy in Hepatic Bed during Partial Cystectomy for Hydatid Liver Disease: Standing Out from the Usual Conservative Surgical Management.

    PubMed

    Mantonakis, Eleftherios; Papalampros, Alexandros; Moris, Demetrios; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Sakarellos, Panagiotis; Griniatsos, John; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgical treatment of hydatid liver disease (HLD) is divided into conservative and radical procedures. While conservative techniques are easier and faster to perform, there is an emerging need to reduce their morbidity and recurrence rates. Our aim was to present and evaluate the efficiency and safety of the application of radiofrequency energy (TissueLink® and Aquamantys® systems) in hepatic bed during partial cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Eighteen consecutive patients with hydatid liver cysts were referred to our department between April 2006 and June 2014. Data about demographics, mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rate were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Results. The mean follow-up was 38 months (range: 4-84 months). The postoperative course of most patients was uneventful. One case of recurrence was found in our series in a patient with 4 cysts in the right lobe, 3 years after initial treatment. He was reoperated on with the same method. Conclusions. Saline-linked RF energy seems to be an effective means to be employed in conservative surgical procedures of HLD, with satisfactory postoperative morbidity. Recurrence rates appear to be low, but further follow-up is needed in order to draw safer conclusions.

  11. Adenoviral Vector Vaccination Induces a Conserved Program of CD8+ T Cell Memory Differentiation in Mouse and Man

    PubMed Central

    Bolinger, Beatrice; Sims, Stuart; Swadling, Leo; O’Hara, Geraldine; de Lara, Catherine; Baban, Dilair; Saghal, Natasha; Lee, Lian Ni; Marchi, Emanuele; Davis, Mark; Newell, Evan; Capone, Stefania; Folgori, Antonella; Barnes, Ellie; Klenerman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Following exposure to vaccines, antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses develop as long-term memory pools. Vaccine strategies based on adenoviral vectors, e.g., those developed for HCV, are able to induce and sustain substantial CD8+ T cell populations. How such populations evolve following vaccination remains to be defined at a transcriptional level. We addressed the transcriptional regulation of divergent CD8+ T cell memory pools induced by an adenovector encoding a model antigen (beta-galactosidase). We observe transcriptional profiles that mimic those following infection with persistent pathogens, murine and human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Key transcriptional hallmarks include upregulation of homing receptors and anti-apoptotic pathways, driven by conserved networks of transcription factors, including T-bet. In humans, an adenovirus vaccine induced similar CMV-like phenotypes and transcription factor regulation. These data clarify the core features of CD8+ T cell memory following vaccination with adenovectors and indicate a conserved pathway for memory development shared with persistent herpesviruses. PMID:26586434

  12. Retrieving current and wind vectors from ATI SAR data: airborne evidence and inversion strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrien; Gommenginger, Christine; Chapron, Bertrand; Marquez, José; Doody, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sense the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Together with the water displacement associated with ocean currents, the SAR measurements are also affected by a Wind-wave induced Artefact Surface Velocity (WASV) caused by the velocity of Bragg scatterers and the orbital velocity of ocean surface gravity waves. The WASV has been modelled theoretically in past studies but has been estimated empirically only once using Envisat ASAR. Here we propose, firstly, to evaluate this WASV from airborne ATI SAR data, secondly, to validate the airborne retrieved surface current after correction of the WASV against HF radar measurements and thirdly to examine the best inversion strategy for a an Ocean Surface Current (OSC) satellite mission to retrieve accurately both the ocean surface current vector (OSCV) and the wind vector in the frame of an OSC satellite mission. The airborne ATI SAR data were acquired in the tidally dominated Irish Sea using a Wavemill-type dual-beam SAR interferometer. A comprehensive collection of airborne Wavemill data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented site made it possible to estimate the magnitude and dependence on azimuth and incidence angle of the WASV. The airborne results compare favourably with those reported for Envisat ASAR, empirical model, which has been used to correct for it. Validation of the current retrieval capabilities of the proof-of-concept has been conducted against HF radar giving a precisions typically better than 0.1 m/s for surface current speed and 7° for direction. Comparisons with POLCOMS (1.8 km) indicate that the model reproduces well the overall temporal evolution but does not capture the high spatial variability of ocean surface currents at the maximum ebb flow. Airborne retrieved currents highlight a short-scale spatial variability up to 100m related to bathymetry channels, which

  13. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  14. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  15. Inclusive vector meson production in nuµD charged current interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C. C.; Mann, W. A.; Napier, A.

    1980-01-01

    From hadronic systems induced in 3571 charged-current neutrino-deuterium interactions in the FNAL 15-foot diameter bubble chamber, invariant mass distributions (..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/) and (K/sub s//sup 0/..pi../sup + -/) have been used to study inclusive production of vector meson resonances. Inclusive rates from a pure isoscalar target are determined to be 0.05 +- 0.01 K*/sup +/(890) per charged-current event and 0.19 +- 0.04 rho/sup 0/ per charged-current event. Inclusive K*(890)/sup + -/ production is found to be predominantly K*/sup +/(890) in the current fragmentation region. The ratios (rho/sup 0//event) from neutron targets and from proton targets separately are, respectively, 0.18 +- 0.06 and 0.21 +- 0.08. For deuteron targets, trends in the dependence of (rho/sup 0//event) on variables Y/sub R/, W, p/sub T/, and Q/sup 2/ are found to be similar to those observed in rho/sup 0/ production from anti ..nu../sub ..mu../p collisions.

  16. Breast conserving surgery and accelerated partial breast irradiation using the MammoSite system: initial clinical experience.

    PubMed

    DiFronzo, L Andrew; Tsai, Peter I; Hwang, Julie M; Lee, John J; Ryoo, Monica C; Rahimian, Javad; Tome, Michael; Takasugi, Jan K; Haigh, Philip I

    2005-08-01

    Balloon catheter-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) may result in desirable short-term outcomes in patients undergoing breast conserving surgery. Prospective consecutive case series. Tertiary multidisciplinary referral center. Forty selected patients with invasive breast carcinoma undergoing breast conserving surgery and MammoSite device placement. Breast conserving surgery, sentinel and/or axillary node dissection, placement of the new balloon catheter applicator (MammoSite device), and APBI. Infection, early and late seroma, device explantation, time to initiating APBI, acute toxic effects on the skin, and cosmesis using the Harvard Scale. Thirty-nine patients underwent MammoSite device placement at the time of lumpectomy; 1 patient underwent percutaneous device placement after lumpectomy. Nineteen patients (49%) had drainage catheters placed in the breast cavity at the time of lumpectomy. Wound infection developed in 3 patients (8%). Five devices (12%) were explanted because of unfavorable final pathological findings or infection. The mean time to the start of APBI in patients who did not undergo simultaneous drain placement was 7.2 days (range, 5-12 days), compared with 5.1 days (range, 3-8 days) in patients who did (P = .008). With a mean follow-up of 13.3 months (range, 2-28 months), patients completing APBI had limited toxic effects on the skin, with excellent or good cosmetic results in 39 patients (97%). Use of the MammoSite system in APBI has favorable short-term outcomes. Infection and radiation treatment delay are common and may warrant use of perioperative antibiotics and drain placement, respectively. A small number of patients who have device placement at the time of lumpectomy will require explantation because of unfavorable final pathological findings. Short-term outcomes of MammoSite brachytherapy support further studies comparing APBI with standard whole breast irradiation in patients undergoing breast conserving surgery.

  17. Angular velocity estimation based on star vector with improved current statistical model Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yanxiong; Lu, Jiazhen; Zhang, He

    2016-11-20

    Angular velocity information is a requisite for a spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control system. In this paper, an approach for angular velocity estimation based merely on star vector measurement with an improved current statistical model Kalman filter is proposed. High-precision angular velocity estimation can be achieved under dynamic conditions. The amount of calculation is also reduced compared to a Kalman filter. Different trajectories are simulated to test this approach, and experiments with real starry sky observation are implemented for further confirmation. The estimation accuracy is proved to be better than 10-4  rad/s under various conditions. Both the simulation and the experiment demonstrate that the described approach is effective and shows an excellent performance under both static and dynamic conditions.

  18. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  19. Noether's theorems and conserved currents in gauge theories in the presence of fixed fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2017-07-01

    We extend the standard construction of conserved currents for matter fields in general relativity to general gauge theories. In the original construction, the conserved current associated with a spacetime symmetry generated by a Killing field hμ is given by √{-g }Tμ νhν , where Tμ ν is the energy-momentum tensor of the matter. We show that if in a Lagrangian field theory that has gauge symmetry in the general Noetherian sense some of the elementary fields are fixed and are invariant under a particular infinitesimal gauge transformation, then there is a current Bμ that is analogous to √{-g }Tμ νhν and is conserved if the nonfixed fields satisfy their Euler-Lagrange equations. The conservation of Bμ can be seen as a consequence of an identity that is a generalization of ∇μTμ ν=0 and is a consequence of the gauge symmetry of the Lagrangian. This identity holds in any configuration of the fixed fields if the nonfixed fields satisfy their Euler-Lagrange equations. We also show that Bμ differs from the relevant canonical Noether current by the sum of an identically conserved current and a term that vanishes if the nonfixed fields are on shell. For an example, we discuss the case of general, possibly fermionic, matter fields propagating in fixed gravitational and Yang-Mills background. We find that in this case the generalization of ∇μTμ ν=0 is the Lorentz law ∇μTμ ν-Fa ν λJa λ=0 , which holds as a consequence of the diffeomorphism, local Lorentz and Yang-Mills gauge symmetry of the matter Lagrangian. For a second simple example, we consider the case of general fields propagating in a background that consists of a gravitational and a real scalar field.

  20. An update on the incidence of dengue gaining strength in Saudi Arabia and current control approaches for its vector mosquito

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cases of dengue reported earlier in the late 1990s from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) occurred in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah. Although the kingdom has ample financial resources to establish effective control measures for the dengue vector, numerous cases of dengue occur and fluctuate in numbers from year to year. This necessitates a serious review of the current vector control strategies being practiced in order to identify the existing shortcomings. This short report provides an update on epidemiology of dengue in KSA (specifically in cities of Jeddah and Makkah) with a critical look at the current vector control strategies. Findings In 2013, 4411 cases of dengue were reported, with 8 cases of mortality. This number of dengue incidence was four times higher compared to 2012. In 2013, the highest number of 1272 dengue cases was reported in May, while the lowest number (37) of cases was reported in September. Conclusions It is evident that the control strategies of the dengue vector presently employed are inadequate. There seems to be serious deficiencies in following proper scientific procedures during field application(s) of control materials against the vector as is evident by the increases in the number of dengue cases as well as frequent outbreaks of the vector mosquito populations. In this review, some specific suggestions are made to draw attention to the relevant KSA authorities of the possible reasons behind unsuccessful control results and as to how to improve the strategy of dengue vector control in the kingdom. PMID:24890567

  1. Management of refractory complex partial seizures: current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Treiman, David M

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of complex partial epilepsy is based on the clinical history, and laboratory tests, including EEG and neuroimaging studies, corroborate the diagnosis. The goal of epilepsy management is to make the patient completely seizure-free without drug-induced side effects, even in the patient with refractory complex partial seizures. Frequently this can be accomplished by choice of the optimal antiepileptic drug (AED) or a combination of drugs, the use of strategies to maximize the effectiveness of drug treatment, or by surgical removal of the seizure focus. Currently there are five “classical” first-line AEDs and 11 new AEDs available in the US and in many other countries for the treatment of localization-related epilepsy. The current state of the evidence is that no AED is clearly superior to other AEDs in the management of refractory complex partial seizures. Therefore the choice of which drug to use in an individual patient has to be based on other considerations, including the potential adverse reactions that may occur in that patient. There are a number of strategies for optimal use of AEDs in the management of refractory complex partial seizures. These include verification of the diagnosis of epilepsy and classification of specific seizure types, use of monotherapy if possible but polytherapy if necessary, starting with a low dose and raising it slowly but, until complete seizure control is achieved, pushing to the maximum tolerated dose, changing timing of dosing to reduce toxicity, using pharmacokinetic principles to fine-tune AED doses, adjusting dose for drug–drug interactions, and never giving up in the pursuit of better seizure control. Resection of the seizure focus can be curative in the majority of patients with seizures localized to one mesial temporal lobe. Success rates for resection of extratemporal seizure foci are lower. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) devices result in a significant reduction of seizure frequency in many patients, but

  2. [Accelerated partial breast irradiation with multicatheters during breast conserving surgery for cancer].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Spiteri Sagredo, Natalia; Martínez Regueira, Fernando; Olartecoechea Linaje, Begoña; Arredondo Chaves, Jorge; Cambeiro Vázquez, Mauricio; Pina Insausti, Luis Javier; Elizalde Pérez, Arlette; y García-Lallana, Amaya; Sola Gallego, Jose Javier

    2013-10-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with multicatheters after lumpectomy for breast cancer (BC) may be an alternative to whole breast irradiation in selected patients. The aim is to show our 5 year experience. Between June 2007 and June 2012, 87 BC patients have been evaluated for APBI. Inclusion criteria were: age over 40 years, unifocal tumour, infiltrating ductal or intraductal carcinoma, tumour size smaller than 3 cm and no lymph node involvement. Complications, cosmetic results and local and distant recurrences were evaluated. Treatment was completed in 48 patients and contraindicated in 39. The average age of treated patients was 59 years. Operating time was 123 min with 9 implanted catheters in each patient. No complications were observed during surgery or radiotherapy. Patients were discharged from hospital after 4 days. Tumour size was 11 mm. Of these, 35 were infiltrating ductal and 13 intraductal carcinomas. A total of 44 patients received adjuvant treatment. Mean follow-up was 22 months with no evidence of local or distant recurrence. The cosmetic outcome was good or excellent in 66% of cases. APBI with multicatheter placed after lumpectomy for BC is feasible and safe but requires a strict selection of patients. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Anomalous currents on closed surfaces: extended proximity, partial quantization and qubits.

    PubMed

    Selem, Alexander

    2013-01-30

    Motivated by the surfaces of topological insulators, the Dirac anomaly's discontinuous dependence on the sign of the mass, m/|m|, is investigated on closed topologies when the mass terms are weak or only partially cover the surface. It is found that, unlike the massive Dirac theory on an infinite plane, there is a smoothly decreasing current when the mass region is not infinite; also, a massive finite region fails to exhibit a Hall current edge-exerting an extended proximity effect, which can, however, be uniformly small-and oppositely orientated Hall phases are fully quantized while accompanied by diffuse chiral modes. Examples are computed using Dirac energy eigenstates on a flat torus (genus one topology) and a closed cap cylinder (genus zero topology) for various mass-term geometries. Finally, from the resulting properties of the surface spectra, a potential application for a flux-charge qubit is presented.

  4. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: current status, techniques, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Paurush; Hemal, Ashok K

    2012-02-01

    Open partial nephrectomy for the treatment of small renal masses (SRMs) concerning for renal cell carcinoma has been increasingly utilized with the increased incidental detection of SRMs and the growing recognition of the benefits of renal preservation. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is a minimally invasive technique that achieves comparable oncologic and improved morbidity outcomes when compared to the open procedure. However, LPN is a technically demanding procedure resulting in a long learning curve and a lack of widespread adoption. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) overcomes many of the technical hurdles of the LPN and is now coming to the forefront for the minimally invasive surgical management of SRMs. To date, the short-term oncologic outcomes of RAPN have been comparable to the open operation while providing the improved morbidity outcomes of LPN. Although encouraging, we await the long-term oncologic results of this new and promising procedure. The current bottleneck is an issue of cost and reliance on a patient-side surgeon. Future developments in instrumentation, newer robots, cost reduction, more streamlined training, increased robotic experience, and adoption by more centers will lead to greater benefit for patients with SRMs requiring nephron-sparing surgery. This review will discuss techniques for RAPN and then delve into the current status of RAPN using parameters such as warm ischemia time, blood loss, hospital stay, oncological outcomes, complications, learning curve, and quality of life. There will be an exploration of potential disadvantages associated with RAPN followed by a look at evolving techniques in regard to this groundbreaking procedure.

  5. High voltage pulsed current in collagen realignment, synthesis, and angiogenesis after Achilles tendon partial rupture

    PubMed Central

    Rampazo, Érika P.; Liebano, Richard E.; Pinfildi, Carlos Eduardo; Folha, Roberta A. C.; Ferreira, Lydia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To verify the efficacy of high voltage pulsed current in collagen realignment and synthesis and in angiogenesis after the partial rupturing of the Achilles tendon in rats. Method Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups of 10 animals each: sham, cathodic stimulation, anodic stimulation, and alternating stimulation. Their Achilles tendons were submitted to direct trauma by a free-falling metal bar. Then, the treatment was administered for six consecutive days after the injury. In the simulation group, the electrodes were positioned on the animal, but the device remained off for 30 minutes. The other groups used a frequency of 120 pps, sensory threshold, and the corresponding polarity. On the seventh day, the tendons were removed and sent for histological slide preparation for birefringence and Picrosirius Red analysis and for blood vessel quantification. Results No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding collagen realignment (types I or III collagen) or quantity of blood vessels. Conclusion High voltage pulsed current for six consecutive days was not effective in collagen realignment, synthesis, or angiogenesis after the partial rupturing of the Achilles tendon in rats. PMID:27556387

  6. High voltage pulsed current in collagen realignment, synthesis, and angiogenesis after Achilles tendon partial rupture.

    PubMed

    Rampazo, Érika P; Liebano, Richard E; Pinfildi, Carlos Eduardo; Folha, Roberta A C; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2016-06-16

    To verify the efficacy of high voltage pulsed current in collagen realignment and synthesis and in angiogenesis after the partial rupturing of the Achilles tendon in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups of 10 animals each: sham, cathodic stimulation, anodic stimulation, and alternating stimulation. Their Achilles tendons were submitted to direct trauma by a free-falling metal bar. Then, the treatment was administered for six consecutive days after the injury. In the simulation group, the electrodes were positioned on the animal, but the device remained off for 30 minutes. The other groups used a frequency of 120 pps, sensory threshold, and the corresponding polarity. On the seventh day, the tendons were removed and sent for histological slide preparation for birefringence and Picrosirius Red analysis and for blood vessel quantification. No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding collagen realignment (types I or III collagen) or quantity of blood vessels. High voltage pulsed current for six consecutive days was not effective in collagen realignment, synthesis, or angiogenesis after the partial rupturing of the Achilles tendon in rats.

  7. High voltage pulsed current in collagen realignment, synthesis, and angiogenesis after Achilles tendon partial rupture.

    PubMed

    Rampazo, Érika P; Liebano, Richard E; Pinfildi, Carlos Eduardo; Folha, Roberta A C; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2016-01-01

    To verify the efficacy of high voltage pulsed current in collagen realignment and synthesis and in angiogenesis after the partial rupturing of the Achilles tendon in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups of 10 animals each: sham, cathodic stimulation, anodic stimulation, and alternating stimulation. Their Achilles tendons were submitted to direct trauma by a free-falling metal bar. Then, the treatment was administered for six consecutive days after the injury. In the simulation group, the electrodes were positioned on the animal, but the device remained off for 30 minutes. The other groups used a frequency of 120 pps, sensory threshold, and the corresponding polarity. On the seventh day, the tendons were removed and sent for histological slide preparation for birefringence and Picrosirius Red analysis and for blood vessel quantification. No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding collagen realignment (types I or III collagen) or quantity of blood vessels. High voltage pulsed current for six consecutive days was not effective in collagen realignment, synthesis, or angiogenesis after the partial rupturing of the Achilles tendon in rats.

  8. Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet

    SciTech Connect

    Bliokh, K. Yu.; Bliokh, Yu. P.

    2007-06-15

    We present a solution to the problem of partial reflection and refraction of a polarized paraxial Gaussian beam at the interface between two transparent media. The Fedorov-Imbert transverse shifts of the centers of gravity of the reflected and refracted beams are calculated. Our results differ in the general case from those derived previously by other authors. In particular, they obey general conservation law for the beams' total angular momentum but do not obey one-particle conservation laws for individual photons, which have been proposed by [Onoda et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083901 (2004)]. We ascertain that these circumstances relate to the artificial model accepted in the literature for the polarized beam; this model does not fit to real beams. The present paper resolves the recent controversy and confirms the results of our previous paper [Bliokh et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073903 (2006)]. In addition, a diffraction effect of angular transverse shifts of the reflected and refracted beams is described.

  9. PRONE ACCELERATED PARTIAL BREAST IRRADIATION AFTER BREAST-CONSERVING SURGERY: FIVE YEAR RESULTS OF 100 PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Silvia C.; Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber; Jozsef, Gabor; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position (P-APBI). Methods Post-menopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with non palpable <2 cm tumors, negative margins, and negative nodes, positive hormonal receptors, and no extensive intraductal component (EIC) were eligible. The trial was offered only once eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone set-up. The 3D-CRT delivered was 30 Gy in five 6 Gy/daily fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival (DFS, OS, CSS) were recorded. Results One hundred patients accrued to this IRB- approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation and another elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients are evaluable for toxicity and, in one case, both breasts were treated with PBI. Median patient age was 68 years (range 53–88 years); in 55% the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormonal receptor positive cancers: 87% underwent adjuvant anti-hormonal therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2–125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% IBF) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% CBF). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (1 breast edema, 1 transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT to deliver prone-PBI are comparable to other experiences with similar

  10. Partial discharge measurements on a high voltage direct current mass impregnated paper cable

    SciTech Connect

    Jeroense, M.J.P.; Kreuger, F.H.

    1996-12-31

    Partial discharge measurement has been a good tool for the quality assurance of cables under alternating voltage. With the growing interest in High Voltage Direct Current cables it seems therefore logical to extend this technique for use at direct voltage. The paper describes this technique as used on a HVDC cable with mass impregnated paper. The different phases of operation (no load, full load, cooling phase, etc.) are characterized by a different discharge behavior. Special attention is given to the dangerous cooling phase. Models have been developed which can explain the discharge patterns that were measured. This paper gives an insight in the electrical behavior of a HVDC cable with mass impregnated paper insulation.

  11. Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Compliance to the Dosimetry Requirements of RTOG-0413

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Bixiu; Hsu, Howard; Formenti-Ujlaki, George F.; Lymberis, Stella; Magnolfi, Chiara; Zhao Xuan; Chang Jenghwa; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Jozsef, Gabor; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric results from our institution's trials of prone accelerated partial breast irradiation are compared with the dosimetric requirements of RTOG-0413. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 and Trial 2 are 2 consecutive trials of prone-accelerated partial breast irradiation. Eligible for both trials were stage I breast cancer patients with negative margins after breast-conserving surgery. The planning target tumor volume (PTV) was created by extending the surgical cavity 2.0 cm for Trial 1 and 1.5 cm for Trial 2, respectively. Contralateral breast, heart, lungs, and thyroid were contoured. Thirty Gray was delivered in five daily fractions of 6 Gy by a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique in Trial 1 and were by image-guided radiation therapy/intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Trial 2. Dosimetric results from the trials are reported and compared with RTOG 0413 requirements. Results: One hundred forty-six consecutive plans were analyzed: 67 left and 79 right breast cancers. The plans from the trials complied with the required >90% of prescribed dose covering 90% of PTV{sub E}VAL (=generated from the PTV by cropping 0.5 cm from the skin edge and excluding the chest wall): V90% was 98.1 {+-} 3.0% (with V100% and V95%, 89.4 {+-} 12.8%, 96.4 {+-} 5.1%, respectively). No significant difference between laterality was found (Student's t test). The dose constraints criteria of the RTOG-0413 protocol for ipsilateral and contralateral lung (V30 <15% and Dmax <3%), heart (V5 <40%), and thyroid (Dmax <3%) were satisfied because the plans showed an average V5% of 0.6% (range, 0-13.4) for heart, an average V30% of 0.6% (range, 0-9.1%) for ipsilateral lung, and <2% maximum dose to the thyroid. However, our partial breast irradiation plans demonstrated a higher dose to contralateral breast than that defined by RTOG constraints, with a median value of maximum doses of 4.1% (1.2 Gy), possibly as a result of contouring differences. Conclusions: Our

  12. Multiple Graft Harvestings from Deep Partial-Thickness Scald Wounds Healed under the Influence of Weak Direct Current

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    U.S.A. Multiple Graft Harvestings from Deep Partial-thickness Scald Wounds Healed under the Influence of Weak Direct Current CHI-SING CHU, M.D...healing, contraction, and hypertrophic ELECTE f scarring often limit the use of deep partial-thickness burn wounds as donor sites for split-thickness...with Weak Direct Current 1049 donor site healing with DC treatment, since such wounds also experience at least transient periods of ischemia . "The

  13. Snapping scapula syndrome: current concepts review in conservative and surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Cerciello, Simone; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Summary The snapping scapula, also called “washboard syndrome” is a controversial condition attributed to bony and soft tissue abnormalities. The syndrome was understimated for long time and often associated only with specific osseous abnormalities. The nodal point in the overview of the syndrome is that crepitus associated with symptomatic bursitis may be physiologic and is not uncommon a clinical presentation without any form of crepitus or craquement. In the current rewiew we analyzed the current concepts in the conservative and surgical management of snapping scapula syndrome, preceded by a description of scapular anatomy, pathophysiology of scapulothoracic articulation and clinical features of snapping scapula. PMID:23888290

  14. Sexual chemoecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Current knowledge and implications for vector control programs.

    PubMed

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An eddy current vector potential formulation for estimating hysteresis losses of superconductors with FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, A.; Tarhasaari, T.

    2010-12-01

    Many people these days employ only commercial finite element method (FEM) software when solving for the hysteresis losses of superconductors. Thus, the knowledge of a modeller is in the capability of using the black boxes of software efficiently. This has led to a relatively superficial examination of different formulations while the discussion stays mainly on the usage of the user interfaces of these programs. Also, if we stay only at the mercy of commercial software producers, we end up having less and less knowledge on the details of solvers. Then, it becomes more and more difficult to conceptually solve new kinds of problem. This may prevent us finding new kinds of method to solve old problems more efficiently, or finding a solution for a problem that was considered almost impossible earlier. In our earlier research, we presented the background of a co-tree gauged T-phiv FEM solver for computing the hysteresis losses of superconductors. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of FEM and eddy current vector potential formulation in the same problem.

  16. Eddy current characterization of small cracks using least square support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelabi, M.; Hacib, T.; Le Bihan, Y.; Ikhlef, N.; Boughedda, H.; Mekideche, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    Eddy current (EC) sensors are used for non-destructive testing since they are able to probe conductive materials. Despite being a conventional technique for defect detection and localization, the main weakness of this technique is that defect characterization, of the exact determination of the shape and dimension, is still a question to be answered. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of small crack sizing using signals acquired from an EC sensor. We report our effort to develop a systematic approach to estimate the size of rectangular and thin defects (length and depth) in a conductive plate. The achieved approach by the novel combination of a finite element method (FEM) with a statistical learning method is called least square support vector machines (LS-SVM). First, we use the FEM to design the forward problem. Next, an algorithm is used to find an adaptive database. Finally, the LS-SVM is used to solve the inverse problems, creating polynomial functions able to approximate the correlation between the crack dimension and the signal picked up from the EC sensor. Several methods are used to find the parameters of the LS-SVM. In this study, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed for tuning the LS-SVM. The results of the design and the inversions were compared to both simulated and experimental data, with accuracy experimentally verified. These suggested results prove the applicability of the presented approach.

  17. The successful induction of T-cell and antibody responses by a recombinant measles virus-vectored tetravalent dengue vaccine provides partial protection against dengue-2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui-Mei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Chung, Han-Hsuan; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Pan, Chien-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue has a major impact on global public health, and the use of dengue vaccine is very limited. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a dengue vaccine made from a recombinant measles virus (MV) that expresses envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue-1 to 4. Following immunization with the MV-vectored dengue vaccine, mice developed specific interferon-gamma and antibody responses against dengue virus and MV. Neutralizing antibodies against MV and dengue viruses were also induced, and protective levels of FRNT50 ≥ 10 to 4 serotypes of dengue viruses were detected in the MV-vectored dengue vaccine-immunized mice. In addition, specific interferon-gamma and antibody responses to dengue viruses were still induced by the MV-vectored dengue vaccine in mice that were pre-infected with MV. This finding suggests that the pre-existing immunity to MV did not block the initiation of immune responses. By contrast, mice that were pre-infected with dengue-3 exhibited no effect in terms of their antibody responses to MV and dengue viruses, but a dominant dengue-3-specific T-cell response was observed. After injection with dengue-2, a detectable but significantly lower viremia and a higher titer of anti-dengue-2 neutralizing antibodies were observed in MV-vectored dengue vaccine-immunized mice versus the vector control, suggesting that an anamnestic antibody response that provided partial protection against dengue-2 was elicited. Our results with regard to T-cell responses and the effect of pre-immunity to MV or dengue viruses provide clues for the future applications of an MV-vectored dengue vaccine. PMID:26901482

  18. Partial decoupling of primary productivity from upwelling in the California Current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, Lionel; Deutsch, Curtis; McWilliams, James C.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Liang, Jun-Hong; Colas, François

    2016-07-01

    Coastal winds and upwelling of deep nutrient-rich water along subtropical eastern boundaries yield some of the ocean's most productive ecosystems. Simple indices of coastal wind strength have been extensively used to estimate the timing and magnitude of biological productivity on seasonal and interannual timescales and underlie the prediction that anthropogenic climate warming will increase the productivity by making coastal winds stronger. The effect of wind patterns on regional net primary productivity is not captured by such indices and is poorly understood. Here we present evidence, using a realistic model of the California Current system and satellite measurements, that the observed slackening of the winds near the coast has little effect on near-shore phytoplankton productivity despite a large reduction in upwelling velocity. On the regional scale the wind drop-off leads to substantially higher production even when the total upwelling rate remains the same. This partial decoupling of productivity from upwelling results from the impact of wind patterns on alongshore currents and the eddies they generate. Our results imply that productivity in eastern boundary upwelling systems will be better predicted from indices of the coastal wind that account for its offshore structure.

  19. PiggyBac as a novel vector in cancer gene therapy: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H; Sahebkar, A; Jaafari, M R; Hadjati, J; Javanmard, S H; Mirzaei, H R; Salehi, R

    2016-01-01

    Selection of suitable delivery system is one of the crucial aspects in gene therapy that determines the efficiency of gene therapy. The past two decades have witnessed extensive efforts for finding safe and efficient vectors to overcome the limitations of viral vectors. The utilization of DNA transposon-based vectors for gene therapy has emerged as a promising non-viral alternative. DNA 'cut-and-paste' is one of the main mechanisms of genome engineering by transposon elements. However, the lack of an efficient transposition system has limited the utilization of transposon vectors in mice and mammalian systems. PiggyBac (PB) is known as a highly efficient DNA transposon originally isolated from Trichoplusia ni as an alternative to Sleeping Beauty (SB). It has been shown that PB can be functional in various species including mammalian systems. This vector could overcome some limitations of other vectors in cancer gene therapy. Some advantages of PB include the capacity for integration into the genome and providing a stable expression, capacity to harbor 10 and 9.1 kb of foreign DNA into the host genome, without a significant reduction in their transposition activity and display non-overlapping targeting preferences. However, to advance PB to clinical applications, some obstacles still require to be overcome to improve its safety and efficiency. Hence, it seems that this vector could open new horizons in gene and cancer therapy.

  20. Path-integral solution for a two-dimensional model with axial-vector-current--pseudoscalar derivative interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Botelho, L.C.L.

    1985-03-15

    We study a two-dimensional quantum field model with axial-vector-current--pseudoscalar derivative interaction using path-integral methods. We construct an effective Lagrangian by performing a chiral change in the fermionic variables leading to an exact solution of the model.

  1. The Impact of Trampling on Reef Macrobenthos in Northeastern Brazil: How Effective are Current Conservation Strategies?

    PubMed

    Santos, Gleice S; Burgos, Douglas C; Lira, Simone M A; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Tropical reefs are used for intensive tourism in various parts of the world. However, few studies have investigated the effect of regular trampling on these fragile ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different conservation strategies (open access, partial protection, and total long-term closure) on intertidal reef tops in Porto de Galinhas and Tamandaré, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Analysis of the macrobenthic community was performed with photo transects and image analysis (CPCe). Twenty-seven transects were surveyed from January to August 2012, in intensively impacted (I) open-access sites, in partially protected (P) sites with occasional, illegal trampling, and in a permanently closed (C) site. In I sites, total live cover was half the cover found in adjacent P sites. The area of bare rock averaged 53.6 and 25.0% in I and P sites, respectively. In the C site, the area of bare rock was only 19.8%. In I and P sites, macroalgae (Palisada perforata) were dominating, while in the C site, the zoanthid Zoanthus sociatus was most abundant. Shell-bearing vermetids (Petaloconchus varians) and bivalves (Isognomon bicolor) were more abundant at the C site, being possible bioindicators for areas with zero or little trampling. Twelve years of total closure produced near-pristine communities in the C site, dominated by zoanthids and fragile mollusks. This study showed that trampling has severe and long-lasting consequences for the structure of these ecosystems.

  2. The Impact of Trampling on Reef Macrobenthos in Northeastern Brazil: How Effective are Current Conservation Strategies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Gleice S.; Burgos, Douglas C.; Lira, Simone M. A.; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Tropical reefs are used for intensive tourism in various parts of the world. However, few studies have investigated the effect of regular trampling on these fragile ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different conservation strategies (open access, partial protection, and total long-term closure) on intertidal reef tops in Porto de Galinhas and Tamandaré, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Analysis of the macrobenthic community was performed with photo transects and image analysis (CPCe). Twenty-seven transects were surveyed from January to August 2012, in intensively impacted (I) open-access sites, in partially protected (P) sites with occasional, illegal trampling, and in a permanently closed (C) site. In I sites, total live cover was half the cover found in adjacent P sites. The area of bare rock averaged 53.6 and 25.0 % in I and P sites, respectively. In the C site, the area of bare rock was only 19.8 %. In I and P sites, macroalgae ( Palisada perforata) were dominating, while in the C site, the zoanthid Zoanthus sociatus was most abundant. Shell-bearing vermetids ( Petaloconchus varians) and bivalves ( Isognomon bicolor) were more abundant at the C site, being possible bioindicators for areas with zero or little trampling. Twelve years of total closure produced near-pristine communities in the C site, dominated by zoanthids and fragile mollusks. This study showed that trampling has severe and long-lasting consequences for the structure of these ecosystems.

  3. Solvability and Regularity for an Elliptic System Prescribing the Curl, Divergence, and Partial Trace of a Vector Field on Sobolev-Class Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. H. Arthur; Shkoller, Steve

    2016-09-01

    We provide a self-contained proof of the solvability and regularity of a Hodge-type elliptic system, wherein the divergence and curl of a vector field u are prescribed in an open, bounded, Sobolev-class domain {Ω subseteq R^n} , and either the normal component {{u} \\cdot {N}} or the tangential components of the vector field {{u} × {N}} are prescribed on the boundary {partial Ω} . For {k > n/2} , we prove that u is in the Sobolev space {H^k+1(Ω)} if {Ω} is an {H^k+1} -domain, and the divergence, curl, and either the normal or tangential trace of u has sufficient regularity. The proof is based on a regularity theory for vector elliptic equations set on Sobolev-class domains and with Sobolev-class coefficients, and with a rather general set of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The resulting regularity theory for the vector u is fundamental in the analysis of free-boundary and moving interface problems in fluid dynamics.

  4. Solvability and Regularity for an Elliptic System Prescribing the Curl, Divergence, and Partial Trace of a Vector Field on Sobolev-Class Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. H. Arthur; Shkoller, Steve

    2017-09-01

    We provide a self-contained proof of the solvability and regularity of a Hodge-type elliptic system, wherein the divergence and curl of a vector field u are prescribed in an open, bounded, Sobolev-class domain {Ω \\subseteq R^n}, and either the normal component {{u} \\cdot {N}} or the tangential components of the vector field {{u} × {N}} are prescribed on the boundary {partial Ω}. For {k > n/2}, we prove that u is in the Sobolev space {H^k+1(Ω)} if {Ω} is an {H^k+1}-domain, and the divergence, curl, and either the normal or tangential trace of u has sufficient regularity. The proof is based on a regularity theory for vector elliptic equations set on Sobolev-class domains and with Sobolev-class coefficients, and with a rather general set of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The resulting regularity theory for the vector u is fundamental in the analysis of free-boundary and moving interface problems in fluid dynamics.

  5. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    PubMed Central

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  6. A CGMMV genome-replicon vector with partial sequences of coat protein gene efficiently expresses GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Jailani, A Abdul Kader; Solanki, Vikas; Roy, Anirban; Sivasudha, T; Mandal, Bikash

    2017-03-02

    A highly infectious clone of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a cucurbit-infecting tobamovirus was utilized for designing of gene expression vectors. Two versions of vector were examined for their efficacy in expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana. When the GFP gene was inserted at the stop codon of coat protein (CP) gene of the CGMMV genome without any read-through codon, systemic expression of GFP, as well as virion formation and systemic symptoms expression were obtained in N. benthamiana. The qRT-PCR analysis showed 23 fold increase of GFP over actin at 10days post inoculation (dpi), which increased to 45 fold at 14dpi and thereafter the GFP expression was significantly declined. Further, we show that when the most of the CP sequence is deleted retaining only the first 105 nucleotides, the shortened vector containing GFP in frame of original CP open reading frame (ORF) resulted in 234 fold increase of GFP expression over actin at 5dpi in N. benthamiana without the formation of virions and disease symptoms. Our study demonstrated that a simple manipulation of CP gene in the CGMMV genome while preserving the translational frame of CP resulted in developing a virus-free, rapid and efficient foreign protein expression system in the plant. The CGMMV based vectors developed in this study may be potentially useful for the production of edible vaccines in cucurbits.

  7. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change.

    PubMed

    Sieck, Mungla; Ibisch, Pierre L; Moloney, Kirk A; Jeltsch, Florian

    2011-05-03

    Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades.Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the scientific literature. It is particularly true that

  8. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the scientific literature. It is

  9. A complex Noether approach for variational partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, R.; Mahomed, F. M.

    2015-10-01

    Scalar complex partial differential equations which admit variational formulations are studied. Such a complex partial differential equation, via a complex dependent variable, splits into a system of two real partial differential equations. The decomposition of the Lagrangian of the complex partial differential equation in the real domain is shown to yield two real Lagrangians for the split system. The complex Maxwellian distribution, transonic gas flow, Maxwellian tails, dissipative wave and Klein-Gordon equations are considered. The Noether symmetries and gauge terms of the split system that correspond to both the Lagrangians are constructed by the Noether approach. In the case of coupled split systems, the same Noether symmetries are obtained. The Noether symmetries for the uncoupled split systems are different. The conserved vectors of the split system which correspond to both the Lagrangians are compared to the split conserved vectors of the complex partial differential equation for the examples. The split conserved vectors of the complex partial differential equation are the same as the conserved vectors of the split system of real partial differential equations in the case of coupled systems. Moreover a Noether-like theorem for the split system is proved which provides the Noether-like conserved quantities of the split system from knowledge of the Noether-like operators. An interesting result on the split characteristics and the conservation laws is shown as well. The Noether symmetries and gauge terms of the Lagrangian of the split system with the split Noether-like operators and gauge terms of the Lagrangian of the given complex partial differential equation are compared. Folklore suggests that the split Noether-like operators of a Lagrangian of a complex Euler-Lagrange partial differential equation are symmetries of the Lagrangian of the split system of real partial differential equations. This is not the case. They are proved to be the same if the

  10. Extraction of light quark masses from sum rule analyses of axial vector and vector current Ward identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Gupta, Rajan; Maltman, Kim

    1998-05-01

    In light of recent lattice results for the light quark masses ms and mu+md, we reexamine the use of sum rules in the extraction of these quantities, and discuss a number of potential problems with existing analyses. The most important issue is that of the overall normalization of the hadronic spectral functions relevant to the sum rule analyses. We explain why previous treatments, which fix this normalization by assuming complete resonance dominance of the continuum threshold region, can potentially overestimate the resonance contributions to spectral integrals by factors as large as ~5. We propose an alternate method of normalization based on an understanding of the role of resonances in chiral perturbation theory which avoids this problem. The second important uncertainty we consider relates to the physical content of the assumed location s0 of the onset of duality with perturbative QCD. We find that the extracted quark masses depend very sensitively on this parameter. We show that the assumption of duality imposes very severe constraints on the shape of the relevant spectral function in the dual region and present rigorous lower bounds for mu+md as a function of s0 based on a combination of these constraints and the requirement of positivity of ρ5(s). In the extractions of ms, we find that the conventional choice of the value of s0 is not physical. For a more reasonable choice of s0, we are not able to find a solution that is stable with respect to variations of the Borel transform parameter. This problem can, unfortunately, be overcome only if the hadronic spectral function is determined up to significantly larger values of s than is currently possible. Finally, we also estimate the error associated with the convergence of perturbative QCD expressions used in the sum rule analyses. Our conclusion is that, taking all of these issues into account, the resulting sum rule estimates for both mu+md and ms could easily have uncertainties as large as a factor of 2

  11. Current limitations of global conservation to protect higher vulnerability and lower resilience fish species.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Rita P; Batista, Marisa I; Henriques, Sofia

    2017-08-09

    Estuaries are threatened by intense and continuously increasing human activities. Here we estimated the sensitivity of fish assemblages in a set of estuaries distributed worldwide (based on species vulnerability and resilience), and the exposure to cumulative stressors and coverage by protected areas in and around those estuaries (from marine, estuarine and freshwater ecosystems, due to their connectivity). Vulnerability and resilience of estuarine fish assemblages were not evenly distributed globally and were driven by environmental features. Exposure to pressures and extent of protection were also not evenly distributed worldwide. Assemblages with more vulnerable and less resilient species were associated with estuaries in higher latitudes (in particular Europe), and with higher connectivity with the marine ecosystem, moreover such estuaries were generally under high intensity of pressures but with no concomitant increase in protection. Current conservation schemes pay little attention to species traits, despite their role in maintaining ecosystem functioning and stability. Results emphasize that conservation is weakly related with the global distribution of sensitive fish species in sampled estuaries, and this shortcoming is aggravated by their association with highly pressured locations, which appeals for changes in the global conservation strategy (namely towards estuaries in temperate regions and highly connected with marine ecosystems).

  12. Retroviral vectors and transposons for stable gene therapy: advances, current challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José Eduardo; Chicaybam, Leonardo; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Tanuri, Amilcar; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Bonamino, Martin H

    2016-10-12

    Gene therapy protocols require robust and long-term gene expression. For two decades, retrovirus family vectors have offered several attractive properties as stable gene-delivery vehicles. These vectors represent a technology with widespread use in basic biology and translational studies that require persistent gene expression for treatment of several monogenic diseases. Immunogenicity and insertional mutagenesis represent the main obstacles to a wider clinical use of these vectors. Efficient and safe non-viral vectors are emerging as a promising alternative and facilitate clinical gene therapy studies. Here, we present an updated review for beginners and expert readers on retro and lentiviruses and the latest generation of transposon vectors (sleeping beauty and piggyBac) used in stable gene transfer and gene therapy clinical trials. We discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of these systems such as cellular responses (immunogenicity or genome modification of the target cell) following exogenous DNA integration. Additionally, we discuss potential implications of these genome modification tools in gene therapy and other basic and applied science contexts.

  13. Current conservation in the covariant quark-diquark model of the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettel, M.; Pichowsky, M. A.; von Smekal, L.

    2000-07-01

    The description of baryons as fully relativistic bound states of quark and glue reduces to an effective Bethe-Salpeter equation with quark-exchange interaction when irreducible 3-quark interactions are neglected and separable 2-quark (diquark) correlations are assumed. This covariant quark-diquark model of baryons is studied with the inclusion of the quark substructure of the diquark correlations. In order to maintain electromagnetic current conservation it is then necessary to go beyond the impulse approximation. A conserved current is obtained by including the coupling of the photon to the exchanged quark and direct “seagull” couplings to the diquark structure. Adopting a simple dynamical model of constituent quarks and exploring various parametrisations of scalar diquark correlations, the nucleon Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved and the proton and neutron electromagnetic form factors are calculated numerically. The resulting magnetic moments are still about 50% too small, the improvements necessary to remedy this are discussed. The results obtained in this framework provide an excellent description of the electric form factors (and charge radii) of the proton, up to a photon momentum transfer of 3.5 GeV2, and the neutron.

  14. Current practice patterns in conservative thumb CMC joint care: survey results.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Virginia H; McGaha, Jamie L

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional descriptive survey Best practice for conservative clinical care pathways is not well outlined in the literature for patients with thumb carpometacarpal joint (CMCJ) pain. This self-report survey investigated the current practice patterns of assessments and conservative interventions for the painful thumb CMCJ among hand therapists. An online survey was distributed to members of the American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT). Questions were included about evaluation measures and intervention techniques used for this population. A descriptive analysis was completed of the results. A total of 23.5% of the ASHT membership responded to the survey. Results were categorized using the International Classification of Functioning and Disability domains as a framework. The survey results report varying use of evaluation measures, therapeutic interventions, including orthotic fabrication, joint protection and patient education all therapeutic interventional techniques, and modalities. Therapists use a comprehensive array of evaluation measures and interventions for body functions and structures in the care of thumb CMC pain. In contrast, more consistent use is needed of psychometrically-sound functional outcome measures that show change in activities and participation. This survey highlights areas to employ current evidence, as well as, future research should address environmental factors and personal factors for this population Not applicable. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2(∗) -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed.

  16. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer patients who received radiotherapy using the partially wide tangent technique after breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yoonsun; Yoon, Hong In; Kim, Yong Bae; Ahn, Seung Kwon; Keum, Ki Chang; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2012-09-01

    We assessed the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in terms of dosimetric parameters in breast cancer patients, who received radiotherapy using the partially wide tangent technique (PWT), following breast conservation surgery (BCS). We analyzed the data from 100 breast cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy using PWT. The entire breast, supraclavicular lymph node, and internal mammary lymph node (IMN) were irradiated with 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. RP was scored on a scale of 0 to 5, based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. The dosimetric parameters, used in analysis for the ipsilateral lung, were the mean lung dose (MLD), V(5) (percentage of lung volume that received a dose of 5 Gy or more)-V(50), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Of the 100 patients, three suffered from symptomatic RP (symptom grade ≥2), but were relieved by supportive care. The risk of RP was not correlated with the treatment regimen. RP associated mostly with asymptomatic minimal pulmonary radiologic change or mild dry cough developed more frequently in the group with MLD ≥20.5 Gy or NTCP ≥23% than in the group with MLD <20.5 Gy and NTCP <23% (48.6% vs. 25.4%, p=0.018). Dosimetric parameters of MLD and NTCP were correlated with the incidence of RP, but the clinical impact was minimal. We suggest that PWT is a safe technique for the treatment of IMN for BCS patients with low risk of symptomatic RP.

  17. [Is conservative treatment of partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament rupture still justified? An analysis of the recent literature and a recommendation for arriving at a decision].

    PubMed

    Rauch, G; Wirth, T; Dörner, P; Griss, P

    1991-01-01

    In a review of the recent literature after conservative treatment of the complete anterior cruciate ligament (acl) rupture good results were found in an average (av) of 56% (12-80%) of all cases. In comparison the conservative treatment of partial tears showed in 84% (60-100%) of all cases good results. 79% (32-100%) of the patients with complete acl ruptures and 90% (66-100%) of the cases with partial acl tears were able to continue their sport activities. Secondary acl replacement or meniscus surgery were later necessary in 20% and 14% of the cases (av) with complete acl ruptures and in only 6% and 5% (av) of the cases with partial tears. Most of the patients who were operated later were young and ambitiously engaged in sports. The results of the mostly retrospective studies display a high variability. For this reason it is necessary to perform more prospective, controlled and randomized studies to verify the preventive effect of an early operative treatment to protect the joint form osteoarthritis and progressive instability. Arthrocopy is essential for all cases of acute hemartrosis. Partial acl tears are predominantly treated conservatively, while complete acl ruptures should be treated following an individual decision regimen. A tree for decision making of the treatment of acute acl-injuries is proposed.

  18. Vaccination With Heterologous HIV-1 Envelope Sequences and Heterologous Adenovirus Vectors Increases T-Cell Responses to Conserved Regions: HVTN 083

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Stephen R.; Moodie, Zoe; Fiore-Gartland, Andrew J.; Morgan, Cecilia; Wilck, Marissa B.; Hammer, Scott M.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Keefer, Michael C.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Swann, Edith M.; Grant, Shannon; Ahmed, Hasan; Li, Fusheng; Hertz, Tomer; Self, Steven G.; Friedrich, David; Frahm, Nicole; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hural, John; Graham, Barney S.; Jin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increasing the breadth of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine-elicited immune responses or targeting conserved regions may improve coverage of circulating strains. HIV Vaccine Trials Network 083 tested whether cellular immune responses with these features are induced by prime-boost strategies, using heterologous vectors, heterologous inserts, or a combination of both. Methods. A total of 180 participants were randomly assigned to receive combinations of adenovirus vectors (Ad5 or Ad35) and HIV-1 envelope (Env) gene inserts (clade A or B) in a prime-boost regimen. Results. T-cell responses to heterologous and homologous insert regimens targeted a similar number of epitopes (ratio of means, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], .6–1.6; P = .91), but heterologous insert regimens induced significantly more epitopes that were shared between EnvA and EnvB than homologous insert regimens (ratio of means, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7; P = .01). Participants in the heterologous versus homologous insert groups had T-cell responses that targeted epitopes with greater evolutionary conservation (mean entropy [±SD], 0.32 ± 0.1 bits; P = .003), and epitopes recognized by responders provided higher coverage (49%; P = .035). Heterologous vector regimens had higher numbers of total, EnvA, and EnvB epitopes than homologous vector regimens (P = .02, .044, and .045, respectively). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that vaccination with heterologous insert prime boosting increased T-cell responses to shared epitopes, while heterologous vector prime boosting increased the number of T-cell epitopes recognized. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01095224. PMID:26475930

  19. Sustainability of vector control strategies in the Gran Chaco Region: current challenges and possible approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability has become a focal point of the international agenda. At the heart of its range of distribution in the Gran Chaco Region, the elimination of Triatoma infestans has failed, even in areas subject to intensive professional vector control efforts. Chagas disease control programs traditionally have been composed of two divorced entities: a vector control program in charge of routine field operations (bug detection and insecticide spraying) and a disease control program in charge of screening blood donors, diagnosis, etiologic treatment and providing medical care to chronic patients. The challenge of sustainable suppression of bug infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission can be met through integrated disease management, in which vector control is combined with active case detection and treatment to increase impact, cost-effectiveness and public acceptance in resource-limited settings. Multi-stakeholder involvement may add sustainability and resilience to the surveillance system. Chagas vector control and disease management must remain a regional effort within the frame of sustainable development rather than being viewed exclusively as a matter of health pertinent to the health sector. Sustained and continuous coordination between governments, agencies, control programs, academia and the affected communities is critical. PMID:19753458

  20. Plant Virus–Insect Vector Interactions: Current and Potential Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Mann, Krin S.; Johnson, Karyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition and transmission by an insect vector is central to the infection cycle of the majority of plant pathogenic viruses. Plant viruses can interact with their insect host in a variety of ways including both non-persistent and circulative transmission; in some cases, the latter involves virus replication in cells of the insect host. Replicating viruses can also elicit both innate and specific defense responses in the insect host. A consistent feature is that the interaction of the virus with its insect host/vector requires specific molecular interactions between virus and host, commonly via proteins. Understanding the interactions between plant viruses and their insect host can underpin approaches to protect plants from infection by interfering with virus uptake and transmission. Here, we provide a perspective focused on identifying novel approaches and research directions to facilitate control of plant viruses by better understanding and targeting virus–insect molecular interactions. We also draw parallels with molecular interactions in insect vectors of animal viruses, and consider technical advances for their control that may be more broadly applicable to plant virus vectors. PMID:27834855

  1. Plant Virus-Insect Vector Interactions: Current and Potential Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Dietzgen, Ralf G; Mann, Krin S; Johnson, Karyn N

    2016-11-09

    Acquisition and transmission by an insect vector is central to the infection cycle of the majority of plant pathogenic viruses. Plant viruses can interact with their insect host in a variety of ways including both non-persistent and circulative transmission; in some cases, the latter involves virus replication in cells of the insect host. Replicating viruses can also elicit both innate and specific defense responses in the insect host. A consistent feature is that the interaction of the virus with its insect host/vector requires specific molecular interactions between virus and host, commonly via proteins. Understanding the interactions between plant viruses and their insect host can underpin approaches to protect plants from infection by interfering with virus uptake and transmission. Here, we provide a perspective focused on identifying novel approaches and research directions to facilitate control of plant viruses by better understanding and targeting virus-insect molecular interactions. We also draw parallels with molecular interactions in insect vectors of animal viruses, and consider technical advances for their control that may be more broadly applicable to plant virus vectors.

  2. Membrane immunoglobulin expressed by retroviral vector gene transfer mimics partial function of the B-cell receptor in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Feng; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lingling; Xu, Peng; Liu, Depei; Liang, Chihchuan

    2016-01-01

    Activation of B-cells is initiated by the ligation of B-cell receptors by its cognate antigen, inducing a series of signal cascades. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these important events is a crucial goal for immunologists. Chimeric B cell receptors provide a powerful tool for analysis of B-cell signal function. However, this method can only be used in tool cells, but cannot be used for in vivo study. Here, we constructed a retroviral vector to encode both heavy chains and light chains of a membrane immunoglobulin, and expressed them in primary B-cells using retroviral gene transfer. Our results demonstrate that the membrane immunoglobulin expressed by retroviral vectors transfer can initiate B-cell receptor-mediated signaling, resulting in the phosphorylation of Syk and Erk1/2 proteins. The results showed that B-cells expressing membrane immunoglobulin can make proliferative responses to cognate antigen both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we provide a methodology for rapidly analyzing the downstream signals of B-cell receptors both in vitro and in vivo, which could expedite the identification of proteins involved in B-cell function.

  3. Surgical margins in breast-conserving therapy: current trends and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Lucchini, Roberta; Santoprete, Stefano; Bistoni, Giovanni; Avenia, Stefano; Triola, Roberto; Avenia, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate surgical margins represent a high risk for adverse clinical outcome in breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for early-stage breast cancer. The majority of studies report positive resection margins in 20% to 40% of the patients who underwent BCT. This may result in an increased local recurrence (LR) rate or additional surgery and, consequently, adverse effects on cosmesis, psychological distress, and health costs. In the literature, various risk factors are reported to be associated with positive margin status after lumpectomy, which may allow the surgeon to distinguish those patients with a higher “a priori” risk for re-excision. However, most risk factors are related to tumor biology and patient characteristics, which cannot be modified as such. Therefore, efforts to reduce the number of positive margins should focus on optimizing the surgical procedure itself, because the surgeon lacks real time intraoperative information on the presence of positive resection margins during breast-conserving surgery. This review presents the status of pre- and intraoperative modalities currently used in BCT. Furthermore, innovative intraoperative approaches, such as positron emission tomography, radio-guided occult lesion localization, and near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging, are addressed, which have to prove their potential value in improving surgical outcome and reducing the need for re-excision in BCT.

  4. The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo)

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Ross; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Barnes, Ian; Cooper, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the phylogeographic processes affecting endangered species is crucial both to interpreting their evolutionary history and to the establishment of conservation strategies. Lions provide a key opportunity to explore such processes; however, a lack of genetic diversity and shortage of suitable samples has until now hindered such investigation. We used mitochondrial control region DNA (mtDNA) sequences to investigate the phylogeographic history of modern lions, using samples from across their entire range. We find the sub-Saharan African lions are basal among modern lions, supporting a single African origin model of modern lion evolution, equivalent to the ‘recent African origin’ model of modern human evolution. We also find the greatest variety of mtDNA haplotypes in the centre of Africa, which may be due to the distribution of physical barriers and continental-scale habitat changes caused by Pleistocene glacial oscillations. Our results suggest that the modern lion may currently consist of three geographic populations on the basis of their recent evolutionary history: North African–Asian, southern African and middle African. Future conservation strategies should take these evolutionary subdivisions into consideration. PMID:16901830

  5. Chiral Quark-Meson model of N and DELTA with vector mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Broniowski, W.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Vector mesons rho, A/sub 1/ and ..omega.. are introduced in the Chiral Quark-Meson Theory (CQMT) of N and ..delta... We propose a new viewpoint for developing CQMT from QCD at the mean-field level. The SU(2) x SU(2) chiral Lagrangian incorporates universal coupling. Accordingly, rho is coupled to the conserved isospin current, A to the partially conserved axial-vector current (PCAC), and ..omega.. to the conserved baryon current. As a result the only parameter of the model not directly related to experiment is the quark-pion coupling constant. A fully self-consistent mean-field solution to the model is found for fields in the hedgehog ansatz. The vector mesons play a very important role in the system. They contribute significantly to the values of observables and produce a high-quality fit to many data. The classical stability of the system with respect to hedgehog excitations is analyzed through the use of the Quark-Meson RPA equations (QMRPA).

  6. Current status of brown bears in the Manasalu Conservation Area, Nepal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aryal, Achyut; Sathyakumar, S.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2010-01-01

    Although brown bears (Ursus arctos) are rare in the Himalayan region, populations have been documented in alpine habitats of Pakistan and India. Brown bears were once known to exist in both Nepal and Bhutan, but current information on their numbers and distributions was lacking. We document the presence of brown bears in the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA) in Nepal using field surveys and interviews with local people. We were able to confirm the existence of a remnant population based on finding bear scat and locations where bears excavated for Himalayan marmots (Marmota himalayana). Based on interviews with local people, it appeared that the presence of brown bears in the area is relatively recent and likely a result of immigration of bears from the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Interviews with local herders also indicated that livestock losses from brown bear predation amounted to approximately 318,000 Nepali rupees (US $4,240) from February 2006 through July 2008.

  7. Conserved currents in the six-vertex and trigonometric solid-on-solid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Weston, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We construct quasi-local conserved currents in the six-vertex model with anisotropy parameter η by making use of the quantum-group approach of Bernard and Felder. From these currents, we construct parafermionic operators with spin 1+\\text{i}η /π that obey a discrete-integral condition around lattice plaquettes embedded into the complex plane. These operators are identified with primary fields in a c  =  1 compactified free Boson conformal field theory. We then consider a vertex-face correspondence that takes the six-vertex model to a trigonometric SOS model, and construct SOS operators that are the image of the six-vertex currents under this correspondence. We define corresponding SOS parafermionic operators with spins s  =  1 and s=1+2\\text{i}η /π that obey discrete integral conditions around SOS plaquettes embedded into the complex plane. We consider in detail the cyclic-SOS case corresponding to the choice η =\\text{i}π ≤ft( p-{{p}\\prime}\\right)/p , with {{p}\\prime} coprime. We identify our SOS parafermionic operators in terms of the screening operators and primary fields of the associated c=1-6≤ft( p-{{p}\\prime}\\right){{}2}/p{{p}\\prime} conformal field theory.

  8. Aseptic osteonecrosis of the hip in the adult: current evidence on conservative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Raymond; Trevisan, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Treatment of Avascular Osteonecrosis (AVN) of the femoral head to prevent progression to an arthritic hip is a challenging subject. Many conservative treatment options have been proposed in the literature. Weight bearing restriction as a stand-alone therapy is insufficient in preventing disease progression but it may be useful when combined with pharmacological agents or surgery. Bisphosphonate treatment in AVN might be efficient in early stages of disease, however there are no clear recommendations on length of treatment and therapeutic dosage and, considered the limited evidence and potential side effects of treatment, it could be considered in a pre-collapse stage in selected cases. Current literature suggests that low molecular weight heparin could lower disease progression in idiopathic AVN with quality of evidence being very low. Also the evidence to support the use of statins or vasodilators in the treatment of osteonecrosis is very low and their use cannot be recommended. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy may improve pain and function in early stages of disease with a low evidence, but there doesn’t seem to be a significant change in time to the occurrence of femoral head collapse. Only one study has been conducted with pulsed electromagnetic fields therefore no recommendation can be given on clinical use of PEF in AVN. Evidence on hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of AVN is very limited and the high cost of treatment and the limited availability of structures that can provide the service poses other concerns about its feasibility. Based on current evidence, conservative treatment may be considered in early stages of asymptomatic AVN instead of observation only. PMID:27134631

  9. Aseptic osteonecrosis of the hip in the adult: current evidence on conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Raymond; Trevisan, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Avascular Osteonecrosis (AVN) of the femoral head to prevent progression to an arthritic hip is a challenging subject. Many conservative treatment options have been proposed in the literature. Weight bearing restriction as a stand-alone therapy is insufficient in preventing disease progression but it may be useful when combined with pharmacological agents or surgery. Bisphosphonate treatment in AVN might be efficient in early stages of disease, however there are no clear recommendations on length of treatment and therapeutic dosage and, considered the limited evidence and potential side effects of treatment, it could be considered in a pre-collapse stage in selected cases. Current literature suggests that low molecular weight heparin could lower disease progression in idiopathic AVN with quality of evidence being very low. Also the evidence to support the use of statins or vasodilators in the treatment of osteonecrosis is very low and their use cannot be recommended. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy may improve pain and function in early stages of disease with a low evidence, but there doesn't seem to be a significant change in time to the occurrence of femoral head collapse. Only one study has been conducted with pulsed electromagnetic fields therefore no recommendation can be given on clinical use of PEF in AVN. Evidence on hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of AVN is very limited and the high cost of treatment and the limited availability of structures that can provide the service poses other concerns about its feasibility. Based on current evidence, conservative treatment may be considered in early stages of asymptomatic AVN instead of observation only.

  10. Vaccination to conserved influenza antigens in mice using a novel Simian adenovirus vector, PanAd3, derived from the bonobo Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Vitelli, Alessandra; Quirion, Mary R; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A; Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Pierantoni, Angiolo; Ammendola, Virginia; Price, Graeme E; Soboleski, Mark R; Cortese, Riccardo; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2013-01-01

    Among approximately 1000 adenoviruses from chimpanzees and bonobos studied recently, the Pan Adenovirus type 3 (PanAd3, isolated from a bonobo, Pan paniscus) has one of the best profiles for a vaccine vector, combining potent transgene immunogenicity with minimal pre-existing immunity in the human population. In this study, we inserted into a replication defective PanAd3 a transgene expressing a fusion protein of conserved influenza antigens nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1). We then studied antibody and T cell responses as well as protection from challenge infection in a mouse model. A single intranasal administration of PanAd3-NPM1 vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses, and protected against high dose lethal influenza virus challenge. Thus PanAd3 is a promising candidate vector for vaccines, including universal influenza vaccines.

  11. Vaccination to Conserved Influenza Antigens in Mice Using a Novel Simian Adenovirus Vector, PanAd3, Derived from the Bonobo Pan paniscus

    PubMed Central

    Vitelli, Alessandra; Quirion, Mary R.; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A.; Grabowska, Agnieszka K.; Pierantoni, Angiolo; Ammendola, Virginia; Price, Graeme E.; Soboleski, Mark R.; Cortese, Riccardo; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Epstein, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Among approximately 1000 adenoviruses from chimpanzees and bonobos studied recently, the Pan Adenovirus type 3 (PanAd3, isolated from a bonobo, Pan paniscus) has one of the best profiles for a vaccine vector, combining potent transgene immunogenicity with minimal pre-existing immunity in the human population. In this study, we inserted into a replication defective PanAd3 a transgene expressing a fusion protein of conserved influenza antigens nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1). We then studied antibody and T cell responses as well as protection from challenge infection in a mouse model. A single intranasal administration of PanAd3-NPM1 vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses, and protected against high dose lethal influenza virus challenge. Thus PanAd3 is a promising candidate vector for vaccines, including universal influenza vaccines. PMID:23536756

  12. A Suitable Coordinate Transformation Method for Correcting Voltage Vector in Motor Current Detection Using a Single Shunt Resistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomigashi, Yoshio; Hida, Hajime; Ueyama, Kenji

    To reduce costs of inverters, a current detection method using a single shunt resistor is required for motor drive systems in home electrical appliances. In this paper, a method is proposed to correct a voltage reference vector by converting coordinates from a rotating reference frame into a fixed reference frame. Also proposed is a new coordinate transformation method that is appropriate for the correction. Authors focused on the undetectable area that exists every 60 degrees in α-β coordinates. When the α-β coordinates in an nπ/3 rotation are defined as αn-βn, the αn-axis can be defined as the central axis in an undetectable area. We propose a coordinate transformation method that converts the voltage vector in the d-q coordinates into uvw phase voltages through αn-βn coordinates then correct it. This method corrects the voltage vector by a very simple algorithm that limits the αn-βn elements. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experiment. Currents were clearly detected by using the proposed method. This shows that the proposed method is suitable for position sensor-less drives in permanent magnet synchronous motors.

  13. Product Vectors in the Ranges of Multi-Partite States with Positive Partial Transposes and Permanents of Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiem, Young-Hoon; Kye, Seung-Hyeok; Na, Joohan

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a system of homogeneous algebraic equations in complex variables and their conjugates, which arise naturally from the range criterion for separability of PPT states. We examine systematically these equations to get sufficient conditions for the existence of nontrivial solutions. This gives us possible upper bounds of ranks of PPT entangled edge states and their partial transposes. We will focus on the multi-partite cases, which are much more delicate than the bi-partite cases. We use the notion of permanents of matrices as well as techniques from algebraic geometry through the discussion.

  14. Two-particle irreducible effective action approach to nonlinear current-conserving approximations in driven systems.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Ramos, J; Calzetta, E

    2009-05-27

    Using closed-time-path two-particle irreducible coarse-grained effective action (CTP 2PI CGEA) techniques, we study the response of an open interacting electronic system to time-dependent external electromagnetic fields. We show that the CTP 2PI CGEA is invariant under a simultaneous gauge transformation of the external field and the full Schwinger-Keldysh propagator, and that this property holds even when the loop expansion of the CTP 2PI CGEA is truncated at arbitrary order. The effective action approach provides a systematic way of calculating the propagator and response functions of the system, via the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the Bethe-Salpeter equations, respectively. We show that, due to the invariance of the CTP 2PI CGEA under external gauge transformations, the response functions calculated from it satisfy the Ward-Takahashi hierarchy, thus warranting the conservation of the electronic current beyond the expectation value level. We also clarify the connection between nonlinear response theory and the WT hierarchy, and discuss an example of an ad hoc approximation that violates it. These findings may be useful in the study of current fluctuations in correlated electronic pumping devices.

  15. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  16. Current Status of Gene Delivery and Gene Therapy in Lacrimal Gland using Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, Shivaram; Thomas, Padmaja B.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Schechter, Joel E.; Stevenson, Douglas; Mircheff, Austin K.; Trousdale*, Melvin D.

    2006-01-01

    Gene delivery is one of the biggest challenges in the field of gene therapy. It involves the efficient transfer of transgenes into somatic cells for therapeutic purposes. A few major drawbacks in gene delivery include inefficient gene transfer and lack of sustained transgene expression. However, the classical method of using viral vectors for gene transfer has circumvented some of these issues. Several kinds of viruses, including retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and herpes simplex virus, have been manipulated for use in gene transfer and gene therapy applications. The transfer of genetic material into lacrimal epithelial cells and tissues, both in vitro and in vivo, has been critical for the study of tear secretory mechanisms and autoimmunity of the lacrimal gland. These studies will help in the development of therapeutic interventions for autoimmune disorders such as Sjögren’s syndrome and dry eye syndromes which are associated with lacrimal dysfunction. These studies are also critical for future endeavors which utilize the lacrimal gland as a reservoir for the production of therapeutic factors which can be released in tears, providing treatment for diseases of the cornea and posterior segment. This review will discuss the developments related to gene delivery and gene therapy in the lacrimal gland using several viral vector systems. PMID:17056149

  17. Shielding current analysis by current-vector-potential method: Application to HTS film with multiply-connected structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Ikuno, S.

    2013-11-01

    The performance of the virtual voltage method is compared with that of the conventional method in which integral forms of Faraday’s law along crack surfaces are treated as natural boundary conditions. As a result, it is found that there is a significant difference between numerical solutions by the two methods. In this sense, not the conventional method but the virtual voltage method should be employed to the shielding current analysis in a high-temperature superconducting film with cracks. By means of the virtual voltage method, the influence of a crack on the inductive method is investigated numerically. The results of computations show that, if the threshold current changes remarkably from its ambient value, a part of a crack is contained in the projection of the field-generating coil onto the film surface. Furthermore, the applicability of the inductive method to the crack detection is investigated numerically.

  18. ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY RELATED TO PARTICLES AND NUCLEI: Plasma neutrino energy loss due to the axial-vector current at the late stages of stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Jing

    2009-10-01

    Based on the Weinberg-Salam theory, the plasma neutrino energy loss rates of vector and axial-vector contributions are studied. A ratable factor of the rates from the axial-vector current relative to those of the total neutrino energy loss rates is accurately calculated. The results show that the ratable factor will reach a maximum of 0.95 or even more at relatively higher temperature and lower density (such as ρ/μe < 107 g/cm3). Thus the rates of the axial-vector contribution cannot be neglected. On the other hand, the rates of the axial-vector contribution are on the order of ~0.01% of the total vector contribution, which is in good agreement with Itoh's at relatively high density (such as ρ/μe < 107 g/cm3) and a temperature of T <= 1011 K.

  19. Whole- and partial-body cryostimulation/cryotherapy: Current technologies and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Bouzigon, Romain; Grappe, Frederic; Ravier, Gilles; Dugue, Benoit

    2016-10-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a method to relieve pain and inflammation. This review focuses primarily on two methods of cold therapy that have received recent attention: whole-body cryotherapy and partial-body cryotherapy. These methods are used to induce physiological and psychological benefits in humans in the context of medicine, health and sports. The subjects experiencing cryotherapy are dressed in minimal clothing and are exposed to very cold air (at -110°C or less) for 1-4min. Despite the increasing scientific interest in these methods, there is a lack of information about the technologies used. Moreover, there is no existing reference concerning exposure protocols and the relationship between temperature, duration, number of repetitions and the treatments' desired effects. The aim of this review is to compare whole- and partial-body cryotherapy effects (especially on skin temperature) and to classify the protocols for exposure according to the desired effects. This review emphasises 1) the lack of information concerning the actual temperatures inside the cabin or chamber during exposure and 2) the heterogeneity among the exposure protocols that have been reported in the scientific literature. This review will be valuable and relevant to health professionals endeavouring to optimize the cold treatments offered to patients and producers of cryotherapy apparatus striving to create more efficient devices that meet market requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  1. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar. PMID:26844772

  2. Modelling of a Vector-current Controlled UPFC and Comprehensive Comparison with the Power-angle Control Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bixing; Du, Wenjuan; Cai, Hui; Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jianpeng

    2017-05-01

    This paper establishes the non-linear dynamic mathematical model of the vector-current controlled unified power flow controller (UPFC) and the linearized model of the UPFC is derived in detail afterwards for the analysis of dynamic performance stability. Then, the paper carries out deep investigations on the comparison and analysis for the above two control strategies applied to the UPFC in the aspects of dynamic interaction and auxiliary damping effect. The relative gain array (RGA) method is used to assess the dynamic interactions among the multiple control functions of the UPFC, and damping torque analysis (DTA) method is used to compare the damping performance of the UPFC auxiliary damping controller. The results of quantitative comparison by RGA and DTA analysis show that the vector-current controlled UPFC exhibits better decoupling characteristic among multiple control loops, while the power-angle controlled UPFC exhibits better auxiliary damping performance. Conclusions are further validated by the non-linear simulation results via a two-area four-machine system.

  3. Chemical vectors for gene delivery: a current review on polymers, peptides and lipids containing histidine or imidazole as nucleic acids carriers

    PubMed Central

    Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Yaouanc, Jean-Jacques; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain

    2009-01-01

    DNA/cationic lipid (lipoplexes), DNA/cationic polymer (polyplexes) and DNA/cationic polymer/cationic lipid (lipopolyplexes) electrostatic complexes are proposed as non-viral nucleic acids delivery systems. These DNA-nanoparticles are taken up by the cells through endocytosis processes, but the low capacity of DNA to escape from endosomes is regarded as the major limitations of their transfection efficiency. Here, we present a current report on a particular class of carriers including the polymers, peptides and lipids, which is based on the exploitation of the imidazole ring as an endosome destabilization device to favour the nucleic acids delivery in the cytosol. The imidazole ring of histidine is a weak base that has the ability to acquire a cationic charge when the pH of the environment drops bellow 6. As it has been demonstrated for poly(histidine), this phenomena can induce membrane fusion and/or membrane permeation in an acidic medium. Moreover, the accumulation of histidine residues inside acidic vesicles can induce a proton sponge effect, which increases their osmolarity and their swelling. The proof of concept has been shown with polylysine partially substituted with histidine residues that has caused a dramatic increase by 3–4.5 orders of magnitude of the transfection efficiency of DNA/polylysine polyplexes. Then, several histidine-rich polymers and peptides as well as lipids with imidazole, imidazolinium or imidazolium polar head have been reported to be efficient carriers to deliver nucleic acids including genes, mRNA or SiRNA in vitro and in vivo. More remarkable, histidylated carriers are often weakly cytotoxic, making them promising chemical vectors for nucleic acids delivery. This article is part of a themed section on Vector Design and Drug Delivery. For a list of all articles in this section see the end of this paper, or visit: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2009 PMID:19459843

  4. Integrability and conservation laws for the nonlinear evolution equations of partially coherent waves in noninstantaneous Kerr media.

    PubMed

    Hansson, T; Lisak, M; Anderson, D

    2012-02-10

    It is shown that the evolution equations describing partially coherent wave propagation in noninstantaneous Kerr media are integrable and have an infinite number of invariants. A recursion relation for generating these invariants is presented, and it is demonstrated how to express them in the coherent density, self-consistent multimode, mutual coherence, and Wigner formalisms.

  5. Rotational path removable partial denture (RPD): conservative esthetic treatment option for the edentulous mandibular anterior region: a case report.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jennifer S; Billy, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    It can be esthetically and financially daunting for patients to lose teeth in an anterior region of the mouth. For these patients, traditional treatment options presented in the past have included fixed partial denture, implants, and conventional removable partial denture (RPD). For patients faced with financial, anatomical, and/or esthetic limitations, the edentulous region can be restored successfully with a rotational path RPD. Rotational path RPD designs have often been overlooked by the dental profession due to its complex concepts involving the prosthetic design and sensitive laboratory techniques. With better understanding of the concepts and design, the dental clinician can deliver the highest esthetic outcome in compromised areas in which other treatment options may often face limitations. This paper reviews the method used to esthetically design and plan a posterior-anterior rotational path RPD in an edentulous mandibular anterior region for a patient missing the mandibular incisors. Due to inadequate understanding of the mechanics of rotational path RPDs, many clinicians have not adapted the application of this advantageous prosthesis. When correctly designed and fabricated, the rotational path RPD provides improved esthetics, cleanliness, and retention for patients who may not be suitable candidates for implants or fixed partial dentures in tooth-supported edentulous regions.

  6. Partially coherent fundamental Gaussian wave generated by a fluctuating planar current source.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S R

    2010-06-01

    The propagation characteristics of a spatially localized electromagnetic wave produced by a planar current source of different states of spatial coherence are analyzed by the use of a Gaussian Schell-model source. A linearly polarized fundamental electromagnetic Gaussian wave with the electric field perpendicular to the direction of propagation is treated. The effects of the degree of coherence of the source distribution on the radiation intensity distribution and the total radiated power are determined.

  7. Comparison of partial least squares and support vector regressions for predicting leaf area index on a tropical grassland using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiala, Zolo; Odindi, John; Mutanga, Onisimo; Peerbhay, Kabir

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key biophysical parameter commonly used to determine vegetation status, productivity, and health in tropical grasslands. Accurate LAI estimates are useful in supporting sustainable rangeland management by providing information related to grassland condition and associated goods and services. The performance of support vector regression (SVR) was compared to partial least square regression (PLSR) on selected optimal hyperspectral bands to detect LAI in heterogeneous grassland. Results show that PLSR performed better than SVR at the beginning and end of summer. At the peak of the growing season (mid-summer), during reflectance saturation, SVR models yielded higher accuracies (R2=0.902 and RMSE=0.371 m2 m-2) than PLSR models (R2=0.886 and RMSE=0.379 m2 m-2). For the combined dataset (all of summer), SVR models were slightly more accurate (R2=0.74 and RMSE=0.578 m2 m-2) than PLSR models (R2=0.732 and RMSE=0.58 m2 m-2). Variable importance on the projection scores show that most of the bands were located in the near-infrared and shortwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, thus providing a basis to investigate the potential of sensors on aerial and satellite platforms for large-scale grassland LAI prediction.

  8. A modular, extendible and field-tolerant multichannel vector magnetometer based on current sensor SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, J.-H.; Drung, D.; Burghoff, M.; Körber, R.

    2016-09-01

    We present the prototype module of our extendible and robust multichannel SQUID magnetometer system. A large multi-module arrangement can be implemented by using up to 7 modules. The system is intended for high-precision measurements of biomagnetism and spin precession. Further demanding applications are magnetorelaxometry and ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (ULF NMR), where pulsed magnetic fields of up to 100 mT are typically applied. The system is operated inside the Berlin magnetically shielded room (BMSR-2) and equipped with 18 magnetometers consisting of niobium (Nb) wire-wound pick-up coils. A total of 16 small pick-up coils with 17.1 mm diameter form a regular grid with individual channels arranged to ensure system sensitivity covers all three orthogonal spatial directions. Two large hexagonal pick-up coils with an equivalent diameter of 74.5 mm sensitive in z-direction surround the grid at two different heights and are suitable for the detection of deep sources. Each pick-up coil is connected to the input of a thin-film Nb SQUID current sensor via a detachable superconducting contact. The SQUIDs are equipped with integrated input current limiters. Feedback into the pick-up coils is employed to minimise crosstalk between channels. The current sensor chip package includes a superconducting shield of Nb. The field distortion of the prototype and a multi-module arrangement was analysed by numerical simulation. The measured noise of the small magnetometers was between 0.6 and 1.5 fT {{Hz}}-1/2, and well below 1 fT {{Hz}}-1/2 for the large ones. Using a software gradiometer, we achieved a minimum noise level of 0.54 fT {{Hz}}-1/2. We performed ULF NMR experiments, verifying the system’s robustness against pulsed fields, and magnetoencephalographgy (MEG) on somatosensory evoked neuronal activity. The low noise performance of our 18-channel prototype enabled the detection of high-frequency components at around 1 kHz by MEG.

  9. Fish assemblage structure of the Ipanema River, a small lotic environment partially protected by a Conservation Unit in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A K; Apone, F; Birindelli, J L O; Garavello, J C

    2013-05-01

    A study on the fish assemblage of the Ipanema River, a small affluent of the Tietê River basin in southeastern Brazil, was performed aiming to look for structural patterns of species diversity in small lowland lotic environments. Fish samplings were performed every two months from June 2003 to April 2004 at four sample sites located on the lower stretch of the river. Local assemblage showed to be species rich, with fifty-two species belonging to Characiformes (25 spp.), Siluriformes (19 spp.), Cyprinodontiformes (3 spp.), Gymnotiformes (2 spp.), Perciformes (2 spp.), and Synbranchiformes (1 sp.). Fish fauna was composed of small-sized species (<200 mm SL) and by individuals of medium (up to 400 mm SL) to large (more than 400 mm SL) sized species. The Ipanema River, such as other small lotic transitional environments in the upper Paraná River drainage, is considered important for conservation of fish fauna because they cover available habitats for persistent populations of small-sized species and for non-persistent individuals or shoals of medium and large-sized fish species, which occupy other habitats along their life-history (e. g. floodplains, oxbow lakes, main channel of great rivers). The importance of the Ipanema River basin for fish fauna conservation is also reinforced by the fact that it is located in a highly impacted region of southeastern Brazil, near the São Paulo metropolitan area.

  10. Layer thickness dependence of the current-induced effective field vector in Ta|CoFeB|MgO.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junyeon; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Yamanouchi, Michihiko; Fukami, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Tetsuhiro; Mitani, Seiji; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-03-01

    Current-induced effective magnetic fields can provide efficient ways of electrically manipulating the magnetization of ultrathin magnetic heterostructures. Two effects, known as the Rashba spin orbit field and the spin Hall spin torque, have been reported to be responsible for the generation of the effective field. However, a quantitative understanding of the effective field, including its direction with respect to the current flow, is lacking. Here we describe vector measurements of the current-induced effective field in Ta|CoFeB|MgO heterostructrures. The effective field exhibits a significant dependence on the Ta and CoFeB layer thicknesses. In particular, a 1 nm thickness variation of the Ta layer can change the magnitude of the effective field by nearly two orders of magnitude. Moreover, its sign changes when the Ta layer thickness is reduced, indicating that there are two competing effects contributing to it. Our results illustrate that the presence of atomically thin metals can profoundly change the landscape for controlling magnetic moments in magnetic heterostructures electrically.

  11. Global Ex-Situ Crop Diversity Conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Assessing the Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Westengen, Ola T.; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

  12. Current status and ongoing conservation efforts for the federally endangered species Pityopsis ruthii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pityopsis ruthii is an endangered species endemic to the Hiwassee and Ocoee rivers in Tennessee. Due to limited information regarding biology and genetics of P. ruthii, our research over the past 6 years have focused on conservation and recovery efforts. Using applied and molecular techniques, a bas...

  13. School Ponds: Their Current Status and Likely Contribution to Education, Conservation and Local Environmental Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, M. R.

    School ponds have a considerable history and in recent years have become a common feature of school grounds, particularly in the primary sector. Relatively little is known about their status and effectiveness educationally and in terms of their conservation value. This paper reports the findings of a survey involving 46 schools in 10 different…

  14. Current status and potential of conservation biological control for agriculture in the developing world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conservation biological control (CBC), often described as the field of biological control with the the greatest potential for use in the developing world, has received only marginal, scattered research attention outside Western Europe or North America. Thus, pesticide overuse remains rampant in many...

  15. Implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijin; Liu, Guangjian; Roos, Christian; Wang, Ziming; Xiang, ZuoFu; Zhu, Pingfen; Wang, Boshi; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Fanglei; Pan, Huijuan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Most of China's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. Habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. We used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in China (Rhinopithecus roxellana, R. bieti, R. brelichi, Trachypithecus francoisi, and T. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. All 5 species were separated into subpopulations with unique genetic components. Gene flow appeared to be strongly impeded by agricultural land, meadows used for grazing, highways, and humans dwellings. Most species declined severely or diverged concurrently as human population and crop land cover increased. Nature reserves were not evenly distributed across subpopulations with unique genetic backgrounds. Certain small subpopulations were severely fragmented and had higher extinction risk than others. Primate mobility is limited and their genetic structure is strong and susceptible to substantial loss of diversity due to local extinction. Thus, to maximize preservation of genetic diversity in all these primate species, our results suggest protection is required for all sub-populations. Key priorities for their conservation include maintaining R. roxellana in Shennongjia national reserve, subpopulations S4 and S5 of R. bieti and of R. brelichi in Fanjingshan national reserve, subpopulation CGX of T. francoisi in central Guangxi Province, and all 3 T. leucocephalus sub-populations in central Guangxi Province. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Five-year Results of 100 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Formenti, Silvia C.; Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber; Jozsef, Gabor; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position. Methods and Materials: Postmenopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with nonpalpable tumors <2 cm, negative margins and negative nodes, positive hormone receptors, and no extensive intraductal component were eligible. The trial was offered only after eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone setup. 3D-CRT was delivered at a dose of 30 Gy in five 6-Gy/day fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Rates of ipsilateral breast failure, ipsilateral nodal failure, contralateral breast failure, and distant failure were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Rates of disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled in this institutional review board-approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation, and another patient elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients were evaluable for toxicity, and, in 1 case, both breasts were treated with partial breast irradiation. Median patient age was 68 years (range, 53-88 years); in 55% of patients the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormone receptor-positive cancers: 87% of patients underwent adjuvant antihormone therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2-125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% ipsilateral breast failure) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% contralateral breast failure). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (one breast edema, one transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36

  17. A Conserved Transcriptional Signature of Delayed Aging and Reduced Disease Vulnerability Is Partially Mediated by SIRT3

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Michael A.; da Silva, Cristina; Vann, James A.; Pugh, Thomas D.; Someya, Shinichi; Prolla, Tomas A.; Weindruch, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the most significant risk factor for a range of diseases, including many cancers, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition delays aging in diverse species, and therefore offers unique insights into age-related disease vulnerability. Previous studies suggest that there are shared mechanisms of disease resistance associated with delayed aging, however quantitative support is lacking. We therefore sought to identify a common response to CR in diverse tissues and species and determine whether this signature would reflect health status independent of aging. We analyzed gene expression datasets from eight tissues of mice subjected to CR and identified a common transcriptional signature that includes functional categories of mitochondrial energy metabolism, inflammation and ribosomal structure. This signature is detected in flies, rats, and rhesus monkeys on CR, indicating aspects of CR that are evolutionarily conserved. Detection of the signature in mouse genetic models of slowed aging indicates that it is not unique to CR but rather a common aspect of extended longevity. Mice lacking the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT3 fail to induce mitochondrial and anti-inflammatory elements of the signature in response to CR, suggesting a potential mechanism involving SIRT3. The inverse of this transcriptional signature is detected with consumption of a high fat diet, obesity and metabolic disease, and is reversed in response to interventions that decrease disease risk. We propose that this evolutionarily conserved, tissue-independent, transcriptional signature of delayed aging and reduced disease vulnerability is a promising target for developing therapies for age-related diseases. PMID:25830335

  18. Tropical montane cloud forests: current threats and opportunities for their conservation and sustainable management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Meave, Jorge A; González-Espinosa, Mario; Ramírez-Marcial, Neptalí

    2011-03-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are among the most threatened ecosystems globally in spite of their high strategic value for sustainable development due to the key role played by these forests in hydrological cycle maintenance and as reservoirs of endemic biodiversity. Resources for effective conservation and management programs are rarely sufficient, and criteria must be applied to prioritize TMCF for conservation action. This paper reports a priority analysis of the 13 main regions of TMCF distribution in Mexico, based on four criteria: (1) forest quality, (2) threats to forest permanence, (3) threats to forest integrity, and (4) opportunities for conservation. Due to the diverse socio-environmental conditions of the local communities living in Mexican TMCF regions, their associated social characteristics were also evaluated to provide a background for the planning of conservation actions. A set of indicators was defined for the measurement of each criterion. To assign priority values for subregions within each main region, an international team of 40 participants evaluated all the indicators using multicriteria decision-making analysis. This procedure enabled the identification of 15 subregions of critical priority, 17 of high priority, and 10 of medium priority; three more were not analysed due to lack of information. The evaluation revealed a number of subjects that had hitherto been undetected and that may prove useful for prioritization efforts in other regions where TMCF is similarly documented and faces equally severe threats. Based on this analysis, key recommendations are outlined to advance conservation objectives in those TMCF areas that are subjected to high pressure on forest resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A highly conserved candidate chemoreceptor expressed in both olfactory and gustatory tissues in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R. Jason; Fox, A. Nicole; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2004-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is a highly anthropophilic mosquito responsible for the majority of malaria transmission in Africa. The biting and host preference behavior of this disease vector is largely influenced by its sense of smell, which is presumably facilitated by G protein-coupled receptor signaling [Takken, W. & Knols, B. (1999) Annu. Rev. Entomol. 44, 131-157]. Because of the importance of host preference to the mosquitoes' ability to transmit disease, we have initiated studies intended to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying olfaction in An. gambiae. In the course of these studies, we have identified a number of genes potentially involved in signal transduction, including a family of candidate odorant receptors. One of these receptors, encoded by GPRor7 (hereafter referred to as AgOr7), is remarkably similar to an odorant receptor that is expressed broadly in olfactory tissues and has been identified in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects [Krieger, J., Klink, O., Mohl, C., Raming, K. & Breer, H. (2003) J. Comp. Physiol. A 189, 519-526; Vosshall, L. B., Amrein, H., Morozov, P. S., Rzhetsky, A. & Axel, R. (1999) Cell 96, 725-736]. We have observed AgOr7 expression in olfactory and gustatory tissues in adult An. gambiae and during several stages of the mosquitoes' development. Within the female adult peripheral chemosensory system, antiserum against the AgOR7 polypeptide labels most sensilla of the antenna and maxillary palp as well as a subset of proboscis sensilla. Furthermore, AgOR7 antiserum labeling is observed within the larval antenna and maxillary palpus. These results are consistent with a role for AgOr7 in both olfaction and gustation in An. gambiae and raise the possibility that AgOr7 orthologs may also be of general importance to both modalities of chemosensation in other insects. PMID:15037749

  20. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of the Endangered South American Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Orinoco Basin in Colombia: Management Implications and Application to Current Conservation Programs.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Susana; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Trujillo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices.

  1. Linear support vector regression and partial least squares chemometric models for determination of Hydrochlorothiazide and Benazepril hydrochloride in presence of related impurities: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naguib, Ibrahim A.; Abdelaleem, Eglal A.; Draz, Mohammed E.; Zaazaa, Hala E.

    2014-09-01

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) are two popular chemometric models that are being subjected to a comparative study in the presented work. The comparison shows their characteristics via applying them to analyze Hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) and Benazepril hydrochloride (BZ) in presence of HCZ impurities; Chlorothiazide (CT) and Salamide (DSA) as a case study. The analysis results prove to be valid for analysis of the two active ingredients in raw materials and pharmaceutical dosage form through handling UV spectral data in range (220-350 nm). For proper analysis a 4 factor 4 level experimental design was established resulting in a training set consisting of 16 mixtures containing different ratios of interfering species. An independent test set consisting of 8 mixtures was used to validate the prediction ability of the suggested models. The results presented indicate the ability of mentioned multivariate calibration models to analyze HCZ and BZ in presence of HCZ impurities CT and DSA with high selectivity and accuracy of mean percentage recoveries of (101.01 ± 0.80) and (100.01 ± 0.87) for HCZ and BZ respectively using PLSR model and of (99.78 ± 0.80) and (99.85 ± 1.08) for HCZ and BZ respectively using SVR model. The analysis results of the dosage form were statistically compared to the reference HPLC method with no significant differences regarding accuracy and precision. SVR model gives more accurate results compared to PLSR model and show high generalization ability, however, PLSR still keeps the advantage of being fast to optimize and implement.

  2. Partial least squares regression, support vector machine regression, and transcriptome-based distances for prediction of maize hybrid performance with gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Fu, Junjie; Falke, K Christin; Thiemann, Alexander; Schrag, Tobias A; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Scholten, Stefan; Frisch, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    The performance of hybrids can be predicted with gene expression data from their parental inbred lines. Implementing such prediction approaches in breeding programs promises to increase the efficiency of hybrid breeding. The objectives of our study were to compare the accuracy of prediction models employing multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares regression (PLS), support vector machine regression (SVM), and transcriptome-based distances (D(B)). For a factorial of 7 flint and 14 dent maize lines, the grain yield of the hybrids was assessed and the gene expression of the parental lines was profiled with a 56k microarray. The accuracy of the prediction models was measured by the correlation between predicted and observed yield employing two cross-validation schemes. The first modeled the prediction of hybrids when testcross data are available for both parental lines (type 2 hybrids), and the second modeled the prediction of hybrids when no testcross data for the parental lines were available (type 0 hybrids). MLR, SVM, and PLS resulted in a high correlation between predicted and observed yield for type 2 hybrids, whereas for type 0 hybrids D(B) had greater prediction accuracy. The regression methods were robust to the choice of the set of profiled genes and required only a few hundred genes. In contrast, for an accurate hybrid prediction with D(B), 1,000-1,500 genes were required, and the prediction accuracy depended strongly on the set of profiled genes. We conclude that for prediction within one set of genetic material MLR is a promising approach, and for transferring prediction models from one set of genetic material to a related one, the transcriptome-based distance D(B) is most promising.

  3. Investigation of current university research concerning energy conversion and conservation in small single-family dwellings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, G. R.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of university research concerning energy conversion and conservation techniques which may be applied in small single-family residences. Information was accumulated through published papers, progress reports, telephone conversations, and personal interviews. A synopsis of each pertinent investigation is given. Finally, a discussion of the synopses is presented and recommendations are made concerning the applicability of concepts for the design and construction of NASA-Langley Research Center's proposed Technology Utilization House in Hampton, Virginia.

  4. Current and emerging therapeutic modalities for hyperhidrosis, part 1: conservative and noninvasive treatments.

    PubMed

    Ram, Ramin; Lowe, Nicholas J; Yamauchi, Paul S

    2007-03-01

    Approximately 1% to 3% of the US population has hyperhidrosis (HH). HH can be an incapacitating medical condition because it not only hinders patient quality of life but also causes the secondary effect of excess cutaneous sweat. There is a broad spectrum of treatment modalities including topical and systemic therapies, iontophoresis, localized neuroinhibitory injections, and surgical interventions. This article reviews HH and the conservative treatments for the condition.

  5. The conserved WW-domain binding sites in Dystroglycan C-terminus are essential but partially redundant for Dystroglycan function

    PubMed Central

    Yatsenko, AS; Kucherenko, MM; Pantoja, M; Fischer, KA; Madeoy, J; Deng, W-M; Schneider, M; Baumgartner, S; Akey, J; Shcherbata, HR; Ruohola-Baker, H

    2009-01-01

    Background Dystroglycan (Dg) is a transmembrane protein that is a part of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) which connects the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. The C-terminal end of Dg contains a number of putative SH3, SH2 and WW domain binding sites. The most C-terminal PPXY motif has been established as a binding site for Dystrophin (Dys) WW-domain. However, our previous studies indicate that both Dystroglycan PPXY motives, WWbsI and WWbsII can bind Dystrophin protein in vitro. Results We now find that both WW binding sites are important for maintaining full Dg function in the establishment of oocyte polarity in Drosophila. If either WW binding site is mutated, the Dg protein can still be active. However, simultaneous mutations in both WW binding sites abolish the Dg activities in both overexpression and loss-of-function oocyte polarity assays in vivo. Additionally, sequence comparisons of WW binding sites in 12 species of Drosophila, as well as in humans, reveal a high level of conservation. This preservation throughout evolution supports the idea that both WW binding sites are functionally required. Conclusion Based on the obtained results we propose that the presence of the two WW binding sites in Dystroglycan secures the essential interaction between Dg and Dys and might further provide additional regulation for the cytoskeletal interactions of this complex. PMID:19250553

  6. Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Polgar, Csaba Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Loevey, Katalin; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Kasler, Miklos

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; p{sub WBI/PBI} = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI.

  7. Quasiparticle current along the c axis in junctions involving d -wave superconductors partially gapped by charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Li, Mai Suan; Szymczak, Henryk; Voitenko, Alexander I.

    2015-08-01

    Quasiparticle tunnel current either between identical d -wave superconductors partially gapped by charge density waves (SCDWs) or between an SCDW and a normal metal was calculated. The cases of unidirectional and checkerboard CDWs were considered. The tunnel conductance was found in both cases to possess a number of peculiarities, which cannot be described by introducing a single combined gap. The results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data obtained for a number of cuprates by the scanning tunnel spectroscopy, intrinsic-tunneling, and break-junction measurements. The difference between the experiment and the theory seems to stem from the spread of gap values occurring due to the intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity of nonstoichiometric oxides and reflected in the cuprate tunnel spectra.

  8. Vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

  9. Molecular dynamics as a foundation for flux prediction through nanoporous membranes: A vectorized, constraint-free approach to conservative simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inman, Matthew Clay

    A novel, open-cathode direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC ) has been designed and built by researchers at the University of North Florida and University of Florida. Foremost among the advances of this system over previous DMFC architectures is a passive water recovery system which allows product water to replenish that consumed at the anode. This is enabled by a specially-designed water pathway combined with a liquid barrier layer (LBL ). The LBL membrane is positioned between the cathode catalyst layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer, and must exhibit high permeability and low diffusive resistance to both oxygen and water vapor, bulk hydrophobicity to hold back the product liquid water, and must remain electrically conductive. Maintaining water balance at optimum operating temperatures is problematic with the current LBL design, forcing the system to run at lower temperatures decreasing the overall system efficiency. This research presents a novel approach to nanoporous membrane design whereby flux of a given species is determined based upon the molecular properties of said species and those of the diffusing medium, the pore geometry, and the membrane thickness. A molecular dynamics (MD ) model is developed for tracking Knudsen regime flows of a Lennard-Jones (LJ ) fluid through an atomistic pore structure, hundreds of thousands of wall collision simulations are performed on the University of Florida HiPerGator supercomputer, and the generated trajectory information is used to develop number density and axial velocity profiles for use in a rigorous approach to total flux calculation absent in previously attempted MD models. Results are compared to other published approaches and diffusion data available in the literature. The impact of this study on various applications of membrane design is discussed and additional simulations and model improvements are outlined for future consideration.

  10. Amplification of S-1 Spheromak current by an inductive current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.; Janos, A.; Yamada, M.

    1985-11-01

    We attempt to predict the consequences of adding an inductive current transformer (OH Transformer) to the present S-1 Spheromak experiment. Axisymmetric modeling with only classical dissipation shows an increase of toroidal current and a shrinking and hollowing of the current channel, conserving toroidal flux. These unstable profiles will undergo helical reconnection, conserving helicity K = ..integral.. A-vector x B-vector d tau while increasing the toroidal flux and decreasing the poloidal flux so that the plasma relaxes toward the Taylor state. This flux rearrangement is modeled by a new current viscosity term in the mean-field Ohm's law which conserves helicity and dissipates energy.

  11. The current source of human Alu retroposons is a conserved gene shared with Old World monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, R.J.; Stout, D.B.; Davidson, E.H. )

    1989-05-01

    A significant fraction of human Alu repeated sequences are members of the precise, recently inserted class. A cloned member of this class has been used as a probe for interspecies hybridization and thermal stability determination. The probe was reassociated with human, mandrill, and spider monkey DNA under conditions such that only almost perfectly matching duplexes could form. Equally precise hybrids were formed with human and mandrill DNA (Old World monkey) but not with spider monkey DNA (New World). These measurements as well as reassociation kinetics show the presence in mandrill DNA of many precise class Alu sequences that are very similar or identical in quantity and sequence to those in human DNA. Human and mandrill are moderately distant species with a single-copy DNA divergence of about 6%. Nevertheless, their recently inserted Alu sequences arise by retroposition of transcripts of source genes with nearly identical sequences. Apparently a gene present in our common ancestor at the time of branching was inherited and highly conserved in sequence in both the lineage of Old World monkeys and the lineage of apes and man.

  12. [Current strategies of conservative and operative treatment of the most frequent muscular disorders].

    PubMed

    Fujak, A; Forst, R; Forst, J

    2010-01-01

    Though up to now no causal treatment for the majority of neuromuscular disorders is available, their disease progress and above all the quality of life of these patients can be decisively improved by established medical procedures. The main symptom is variably rapid, progressive muscle weakness, which leads to muscular imbalance and differently manifested impairment of motor functions. This results in the essential orthopaedic problems in these patients, e.g. contractures and deformities of the lower and upper extremities, foot deformities and sitting instability due to progressive scoliosis. Since the affected muscles have no physiological adaptability, they cannot be trained like healthy muscles. The orthopaedic treatment includes conservative methods, e.g. physiotherapy, orthotic devices and aids as well as surgical spine stabilisation and correction of the contractures of the lower extremities. Very important in the care of patients with neuromuscular disorders are the early prophylaxis and treatment of respiratory insufficiency by regular respiratory therapy to learn breathing and coughing techniques and self-exercises as well as the timely initiation of assisted ventilation.

  13. Substitution of a conserved cysteine-996 in a cysteine-rich motif of the laminin {alpha}2-chain in congenital muscular dystrophy with partial deficiency of the protein

    SciTech Connect

    Nissinen, M.; Xu Zhang; Tryggvason, K.

    1996-06-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are autosomal recessive muscle disorders of early onset. Approximately half of CMD patients present laminin {alpha}2-chain (merosin) deficiency in muscle biopsies, and the disease locus has been mapped to the region of the LAMA2 gene (6q22-23) in several families. Recently, two nonsense mutations in the laminin {alpha}2-chain gene were identified in CMD patients exhibiting complete deficiency of the laminin {alpha}2-chain in muscle biopsies. However, a subset of CMD patients with linkage to LAMA2 show only partial absence of the laminin {alpha}2-chain around muscle fibers, by immunocytochemical analysis. In the present study we have identified a homozygous missense mutation in the {alpha}2-chain gene of a consanguineous Turkish family with partial laminin {alpha}2-chain deficiency. The T{r_arrow}C transition at position 3035 in the cDNA sequence results in a Cys996{r_arrow}Arg substitution. The mutation that affects one of the conserved cysteine-rich repeats in the short arm of the laminin {alpha}2-chain should result in normal synthesis of the chain and in formation and secretion of a heterotrimeric laminin molecule. Muscular dysfunction is possibly caused either by abnormal disulfide cross-links and folding of the laminin repeat, leading to the disturbance of an as yet unknown binding function of the laminin {alpha}2-chain and to shorter half-life of the muscle-specific laminin-2 and laminin-4 isoforms, or by increased proteolytic sensitivity, leading to truncation of the short arm. 42 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Historical range, current distribution, and conservation status of the Swift Fox, Vulpes velox, in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Woodward, Robert O.; Igl, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) was once common in the shortgrass and mixed-grass prairies of the Great Plains of North America. The species' abundance declined and its distribution retracted following European settlement of the plains. By the late 1800s, the species had been largely extirpated from the northern portion of its historical range, and its populations were acutely depleted elsewhere. Swift Fox populations have naturally recovered somewhat since the 1950s, but overall abundance and distribution remain below historical levels. In a 1995 assessment of the species' status under the US Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that a designation of threatened or endangered was warranted, but the species was "precluded from listing by higher listing priorities." A major revelation of the 1995 assessment was the recognition that information useful for determining population status was limited. Fundamental information was missing, including an accurate estimate of the species' distribution before European settlement and an estimate of the species' current distribution and trends. The objectives of this paper are to fill those gaps in knowledge. Historical records were compiled and, in combination with knowledge of the habitat requirements of the species, the historical range of the Swift Fox is estimated to be approximately 1.5 million km2. Using data collected between 2001 and 2006, the species' current distribution is estimated to be about 44% of its historical range in the United States and 3% in Canada. Under current land use, approximately 39% of the species' historical range contains grassland habitats with very good potential for Swift Fox occupation and another 10% supports grasslands with characteristics that are less preferred (e.g., a sparse shrub component or taller stature) but still suitable. Additionally, land use on at least 25% of the historical range supports dryland farming, which can be suitable for Swift Fox

  15. Historical range, current distribution, and conservation status of the Swift Fox, Vulpes velox, in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Woodward, R.O.; Igl, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) was once common in the shortgrass and mixed-grass prairies of the Great Plains of NorthAmerica. The species' abundance declined and its distribution retracted following European settlement of the plains. By the late 1800s, the species had been largely extirpated from the northern portion of its historical range, and its populations were acutely depleted elsewhere. Swift Fox populations have naturally recovered somewhat since the 1950s, but overall abundance and distribution remain below historical levels. In a 1995 assessment of the species' status under the US Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that a designation of threatened or endangered was warranted, but the species was "precluded from listing by higher listing priorities." A major revelation of the 1995 assessment was the recognition that information useful for determining population status was limited. Fundamental information was missing, including an accurate estimate of the species' distribution before European settlement and an estimate of the species' current distribution and trends. The objectives of this paper are to fill those gaps in knowledge. Historical records were compiled and, in combination with knowledge of the habitat requirements of the species, the historical range of the Swift Fox is estimated to be approximately 1.5 million km2. Using data collected between 2001 and 2006, the species' current distribution is estimated to be about 44% of its historical range in the United States and 3% in Canada. Under current land use, approximately 39% of the species' historical range contains grassland habitats with very good potential for Swift Fox occupation and another 10% supports grasslands with characteristics that are less preferred (e.g., a sparse shrub component or taller stature) but still suitable. Additionally, land use on at least 25% of the historical range supports dryland farming, which can be suitable for Swift Fox occupation

  16. Hydrodynamics with conserved current via AdS/CFT correspondence in the Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yapeng; Sun Peng; Zhang Jianhui

    2011-06-15

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the hydrodynamics with conserved current from the dual Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. After constructing the perturbative solution to the first order based on the boosted black brane solution in the bulk Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we extract the stress tensor and conserved current of the dual conformal fluid on its boundary, and also find the effect of the Gauss-Bonnet term on the dual conformal fluid. Our results show that the Gauss-Bonnet term can affect the parameters such as the shear viscosity {eta}, entropy density s, thermal conductivity {kappa} and electrical conductivity {sigma}. However, it does not affect the so-called Wiedemann-Franz law which relates {kappa} to {sigma}, while it affects the ratio {eta}/s. In addition, another interesting result is that {eta}/s can also be affected by the bulk Maxwell field in our case, which is consistent with some previous results predicted through the Kubo formula. Moreover, the anomalous magnetic and vortical effects by adding the Chern-Simons term are also considered in our case in the Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity.

  17. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  18. Maintenance Therapy with Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum in the Conservative Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissure: Results of a Prospective, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Giuseppe; Di Martino, Natale; Renzi, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the role of maintenance therapy with partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) after topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the conservative treatment of chronic anal fissure (CAF). Methods. From all the patients with CAF observed during the study period, 165 subjects with healed CAF after standard therapy with topical GTN 0.4% ointment were randomized to receive (group II) or not (group I) maintenance therapy with PHGG for 10 months. Clinical and manometric followup was carried out 6 and 12 months after treatment. Results. At six-month followup, median visual analogue scale score was significantly higher in group I if compared with group II. The success and recurrence rate at 12-month followup were, respectively, 38.3% (28/73) in group I versus 58.5% (41/70) in group II (P = 0.019; Fisher's exact test) and 30.2% (13/43) in group I versus 14.5% (7/48) in group II (P = 0.0047; Fisher's exact test). Conclusion. The maintenance therapy with PHGG in patients with healed CAF after chemical sphincterotomy by topical application of GTN 0.4% ointment seems associated with a significant reduction of recurrence rate and with a significant increase of success rate at 12-month followup. PMID:25089280

  19. Stationary Sea Surface Height Anomalies in Cyclonic Boundary Currents; the Role of PV-Conservation Along a Topographic Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomé, S.; Nilsson, J.; Nycander, J.

    2016-02-01

    In northern high-latitude sub-polar seas, such as the Nordic Seas and the Labrador Sea, time-mean geostrophic currents mediate the meridional oceanic heat transport. These currents are often found on the continental slopes as intense cyclonic boundary currents, which, due to the relatively weak stratification, are strongly steered by the bottom topography. However, analysis of hydrographic and satellite altimetric data along depth contours exhibit some remarkable stationary along-stream variations in the depth-integrated buoyancy. A closer examination reveals that the variations seem to be linked to changes in steepness and curvature of the topography beneath.In order to examine the underlying dynamics, a steady-state model of a cyclonic stratified boundary current over a topographic slope is developed in the limit of small Rossby numbers. To the lowest order, the bottom velocities are aligned with the bottom topography. Based on the conservation of potential vorticity, equations for variations of the first-order pressure and buoyancy fields along the depth contours are derived. These show that the pressure and the depth-integrated buoyancy tend to increase (decrease) where the lowest order flow increases (decreases) its relative vorticity. Along-isobath variations in relative vorticity, in turn, tend to be most pronounced for cyclonic anomalies and occur where the topography is steep and/or curves. The thus predicted variations in pressure and buoyancy are comparable in magnitude to the ones found in the data.

  20. Breast conservation therapy in patients with stage T1-T2 breast cancer: current challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Perez, Carlos A

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that breast conservation therapy has been established as an effective treatment, a number of issues and controversies currently surround the application of this treatment for patients with stage T1 and T2 breast cancer. Records of patients with histologically confirmed stage T1 (n = 1172) and stage T2 (n = 349) breast cancer, treated with wide local tumor excision and whole breast irradiation between January 1970 and December 2000, were prospectively registered on our database. Median follow-up was 6.6 years. Numerous publications addressing issues to be reviewed were collected, and data and prevailing controversies are discussed. The 10-year actuarial incidence of ipsilateral breast relapse was 7% for T1 and 11% for T2 tumors. Results with breast conservation therapy were equivalent in white or black women with T1 or T2 tumors. In patients younger than 40 years, incidence of failures was 10% for T1 (in contrast to 4% for other age groups) and 15% for T2 lesions (in contrast to 6% in other groups). The incidence of ipsilateral recurrences in women younger than 40 years was, for T1 tumors, 9% with negative surgical margins and 12% with close or positive margins and for T2 tumors 12% and 22%, respectively (difference not statistically significant). Use of breast-conserving surgical therapy should be optimized to enhance therapeutic outcome. Many developments in the oncological field and refinements in treatment planning and delivery of radiation therapy provide unique opportunities for the radiation oncologist to continue to play an integral role in the management of patients with breast cancer.

  1. Gene therapy delivery systems for enhancing viral and nonviral vectors for cardiac diseases: current concepts and future applications.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michael G; Fargnoli, Anthony S; Williams, Richard D; Bridges, Charles R

    2013-11-01

    Gene therapy is one of the most promising fields for developing new treatments for the advanced stages of ischemic and monogenetic, particularly autosomal or X-linked recessive, cardiomyopathies. The remarkable ongoing efforts in advancing various targets have largely been inspired by the results that have been achieved in several notable gene therapy trials, such as the hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. Rate-limiting problems preventing successful clinical application in the cardiac disease area, however, are primarily attributable to inefficient gene transfer, host responses, and the lack of sustainable therapeutic transgene expression. It is arguable that these problems are directly correlated with the choice of vector, dose level, and associated cardiac delivery approach as a whole treatment system. Essentially, a delicate balance exists in maximizing gene transfer required for efficacy while remaining within safety limits. Therefore, the development of safe, effective, and clinically applicable gene delivery techniques for selected nonviral and viral vectors will certainly be invaluable in obtaining future regulatory approvals. The choice of gene transfer vector, dose level, and the delivery system are likely to be critical determinants of therapeutic efficacy. It is here that the interactions between vector uptake and trafficking, delivery route means, and the host's physical limits must be considered synergistically for a successful treatment course.

  2. Gene Therapy Delivery Systems for Enhancing Viral and Nonviral Vectors for Cardiac Diseases: Current Concepts and Future Applications

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael G.; Fargnoli, Anthony S.; Williams, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Gene therapy is one of the most promising fields for developing new treatments for the advanced stages of ischemic and monogenetic, particularly autosomal or X-linked recessive, cardiomyopathies. The remarkable ongoing efforts in advancing various targets have largely been inspired by the results that have been achieved in several notable gene therapy trials, such as the hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. Rate-limiting problems preventing successful clinical application in the cardiac disease area, however, are primarily attributable to inefficient gene transfer, host responses, and the lack of sustainable therapeutic transgene expression. It is arguable that these problems are directly correlated with the choice of vector, dose level, and associated cardiac delivery approach as a whole treatment system. Essentially, a delicate balance exists in maximizing gene transfer required for efficacy while remaining within safety limits. Therefore, the development of safe, effective, and clinically applicable gene delivery techniques for selected nonviral and viral vectors will certainly be invaluable in obtaining future regulatory approvals. The choice of gene transfer vector, dose level, and the delivery system are likely to be critical determinants of therapeutic efficacy. It is here that the interactions between vector uptake and trafficking, delivery route means, and the host's physical limits must be considered synergistically for a successful treatment course. PMID:24164239

  3. Mexican native trouts: A review of their history and current systematic and conservation status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, D.A.; Perez, H.E.; Findley, L.T.; Forbes, W.; Tomelleri, J.R.; Mayden, Richard L.; Nielsen, J.L.; Jensen, B.; Campos, G.R.; Romero, A.V.; van der Heiden, A.; Camarena, F.; Garcia de Leon, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    stocks remains lacking. Concentrated exploration, research and management of this long overlooked and undervalued resource are all urgently needed. The history of natural resources exploitation that placed so many native trouts of the western United States on threatened and endangered species lists is repeating itself in the Sierra Madre Occidental. Without concentrated action and development of region-wide socio-economic solutions for current, largely non-sustainable resource management practices, native Mexican trout gene pools will soon be in grave danger of extinction.

  4. Form factor for a two-particle system within a relativistic quasipotential approach: Case of arbitrary masses and of a vector current

    SciTech Connect

    Chernichenko, Yu. D. E-mail: chyud@mail.ru

    2015-03-15

    A new relativistic form factor for a bound two-particle system was obtained for the case of a vector current. The present consideration was performed within the relativistic quasipotential approach based on the covariant Hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory by going over to the three-dimensional relativistic configuration representation for the case of interaction between two relativistic spinless particles of arbitrary mass.

  5. Incorporating partially identified sample segments into acreage estimation procedures: Estimates using only observations from the current year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sielken, R. L., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Several methods of estimating individual crop acreages using a mixture of completely identified and partially identified (generic) segments from a single growing year are derived and discussed. A small Monte Carlo study of eight estimators is presented. The relative empirical behavior of these estimators is discussed as are the effects of segment sample size and amount of partial identification. The principle recommendations are (1) to not exclude, but rather incorporate partially identified sample segments into the estimation procedure, (2) try to avoid having a large percentage (say 80%) of only partially identified segments, in the sample, and (3) use the maximum likelihood estimator although the weighted least squares estimator and least squares ratio estimator both perform almost as well. Sets of spring small grains (North Dakota) data were used.

  6. Current procedures of the integrated urban vector-mosquito control as an example in Cotonou (Benin, West Africa) and Wrocław area (Poland).

    PubMed

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Current strategy of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) comprises the general approach of environmentally friendly control measures. With regard to mosquitoes it includes first of all application of microbial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) delta-endotoxins as well as the reduction of breeding habitats and natural enemy augmentation. It can be achieved thorough implementation of the interdisciplinary program, i. e., understanding of mosquito vector ecology, the appropriate vector-diseases (e. g., malariometric) measurements and training of local personnel responsible for mosquito abatement activities, as well as community involvement. Biocontrol methods as an alternative to chemical insecticides result from the sustainability development concept, growing awareness of environmental pollution and the development of insecticide-resistant strains of vector-mosquito populations in many parts of the world. Although sustainable trends are usually considered in terms of the monetary and training resources within countries, environmental concerns are actually more limiting factors for the duration of an otherwise successful vector control effort. In order to meet these new needs, increasing efforts have been made in search of and application of natural enemies, such as parasites, bacterial pathogens and predators which may control populations of insect vectors. The biological control agent based on the bacterial toxins Bti and Bs has been used in the Wrocław's University and Municipal Mosquito Control Programs since 1998. In West-Africa biocontrol appears to be an effective and safe tool to combat malaria in addition to bed-nets, residual indoor spraying and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria parasites which are the major tools in the WHO Roll Back Malaria Program. IVM studies carried out 2005-2008 in Cotonou (Benin) as well those in Wrocław Irrigated Fields during the last years include the following major

  7. Simultaneous visualization of oxygen partial pressure, current density, and water droplets in serpentine fuel cell during power generation for understanding reaction distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanohashi, Kazuhiro; Suga, Takeo; Uchida, Makoto; Ueda, Toshihide; Nagumo, Yuzo; Inukai, Junji; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the reaction distributions inside a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is essential for the higher performance and durability. We have developed a new see-through cell and visualized the distributions of oxygen partial pressure and current density inside a running PEFC at the temperature of 40 and 80 °C and the relative humidity of 53%. The oxygen utilization was changed from 0% to 80% by changing the current density. At higher oxygen utilizations, the current density was higher and therefore the water generation. Generated water droplets in the flow channel were also visualized, allowing for the simultaneous visualization of the distribution of the oxygen partial pressure, current density, and water droplets. By combining the observations of all three parameters, the reactions inside a membrane-electrode assembly were discussed.

  8. A new definition of instantaneous active-reactive current and power based on instantaneous space vectors on polar coordinates in three-phase circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Nabae, A.; Tanaka, T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of the instantaneous active-reactive current and power based directly on instantaneous space vectors on polar coordinates, and presents its application. The definition is applicable in three-phase three-wire systems. The instantaneous active-reactive power and current on {alpha} {minus} {beta} orthogonal coordinates have been defined by the so-called p-q theory. In comparison with the p-q theory, the new definition offers a lucid physical concept for the active-reactive current and power in three-phase circuits. The new method, thus, can decompose current into the instantaneous active and reactive currents without calculating the instantaneous active and reactive powers. An application example is presented to confirm the validity and practicability of the new definition using digital simulation.

  9. Is the current decline in malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa due to a decrease in vector population?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has historically been a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Recent reports indicate a pronounced decline in infection and disease rates which are commonly ascribed to large-scale bed net programmes and improved case management. However, the decline has also occurred in areas with limited or no intervention. The present study assessed temporal changes in Anopheline populations in two highly malaria-endemic communities of NE Tanzania during the period 1998-2009. Methods Between 1998 and 2001 (1st period) and between 2003 and 2009 (2nd period), mosquitoes were collected weekly in 50 households using CDC light traps. Data on rainfall were obtained from the nearby climate station and were used to analyze the association between monthly rainfall and malaria mosquito populations. Results The average number of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus per trap decreased by 76.8% and 55.3%, respectively over the 1st period, and by 99.7% and 99.8% over the 2nd period. During the last year of sampling (2009), the use of 2368 traps produced a total of only 14 Anopheline mosquitoes. With the exception of the decline in An. gambiae during the 1st period, the results did not reveal any statistical association between mean trend in monthly rainfall and declining malaria vector populations. Conclusion A longitudinal decline in the density of malaria mosquito vectors was seen during both study periods despite the absence of organized vector control. Part of the decline could be associated with changes in the pattern of monthly rainfall, but other factors may also contribute to the dramatic downward trend. A similar decline in malaria vector densities could contribute to the decrease in levels of malaria infection reported from many parts of SSA. PMID:21752273

  10. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains

    PubMed Central

    Sabater, Carlos; Untiedt, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Summary This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a ‘Berry force’. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high voltage appears to behave as expected for regular break down by thermal excitation due to Joule heating. However, there is a low-voltage breaking mode that has characteristics expected for the mechanism of current-induced forces. Although a full comparison would require more detailed information on the individual atomic configurations, the systems we consider are very similar to those considered in recent model calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory is very encouraging for the interpretation we propose. PMID:26734525

  11. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Carlos; Untiedt, Carlos; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a 'Berry force'. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high voltage appears to behave as expected for regular break down by thermal excitation due to Joule heating. However, there is a low-voltage breaking mode that has characteristics expected for the mechanism of current-induced forces. Although a full comparison would require more detailed information on the individual atomic configurations, the systems we consider are very similar to those considered in recent model calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory is very encouraging for the interpretation we propose.

  12. A Current Perspective on the Historical Geographic Distribution of the Endangered Muriquis (Brachyteles spp.): Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Ingberman, Bianca; Fusco-Costa, Roberto; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio Leite de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    The muriqui (Brachyteles spp.), endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, is the largest primate in South America and is endangered, mainly due to habitat loss. Its distribution limits are still uncertain and need to be resolved in order to determine their true conservation status. Species distribution modeling (SDM) has been used to estimate potential species distributions, even when information is incomplete. Here, we developed an environmental suitability model for the two endangered species of muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus and B. arachnoides) using Maxent software. Due to historical absence of muriquis, areas with predicted high habitat suitability yet historically never occupied, were excluded from the predicted historical distribution. Combining that information with the model, it is evident that rivers are potential dispersal barriers for the muriquis. Moreover, although the two species are environmentally separated in a large part of its distribution, there is a potential contact zone where the species apparently do not overlap. This separation might be due to either a physical (i.e., Serra da Mantiqueira mountains) or a biotic barrier (the species exclude one another). Therefore, in addition to environmental characteristics, physical and biotic barriers potentially shaped the limits of the muriqui historical range. Based on these considerations, we proposed the adjustment of their historical distributional limits. Currently only 7.6% of the predicted historical distribution of B. hypoxanthus and 12.9% of B. arachnoides remains forested and able to sustain viable muriqui populations. In addition to measurement of habitat loss we also identified areas for conservation concern where new muriqui populations might be found.

  13. A Current Perspective on the Historical Geographic Distribution of the Endangered Muriquis (Brachyteles spp.): Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The muriqui (Brachyteles spp.), endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, is the largest primate in South America and is endangered, mainly due to habitat loss. Its distribution limits are still uncertain and need to be resolved in order to determine their true conservation status. Species distribution modeling (SDM) has been used to estimate potential species distributions, even when information is incomplete. Here, we developed an environmental suitability model for the two endangered species of muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus and B. arachnoides) using Maxent software. Due to historical absence of muriquis, areas with predicted high habitat suitability yet historically never occupied, were excluded from the predicted historical distribution. Combining that information with the model, it is evident that rivers are potential dispersal barriers for the muriquis. Moreover, although the two species are environmentally separated in a large part of its distribution, there is a potential contact zone where the species apparently do not overlap. This separation might be due to either a physical (i.e., Serra da Mantiqueira mountains) or a biotic barrier (the species exclude one another). Therefore, in addition to environmental characteristics, physical and biotic barriers potentially shaped the limits of the muriqui historical range. Based on these considerations, we proposed the adjustment of their historical distributional limits. Currently only 7.6% of the predicted historical distribution of B. hypoxanthus and 12.9% of B. arachnoides remains forested and able to sustain viable muriqui populations. In addition to measurement of habitat loss we also identified areas for conservation concern where new muriqui populations might be found. PMID:26943910

  14. Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer.

    PubMed

    Olmon, Robert L; Rang, Matthias; Krenz, Peter M; Lail, Brian A; Saraf, Laxmikant V; Boreman, Glenn D; Raschke, Markus B

    2010-10-15

    In addition to the electric field E(r), the associated magnetic field H(r) and current density J(r) characterize any electromagnetic device, providing insight into antenna coupling and mutual impedance. We demonstrate the optical analogue of the radio frequency vector network analyzer implemented in interferometric homodyne scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy for obtaining E(r), H(r), and J(r). The approach is generally applicable and demonstrated for the case of a linear coupled-dipole antenna in the midinfrared spectral region. The determination of the underlying 3D vector electric near-field distribution E(r) with nanometer spatial resolution and full phase and amplitude information is enabled by the design of probe tips with selectivity with respect to E(∥) and E(⊥) fabricated by focused ion-beam milling and nano-chemical-vapor-deposition methods.

  15. Energy conservation by oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen via a sodium ion current in a hyperthermophilic archaeon.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Kyu; Mayer, Florian; Kang, Sung Gyun; Müller, Volker

    2014-08-05

    Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 is known to grow by the anaerobic oxidation of formate to CO2 and H2, a reaction that operates near thermodynamic equilibrium. Here we demonstrate that this reaction is coupled to ATP synthesis by a transmembrane ion current. Formate oxidation leads to H(+) translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane that then drives Na(+) translocation. The ion-translocating electron transfer system is rather simple, consisting of only a formate dehydrogenase module, a membrane-bound hydrogenase module, and a multisubunit Na(+)/H(+) antiporter module. The electrochemical Na(+) gradient established then drives ATP synthesis. These data give a mechanistic explanation for chemiosmotic energy conservation coupled to formate oxidation to CO2 and H2. Because it is discussed that the membrane-bound hydrogenase with the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter module are ancestors of complex I of mitochondrial and bacterial electron transport these data also shed light on the evolution of ion transport in complex I-like electron transport chains.

  16. Mesoscale structure and oceanographic determinants of krill hotspots in the California Current: Implications for trophic transfer and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Sydeman, William J.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Wells, Brian K.; Field, John C.

    2011-12-01

    Krill (crustaceans of the family Euphausiacea) comprise an important prey field for vast array of fish, birds, and marine mammals in the California Current and other large marine ecosystems globally. In this study, we test the hypothesis that mesoscale spatial organization of krill is related to oceanographic conditions associated with coastal upwelling. To test this, we compiled a climatology of krill distributions based on hydroacoustic surveys off California in May-June each year between 2000 and 2009 (missing 2007). Approximately 53,000 km of ocean habitat was sampled, resulting in a comprehensive geo-spatial data set from the Southern California Bight to Cape Mendocino. We determined the location and characteristics of eight definite and two probable krill “hotspots” of abundance. Directional-dependence analysis revealed that krill hotspots were oriented in a northwest-southeast (135°) direction, corresponding to the anisotropy of the 200-2000 m isobath. Krill hotspots were disassociated (inversely correlated) with three upwelling centers, Point Arena, Point Sur, and Point Conception, suggesting that krill may avoid locations of strong offshore transport or aggregate downstream from these locations. While current fisheries management considers the entire coast out to the 2000 m isobath critical habitat for krill in this ecosystem, we establish here smaller scale structuring of this critical mid-trophic level prey resource. Identifying mesoscale krill hotspots and their oceanographic determinants is significant as these smaller ecosystem divisions may warrant protection to ensure key ecosystem functions (i.e., trophic transfer) and resilience. Furthermore, delineating and quantifying krill hotspots may be important for conservation of krill-predators in this system.

  17. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  18. One-shot current conserving quantum transport modeling of phonon scattering in n-type double-gate field-effect-transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavassilas, Nicolas; Bescond, Marc; Mera, Hector; Lannoo, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We apply a recently developed one-shot current conserving lowest order approximation (LOA) to the modeling of inelastic transport in silicon double-gate transistors using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The transport properties are compared to those given by the commonly adopted selfconsistent Born approximation (SCBA). We find that LOA reproduces well the current reduction due to phonon scattering, as given by the SCBA. This good agreement is further improved by adopting a conserving analytical-continuation approach. In ultimate thin-film devices, the combination of LOA and analytical-continuation techniques offers the same accuracy as the SCBA but at a much reduced computational cost.

  19. Analytical Model and Characteristics of Current-Observer-Based Induction Motor Speed-Sensorless Vector Control System Taking into Account Iron Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Mineo; Xu, Fujin; Tsuruda, Yasutaka; Hamasaki, Shin-Ichi

    We have proposed a current-observer-based speed-sensorless vector control system that is in a rotating reference frame and takes into account iron loss. By deriving a linear model and by computing the trajectories of poles and zeros, the system stability on various parameters such as operating points, observer gain, controller gain and stator resistance has been investigated. Furthermore, an exact analytical model including PWM control, dead time and non-ideal features of power devices is developed. The characteristic improvement and stability limit of the proposed system are discussed by simulation and experiment.

  20. Electroweak production of top-quark pairs in e+e- annihilation at NNLO in QCD: The vector current contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jun; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2014-12-17

    We report on a calculation of the vector current contributions to the electroweak production of top quark pairs in e+e annihilation at next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics. Our setup is fully differential and can be used to calculate any infrared-safe observable. The real emission contributions are handled by a next-to-next-to-leading order generalization of the phase-space slicing method. As a result, we demonstrate the power of our technique by considering its application to various inclusive and exclusive observables.

  1. The effects on propulsion-induced aerodynamic forces of vectoring a partial-span rectangular jet at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored thrust concept in which a rectangular jet exhaust nozzle was located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The effects of nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg to 45 deg were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack up to 14 deg, and with thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Separate force balances were used to determine total aerodynamic and thrust forces as well as thrust forces which allowed a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. Wing pressure loading and flow characteristics using oil flow techniques were also studied.

  2. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  3. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name "eelgrass") is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061-0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern tip of

  4. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name “eelgrass”) is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061–0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern

  5. Cloning and partial characterization of regulated promoters from Lactococcus lactis Tn917-lacZ integrants with the new promoter probe vector, pAK80.

    PubMed Central

    Israelsen, H; Madsen, S M; Vrang, A; Hansen, E B; Johansen, E

    1995-01-01

    Transposon Tn917-LTV1 was used to produce a collection of Lactococcus lactis strains with fusion of a promoterless lacZ gene to chromosomal loci. Screening 2,500 Tn917-LTV1 integrants revealed 222 that express beta-galactosidase on plates at 30 degrees C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed Tn917-LTV1 insertions in at least 13 loci in 15 strains analyzed. Integrants in which beta-galactosidase expression was regulated by temperature or pH and/or arginine concentration were isolated. In most cases, the regulation observed on plates was reproducible in liquid medium. One integrant, PA170, produces beta-galactosidase at pH 5.2 but not at pH 7.0, produces more beta-galactosidase at 15 degrees C than at 30 degrees C, and has increased beta-galactosidase activity in the stationary phase. DNA fragments potentially carrying promoters from selected Lactococcus lactis integrants were cloned in Escherichia coli. A new promoter probe vector, pAK80, containing promoterless beta-galactosidase genes from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis citrate plasmid replication region was constructed, and the lactococcal fragments were inserted. Plasmid pAK80 was capable of detecting and discriminating even weak promoters in Lactococcus lactis. When inserted in pAK80, the promoter cloned from PA170 displayed a regulated expression of beta-galactosidase analogous to the regulation observed in PA170. PMID:7618865

  6. Brivaracetam as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients with epilepsy: the current evidence base

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Christian; May, Theodor W.; Bien, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Brivaracetam (BRV) is a novel antiepileptic drug recently licensed for the treatment of partial epilepsy in adults and adolescents over 16 years old. Like levetiracetam (LEV), it is a ligand of the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A. BRV has been shown in animal models and in studies using human brain slices to have a higher SV2A affinity and faster penetration into the brain. Its efficacy and safety have been shown in several randomized, controlled studies. The recommended initial dose is 50–100 mg, divided into two daily doses. Up-titration to a 200 mg daily dose is possible. Dizziness and somnolence are frequent side effects. There are some hints that BRV may be less frequently associated with behavioural adverse events than LEV. Long-term efficacy and safety and BRV use in special patient groups have to be assessed in the future. PMID:27800023

  7. Partial conversion of current collectors into nickel copper oxide electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-07-22

    A novel substrate sacrifice process is proposed and developed for converting part of a current collector into supercapacitor active materials, which provides a new route in achieving high energy density of supercapacitor device. Part of a copper foam current collector is successfully converted into highly porous nickel copper oxide electrode for light- and high-performance supercapacitors. Remarkably, this strategy circumvents the problem associated with poor contact interface between electrode and current collector. Meanwhile, the overall weight of the supercapacitor could be minimized. The charge transfer kinetics is improved while the advantage of the excellent mechanical properties of metal current collector is not traded off. By virtue of this unique current collector self-involved architecture, the material derived from the current collector manifests large areal capacitance of 3.13 F cm(-2) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The capacitance can retain 2.97 F cm(-2) at a much higher density (4 A g(-1)). Only a small decay of 6.5% appears at 4 A g(-1) after 1600 cycles. The strategy reported here sheds light on new strategies in making additional use of the metal current collector. Furthermore, asymmetric supercapacitor using both solid-state gel electrolyte and liquid counterpart are obtained and analyzed. The liquid asymmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy density up to 0.5 mWh cm(-2) (53 Wh kg(-1)) at a power density of 13 mW cm(-2) (1.4 kW kg(-1)).

  8. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania protozoa, at an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit in the municipality of Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, Marcel Miranda de Medeiros; Silva Júnior, João Batista; da Silva, José Hilário Tavares; Alves, Maria de Lima; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-11

    Sand flies are insect vectors of protozoa from the genus Leishmania, causative parasites of visceral and American tegumentary leishmaniases. The present study discusses the bioecological aspects of sand fly species, transmitters of Leishmania protozoa, in different ecotopes of an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit located in the metropolitan region of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Two monthly captures were made in 1 year, using CDC light traps, in two anthropized and two preserved environments. A total of 2936 sand flies belonging to the following ten species were captured: Evandromyia walkeri, Evandromyia evandroi, Psychodopygus wellcomei, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Evandromyia lenti, Psathyromyia shannoni, Nyssomyia whitmani and Nyssomyia intermedia. The most common species was E. walkeri (77.6%), followed by E. evandroi (17.5%). Forest was the site with the greatest abundance (32.4%), followed by bamboo grove (26.3%). Sand flies were generally more abundant in the rainy season and L. longipalpis, a vector species of Leishmania infantum, was adapted to anthropized environments. It was confirmed that P. wellcomei, a vector of Leishmania braziliensis in Amazônia, is a species associated with more preserved environments, and occurs only in the rainy season.

  9. Fourier Analysis of Conservation Patterns in Protein Secondary Structure.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Ashok; Jakobsson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Residue conservation is a common observation in alignments of protein families, underscoring positions important in protein structure and function. Though many methods measure the level of conservation of particular residue positions, currently we do not have a way to study spatial oscillations occurring in protein conservation patterns. It is known that hydrophobicity shows spatial oscillations in proteins, which is characterized by computing the hydrophobic moment of the protein domains. Here, we advance the study of moments of conservation of protein families to know whether there might exist spatial asymmetry in the conservation patterns of regular secondary structures. Analogous to the hydrophobic moment, the conservation moment is defined as the modulus of the Fourier transform of the conservation function of an alignment of related protein, where the conservation function is the vector of conservation values at each column of the alignment. The profile of the conservation moment is useful in ascertaining any periodicity of conservation, which might correlate with the period of the secondary structure. To demonstrate the concept, conservation in the family of potassium ion channel proteins was analyzed using moments. It was shown that the pore helix of the potassium channel showed oscillations in the moment of conservation matching the period of the α-helix. This implied that one side of the pore helix was evolutionarily conserved in contrast to its opposite side. In addition, the method of conservation moments correctly identified the disposition of the voltage sensor of voltage-gated potassium channels to form a 310 helix in the membrane.

  10. On third order integrable vector Hamiltonian equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, A. G.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    A complete list of third order vector Hamiltonian equations with the Hamiltonian operator Dx having an infinite series of higher conservation laws is presented. A new vector integrable equation on the sphere is found.

  11. Effects of Hall Current on the Flow and Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid Over a Stretching Sheet with Partial Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Aziz, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    The problem of a steady boundary layer MHD slip flow over a stretching sheet in a water-based nanofluid containing different type of nanoparticles: Cu, Al2O3 and Ag has been investigated. An external strong magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plate and the Hall effect is taken into consideration. The surface of the stretching sheet is assumed to move with a linear velocity and subject to power-law variation of the surface temperature. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique. Effects of the physical parameters on the primary velocity, the secondary velocity and the temperature as well as on the wall shear stress and the rate of heat transfer have been presented graphically and discussed in detail. Investigated results indicate that the nanoparticle volume fraction and the slip parameter produce opposite effects on the skin friction coefficients of the primary and secondary flow. Also, the nanoparticle volume fraction and the types of nanoparticles demonstrate a more pronounced influence on the secondary flow than that on the primary flow and temperature distribution.

  12. Backward and covariant Lyapunov vectors and exponents for hard-disk systems with a steady heat current.

    PubMed

    Truant, Daniel P; Morriss, Gary P

    2014-11-01

    The covariant Lyapunov analysis is generalized to systems attached to deterministic thermal reservoirs that create a heat current across the system and perturb it away from equilibrium. The change in the Lyapunov exponents as a function of heat current is described and explained. Both the nonequilibrium backward and covariant hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes are analyzed and compared. The movement of the converged angle between the hydrodynamic stable and unstable conjugate manifolds with the free flight time of the dynamics is accurately predicted for any nonequilibrium system simply as a function of their exponent. The nonequilibrium positive and negative LP mode frequencies are found to be asymmetrical, causing the negative mode to oscillate between the two functional forms of each mode in the positive conjugate mode pair. This in turn leads to the angular distributions between the conjugate modes to oscillate symmetrically about π/2 at a rate given by the difference between the positive and negative mode frequencies.

  13. Aging partially restores the efficacy of malaria vector control in insecticide-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Sanou, Antoine; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Sagnon, N'Fale; Johnson, Paul C D; Ranson, Hilary

    2012-01-23

    The operational impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is poorly understood. One factor which may prolong the effectiveness of these tools in the field is the increase in insecticide susceptibility with mosquito age. In this study, LLINs and IRS were tested against young (three to five days) and old (17-19 days) pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso. Blood-fed adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. were collected from south-west Burkina Faso and identified to species/form level. Cohorts of the F1 progeny of An. gambiae s.s. S-forms were exposed to deltamethrin (0.05%) at three to five or 17-19 days post-emergence and tested for the frequency of the resistance allele 1014F. Isofemale lines of the M, S- form of An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis were exposed in WHO cone tests to either a) LLINs deployed in households for two years or (b) bendiocarb sprayed walls. Mortality rates in response to deltamethrin (0.05%) increased from levels indicative of strong resistance in three to five day old F1 mosquitoes, to near full susceptibility in the 17-19 day old cohort. On exposure to LLINs sampled from the field, the mortality rate in isofemale lines was higher in older mosquitoes than young (OR = 5.28, CI 95% = 2.81-9.92), although the mortality estimates were affected by the LLIN tested. In general, the LLINs sampled from the field performed poorly in WHO cone bioassays using either laboratory susceptible or field caught mosquito populations. Finally, there was a clear relationship between mortality and age on exposure to bendiocarb-sprayed walls, with older mosquitoes again proving more susceptible (OR = 3.39, CI 95% = 2.35-4.90). Age is a key factor determining the susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, not only in laboratory studies, but in response to field-based vector control interventions. This has important implications for understanding the

  14. Bridging the Gap Between Global and Local Strategies of Architectural Conservation, Examples of the Current Scenarios in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavuru, M.

    2017-05-01

    Culture develops from a civilization and progresses through the generations in tangible and intangible forms affecting various aspects of living. It gradually becomes a rulebook that guides the way of life for some people. This holds true in the Indian Society, which is punctuated by constant incorporation of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Such illustrious past should predict augmented conservation efforts. However, that is not the case. Following the Hindu philosophy of the life cycle, buildings are allowed to be deteriorating over the passage of time. It was only much later that the occidental influence of the British Empire encouraged conservation of built heritage. Yet today these efforts are absent at the most basic levels. On one side are the international organizations such as UNESCO providing guidelines for protection of these buildings and the on the other side are the government and non-government organizations which help maintain the structures. Co-relation between the two levels of conservation are non-existent in a way that initiatives by the government focus on improving infrastructure but neglect the Risk-assessment of the buildings. Such examples will be discussed further in the paper with suggestions to improve the situation with the help of new technologies and simplified methods that include making conservation education easier for even the most rural population. The research explores avenues of diagnosis integrated in the Italian philosophy of conservation to make maintenance more easy and effective.

  15. Computation and analysis of the transverse current autocorrelation function, Ct(k,t), for small wave vectors: A molecular-dynamics study for a Lennard-Jones fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsang, R.; Hoheisel, C.

    1987-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics (MD) calculations are reported for three thermodynamic states of a Lennard-Jones fluid. Systems of 2048 particles and 105 integration steps were used. The transverse current autocorrelation function, Ct(k,t), has been determined for wave vectors of the range 0.5<||k||σ<1.5. Ct(k,t) was fitted by hydrodynamic-type functions. The fits returned k-dependent decay times and shear viscosities which showed a systematic behavior as a function of k. Extrapolation to the hydrodynamic region at k=0 gave shear viscosity coefficients in good agreement with direct Green-Kubo results obtained in previous work. The two-exponential model fit for the memory function proposed by other authors does not provide a reasonable description of the MD results, as the fit parameters show no systematic wave-vector dependence, although the Ct(k,t) functions are somewhat better fitted. Similarly, the semiempirical interpolation formula for the decay time based on the viscoelastic concept proposed by Akcasu and Daniels fails to reproduce the correct k dependence for the wavelength range investigated herein.

  16. Comparative investigation of vibration and current monitoring for prediction of mechanical and electrical faults in induction motor based on multiclass-support vector machine algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangsar, Purushottam; Tiwari, Rajiv

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation of vibration and current monitoring for effective fault prediction in induction motor (IM) by using multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) algorithms. Failures of IM may occur due to propagation of a mechanical or electrical fault. Hence, for timely detection of these faults, the vibration as well as current signals was acquired after multiple experiments of varying speeds and external torques from an experimental test rig. Here, total ten different fault conditions that frequently encountered in IM (four mechanical fault, five electrical fault conditions and one no defect condition) have been considered. In the case of stator winding fault, and phase unbalance and single phasing fault, different level of severity were also considered for the prediction. In this study, the identification has been performed of the mechanical and electrical faults, individually and collectively. Fault predictions have been performed using vibration signal alone, current signal alone and vibration-current signal concurrently. The one-versus-one MSVM has been trained at various operating conditions of IM using the radial basis function (RBF) kernel and tested for same conditions, which gives the result in the form of percentage fault prediction. The prediction performance is investigated for the wide range of RBF kernel parameter, i.e. gamma, and selected the best result for one optimal value of gamma for each case. Fault predictions has been performed and investigated for the wide range of operational speeds of the IM as well as external torques on the IM.

  17. Lineage-specific sequence evolution and exon edge conservation partially explain the relationship between evolutionary rate and expression level in A. thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Stephen J; Kover, Paula X; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly evolving proteins can aid the identification of genes underlying phenotypic adaptation across taxa, but functional and structural elements of genes can also affect evolutionary rates. In plants, the ‘edges’ of exons, flanking intron junctions, are known to contain splice enhancers and to have a higher degree of conservation compared to the remainder of the coding region. However, the extent to which these regions may be masking indicators of positive selection or account for the relationship between dN/dS and other genomic parameters is unclear. We investigate the effects of exon edge conservation on the relationship of dN/dS to various sequence characteristics and gene expression parameters in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We also obtain lineage-specific dN/dS estimates, making use of the recently sequenced genome of Thellungiella parvula, the second closest sequenced relative after the sister species Arabidopsis lyrata. Overall, we find that the effect of exon edge conservation, as well as the use of lineage-specific substitution estimates, upon dN/dS ratios partly explains the relationship between the rates of protein evolution and expression level. Furthermore, the removal of exon edges shifts dN/dS estimates upwards, increasing the proportion of genes potentially under adaptive selection. We conclude that lineage-specific substitutions and exon edge conservation have an important effect on dN/dS ratios and should be considered when assessing their relationship with other genomic parameters. PMID:25930165

  18. Analyticity constraints on the strangeness changing vector current and applications to τ→Kπντ and τ→Kππντ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussallam, B.

    2008-02-01

    We discuss matrix elements of the strangeness changing vector current using their relation, due to analyticity, with πK scattering in the P-wave. We take into account experimental phase-shift measurements in the elastic channel as well as results, obtained by the LASS collaboration, on the details of inelastic scattering, which show the dominance of two quasi-two-body channels at medium energies. The associated form factors are shown to be completely determined, up to one flavor symmetry breaking parameter, imposing boundary conditions at t=0 from chiral and flavor symmetries and at t→∞ from QCD. We apply the results to the τ→Kπντ and τ→Kππντ amplitudes and compare the former to recent high statistics results from B factories.

  19. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  20. Partial Tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the content and readability of health information regarding partial tonsillectomy. A web search was performed using the term partial tonsillectomy in Google, Yahoo!, and Bing. The first 50 websites from each search were evaluated using HONcode standards for quality and content. Readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning-Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and SMOG score. The Freeman-Halton extension of Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical differences between engines. Less than half of the websites mentioned patient eligibility criteria (43.3%), referenced peer-reviewed literature (43.3%), or provided a procedure description (46.7%). Twenty-two websites (14.7%) were unrelated to partial tonsillectomy, and over half contained advertisements (52%). These finding were consistent across search engines and search terms. The mean FKGL was 11.6 ± 0.11, Gunning-Fog Index was 15.1 ± 0.13, Coleman-Liau Index was 14.6 ± 0.11, ARI was 12.9 ± 0.13, and SMOG grade was 14.0 ± 0.1. All readability levels exceeded the abilities of the average American adult. Current online information regarding partial tonsillectomy may not provide adequate information and may be written at a level too difficult for the average adult reader.

  1. Gate current flow in cylindrical thyristors with partially shorted cathodes—two and three terminal operation with inner and outer gate configuration—turn-on area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulop, W.; Baxter, P. E.

    1983-08-01

    Following on the work of linear thyristors, the gate current flow in cylindrical thyristors is investigated with partially shorted cathodes. Once more the models employ single shorting "dots" (SD) for the two symmetrical configurations possible for the cylindrical geometry, inner gate—outer SD and inner SD—outer gate for a range of sheet resistance values ( ϱ/ W) for the gate region. The non-linear differential equation governing gate current flow is given by y″+ ξ-1y'( y-1)- Cy = 0 ( y = normalised gate current, ξ = normalised radial co-ordinate) with Non-Cauchy boundary conditions and the latter difficulty is overcome both for two and three terminal operation by similar methods previously employed, when solving for y( ξ) for a variety of device geometries and ( ϱ/ W) values as well as bias conditions. The theory of turn-on area in terms of a critical cathode current density JKB is also applied to this cylindrical model and expressions are obtained for the gate drive IGD required to achieve a given turn-on area. Of particular interest are the plots of gate current flowing into the SD as a function of IGD for a variety of ( ϱ/ W) values as well as for the two possible gate/SD configurations.

  2. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    PubMed

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  3. Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans.

    PubMed

    Batsikadze, G; Moliadze, V; Paulus, W; Kuo, M-F; Nitsche, M A

    2013-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical excitability. In clinical and cognitive studies, stronger stimulation intensities are used frequently, but their physiological effects on cortical excitability have not yet been explored. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the effects of 2 mA tDCS on cortical excitability. We applied 2 mA anodal or cathodal tDCS for 20 min on the left primary motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cathodal tDCS at 1 mA and sham tDCS for 20 min was administered as control session in nine and eight healthy subjects, respectively. Motor cortical excitability was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Global corticospinal excitability was explored via single TMS pulse-elicited MEP amplitudes, and motor thresholds. Intracortical effects of stimulation were obtained by cortical silent period (CSP), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), and I wave facilitation. The above-mentioned protocols were recorded both before and immediately after tDCS in randomized order. Additionally, single-pulse MEPs, motor thresholds, SICI and ICF were recorded every 30 min up to 2 h after stimulation end, evening of the same day, next morning, next noon and next evening. Anodal as well as cathodal tDCS at 2 mA resulted in a significant increase of MEP amplitudes, whereas 1 mA cathodal tDCS decreased corticospinal excitability. A significant shift of SICI and ICF towards excitability enhancement after both 2 mA cathodal and anodal tDCS was observed. At 1 mA, cathodal tDCS reduced single-pulse TMS-elicited MEP amplitudes and shifted SICI

  4. Simulated microgravity inhibits L-type calcium channel currents partially by the up-regulation of miR-103 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongyang; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Hu, Zebing; Zhang, Lianchang; Wang, Han; Zhou, Hua; Li, Dongtao; Zhang, Shu; Xie, Manjiang

    2015-01-01

    L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs), particularly Cav1.2 LTCCs, play fundamental roles in cellular responses to mechanical stimuli in osteoblasts. Numerous studies have shown that mechanical loading promotes bone formation, whereas the removal of this stimulus under microgravity conditions results in a reduction in bone mass. However, whether microgravity exerts an influence on LTCCs in osteoblasts and whether this influence is a possible mechanism underlying the observed bone loss remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that simulated microgravity substantially inhibited LTCC currents and suppressed Cav1.2 at the protein level in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. In addition, reduced Cav1.2 protein levels decreased LTCC currents in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, simulated microgravity increased miR-103 expression. Cav1.2 expression and LTCC current densities both significantly increased in cells that were transfected with a miR-103 inhibitor under mechanical unloading conditions. These results suggest that simulated microgravity substantially inhibits LTCC currents in osteoblasts by suppressing Cav1.2 expression. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Cav1.2 expression and the inhibition of LTCCs caused by mechanical unloading in osteoblasts are partially due to miR-103 up-regulation. Our study provides a novel mechanism for microgravity-induced detrimental effects on osteoblasts, offering a new avenue to further investigate the bone loss induced by microgravity. PMID:25627864

  5. Simulated microgravity inhibits L-type calcium channel currents partially by the up-regulation of miR-103 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongyang; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Hu, Zebing; Zhang, Lianchang; Wang, Han; Zhou, Hua; Li, Dongtao; Zhang, Shu; Xie, Manjiang

    2015-01-28

    L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs), particularly Cav1.2 LTCCs, play fundamental roles in cellular responses to mechanical stimuli in osteoblasts. Numerous studies have shown that mechanical loading promotes bone formation, whereas the removal of this stimulus under microgravity conditions results in a reduction in bone mass. However, whether microgravity exerts an influence on LTCCs in osteoblasts and whether this influence is a possible mechanism underlying the observed bone loss remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that simulated microgravity substantially inhibited LTCC currents and suppressed Cav1.2 at the protein level in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. In addition, reduced Cav1.2 protein levels decreased LTCC currents in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, simulated microgravity increased miR-103 expression. Cav1.2 expression and LTCC current densities both significantly increased in cells that were transfected with a miR-103 inhibitor under mechanical unloading conditions. These results suggest that simulated microgravity substantially inhibits LTCC currents in osteoblasts by suppressing Cav1.2 expression. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Cav1.2 expression and the inhibition of LTCCs caused by mechanical unloading in osteoblasts are partially due to miR-103 up-regulation. Our study provides a novel mechanism for microgravity-induced detrimental effects on osteoblasts, offering a new avenue to further investigate the bone loss induced by microgravity.

  6. A PDE-based partial discharge simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Andrea; Barbieri, Luca; Gondola, Marco; Leon-Garzon, Andres R.; Malgesini, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Partial discharges are the main ageing and failure mechanism of solid insulating materials subjected to alternated current stresses. This phenomenon, from a simulation point of view, has been almost always tackled using semi-empirical schemes. In this work, a fully physically-based model, based on a set of conservation partial differential equations, is introduced. A numerical algorithm, specifically designed to solve this particular problem, is developed and its validation is discussed considering some experimental data acquired in a simple geometry containing an isolated void.

  7. Numerical study of the two-species Vlasov-Ampère system: Energy-conserving schemes and the current-driven ion-acoustic instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yingda; Christlieb, Andrew J.; Zhong, Xinghui

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose energy-conserving Eulerian solvers for the two-species Vlasov-Ampère (VA) system and apply the methods to simulate current-driven ion-acoustic instability. The two-species VA systems are of practical importance in applications, and they conserve many physical quantities including the particle number of each species and the total energy that is comprised of kinetic energy for both species and the electric energy. The main goal of this paper is to generalize our previous work for the single-species VA system [9] and Vlasov-Maxwell (VM) system [8] to the two-species case. The methodologies proposed involve careful design of temporal discretization and the use of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) spatial discretizations. We show that the energy-conserving time discretizations for single-species equations [9,8] can also work for the two-species case if extended properly. Compared to other high order schemes, we emphasize that our schemes can preserve the total particle number and total energy on the fully discrete level regardless of mesh size, making them very attractive for long time simulations. We benchmark our algorithms on a test example to check the one-species limit, and the current-driven ion-acoustic instability. To simulate the current-driven ion-acoustic instability, a slight modification for the implicit method is necessary to fully decouple the split equations. This is achieved by a Gauss-Seidel type iteration technique. Numerical results verified the conservation and performance of our methods. Finally, we remark that the schemes in this paper can be readily extended to applications when the models take more general form, such as the multi-species VM equations.

  8. Fish species of greatest conservation need in wadeable Iowa streams: current status and effectiveness of Aquatic Gap Program distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sindt, Anthony R.; Pierce, Clay; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation of fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) requires an understanding of species–habitat relationships and distributional trends. Thus, modeling the distribution of fish species across large spatial scales may be a valuable tool for conservation planning. Our goals were to evaluate the status of 10 fish SGCN in wadeable Iowa streams and to test the effectiveness of Iowa Aquatic Gap Analysis Project (IAGAP) species distribution models. We sampled fish assemblages from 86 wadeable stream segments in the Mississippi River drainage of Iowa during 2009 and 2010 to provide contemporary, independent fish species presence–absence data. The frequencies of occurrence in stream segments where species were historically documented varied from 0.0% for redfin shiner Lythrurus umbratilis to 100.0% for American brook lampreyLampetra appendix, with a mean of 53.0%, suggesting that the status of Iowa fish SGCN is highly variable. Cohen's kappa values and other model performance measures were calculated by comparing field-collected presence–absence data with IAGAP model–predicted presences and absences for 12 fish SGCN. Kappa values varied from 0.00 to 0.50, with a mean of 0.15. The models only predicted the occurrences of banded darterEtheostoma zonale, southern redbelly dace Phoxinus erythrogaster, and longnose daceRhinichthys cataractae more accurately than would be expected by chance. Overall, the accuracy of the twelve models was low, with a mean correct classification rate of 58.3%. Poor model performance probably reflects the difficulties associated with modeling the distribution of rare species and the inability of the large-scale habitat variables used in IAGAP models to explain the variation in fish species occurrences. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the confidence in species distribution model predictions with an independent data set and the need for long-term monitoring to better understand the

  9. Effects of Pleistocene, pre-industrial, current, and future CO[sub 2] partial pressures on C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Dippery, J.K.; Strain, B.R. )

    1993-06-01

    To study plant growth in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations ranging from Pleistocene through predicted future levels, Amaranthus retroflexus (C[sub 4]) and Abutilon theophrasti (C[sub 3]) were grown in growth chambers at four CO[sub 2] levels (15 Pa, Pleistocene minimum; 27 Pa, pre-industrial; 35 Pa, current; 70 Pa, future). Thirty-five days after emergence, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and leaf area did not differ between any CO[sub 2] levels for the C[sub 4] species. The C[sub 3] species showed increased root and shoot dry weights and leaf areas when grown in CO[sub 2] partial pressures of 15 Pa, 27 Pa and 35 Pa. This evidence indicates that plant growth in C[sub 4] species is unaffected by atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels ranging from the Pleistocene minimum through the future; whereas, C[sub 3] species show growth increases as CO[sub 2] partial pressures rise above the Pleistocene minimum.

  10. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, Vratislav; Hildebrandt, Guido; Poetter, Richard; Hammer, Josef; Hindemith, Marion; Resch, Alexandra; Spiegl, Kurt; Lotter, Michael; Uter, Wolfgang; Bani, Mayada; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

  11. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of a neurotoxigenic Clostridium species using partial genome sequence: Phylogenetic analysis of a few conserved proteins involved in cellular processes and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Dixit, Aparna; Tomar, Arvind; Singh, Lokendra

    2010-04-01

    Clostridial organisms produce neurotoxins, which are generally regarded as the most potent toxic substances of biological origin and potential biological warfare agents. Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin and is responsible for the fatal tetanus disease. In spite of the extensive immunization regimen, the disease is an important cause of death especially among neonates. Strains of C. tetani have not been genetically characterized except the complete genome sequencing of strain E88. The present study reports the genetic makeup and phylogenetic affiliations of an environmental strain of this bacterium with respect to C. tetani E88 and other clostridia. A shot gun library was constructed from the genomic DNA of C. tetani drde, isolated from decaying fish sample. Unique clones were sequenced and sequences compared with its closest relative C. tetani E88. A total of 275 clones were obtained and 32,457 bases of non-redundant sequence were generated. A total of 150 base changes were observed over the entire length of sequence obtained, including, additions, deletions and base substitutions. Of the total 120 ORFs detected, 48 exhibited closest similarity to E88 proteins of which three are hypothetical proteins. Eight of the ORFs exhibited similarity with hypothetical proteins from other organisms and 10 aligned with other proteins from unrelated organisms. There is an overall conservation of protein sequences among the two strains of C. tetani and. Selected ORFs involved in cellular processes and metabolism were subjected to phylogenetic analysis.

  13. Conservation properties and potential systems of vorticity-type equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2014-03-15

    Partial differential equations of the form divN=0, N{sub t}+curl M=0 involving two vector functions in R{sup 3} depending on t, x, y, z appear in different physical contexts, including the vorticity formulation of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, and Maxwell's equations. It is shown that these equations possess an infinite family of local divergence-type conservation laws involving arbitrary functions of space and time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the equations of interest have a rather special structure of a lower-degree (degree two) conservation law in R{sup 4}(t,x,y,z). The corresponding potential system has a clear physical meaning. For the Maxwell's equations, it gives rise to the scalar electric and the vector magnetic potentials; for the vorticity equations of fluid dynamics, the potentialization inverts the curl operator to yield the fluid dynamics equations in primitive variables; for MHD equations, the potential equations yield a generalization of the Galas-Bogoyavlenskij potential that describes magnetic surfaces of ideal MHD equilibria. The lower-degree conservation law is further shown to yield curl-type conservation laws and determined potential equations in certain lower-dimensional settings. Examples of new nonlocal conservation laws, including an infinite family of nonlocal material conservation laws of ideal time-dependent MHD equations in 2+1 dimensions, are presented.

  14. The Design of a Templated C++ Small Vector Class for Numerical Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a templated C++ class for vectors. The vector class is templated both for vector length and vector component type; the vector length is fixed at template instantiation time. The vector implementation is such that for a vector of N components of type T, the total number of bytes required by the vector is equal to N * size of (T), where size of is the built-in C operator. The property of having a size no bigger than that required by the components themselves is key in many numerical computing applications, where one may allocate very large arrays of small, fixed-length vectors. In addition to the design trade-offs motivating our fixed-length vector design choice, we review some of the C++ template features essential to an efficient, succinct implementation. In particular, we highlight some of the standard C++ features, such as partial template specialization, that are not supported by all compilers currently. This report provides an inventory listing the relevant support currently provided by some key compilers, as well as test code one can use to verify compiler capabilities.

  15. Large-scale production of lentiviral vector in a closed system hollow fiber bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Jonathan; Beltzer, Jim; Fury, Brian; Wilczek, Katarzyna; Tobin, Steve; Falconer, Danny; Nolta, Jan; Bauer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors are widely used in the field of gene therapy as an effective method for permanent gene delivery. While current methods of producing small scale vector batches for research purposes depend largely on culture flasks, the emergence and popularity of lentiviral vectors in translational, preclinical and clinical research has demanded their production on a much larger scale, a task that can be difficult to manage with the numbers of producer cell culture flasks required for large volumes of vector. To generate a large scale, partially closed system method for the manufacturing of clinical grade lentiviral vector suitable for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we developed a method employing a hollow fiber bioreactor traditionally used for cell expansion. We have demonstrated the growth, transfection, and vector-producing capability of 293T producer cells in this system. Vector particle RNA titers after subsequent vector concentration yielded values comparable to lentiviral iPSC induction vector batches produced using traditional culture methods in 225 cm2 flasks (T225s) and in 10-layer cell factories (CF10s), while yielding a volume nearly 145 times larger than the yield from a T225 flask and nearly three times larger than the yield from a CF10. Employing a closed system hollow fiber bioreactor for vector production offers the possibility of manufacturing large quantities of gene therapy vector while minimizing reagent usage, equipment footprint, and open system manipulation. PMID:26151065

  16. Charmless Hadronic B Decays into Vector, Axial Vector and Tensor Final States at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Paolo; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2012-04-06

    We present experimental measurements of branching fraction and longitudinal polarization fraction in charmless hadronic B decays into vector, axial vector and tensor final states with the final dataset of BABAR. Measurements of such kind of decays are a powerful tool both to test the Standard Model and search possible sources of new physics. In this document we present a short review of the last experimental results at BABAR concerning charmless quasi two-body decays in final states containing particles with spin 1 or spin 2 and different parities. This kind of decays has received considerable theoretical interest in the last few years and this particular attention has led to interesting experimental results at the current b-factories. In fact, the study of longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L} in charmless B decays to vector vector (VV), vector axial-vector (VA) and axial-vector axial-vector (AA) mesons provides information on the underlying helicity structure of the decay mechanism. Naive helicity conservation arguments predict a dominant longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L} {approx} 1 for both tree and penguin dominated decays and this pattern seems to be confirmed by tree-dominated B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B{sup +} {yields} {Omega}{rho}{sup +} decays. Other penguin dominated decays, instead, show a different behavior: the measured value of f{sub L} {approx} 0.5 in B {yields} {phi}K* decays is in contrast with naive Standard Model (SM) calculations. Several solutions have been proposed such as the introduction of non-factorizable terms and penguin-annihilation amplitudes, while other explanations invoke new physics. New modes have been investigated to shed more light on the problem.

  17. Current status, distribution, and conservation of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) in midwestern and western North America

    Treesearch

    Steven R. Sheffield

    1997-01-01

    The Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) inhabits open prairie grassland habitat in the midwestern and western US and Canada. For several years now, numbers of this species in North America have been declining at an alarming rate. Currently, Burrowing Owls are listed as endangered in Canada and threatened in Mexico. In the United States, the...

  18. Body weight-dependent troponin T alternative splicing is evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and is partially impaired in skeletal muscle of obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Schilder, Rudolf J.; Kimball, Scot R.; Marden, James H.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Do animals know at a physiological level how much they weigh, and, if so, do they make homeostatic adjustments in response to changes in body weight? Skeletal muscle is a likely tissue for such plasticity, as weight-bearing muscles receive mechanical feedback regarding body weight and consume ATP in order to generate forces sufficient to counteract gravity. Using rats, we examined how variation in body weight affected alternative splicing of fast skeletal muscle troponin T (Tnnt3), a component of the thin filament that regulates the actin–myosin interaction during contraction and modulates force output. In response to normal growth and experimental body weight increases, alternative splicing of Tnnt3 in rat gastrocnemius muscle was adjusted in a quantitative fashion. The response depended on weight per se, as externally attached loads had the same effect as an equal change in actual body weight. Examining the association between Tnnt3 alternative splicing and ATP consumption rate, we found that the Tnnt3 splice form profile had a significant association with nocturnal energy expenditure, independently of effects of weight. For a subset of the Tnnt3 splice forms, obese Zucker rats failed to make the same adjustments; that is, they did not show the same relationship between body weight and the relative abundance of five Tnnt3 β splice forms (i.e. Tnnt3 β2–β5 and β8), four of which showed significant effects on nocturnal energy expenditure in Sprague–Dawley rats. Heavier obese Zucker rats displayed certain splice form relative abundances (e.g. Tnnt3 β3) characteristic of much lighter, lean animals, resulting in a mismatch between body weight and muscle molecular composition. Consequently, we suggest that body weight-inappropriate skeletal muscle Tnnt3 expression in obesity is a candidate mechanism for muscle weakness and reduced mobility. Weight-dependent quantitative variation in Tnnt3 alternative splicing appears to be an evolutionarily conserved

  19. Mapping the current distribution and predicted spread of the leishmaniosis sand fly vector in the madrid region (Spain) based on environmental variables and expected climate change.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Rosa; Descalzo, Miguel A; Guerrero, Irene; Miró, Guadalupe; Molina, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease that is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. Based on prior point abundance data for the two sand fly vectors of leishmaniosis in the Madrid region (Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi), models were constructed to predict the spatial distribution patterns of these vectors. The models were obtained by negative binomial regression of several environmental variables and then used to map vector distributions. To validate the maps, we used serological prevalence data of Leishmania infection in dogs and incidence data were obtained through questionnaires completed by veterinarians in the region. Seropositive dogs and veterinary clinics registering a higher incidence of canine leishmaniosis appeared closer to our modeled vector foci. In the face of climate change, we simulated the future distributions of the sand flies for each third of the 21st century and predicted their spread in the region.

  20. Modeling a Rotating Partial Ring Current in the Saturn's Magnetosphere as a Source of B-field Periodicities: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganenko, N. A.; Brandt, P. C.; Khurana, K. K.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    periodically injected energetic (>2 keV) particles that form a partial ring current (PRC) co-rotating with the planet. Plasma pressures inferred from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) (<2 keV) and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) (>2 keV) will be used to compute the currents and their associated magnetic field perturbations. The distribution of the "hot" (>2 keV)plasma pressure is derived from Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images, obtained by the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) and in-situ spectral measurements.

  1. Approximate gauge symmetry of composite vector bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mahiko

    2010-08-01

    It can be shown in a solvable field theory model that the couplings of the composite vector bosons made of a fermion pair approach the gauge couplings in the limit of strong binding. Although this phenomenon may appear accidental and special to the vector bosons made of a fermion pair, we extend it to the case of bosons being constituents and find that the same phenomenon occurs in a more intriguing way. The functional formalism not only facilitates computation but also provides us with a better insight into the generating mechanism of approximate gauge symmetry, in particular, how the strong binding and global current conservation conspire to generate such an approximate symmetry. Remarks are made on its possible relevance or irrelevance to electroweak and higher symmetries.

  2. Conservation endocrinology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  3. Comparison of the Supplement to the 2004 IECC to the Current New York Energy Conservation Code - Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2004-09-01

    The New York State Department of State requested the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report consisting of two components. The first component is an analysis comparing the effects on energy usage as a result of implementation of the 2004 Supplement to the IECC with the current New York code. The second component is an engineering analysis to determine whether additional costs of compliance with the proposal would be equal to or less than the present value of anticipated energy savings over a 10-year period. Under DOE's direction, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed the requested assessment of the potential code upgrade.

  4. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Elvira, Benigno

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe. PMID:26717564

  5. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Benigno; Leal, Sheila; Doadrio, Ignacio; Almodóvar, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe.

  6. Most Probable Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft and Extraterrestrial Habitats: Why NASA's Current Test 1 Might Not Always be Conservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's current method of material screening determines fire resistance under conditions representing a worst-case for normal gravity flammability - the Upward Flame Propagation Test (Test 1). Its simple pass-fail criteria eliminates materials that burn for more than 12 inches from a standardized ignition source. In addition, if a material drips burning pieces that ignite a flammable fabric below, it fails. The applicability of Test 1 to fires in microgravity and extraterrestrial environments, however, is uncertain because the relationship between this buoyancy-dominated test and actual extraterrestrial fire hazards is not understood. There is compelling evidence that the Test 1 may not be the worst case for spacecraft fires, and we don t have enough information to assess if it is adequate at Lunar or Martian gravity levels.

  7. Most Probable Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft and Extraterrestrial Habitats: Why NASA's Current Test 1 Might Not Always Be Conservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s current method of material screening determines fire resistance under conditions representing a worst-case for normal gravity flammability - the Upward Flame Propagation Test (Test 1[1]). Its simple pass-fail criteria eliminates materials that burn for more than 12 inches from a standardized ignition source. In addition, if a material drips burning pieces that ignite a flammable fabric below, it fails. The applicability of Test 1 to fires in microgravity and extraterrestrial environments, however, is uncertain because the relationship between this buoyancy-dominated test and actual extraterrestrial fire hazards is not understood. There is compelling evidence that the Test 1 may not be the worst case for spacecraft fires, and we don t have enough information to assess if it is adequate at Lunar or Martian gravity levels.

  8. Partial correction of the CNS lysosomal storage defect in a mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis by neonatal CNS administration of an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 vector expressing the human CLN3 gene.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Dolan; Scott, Emma C; Chen, Alvin; Hackett, Neil R; Wong, Andrew M S; Kubiak, Agnieszka; Nelvagal, Hemanth R; Pearse, Yewande; Cotman, Susan L; Cooper, Jonathan D; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or CLN3 disease) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from mutations in the CLN3 gene that encodes a lysosomal membrane protein. The disease primarily affects the brain with widespread intralysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent material and fibrillary gliosis, as well as the loss of specific neuronal populations. As an experimental treatment for the CNS manifestations of JNCL, we have developed a serotype rh.10 adeno-associated virus vector expressing the human CLN3 cDNA (AAVrh.10hCLN3). We hypothesized that administration of AAVrh.10hCLN3 to the Cln3(Δex7/8) knock-in mouse model of JNCL would reverse the lysosomal storage defect, as well as have a therapeutic effect on gliosis and neuron loss. Newborn Cln3(Δex7/8) mice were administered 3 × 10(10) genome copies of AAVrh.10hCLN3 to the brain, with control groups including untreated Cln3(Δex7/8) mice and wild-type littermate mice. After 18 months, CLN3 transgene expression was detected in various locations throughout the brain, particularly in the hippocampus and deep anterior cortical regions. Changes in the CNS neuronal lysosomal accumulation of storage material were assessed by immunodetection of subunit C of ATP synthase, luxol fast blue staining, and periodic acid-Schiff staining. For all parameters, Cln3(Δex7/8) mice exhibited abnormal lysosomal accumulation, but AAVrh.10hCLN3 administration resulted in significant reductions in storage material burden. There was also a significant decrease in gliosis in AAVrh.10hCLN3-treated Cln3(Δex7/8) mice, and a trend toward improved neuron counts, compared with their untreated counterparts. These data demonstrate that AAVrh.10 delivery of a wild-type cDNA to the CNS is not harmful and instead provides a partial correction of the neurological lysosomal storage defect of a disease caused by a lysosomal membrane protein, indicating that this may be an effective therapeutic strategy for JNCL and

  9. Baculovirus Transfer Vectors.

    PubMed

    Possee, Robert D; King, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    The production of a recombinant baculovirus expression vector normally involves mixing infectious virus DNA with a plasmid-based transfer vector and then co-transfecting insect cells to initiate virus infection. The aim of this chapter is to provide an update on the range of baculovirus transfer vectors currently available. Some of the original transfer vectors developed are now difficult to obtain but generally have been replaced by superior reagents. We focus on those that are available commercially and should be easy to locate. These vectors permit the insertion of single or multiple genes for expression, or the production of proteins with specific peptide tags that aid subsequent protein purification. Others have signal peptide coding regions permitting protein secretion or plasma membrane localization. A table listing the transfer vectors also includes information on the parental virus that should be used with each one. Methods are described for the direct insertion of a recombinant gene into the virus genome without the requirement for a transfer vector. The information provided should enable new users of the system to choose those reagents most suitable for their purposes.

  10. Axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions in the dense plasma focus are natural consequences of conservation laws in the curved axisymmetric geometry of the current sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-10-15

    Direct measurement of axial magnetic field in the PF-1000 dense plasma focus (DPF), and its reported correlation with neutron emission, call for a fresh look at previous reports of existence of axial magnetic field component in the DPF from other laboratories, and associated data suggesting toroidal directionality of fast ions participating in fusion reactions, with a view to understand the underlying physics. In this context, recent work dealing with application of the hyperbolic conservation law formalism to the DPF is extended in this paper to a curvilinear coordinate system, which reflects the shape of the DPF current sheath. Locally unidirectional shock propagation in this coordinate system enables construction of a system of 7 one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations with geometric source terms, taking into account all the components of magnetic field and flow velocity. Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for this system lead to expressions for the axial magnetic field and three components of fluid velocity having high ion kinetic energy.

  11. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  12. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  13. On the Theory and Computation of Surface Tension: The Elimination of Parasitic Currents through Energy Conservation in the Second-Gradient Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, Didier; Torres, David; Brackbill, J. U.

    2002-10-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method.

  14. Conserved sequences in the current strains of HIV-1 subtype A in Russia are effectively targeted by artificial RNAi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Fedoseeva, Daria M; Gashnikova, Natalya M; Sosin, Dmitri V; Gorbacheva, Maria A; Alembekov, Ildar R; Chechetkin, Vladimir R; Kravatsky, Yuri V; Kretova, Olga V

    2016-05-25

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality of AIDS. However, many of the antiretroviral drugs are toxic with long-term use, and all currently used anti-HIV agents generate drug-resistant mutants. Therefore, there is a great need for new approaches to AIDS therapy. RNAi is a powerful means of inhibiting HIV-1 production in human cells. We propose to use RNAi for gene therapy of HIV/AIDS. Previously we identified a number of new biologically active siRNAs targeting several moderately conserved regions in HIV-1 transcripts. Here we analyze the heterogeneity of nucleotide sequences in three RNAi targets in sequences encoding the reverse transcriptase and integrase domains of current isolates of HIV-1 subtype A in Russia. These data were used to generate genetic constructs expressing short hairpin RNAs 28-30-bp in length that could be processed in cells into siRNAs. After transfection of the constructs we observed siRNAs that efficiently attacked the selected targets. We expect that targeting several viral genes important for HIV-1 reproduction will help overcome the problem of viral adaptation and will prevent the appearance of RNAi escape mutants in current virus strains, an important feature of gene therapy of HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  16. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  17. Equivalent Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  18. A vector wave equation for neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifler, Frank

    1984-04-01

    The Cartan map gives an isomorphism between spinors and isotropic vectors. Isotropic vectors F=E+iH satisfy the condition F ṡ F=0. We show that via the Cartan map, the particle current for neutrinos is given by j0=||E||, j=E×H/||E||, and the neutrino wave equation becomes D0F=iD×F-(DF) ṡ v, where v=j/j0=E×H/E2=velocity field, D0=i(h/2)(∂/∂t)-V0,D=-i (h/2)∇-V, where h=Planck's constant and V=(V0,V)=external potential. This wave equation preserves the isotropic condition, and like the equivalent Dirac equation, causes j to be the conserved current. We show that the isotropic restriction on the vector field F accounts for the observable properties of a neutrino in an external field, in particular, for the observed spectrum of the energy, momentum, angular momentum, spin, velocity, and position operators.

  19. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-07

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  20. Fixed partial overdenture creative and conservative solution.

    PubMed

    Maibaum, Wayne W

    2010-01-01

    A patient presented with lower right first and second molars requiring full coverage restorations. A retained lower right primary second molar with a stainless steel crown was also present. The primary tooth was "submerged," creating an unfavorable plane of occlusion. An unconventional prosthesis was fabricated to restore the debilitated teeth and a proper plane of occlusion.

  1. Divergence-based vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Villmann, Thomas; Haase, Sven

    2011-05-01

    Supervised and unsupervised vector quantization methods for classification and clustering traditionally use dissimilarities, frequently taken as Euclidean distances. In this article, we investigate the applicability of divergences instead, focusing on online learning. We deduce the mathematical fundamentals for its utilization in gradient-based online vector quantization algorithms. It bears on the generalized derivatives of the divergences known as Fréchet derivatives in functional analysis, which reduces in finite-dimensional problems to partial derivatives in a natural way. We demonstrate the application of this methodology for widely applied supervised and unsupervised online vector quantization schemes, including self-organizing maps, neural gas, and learning vector quantization. Additionally, principles for hyperparameter optimization and relevance learning for parameterized divergences in the case of supervised vector quantization are given to achieve improved classification accuracy.

  2. Comparison between endoscope-assisted partial mastectomy with filling of dead space using absorbable mesh and conventional conservative method on cosmetic outcome in patients with stage I or II breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Nobuyuki; Koyanagi, Ai; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    Studies comparing cosmetic outcome between conventional conservative method (CCM) and endoscope-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM) are scarce. A total of 111 patients with stage I or II breast cancer who underwent CCM (n=51) or EAPM (n=60) were reviewed. Evaluation of cosmetic outcome consisted of a 3-level scoring method; breast retraction assessment (0-2), nipple deviation (0-2), atrophy (0-2), skin change (0-2), and scar (0-2). Total scores ≥7 were considered satisfactory. Score 2 was considered satisfactory for analysis by each scoring criterion. EAPM had a higher rate of satisfactory results compared with CCM (71.7% vs. 52.9%; P=0.042), particularly for atrophy (55.0% vs. 29.4%; P=0.007), and scar (55.0% vs. 31.4%; P=0.012) and for location B (70.0% vs. 12.5%; P=0.025). EAPM is superior to CCM for postoperative cosmetic outcome with respect to atrophy, scar, and lower tumor location.

  3. Coherent production of pions and rho mesons in neutrino charged current interactions on neon nuclei at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Willocq, S.

    1992-05-01

    The coherent production of single pions and and {rho} mesons in charged current interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos on neon nuclei has been studied. The data were obtained using the Fermilab 15-foot Bubble Chamber, filled with a heavy Ne-H{sub 2} mixture and exposed to the Quadrupole Triplet neutrino beam produced by 800 GeV protons from the Tevatron. The average beam energy was 86 GeV. In a sample of 330000 frames, 1032 two-prong {nu}{sub {mu}} + {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} charged current interactions were selected. The goal of this study was to investigate the low Q{sup 2} high {nu} region where the hadron dominance model can be tested. In this model, the vector and axial-vector parts of the weak hadronic current are dominated by the {rho} and a{sub 1} mesons respectively. Moreover, the Partially Conserved Axial Current (PCAC) hypothesis can be tested by studying the coherent production of single pions.

  4. Mitigation of numerical Cerenkov radiation and instability using a hybrid finite difference-FFT Maxwell solver and a local charge conserving current deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peicheng; Xu, Xinlu; Tableman, Adam; Decyk, Viktor K.; Tsung, Frank S.; Fiuza, Frederico; Davidson, Asher; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Lu, Wei; Silva, Luis O.; Mori, Warren B.

    2015-12-01

    A hybrid Maxwell solver for fully relativistic and electromagnetic (EM) particle-in-cell (PIC) codes is described. In this solver, the EM fields are solved in k space by performing an FFT in one direction, while using finite difference operators in the other direction(s). This solver eliminates the numerical Cerenkov radiation for particles moving in the preferred direction. Moreover, the numerical Cerenkov instability (NCI) induced by the relativistically drifting plasma and beam can be eliminated using this hybrid solver by applying strategies that are similar to those recently developed for pure FFT solvers. A current correction is applied for the charge conserving current deposit to ensure that Gauss's Law is satisfied. A theoretical analysis of the dispersion properties in vacuum and in a drifting plasma for the hybrid solver is presented, and compared with PIC simulations with good agreement obtained. This hybrid solver is applied to both 2D and 3D Cartesian and quasi-3D (in which the fields and current are decomposed into azimuthal harmonics) geometries. Illustrative results for laser wakefield accelerator simulation in a Lorentz boosted frame using the hybrid solver in the 2D Cartesian geometry are presented, and compared against results from 2D UPIC-EMMA simulation which uses a pure spectral Maxwell solver, and from OSIRIS 2D lab frame simulation using the standard Yee solver. Very good agreement is obtained which demonstrates the feasibility of using the hybrid solver for high fidelity simulation of relativistically drifting plasma with no evidence of the numerical Cerenkov instability.

  5. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  6. Vector carpets

    SciTech Connect

    Dovey, D.

    1995-03-22

    Previous papers have described a general method for visualizing vector fields that involves drawing many small ``glyphs`` to represent the field. This paper shows how to improve the speed of the algorithm by utilizing hardware support for line drawing and extends the technique from regular to unstructured grids. The new approach can be used to visualize vector fields at arbitrary surfaces within regular and unstructured grids. Applications of the algorithm include interactive visualization of transient electromagnetic fields and visualization of velocity fields in fluid flow problems.

  7. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, J. Ben; Beitsch, Peter D.; Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Doug; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wazer, David E.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Lyden, Maureen; Chen, Peter Y.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

  8. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  9. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Juan Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…

  10. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Juan Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…

  11. [Comparison of the volume and localization of internal gross target volume and planning target volume delineated by clips and seroma based on 4D-CT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suzhen; Wang, Jinzhi; Ma, Zhifang

    2014-10-01

    To explore the differences in volume and localization of the internal gross target volume and planning target volume delineated by clips and/or seroma based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) during free-breathing in breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery. Fifteen breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were recruited for external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI). On the ten sets CT images, the gross tumor volumes (GTV) formed by the clips, the seroma, and both the clips and seroma were delineated and defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s, respectively. Ten GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s on the ten sets CT images produced the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s. The PTVc, PTVs, PTVc+s were created by adding 15 mm to the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s, respectively. The IGTV and PTV volume and distance between the centers of IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s and PTVc, PTVs, PTVc+s were all recorded. Conformity index (CI) and degree of inclusion (DI) were calculated for IGTV/IGTV and PTV/PTV, respectively. The volume of IGTVc+s[(35.73 ± 19.77) cm³] was significantly larger than the IGTVc [(28.35 ± 17.54) cm³] and IGTVs [(24.19 ± 21.53) cm³] (P < 0.05), and the volume of PTVc+s [(191.59 ± 69.74) cm³] was significantly larger than that of the PTVc [(161.53 ± 61.07) cm³] and PTVs [(148.98 ± 62.22)cm³] (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the DIs of IGTVc in IGTVc+s and IGTVc+s in IGTVc, the DIs of IGTVs in IGTVc+s and IGTVc+s in IGTVs, the DIs of PTVc in PTVc+s and PTVc+s in PTVc, and the DIs of PTVs vs. PTVc+s and PTVc+s in PTVs (P < 0.05 for all). The CI of IGTVc/IGTVc+s (0.63 ± 0.14) and the CI of IGTVs/IGTVc+s (0.54 ± 0.17) were significant larger than that of the CI of IGTVc/IGTVs (0.40 ± 0.14)(P < 0.05). There were non-significant differences among the CI of PTVc/PTVs, PTVc/PTVc+s and PTVs/PTVc+s (0.73 ± 0.12, 0.78 ± 0.13 vs. 0.75 ± 0.17). The DIs and CIs of IGTV/IGTV and PTV/PTV were negatively correlated with their

  12. Objective and Longitudinal Assessment of Dermatitis After Postoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Therapy: Reduction of Moisture Deterioration by APBI

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi; Masuda, Norikazu; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Inoue, Takehiro

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To objectively evaluate the radiation dermatitis caused by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Patients and Methods: The skin color and moisture changes were examined using a newly installed spectrophotometer and corneometer in 22 patients who had undergone APBI using open cavity implant high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (36 Gy in six fractions) and compared with the corresponding values for 44 patients in an external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) control group (50-60 Gy in 25-30 fractions within 5-6 weeks) after breast conserving surgery. Results: All values changed significantly as a result of APBI. The extent of elevation in a Asterisk-Operator (reddish) and reduction in L Asterisk-Operator (black) values caused by APBI were similar to those for EBRT, with slightly delayed recovery for 6-12 months after treatment owing to the surgical procedure. In contrast, only APBI caused a change in the b Asterisk-Operator values, and EBRT did not, demonstrating that the reduction in b Asterisk-Operator values (yellowish) depends largely on the surgical procedure. The changes in moisture were less severe after APBI than after EBRT, and the recovery was more rapid. The toxicity assessment using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, showed that all dermatitis caused by APBI was Grade 2 or less. Conclusion: An objective analysis can quantify the effects of APBI procedures on color and moisture cosmesis. The radiation dermatitis caused by APBI using the present schedule showed an equivalent effect on skin color and a less severe effect on moisture than the effects caused by standard EBRT.

  13. Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A. Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry; Schell, Scott; Goldstein, Neal S.; Kunzman, Jonathan; Gilbert, Sam; Martinez, Alvaro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

  14. Error estimation for ORION baseline vector determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of error sources on Operational Radio Interferometry Observing Network (ORION) baseline vector determination are studied. Partial derivatives of delay observations with respect to each error source are formulated. Covariance analysis is performed to estimate the contribution of each error source to baseline vector error. System design parameters such as antenna sizes, system temperatures and provision for dual frequency operation are discussed.

  15. Changes in historical Iowa land cover as context for assessing the environmental benefits of current and future conservation efforts on agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walt; Roth, Mark F.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Conservationists and agriculturists face unprecedented challenges trying to minimize tradeoffs between increasing demands for food, fiber, feed, and biofuels and the resulting loss or reduced values of other ecosystem services, such as those derived from wetlands and biodiversity (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005a, 2005c; Maresch et al. 2008). The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-234, Stat. 923, HR 2419, also known as the 2008 Farm Bill) reauthorized the USDA to provide financial incentives for agricultural producers to reduce environmental impacts via multiple conservation programs. Two prominent programs, the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), provide incentives for producers to retire environmentally sensitive croplands, minimize erosion, improve water quality, restore wetlands, and provide wildlife habitat (USDA FSA 2008a, 2008b; USDA NRCS 2002). Other conservation programs (e.g., Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Conservation Stewardship Program) provide incentives to implement structural and cultural conservation practices to improve the environmental performance of working agricultural lands. Through its Conservation Effects Assessment Project, USDA is supporting evaluation of the environmental benefits obtained from the public investment in conservation programs and practices to inform decisions on where further investments are warranted (Duriancik et al. 2008; Zinn 1997).

  16. Clinical use of the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time for screening: a review of the literature and current guidelines for testing.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jerrold H; Szlam, Fania; Wolberg, Alisa S; Winkler, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Although the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and international normalized ratio are widely used in routine preoperative testing, these hemostatic tests are not reliable predictors of perioperative bleeding in patients without known bleeding risk factors. In contrast, a preoperative bleeding history and physical examination are usually obtained in an attempt to identify important bleeding risk factors. However, these coagulation tests are used extensively for monitoring anticoagulation with different pharmacologic agents.

  17. Field Vectors to Metamorphosed Ores: A Prelude to Finding Currently Concealed Volcano-Plutonic Arc Settings and Their Mineral Deposits in The Grenville Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corriveau, L.; Bonnet, A.; van Breemen, O.

    2004-05-01

    Recent mineral deposits synthesis highlights the largely barren nature of the high-grade metamorphic terrains of the Canadian Shield in terms of large mining camps. No where is the gap most startling than in the Grenville Province even though a lot of its Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic crust consists of magmatic arcs renown worldwide to host IOCG, VHMS and Porphyry Cu deposits. All these deposit types have significant alteration halos that can serve as vectors to ore. The use of such vectors forced a complete reinterpretation of the nature of the La Romaine domain in the eastern Grenville Province. Mapped in the 70's as being a metasedimentary basin with >500 km2 of meta-arkose and minor pelite, quartzite, conglomerate and marble, the domain is herein reassessed as a major 1.5 Ga Pinwarian continental magmatic arc fertile in Cu-sulphides and Fe-oxides mineralizing systems. The original markers used to prognosticate a sedimentary origin can now be demonstrated to be a series of rhyolitic to dacitic lapillistone, sericitized tuff with Al nodules and veins, Al gneiss locally with lapilli textures, garnetite, ironstones and calc-silicate rocks. The distribution, paragenesis and mode of the Al-, Fe- and Ca-rich units significantly depart from those of normal metasediments but are very diagnostic of metamorphosed hydrothermal alteration zones and meta-exhalites. Mapping alteration vectors provided clues to search for and find the volcanic rocks concealed among the composite granitic gneiss, the zones of hydrothermal leaching (e.g., sericitic, argillic and advanced argillic alterations) and discharge, the cap rocks, and the Cu mineralization. Spatial and stratigraphic relationships provided a means to compare their settings with ore deposit models. Roof pendants of Ba-rich meta-exhalite in surrounding 1.5 Ga granitic plutons and intrusion of 1495 Ma Qtz-Kfs porphyry across hydrothermally altered 1500 Ma tuffs attest to coeval hydrothermal activity and sub-volcanic plutons. The

  18. Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Matthias; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N; Blumentrath, Stefan; Nordén, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

  19. Ecosystem Services and Opportunity Costs Shift Spatial Priorities for Conserving Forest Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Schröter, Matthias; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.; Blumentrath, Stefan; Nordén, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%. PMID:25393951

  20. Development of a Jones vector based model for the measurement of a plasma current in a thermonuclear fusion reactor with a POTDR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerssens, M.; Gusarov, A.; Moreau, P.; Malard, P.; Massaut, V.; Mégret, P.; Wuilpart, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fibre optical current sensor (FOCS) is a promising alternative to inductive sensors for the measurement of the plasma current in future thermonuclear fusion reactors. Standard FOCS relies on the measurement of the state of polarisation (SOP) of light at the output of an optical bre surrounding a current. Because of the Faraday eect, magnetic eld induced by electrical current rotates the SOP of light travelling into the bre. According to the Ampere's theorem this rotation is proportional to the surrounded current. In future tokamaks like ITER and DEMO, the plasma current will be suciently high to generate a rotation of the SOP higher than 2 radians. These conditions may lead to uncertainties on the determination of the plasma current if no post processing is performed. In this paper we propose a solution with a Polarisation Optical Time Domain Re ectometer (POTDR) setup allowing both unambiguous plasma current measurement and also local magnetic eld measurements. This measurement is based on the assessment of the SOP rotation of the Rayleigh backscattered POTDR signal. Thanks to the presence of an input polarizer, SOP variations are converted into power uctuations that contain information about the distribution of the magnetic eld and therefore about the plasma current. Using the Jones formalism we have developed a model accounting for the modication of the SOP of light travelling into the optical bre and the evolution of the POTDR signal. In parallel experimental PODTR measurements have been performed on the Tore Supra tokamak situated at CEA Cadarache in France. A comparison between the models and the experimental results conrms the capability of the system to measure the plasma current and the local magnetic eld even if further data post processing are still required.

  1. The current status of phlebotomine sand flies in Albania and incrimination of Phlebotomus neglectus (Diptera, Psychodidae) as the main vector of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Velo, Enkelejda; Bongiorno, Gioia; Kadriaj, Perparim; Myrseli, Teita; Crilly, James; Lika, Aldin; Mersini, Kujtim; Di Muccio, Trentina; Bino, Silvia; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Maroli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Furthermore, 15% of pools made from 422 P. neglectus females tested positive for Leishmania sp. genomic DNA. In the same year, Culicoides trapping was performed for bluetongue disease surveillance in 91 sites of southern Albania, targeting livestock farms regardless recent occurrence of VL in the surveyed areas. In 35 sites where sand flies were collected along with midges, Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the most prevalent among the Phlebotomus species identified, however search for leishmanial DNA in females of this species was unsuccessful. In 2011, sand flies were trapped in 4 sites of north Albania characterized by high VL incidence, and females were dissected to search for Leishmania infections. Both P. neglectus and P. tobbi were collected at high densities. Two positive specimens were detected from a sample of 64 P. neglectus trapped in one site (3.1%). Parasites were successfully cultured from one specimen and characterized as belonging to Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1, the only zymodeme so far identified as the agent of human and canine leishmaniasis in the country. Altogether our studies indicate that P. neglectus is the main leishmaniasis vector in Albania.

  2. Partial Torus Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang, J.

    2010-05-01

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its instability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, the partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches one, the critical index goes to a maximum value that depends on the distribution of the external magnetic field. We demonstrate that the partial torus instability helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux rope CME.

  3. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the

  4. Vector-like quarks and leptons, SU(5) ⊗ SU(5) grand unification, and proton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2017-02-01

    SU(5) ⊗ SU(5) provides a minimal grand unification scheme for fermions and gauge forces if there are vector-like quarks and leptons in nature. We explore the gauge coupling unification in a non-supersymmetric model of this type, and study its implications for proton decay. The properties of vector-like quarks and intermediate scales that emerge from coupling unification play a central role in suppressing proton decay. We find that in this model, the familiar decay mode p → e +π0 may have a partial lifetime within the reach of currently planned experiments.

  5. Policy: Palatable forest conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Current policies to reduce emissions from forest loss could mean that rising demand for food is not met. A new approach to forest conservation that reduces emissions while meeting demand for agricultural products may be feasible, but more expensive.

  6. Impact of hot-carrier stress on gate-induced floating body effects and drain current transients of thin gate oxide partially depleted SOI nMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafí, J. M.; Simoen, E.; Mercha, A.; Campabadal, F.; Claeys, C.

    2005-09-01

    The impact of hot-carrier (HC) stress on thin gate oxide PD SOI nMOSFETs is investigated by analyzing the front and back channel current-voltage characteristics and the switch-off drain current transients. A particular hot-carrier degradation mode, characterized by a turn-around behavior for front gate threshold voltage degradation, is analyzed for devices with different geometries, bias conditions and source/drain architecture. A significant positive back gate threshold voltage shift is also observed after long HC stress. The maximum hot-carrier degradation (HCD) is obtained for the highest front gate biases, corresponding to the conditions of maximum electron valence band injection of majority carriers into the floating body. The presence of the HCD is found to reduce both the generation and the recombination switch-off drain current transient times. Unbiased thermal annealing in the range of 200-250 °C significantly reduces the hot-carrier-induced damage affecting the back channel characteristics. Whereas front gate direct tunnel stress is not causing any significant degradation for stress biases up to about two times the power supply for this technology node and reasonably short stress times, for the highest stress conditions the drain current transients are found to be progressively faster till front gate dielectric breakdown occurs.

  7. Partial-depth lock-release flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodkar, M. A.; Nasr-Azadani, M. M.; Meiburg, E.

    2017-06-01

    We extend the vorticity-based modeling concept for stratified flows introduced by Borden and Meiburg [Z. Borden and E. Meiburg, J. Fluid Mech. 726, R1 (2013), 10.1017/jfm.2013.239] to unsteady flow fields that cannot be rendered quasisteady by a change of reference frames. Towards this end, we formulate a differential control volume balance for the conservation of mass and vorticity in the fully unsteady parts of the flow, which we refer to as the differential vorticity model. We furthermore show that with the additional assumptions of locally uniform parallel flow within each layer, the unsteady vorticity modeling approach reproduces the familiar two-layer shallow-water equations. To evaluate its accuracy, we then apply the vorticity model approach to partial-depth lock-release flows. Consistent with the shallow water analysis of Rottman and Simpson [J. W. Rottman and J. E. Simpson, J. Fluid Mech. 135, 95 (1983), 10.1017/S0022112083002979], the vorticity model demonstrates the formation of a quasisteady gravity current front, a fully unsteady expansion wave, and a propagating bore that is present only if the lock depth exceeds half the channel height. When this bore forms, it travels with a velocity that does not depend on the lock height and the interface behind it is always at half the channel depth. We demonstrate that such a bore is energy conserving. The differential vorticity model gives predictions for the height and velocity of the gravity current and the bore, as well as for the propagation velocities of the edges of the expansion fan, as a function of the lock height. All of these predictions are seen to be in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation data and, where available, with experimental results. An energy analysis shows lock-release flows to be energy conserving only for the case of a full lock, whereas they are always dissipative for partial-depth locks.

  8. A Plasmodium vivax plasmid DNA- and adenovirus-vectored malaria vaccine encoding blood stage antigens AMA1 and MSP142 in a prime/boost heterologous immunization regimen partially protects Aotus monkeys against blood stage challenge.

    PubMed

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Stockelman, Michael G; Otero, William; Cockrill, Jennifer A; Ganeshan, Harini; Abot, Esteban N; Zhang, Jianfeng; Limbach, Keith; Charoenvit, Yupin; Doolan, Denise L; Tang, De-Chu C; Richie, Thomas L

    2017-02-08

    Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted to humans by the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. After the elimination of P. falciparum it is predicted that Plasmodium vivax will remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality outside of Africa, stressing the importance of developing a vaccine against malaria. In this study we assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two P. vivax antigens, AMA1 and MSP142 in a recombinant DNA plasmid prime/adenoviral vector (Ad) boost regimen in Aotus monkeys. Groups of 4 to 5 monkeys were immunized with DNA alone, Ad alone, prime/boost regimens of each antigen, prime/boost with both antigens, and empty vector controls, and then subjected to blood stage challenge. The heterologous immunization regimen with the antigen pair was more protective than either antigen alone or both antigens delivered with a single vaccine platform, based on their ability to induced the longest pre-patent period and time to peak parasitemia; the lowest peak and mean parasitemia; the smallest area under the parasitemia curve and the highest self-cured rate. Overall, pre-challenge MSP1 antibody titers strongly correlated with decreased parasite burden. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of immunized animals developed anemia. In conclusion, P. vivax plasmid DNA/Ad5 vaccine encoding blood stage parasite antigens AMA1 and MSP142 in a heterologous prime/boost immunization regimen, provided significant protection against blood-stage challenge in Aotus monkeys, indicating the suitability of these antigens and regimen for further development.

  9. PARTIAL TORUS INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie

    2010-07-20

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  10. Partial Torus Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang, Jie

    2010-07-01

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  11. Evolution of insecticide resistance diagnostics in malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Weetman, David; Donnelly, Martin James

    2015-05-01

    Malaria control is reliant upon effective, programmatic-scale, anti-vector interventions. The widespread distribution of pyrethroid-treated bednets in sub-Saharan Africa has been a driver of morbidity and mortality reductions over the last decade. Unfortunately resistance to insecticides, and to pyrethroids in particular, is increasingly common in Anopheles malaria vectors, and is a major threat to continued control and future elimination. Here we argue that current methods to diagnose resistance often have limited utility and should be augmented or even partially replaced by wider application of DNA markers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Saturn's Periodic Magnetosphere: The Relation Between Periodic Hot Plasma Injections, a Rotating Partial Ring Current, Global Magnetic Field Distortions, Plasmapause Motion, and Radio Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    It has been know for some time that the large-scale energetic particle injections (~3-200 keV) on the nigh side of Saturn observed by Cassini/INCA are closely tracked by the periodic Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR). The resulting energetic particle pressure is comparable to that of the colder plasma and it therefore distorts the global magnetic field significantly as the energetic particle population drifts around Saturn. In this presentation we discuss the important consequences this has for the large-scale dynamics and configuration of the entire inner magnetosphere of Saturn. We begin by reviewing the observational correlations between remote, global INCA observations of energetic particles, magnetic field distortions, and radio emissions. We present examples of how the magnetic field measurements and the INCA observations show direct implications of a rotating 3D electrical current system associated with, not only, the energetic particle pressure, but also with an interhemispheric field-aligned current (FAC) system. Recently, we found an intriguing high correlation also between the periodic motion of the high-latitude plasmapause-like boundary reported by Gurnett et al. [2011] and the energetic particles observed remotely by INCA that are periodically injected on the night side and then drift around Saturn according to their energy. In our preliminary analysis we see a direct correlation in at least 75% of the case with the center of drifting energetic particle distribution [Brandt et al., 2010] and the encounter with the rotating plasmapause-like density boundary [Gurnett et al., 2011]. However, the remaining, low-correlation cases suggest that we do not fully understand the global, 3D current system that produces the periodic perturbations in Saturn's magnetosphere. We will use these observations to constrain the underlying 3D current system and in particular, assess the role of interhemispheric FACs in reproducing the observations.

  13. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  14. Partially coherent vectorial nonparaxial beams.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kailiang; Lü, Baida

    2004-10-01

    Generalized vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integrals are developed for the cross-spectral-density matrices of spatially partially coherent beams. Using the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam as an example, we derive the expressions for the propagation of cross-spectral-density matrices and intensity of partially coherent vectorial nonparaxial beams, and the corresponding far-field asymptotic forms, beyond the paraxial approximation. The propagation of the vectorial nonparaxial GSM beams are evaluated and analyzed. It is shown that a 3 x 3 cross-spectral-density matrix or a vector theory is required for the exact description of nonparaxial GSM beams.

  15. Partial Priapism Treated with Pentoxifylline

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Meghan A.; Carrion, Rafael E.; Yang, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Main findings: A 26-year-old man suffering from partial priapism was successfully treated with a regimen including pentoxifylline, a nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is often used to conservatively treat Peyronie's disease. Case hypothesis: Partial priapism is an extremely rare urological condition that is characterized by thrombosis within the proximal segment of a single corpus cavernosum. There have only been 36 reported cases to date. Although several factors have been associated with this unusual disorder, such as trauma or bicycle riding, the etiology is still not completely understood. Treatment is usually conservative and consists of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic. Promising future implications: This case report supports the utilization of pentoxifylline in patients with partial priapism due to its anti-fibrogenic and anti-thrombotic properties. PMID:26401875

  16. Chameleon vector bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ann E.

    2008-05-01

    We show that for a force mediated by a vector particle coupled to a conserved U(1) charge, the apparent range and strength can depend on the size and density of the source, and the proximity to other sources. This chameleon effect is due to screening from a light charged scalar. Such screening can weaken astrophysical constraints on new gauge bosons. As an example we consider the constraints on chameleonic gauged B-L. We show that although Casimir measurements greatly constrain any B-L force much stronger than gravity with range longer than 0.1 {mu}m, there remains an experimental window for a long-range chameleonic B-L force. Such a force could be much stronger than gravity, and long or infinite range in vacuum, but have an effective range near the surface of the earth which is less than a micron.

  17. Nonlocal conservation laws for strings

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, A.P.; Stern, A.

    1982-09-15

    A finite number of nonlocal conservation laws are found in the Nambu-Goto string model. An infinite number of conserved currents may be obtained by embedding the string in more than 3+1 space-time dimensions. These currents resemble the nonlocal currents found in two-dimensional chiral models.

  18. Fixism and conservation science.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis caused by defects in AIPL1: effective rescue of mouse models of partial and complete Aipl1 deficiency using AAV2/2 and AAV2/8 vectors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mei Hong; Smith, Alexander J.; Pawlyk, Basil; Xu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Bainbridge, James B.; Basche, Mark; McIntosh, Jenny; Tran, Hoai Viet; Nathwani, Amit; Li, Tiansen; Ali, Robin R.

    2009-01-01

    Defects in the photoreceptor-specific gene encoding aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) are clinically heterogeneous and present as Leber Congenital Amaurosis, the severest form of early-onset retinal dystrophy and milder forms of retinal dystrophies such as juvenile retinitis pigmentosa and dominant cone-rod dystrophy. [Perrault, I., Rozet, J.M., Gerber, S., Ghazi, I., Leowski, C., Ducroq, D., Souied, E., Dufier, J.L., Munnich, A. and Kaplan, J. (1999) Leber congenital amaurosis. Mol. Genet. Metab., 68, 200–208.] Although not yet fully elucidated, AIPL1 is likely to function as a specialized chaperone for rod phosphodiesterase (PDE). We evaluate whether AAV-mediated gene replacement therapy is able to improve photoreceptor function and survival in retinal degeneration associated with AIPL1 defects. We used two mouse models of AIPL1 deficiency simulating three different rates of photoreceptor degeneration. The Aipl1 hypomorphic (h/h) mouse has reduced Aipl1 levels and a relatively slow degeneration. Under light acceleration, the rate of degeneration in the Aipl1 h/h mouse is increased by 2–3-fold. The Aipl1−/− mouse has no functional Aipl1 and has a very rapid retinal degeneration. To treat the different rates of degeneration, two pseudotypes of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) exhibiting different transduction kinetics are used for gene transfer. We demonstrate restoration of cellular function and preservation of photoreceptor cells and retinal function in Aipl1 h/h mice following gene replacement therapy using an AAV2/2 vector and in the light accelerated Aipl1 h/h model and Aipl1−/− mice using an AAV2/8 vector. We have thus established the potential of gene replacement therapy in varying rates of degeneration that reflect the clinical spectrum of disease. This is the first gene replacement study to report long-term rescue of a photoreceptor-specific defect and to demonstrate effective rescue of a rapid photoreceptor

  20. Conservation of tropical plant species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book is designed to provide a review of the methods and current status of conservation of many tropical plant species. Future perspectives of conservation of tropical species will also be discussed. The section on methods covers the range of conservation techniques, in situ, seed banking, in vi...

  1. The β-globin locus control region in combination with the EF1α short promoter allows enhanced lentiviral vector-mediated erythroid gene expression with conserved multilineage activity.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Equihua, Claudia A; Zhang, Lin; Knight, Sean; Saadeh, Heba; Scholz, Simone; Carmo, Marlene; Alonso-Ferrero, Maria E; Blundell, Michael P; Monkeviciute, Aiste; Schulz, Reiner; Collins, Mary; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Schmidt, Manfred; Fairbanks, Lynette; Antoniou, Michael; Thrasher, Adrian J; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2012-07-01

    Some gene therapy strategies are compromised by the levels of gene expression required for therapeutic benefit, and also by the breadth of cell types that require correction. We designed a lentiviral vector system in which a transgene is under the transcriptional control of the short form of constitutively acting elongation factor 1α promoter (EFS) combined with essential elements of the locus control region of the β-globin gene (β-LCR). We show that the β-LCR can upregulate EFS activity specifically in erythroid cells but does not alter EFS activity in myeloid or lymphoid cells. Experiments using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter or the human adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene demonstrate 3-7 times upregulation in vitro but >20 times erythroid-specific upregulation in vivo, the effects of which were sustained for 1 year. The addition of the β-LCR did not alter the mutagenic potential of the vector in in vitro mutagenesis (IM) assays although microarray analysis showed that the β-LCR upregulates ~9% of neighboring genes. This vector design therefore combines the benefits of multilineage gene expression with high-level erythroid expression, and has considerable potential for correction of multisystem diseases including certain lysosomal storage diseases through a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy approach.

  2. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891

  3. Evolutionary history and phylogeography of the schistosome-vector freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Mavárez, J; Steiner, C; Pointier, J-P; Jarne, P

    2002-10-01

    The phylogeography of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata remains poorly known, although this species is the major vector of schistosomiasis in the New World. It was here investigated in South America and the Lesser Antilles, based on partial mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (16S rDNA) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) gene sequences. Sampling included 17 populations from a large part of the current geographic range of the species (Brazil, Venezuela and Lesser Antilles). Substantial variability was detected, as well as a high amount of phylogenetically informative signal. The molecular phylogeny inferred splits B. glabrata into Northern and Southern clades separated by the Amazon river, and may even suggest a supra-specific status for B. glabrata. Brazilian populations were the most diverse and appeared basal to the other populations. Venezuelan haplotypes formed a single clade, albeit not strongly supported. Two Venezuelan haplotypes appear rather similar to Brazilian haplotypes. Similarly, Lesser Antilles haplotypes clustered in the same monophyletic clade, which suggests that the recent colonisation of the Antilles has a northern South American origin. However, the estimated divergence time between Antilles and Venezuelan sequences is extremely large (conservatively higher than 10(5) years). These results are discussed in the light of (i) phylogeographic patterns at South American scale, and (ii) recurrent introduction of molluscs, especially in the Antilles, as a consequence of human activities.

  4. Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

    In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

  5. Setting conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  6. Engineering targeted viral vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Waehler, Reinhard; Russell, Stephen J; Curiel, David T

    2007-08-01

    To achieve therapeutic success, transfer vehicles for gene therapy must be capable of transducing target cells while avoiding impact on non-target cells. Despite the high transduction efficiency of viral vectors, their tropism frequently does not match the therapeutic need. In the past, this lack of appropriate targeting allowed only partial exploitation of the great potential of gene therapy. Substantial progress in modifying viral vectors using diverse techniques now allows targeting to many cell types in vitro. Although important challenges remain for in vivo applications, the first clinical trials with targeted vectors have already begun to take place.

  7. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane. PMID:26098556

  8. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Pei; Liang, Hai-Ping; Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  9. Conservation Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Maurice R.; Daniel, Tommy C.; Schweizer, Edward E.; Allmaras, Raymond R.

    1985-11-01

    Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more.

  10. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Frederik; Sedlmayer, Felix; Herskind, Carsten; Welzel, Grit; Sperk, Elena; Neumaier, Christian; Gauter-Fleckenstein, Benjamin; Vaidya, Jayant S.; Sütterlin, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Summary Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been under clinical investigation for more than 15 years. There are several technical approaches that are clinically established, e.g. brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), or external-beam radiotherapy. The understanding of the underlying biology, optimal technical procedures, patient selection criteria, and imaging changes during follow-up has increased enormously. After completion of several phase III trials using brachytherapy or IORT, APBI is currently increasingly used either in phase IV studies, registries, or in selected patients outside of clinical studies. Consensus statements about suitable patients are available from several international and national societies like ASTRO, ESTRO, and DEGRO. One may expect that 15-25% of patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery may qualify for APBI, i.e. patients with small invasive ductal breast cancer without clinical lymph node involvement. PMID:26600760

  11. VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY FOR THE CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD. II. HANLE EFFECT MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kramar, M.; Inhester, B.; Lin, H.; Davila, J. E-mail: Joseph.M.Davila@nasa.gov E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-09-20

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of saturated coronal Hanle effect vector tomography or the application of vector tomographic inversion techniques to reconstruct the three-dimensional magnetic field configuration of the solar corona using linear polarization measurements of coronal emission lines. We applied Hanle effect vector tomographic inversion to artificial data produced from analytical coronal magnetic field models with equatorial and meridional currents and global coronal magnetic field models constructed by extrapolation of real photospheric magnetic field measurements. We tested tomographic inversion with only Stokes Q, U, electron density, and temperature inputs to simulate observations over large limb distances where the Stokes I parameters are difficult to obtain with ground-based coronagraphs. We synthesized the coronal linear polarization maps by inputting realistic noise appropriate for ground-based observations over a period of two weeks into the inversion algorithm. We found that our Hanle effect vector tomographic inversion can partially recover the coronal field with a poloidal field configuration, but that it is insensitive to a corona with a toroidal field. This result demonstrates that Hanle effect vector tomography is an effective tool for studying the solar corona and that it is complementary to Zeeman effect vector tomography for the reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field.

  12. Vector insects and their control.

    PubMed

    Lehane, M J

    1996-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the huge influence that vector-transmitted disease has on humans using plague, epidemic typhus and nagana as examples. The continuing need for vector control in campaigns against insect-transmitted disease is shown by reference to current control programmes mounted against Chagas' disease, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis and nagana. These successful campaigns have not been reliant on new breakthroughs but on the forging of available tools into effective strategies widely and efficiently used by the control authorities, and the long-lasting political commitment to the success of the schemes in question. A brief mention is made of current fashions in vector control research and that great care needs to be taken by policy-makers to achieve a balance between long-term research aiming at the production of fundamentally new control technologies and operational research aiming to forge the often highly effective tools we already have into sound control strategies.

  13. [Research progress on malaria vector control].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo-Ding; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Gao, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Vector control plays a crucial role in the stages of malaria control and elimination. Currently, it mainly relies on the chemical control methods for adult mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas, however, it is undergoing the serious threat by insecticide resistance. In recent years, the transgenic technologies of malaria vectors have made a great progress in the laboratory. This paper reviews the challenges of the traditional methods and the rapid developed genetic modified technology in the application of vector control.

  14. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  15. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  16. What is the evidence behind conservative mastectomies?

    PubMed Central

    Catanuto, Giuseppe; Nava, Maurizio Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Besides the diffusion of breast reconstructive techniques, several “conservative” approaches in mastectomy have been developed, in order to perform an immediate reconstruction with better aesthetic results: the skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM), the nipple-areola complex (NAC)-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and the skin-reducing mastectomy (SRM). During the last decade, SSMs and NSMs have gained widespread acceptance and are currently considered standard treatment for early breast cancer. We would like to investigate the evidence behind this radical shift towards conservative mastectomies, where there has been a renewed interest worldwide. Methods We reviewed English literature by consulting the following databases: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and Clinicaltrials.gov. The objective is to include any randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a “conservative mastectomy” technique to breast conservative surgery or modified radical mastectomy (MRM) for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. In the absence of randomized trials, we took into account prospective cohorts and retrospective series for a narrative description of available evidence. Results Our review included 58 studies [19 prospective cohorts (34%) and 39 retrospective series (66%)] considering NSM and immediate reconstruction and ten studies [1 prospective cohort (10%) and 9 (90%) retrospective series] considering SSM and immediate reconstruction. In the NSM group, 29 studies reported data about complication rates and 42 studies presented data on NAC partial or complete necrosis. In the NSM group 45 studies and all the studies in the SSM group presented data on local and NAC recurrence. Conclusions In order to achieve higher levels of evidence, RCTs comparing conservative mastectomies to traditional mastectomy and breast conservative surgery would be

  17. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J

    2012-06-01

    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  18. Sustained expression from DNA vectors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suet Ping; Argyros, Orestis; Harbottle, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    DNA vectors have the potential to become powerful medical tools for treatment of human disease. The human body has, however, developed a range of defensive strategies to detect and silence foreign or misplaced DNA, which is more typically encountered during infection or chromosomal damage. A clinically relevant human gene therapy vector must overcome or avoid these protections whilst delivering sustained levels of therapeutic gene product without compromising the vitality of the recipient host. Many non-viral DNA vectors trigger these defense mechanisms and are subsequently destroyed or rendered silent. Thus, without modification or considered design, the clinical utility of a typical DNA vector is fundamentally limited due to the transient nature of its transgene expression. The development of safe and persistently expressing DNA vectors is a crucial prerequisite for its successful clinical application and subsequently remains, therefore, one of the main strategic tasks of non-viral gene therapy research. In this chapter we will describe our current understanding of the mechanisms that can destroy or silence DNA vectors and discuss strategies, which have been utilized to improve their sustenance and the level and duration of their transgene expression.

  19. 18 CFR 401.102 - Partial disclosure of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partial disclosure of records. 401.102 Section 401.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.102 Partial...

  20. Optimal control of a coupled partial and ordinary differential equations system for the assimilation of polarimetry Stokes vector measurements in tokamak free-boundary equilibrium reconstruction with application to ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faugeras, Blaise; Blum, Jacques; Heumann, Holger; Boulbe, Cédric

    2017-08-01

    The modelization of polarimetry Faraday rotation measurements commonly used in tokamak plasma equilibrium reconstruction codes is an approximation to the Stokes model. This approximation is not valid for the foreseen ITER scenarios where high current and electron density plasma regimes are expected. In this work a method enabling the consistent resolution of the inverse equilibrium reconstruction problem in the framework of non-linear free-boundary equilibrium coupled to the Stokes model equation for polarimetry is provided. Using optimal control theory we derive the optimality system for this inverse problem. A sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method is proposed for its numerical resolution. Numerical experiments with noisy synthetic measurements in the ITER tokamak configuration for two test cases, the second of which is an H-mode plasma, show that the method is efficient and that the accuracy of the identification of the unknown profile functions is improved compared to the use of classical Faraday measurements.

  1. O2 evolution on a clean partially reduced rutile TiO2(110) surface and on the same surface precovered with Au1 and Au2: the importance of spin conservation.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Steeve; Metiu, Horia

    2008-08-21

    We have used spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) to study O(2) evolution on a clean partially reduced rutile TiO(2)(110) surface (i.e., a surface having oxygen vacancies) and its interaction with Au(1) or Au(2) cluster adsorbed on it. We assume that the total spin of the electronic wave function is related to the number of unpaired spins (N(s)) and calculate the binding and the activation energies involved in O(2) evolution for fixed values of N(s). In addition to keeping N(s) constant, we assume that reactions in which the N(s) of the reactants differs from that of the products are very slow. The potential energy surfaces obtained in this way depend strongly on N(s). For example, O(2) dissociation at the vacancy site on a clean partially reduced TiO(2)(110) surface is exothermic by 0.85 eV in the triplet state and the highest activation energy in the chain of reactions leading to the O(2) dissociation is 0.67 eV. In the singlet state, O(2) dissociation is endothermic by 0.11 eV and the activation energy leading to dissociation is 1.30 eV. These observations are in qualitative agreement with scanning tunneling microscopy experiment in which O(2) dissociation on a partially reduced rutile TiO(2)(110) surface is observed at temperature as low as 120 K. In contrast, O(2) dissociation is predicted to be endothermic and is prevented by an activation barrier larger than 1 eV in all the previous DFT calculations, in which the DFT program varies N(s) to get the lowest energy state. We find that on a partially reduced rutile TiO(2)(110) with Au(1) and Au(2) preadsorbed on its surface, O(2) dissociates at the vacancy site: One oxygen atom fills the oxygen vacancy and the other becomes available for oxidation chemistry. This means that Au(1) and Au(2) supported on a partially reduced TiO(2)(110) surface is not an oxidation catalyst since the presence of oxygen turns it into a stoichiometric Au(n)/TiO(2)(110) surface. Finally, we find that the evolution of oxygen on

  2. Reducing radiation dose to the female breast during CT coronary angiography: A simulation study comparing breast shielding, angular tube current modulation, reduced kV, and partial angle protocols using an unknown-location signal-detectability metric

    SciTech Connect

    Rupcich, Franco; Gilat Schmidt, Taly; Badal, Andreu; Popescu, Lucretiu M.; Kyprianou, Iacovos

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The authors compared the performance of five protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast during computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography scans using a model observer unknown-location signal-detectability metric.Methods: The authors simulated CT images of an anthropomorphic female thorax phantom for a 120 kV reference protocol and five “dose reduction” protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast: 120 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered), 120 kV tube-current modulated (TCM), 120 kV with shielded breasts, 80 kV, and 80 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered). Two image quality tasks were investigated: the detection and localization of 4-mm, 3.25 mg/ml and 1-mm, 6.0 mg/ml iodine contrast signals randomly located in the heart region. For each protocol, the authors plotted the signal detectability, as quantified by the area under the exponentially transformed free response characteristic curve estimator (A-caret{sub FE}), as well as noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) versus breast and lung dose. In addition, the authors quantified each protocol's dose performance as the percent difference in dose relative to the reference protocol achieved while maintaining equivalent A-caret{sub FE}.Results: For the 4-mm signal-size task, the 80 kV full scan and 80 kV partial angle protocols decreased dose to the breast (80.5% and 85.3%, respectively) and lung (80.5% and 76.7%, respectively) with A-caret{sub FE} = 0.96, but also resulted in an approximate three-fold increase in image noise. The 120 kV partial protocol reduced dose to the breast (17.6%) at the expense of increased lung dose (25.3%). The TCM algorithm decreased dose to the breast (6.0%) and lung (10.4%). Breast shielding increased breast dose (67.8%) and lung dose (103.4%). The 80 kV and 80 kV partial protocols demonstrated greater dose reductions for the 4-mm task than for the 1-mm task, and the shielded protocol showed a larger increase in dose for the 4-mm task than for the 1-mm task

  3. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  4. Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

  5. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  6. Towards Resiliency Evaluation of Vector Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vishal C.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2016-08-04

    The systems resilience research community has developed methods to manually insert additional source-program level assertions to trap errors, and also devised tools to conduct fault injection studies for scalar program codes. In this work, we contribute the first vector oriented LLVM-level fault injector VULFI to help study the effects of faults in vector architectures that are of growing importance, especially for vectorizing loops. Using VULFI, we conduct a resiliency study of nine real-world vector benchmarks using Intel’s AVX and SSE extensions as the target vector instruction sets, and offer the first reported understanding of how faults affect vector instruction sets. We take this work further toward automating the insertion of resilience assertions during compilation. This is based on our observation that during intermediate (e.g., LLVM-level) code generation to handle full and partial vectorization, modern compilers exploit (and explicate in their code-documentation) critical invariants. These invariants are turned into error-checking code. We confirm the efficacy of these automatically inserted low-overhead error detectors for vectorized for-loops.

  7. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  8. Fever versus Fever: the role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Kathryn A.; Monath, Thomas P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Richman, Rebecca L.; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in West Africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes. These extensive similarities render the differences in the biogeography and epidemiology of the two viruses all the more striking. First, the sylvatic cycle of YFV originated in Africa and was introduced into the New World, probably as a result of the slave trade, but is absent in Asia; in contrast, sylvatic DENV likely originated in Asia and has spread to Africa but not to the New World. Second, while sylvatic YFV can emerge into extensive urban outbreaks in humans, these invariably die out, whereas four different types of DENV have established human transmission cycles that are ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from their sylvatic ancestors. Finally, transmission of YFV among humans has been documented only in Africa and the Americas, whereas DENV is transmitted among humans across most of the range of competent Aedes vectors, which in the last decade has included every continent save Antarctica. This review summarizes current understanding of sylvatic transmission cycles of YFV and DENV, considers possible explanations for their disjunct distributions, and speculates on the potential consequences of future establishment of a sylvatic cycle of DENV in the Americas. PMID:23523817

  9. Stokes-vector and Mueller-matrix polarimetry [Invited].

    PubMed

    Azzam, R M A

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews the current status of instruments for measuring the full 4×1 Stokes vector S, which describes the state of polarization (SOP) of totally or partially polarized light, and the 4×4 Mueller matrix M, which determines how the SOP is transformed as light interacts with a material sample or an optical element or system. The principle of operation of each instrument is briefly explained by using the Stokes-Mueller calculus. The development of fast, automated, imaging, and spectroscopic instruments over the last 50 years has greatly expanded the range of applications of optical polarimetry and ellipsometry in almost every branch of science and technology. Current challenges and future directions of this important branch of optics are also discussed.

  10. Light axial vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kan; Pang, Cheng-Qun; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial-vector states, we study whether the observed axial-vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial-vector meson family. In this paper we carry out an analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial-vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial-vector mesons, which are valuable for further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial-vector mesons.

  11. Reduced Vector Preisach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

  12. Viral Vectors: The Road to Reducing Genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    David, Rhiannon M; Doherty, Ann T

    2017-02-01

    Viral vector use in gene therapy has highlighted several safety concerns, including genotoxic events. Generally, vector-mediated genotoxicity results from upregulation of cellular proto-oncogenes via promoter insertion, promoter activation, or gene transcript truncation, with enhancer-mediated activation of nearby genes the primary mechanism reported in gene therapy trials. Vector-mediated genotoxicity can be influenced by virus type, integration target site, and target cell type; different vectors have distinct integration profiles which are cell-specific. Non-viral factors, including patient age, disease, and dose can also influence genotoxic potential, thus the choice of test models and clinical trial populations is important to ensure they are indicative of efficacy and safety. Efforts have been made to develop viral vectors with less risk of insertional mutagenesis, including self-inactivating (SIN) vectors, enhancer-blocking insulators, and microRNA targeting of vectors, although insertional mutagenesis is not completely abrogated. Here we provide an overview of the current understanding of viral vector-mediated genotoxicity risk from factors contributing to viral vector-mediated genotoxicity to efforts made to reduce genotoxicity, and testing strategies required to adequately assess the risk of insertional mutagenesis. It is clear that there is not a 'one size fits all' approach to vector modification for reducing genotoxicity, and addressing these challenges will be a key step in the development of therapies such as CRISPR-Cas9 and delivery of future gene-editing technologies.

  13. Dengue Vectors and their Spatial Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Yukiko

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, is affected by climatic factors. In addition, since their life cycles are well adapted to the human environment, environmental changes resulting from human activity such as urbanization exert a great impact on vector distribution. The different responses of Ae. aegypti and Ae albopictus to various environments result in a difference in spatial distribution along north-south and urban-rural gradients, and between the indoors and outdoors. In the north-south gradient, climate associated with survival is an important factor in spatial distribution. In the urban-rural gradient, different distribution reflects a difference in adult niches and is modified by geographic and human factors. The direct response of the two species to the environment around houses is related to different spatial distribution indoors and outdoors. Dengue viruses circulate mainly between human and vector mosquitoes, and the vector presence is a limiting factor of transmission. Therefore, spatial distribution of dengue vectors is a significant concern in the epidemiology of the disease. Current technologies such as GIS, satellite imagery and statistical models allow researchers to predict the spatial distribution of vectors in the changing environment. Although it is difficult to confirm the actual effect of environmental and climate changes on vector abundance and vector-borne diseases, environmental changes caused by humans and human behavioral changes due to climate change can be expected to exert an impact on dengue vectors. Longitudinal monitoring of dengue vectors and viruses is therefore necessary. PMID:22500133

  14. Targeting retroviral and lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Sandrin, V; Russell, S J; Cosset, F L

    2003-01-01

    Retroviral vectors capable of efficient in vivo gene delivery to specific target cell types or to specific locations of disease pathology would greatly facilitate many gene therapy applications. The surface glycoproteins of membrane-enveloped viruses stand among the choice candidates to control the target cell receptor recognition and host range of retroviral vectors onto which they are incorporated. This can be achieved in many ways, such as the exchange of glycoprotein by pseudotyping, their biochemical modifications, their conjugation with virus-cell bridging agents or their structural modifications. Understanding the fundamental properties of the viral glycoproteins and the molecular mechanism of virus entry into cells has been instrumental in the functional alteration of their tropism. Here we briefly review the current state of our understanding of the structure and function of viral envelope glycoproteins and we discuss the emerging targeting strategies based on retroviral and lentiviral vector systems.

  15. A viral protease relocalizes in the presence of the vector to promote vector performance

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Aurélie; Cheung, Andrea L.; Yang, Chunling; Whitham, Steven A.; Casteel, Clare L.

    2017-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens influence host characteristics relevant to host–vector contact, increasing pathogen transmission and survival. Previously, we demonstrated that infection with Turnip mosaic virus, a member of one of the largest families of plant-infecting viruses, increases vector attraction and reproduction on infected hosts. These changes were due to a single viral protein, NIa-Pro. Here we show that NIa-Pro responds to the presence of the aphid vector during infection by relocalizing to the vacuole. Remarkably, vacuolar localization is required for NIa-Pro's ability to enhance aphid reproduction on host plants, vacuole localization disappears when aphids are removed, and this phenomenon occurs for another potyvirus, Potato virus Y, suggesting a conserved role for the protein in vector–host interactions. Taken together, these results suggest that potyviruses dynamically respond to the presence of their vectors, promoting insect performance and transmission only when needed. PMID:28205516

  16. [Conservative Therapy of Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Krasselt, Marco; Baerwald, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The therapy of osteoarthritis is based on conservative therapeutic approaches, depending on the disease's severity. In this context, physical therapy and the use of sufficient analgesic regimes are of decisive importance. This article will discuss the current evidence based therapeutic concepts as well as promising new therapeutic approaches.

  17. Conservation, Preservation, and Digitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.; Brownrigg, Edwin B.

    1986-01-01

    Digital technologies should be considered a method of preservation for library materials. Current conservation strategies of restoration, deacidification, and microfilming are expensive, and they limit access. Digitization offers improved access while preserving materials and reflects a change in the library role from depository of printed…

  18. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  19. On integrable conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-08

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations.

  20. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  1. Vectors for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Russell, S J

    1996-09-01

    Many viral and non-viral vector systems have now been developed for gene therapy applications. In this article, the pros and cons of these vector systems are discussed in relation to the different cancer gene therapy strategies. The protocols used in cancer gene therapy can be broadly divided into six categories including gene transfer to explanted cells for use as cell-based cancer vaccines; gene transfer to a small number of tumour cells in situ to achieve a vaccine effect; gene transfer to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) lining the blood vessels of the tumour to interfere with tumour angiogenesis; gene transfer to T lymphocytes to enhance their antitumour effector capability; gene transfer to haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to enhance their resistance to cytotoxic drugs and gene transfer to a large number of tumour cells in situ to achieve nonimmune tumour reduction with or without bystander effect. Each of the six strategies makes unique demands on the vector system and these are discussed with reference to currently available vectors. Aspects of vector biology that are in need of further development are discussed in some detail. The final section points to the potential use of replicating viruses as delivery vehicles for efficient in vivo gene transfer to disseminated cancers.

  2. Episomal vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Anja; Haase, Rudolf; Schepers, Aloys; Deutsch, Manuel J; Lipps, Hans Joachim; Baiker, Armin

    2008-06-01

    The increasing knowledge of the molecular and genetic background of many different human diseases has led to the vision that genetic engineering might be used one day for their phenotypic correction. The main goal of gene therapy is to treat loss-of-function genetic disorders by delivering correcting therapeutic DNA sequences into the nucleus of a cell, allowing its long-term expression at physiologically relevant levels. Manifold different vector systems for the therapeutic gene delivery have been described over the recent years. They all have their individual advantages but also their individual limitations and must be judged on a careful risk/benefit analysis. Integrating vector systems can deliver genetic material to a target cell with high efficiency enabling long-term expression of an encoded transgene. The main disadvantage of integrating vector systems, however, is their potential risk of causing insertional mutagenesis. Episomal vector systems have the potential to avoid these undesired side effects, since they behave as separate extrachromosomal elements in the nucleus of a target cell. Within this article we present a comprehensive survey of currently available episomal vector systems for the genetic modification of mammalian cells. We will discuss their advantages and disadvantages and their applications in the context of basic research, biotechnology and gene therapy.

  3. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  4. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  5. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  6. Conservation ethics and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Houghton, I T

    2003-10-01

    The current attitude of conservators towards restoration is to preserve objects and materials in the condition as they are but without attempting to restore them 'as new'. Museum objects have generally ceased to serve their original utilitarian function but have become objects for study, information and inspiration. Conservation and restoration are discussed in relation to anaesthetic exhibits. Conservation is the prevention, detection, containment, control and recovery but risk avoidance and monitoring hopefully will lessen the need for conservation. Some objects such as rubber and plastic items are, by their very nature, prone to ageing, accident and mistreatment. Cleaning and maintenance may lead to loss of original detail and is 'an act of critical interpretation'. Reshaping of distorted objects and repair of broken pieces can sometimes be justified but, in other work, the actual restoration may become part of the object's history that should not be lost in trying to restore something to a presumed earlier state. The mind interprets images by reference to earlier patterns and so imperfections, if not disguised, may be unduly distracting. Museums exist for information, evidence, enlightenment and even entertainment. Conservation must serve these purposes and is not an end in its own right. The professional actions of the conservator must be governed by a total respect for physical, historic, and aesthetic integrity but this must be interpreted widely.

  7. Solar imaging vector magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an instrument which has been constructed at the University of Hawaii to make observations of the magnetic field in solar active regions. Detailed knowledge of active region magnetic structures is crucial to understanding many solar phenomena, because the magnetic field both defines the morphology of structures seen in the solar atmosphere and is the apparent energy source for solar flares. The new vector magnetograph was conceived in response to a perceived discrepancy between the capabilities of X ray imaging telescopes to be operating during the current solar maximum and those of existing magnetographs. There were no space-based magnetographs planned for this period; the existing ground-based instruments variously suffered from lack of sensitivity, poor time resolution, inadequate spatial resolution or unreliable sites. Yet the studies of flares and their relationship to the solar corona planned for the 1991-1994 maximum absolutely required high quality vector magnetic field measurements. By 'vector' measurements we mean that the observation attempts to deduce the complete strength and direction of the field at the measurement site, rather than just the line of sight component as obtained by a traditional longitudinal magnetograph. Knowledge of the vector field permits one to calculate photospheric electric currents, which might play a part in heating the corona, and to calculate energy stored in coronal magnetic fields as the result of such currents. Information about the strength and direction of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere can be obtained in a number of ways, but quantitative data is best obtained by observing Zeeman-effect polarization in solar spectral lines. The technique requires measuring the complete state of polarization at one or more wavelengths within a magnetically sensitive line of the solar spectrum. This measurement must be done for each independent spatial point for which one wants magnetic field data. All the

  8. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  9. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  10. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  11. Marketing Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, William B.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

  12. Lighting Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Frank D.

    1975-01-01

    With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

  13. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Amy A.

    This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

  14. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  15. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  16. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  17. Restart 68000 vector remapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, J.

    1984-05-03

    The circuit described allows power-on-reset (POR) vector fetch from ROM for a 68000 microprocessor. It offers programmability of exception vectors, including the restart vector. This method eliminates the need for high-resolution, address-decoder peripheral circuitry.

  18. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  19. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  20. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.

  1. A comparative study on the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and surgical clips based on 4DCT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suzhen; Wang, Jinzhi; Ma, Zhifang; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min

    2014-03-19

    To explore the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and/or surgical clips based on the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during free-breathing. Fifteen breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were recruited for EB-PBI. On the ten sets CT images, the gross target volume formed by the clips, the seroma, both the clips and seroma delineated by one radiation oncologist and defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s, respectively. The ten GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s on the ten sets CT images produced the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s, respectively. The IGTV volume and the distance between the center of IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s were all recorded. Conformity index (CI), degree of inclusion (DI) were calculated for IGTV/IGTV, respectively. The volume of IGTVc+s were significantly larger than the IGTVc and IGTVs (p<0.05). There was significant difference between the DIs of IGTVc vs IGTVc+s, the DIs of IGTVs vs IGTVc+s. There was significant difference among the CIs of IGTV/IGTV. The DIs and CIs of IGTV/IGTV were negatively correlated with their centroid distance (r<0, p<0.05). There were volume difference and spatial mismatch between the IGTVs delineated based on the surgical clips and seroma. The IGTV defined as the seroma and surgical clips provided the best overall representation of the 'true' moving GTV.

  2. Partial breast brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... brachytherapy; Accelerated partial breast irradiation - brachytherapy; Partial breast radiation therapy - brachytherapy; Permanent breast seed implant; PBSI; Low-dose radiotherapy - breast; High-dose radiotherapy - breast; Electronic balloon ...

  3. Covariantized vector Galileons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Matthew; Koyama, Kazuya; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-03-01

    Vector Galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector Galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a "beyond Horndeski" theory involving vector degrees of freedom that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyze a Higgs mechanism for generating vector Galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantization.

  4. Energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    Under the Warner Amendment, oil overcharge funds are designated for states' use in certain authorized energy conservation and assistance programs. During FY 1982-87 Warner funds accounted for $200 million of the $3.3 billion states received from the oil overcharge escrow account. The $3.3 billion was in addition to the $13.3 billion that the Congress appropriated for the conservation and assistance programs. More than 4 years after their distribution, states had not used all the Warner funds. This report provides the status of all oil overcharge funds; the use of Warner funds and the time it is taking to spend the funds in Arizona, California, and Illinois.

  5. Chiral and continuum extrapolation of partially quenched lattice results

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Allton; W. Armour; D.B. Leinweber; A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young

    2005-04-01

    The vector meson mass is extracted from a large sample of partially quenched, two-flavor lattice QCD simulations. For the first time, discretization, finite-volume and partial quenching artifacts are treated in a unified chiral effective field theory analysis of the lattice simulation results.

  6. Energy conservation in distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, T. W.; Dweck, J. S.; Weinberg, M.; Armstrong, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    An audit of major industrial and processes and key colums in each major process indicated that approximately twoquads of energy were consumed for distillation in the US in 1976. Energy usage by industry is included: petroleum refineries, 66% chemical (including petrochemical) industry, 29% natural gas liquids processing, 5%. Techniques and current practices for conserving distillation energy are reviewed, and guidelines indicating those process conditons which favor the use of each energy conserving technique are enumerated. Expressions for payout time for tray and control retrofit options are developed based on energy savings and increased throughput. Calculations for industrial colums suggested that both types of retrofits would frequently have short (,6 months) payout times based on either criterion. Extractive distillation is also discussed, and criteria enabling the estimation of the energy which may be conserved using this technique are developed. Good housekeeping practices and field techniques for checking the energy efficiency of industrial distillations are also discussed.

  7. Vector Hermite-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahong; Wang, Fang; Yu, Jiayi; Liu, Lin; Cai, Yangjian

    2016-07-11

    A new kind of partially coherent vector beam named vector Hermite-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (HGCSM) beam is introduced as a natural extension of recently introduced scalar HGCSM beam. The realizability and beam conditions for a vector HGCSM beam with uniform state of polarization (SOP) or non-uniform SOP are derived, respectively. Furthermore, analytical formulae for a vector HGCSM beam propagating in free space are derived, and the propagation properties of a vector HGCSM beam with uniform SOP or non-uniform SOP in free space are studied and analyzed in detail. We find that the behaviors of a vector HGCSM beam on propagation are quite different from those of a conventional vector partially coherent beam with uniform SOP or non-uniform SOP, and modulating the structures of the correlation functions cannot only modulate the intensity distribution, but also the state of polarization, the degree of polarization and the polarization singularities of a partially coherent vector beam on propagation. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a radially polarized HGCSM beam for the first time. Our results provide a novel way for polarization modulation.

  8. Statistics of narrow-band partially polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    A complete single-point statistical description of a narrow-band partially polarized optical field is developed in terms of the 2D period-averaged probability density function (PA-PDF) of the electrical field vector. This statistic can be measured using the coherent (heterodyne) detection. PA-PDF carries more information about the partially polarized light than the traditional Stokes vector. For a simple Gaussian partially polarized field the PA-PDF depends on 13 real parameters in contrast to the four parameters of the Stokes vector or coherence tensor. We show on several examples that the polarization state of the wave, as described by PA-PDF can vary significantly even while Stokes vector remains fixed.

  9. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Haiti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    The elderly and children are most susceptible to infection. VECTOR TRANSMISSION: Primary Vectors: Culex nigripalpus , Aedes taeniorhynchus VECTOR...BIONOMICS: Culex nigripalpus breeds in a broad variety of aquatic habitats including lakes, temporary pools, epiphytic plants, brackish water, and...disease. VECTOR TRANSMISSION: Primary Vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus ; both species are primary vectors in the U.S., and both

  10. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  11. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  12. Molecular neurosurgery: vectors and vector delivery strategies.

    PubMed

    White, Edward

    2012-12-01

    Molecular neurosurgery involves the use of vector-mediated gene therapy and gene knockdown to manipulate in vivo gene expression for the treatment of neurological diseases. These techniques have the potential to revolutionise the practice of neurosurgery. However, significant challenges remain to be overcome before these techniques enter routine clinical practice. These challenges have been the subject of intensive research in recent years and include the development of strategies to facilitate effective vector delivery to the brain and the development of both viral and non-viral vectors that are capable of efficient cell transduction without excessive toxicity. This review provides an update on the practice of molecular neurosurgery with particular focus on the practical neurosurgical aspects of vector delivery to the brain. In addition, an introduction to the key vectors employed in clinical trials and a brief overview of previous gene therapy clinical trials is provided. Finally, key areas for future research aimed at increasing the likelihood of the successful translation of gene therapy into clinical trials are highlighted.

  13. Velocity Vector Fields from Sea Surface Temperature Images Using Multiresolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonsmann, G.; Tyler, J. M.; Walker, N. D.; Wiseman, W.; Rouse, L. J.

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for the estimation of oceanic surface velocity vector fields using multiresolution. Wavelet analysis is used to achieve multiresolution. The new method requires two sea surface temperature (SST) satellite images of the same region taken within a known time interval. Wavelet analysis is performed on both images to decompose them into sub-images of decreasing resolution levels. These sub-images are organized into two quadtrees, one for each SST image. The method compares equivalent sub-images between quadtrees to produce vector fields to represent local displacements of features within the images. Comparisons are performed by maximization of cross correlation of regions in the sub-images. The vector fields are smoothed to eliminate noise and to produce coherent vector fields at each resolution level. Vector fields at levels of higher resolution are used as refinements to vector fields at lower resolution levels. Operational parameters for the new method were optimized. It was determined that wavelet filters with smaller support were best for analysis and smoothing. Validation of the methodology was performed with SST images of the Gulf of Mexico from NOAA satellites during the period October 1993 through July 1994. Image pairs within this set were selected with a time interval of 24 hours between them to minimize biases in SST values that may be introduced by the day-night cycle and to filter out the effects of the diurnal tide, which dominates in the Gulf of Mexico. Comparisons with daily average velocities calculated from drifters from the Surface Current and Lagrangian-drift Program I (SCULP-I) were also performed. Agreement with drifter data was partially achieved. Some discrepancies were discovered in featureless image regions where cross correlation calculations produce unreliable results. The discrepancies could also be explained by differences in the features captured in the satellite images and the factors that influence

  14. Local energy conservation law for a spatially-discretized Hamiltonian Vlasov-Maxwell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianyuan; Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Ruili

    2017-06-01

    Because of the unparalleled long-term conservative property, the structure-preserving geometric algorithm for the Vlasov-Maxwell (VM) equations is currently an active research topic. We show that spatially discretized Hamiltonian systems for the VM equations admit a local energy conservation law in space-time. This is accomplished by proving that a sum-free and only locally non-zero scalar field can always be written as the divergence of a vector field that is only locally non-zero. The result demonstrates that the Hamiltonian discretization of Vlasov-Maxwell system can preserve local conservation laws, in addition to the symplectic structure, both of which are the intrinsic physical properties of infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems in physics.

  15. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  16. Axial U(1) current in Grabowska and Kaplan's formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yu; Kawai, Hikaru

    2017-06-01

    Recently, Grabowska and Kaplan [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 211602 (2016); Phys. Rev. D 94, 114504 (2016)] suggested a nonperturbative formulation of a chiral gauge theory, which consists of the conventional domain-wall fermion and a gauge field that evolves by gradient flow from one domain wall to the other. We introduce two sets of domain-wall fermions belonging to complex conjugate representations so that the effective theory is a 4D vector-like gauge theory. Then, as a natural definition of the axial-vector current, we consider a current that generates simultaneous phase transformations for the massless modes in 4 dimensions. However, this current is exactly conserved and does not reproduce the correct anomaly. In order to investigate this point precisely, we consider the mechanism of the conservation. We find that this current includes not only the axial current on the domain wall but also a contribution from the bulk, which is nonlocal in the sense of 4D fields. Therefore, the local current is obtained by subtracting the bulk contribution from it.

  17. Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, P.

    1995-06-01

    There are two fundamental reasons or motivations for energy conservation: (1) economics; and (2) consideration of energy - its sources and availability. Economics speaks for itself and needs little explanation: a project is undertaken, the cost is recovered in a given period of time (we hope) and our company realizes cost savings thereafter. We study and propose a project; we estimate the payback. If approved, we implement the project. Then, we eagerly watch for its effectiveness - for the proposed payback. The second consideration in regard to energy conservation might - in the foreseeable future - become by far the most important - that of availability. Very knowledgeable persons have stated that this - in reality - is the most serious problem facing our nation today. Readily available, reasonably priced energy has given to the US the high form of living experienced today. An interruption in this flow could catapult our nation in an awesome catastrophe. The energy shortage of the late 70`s might be a forerunner of such an experience.

  18. Generating Series for Nested Bethe Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Sergey; Pakuliak, Stanislav

    2008-11-01

    We reformulate nested relations between off-shell Uq(^glN) Bethe vectors as a certain equation on generating series of strings of the composed Uq(^glN) currents. Using inversion of the generating series we find a new type of hierarchical relations between universal off-shell Bethe vectors, useful for a derivation of Bethe equation. As an example of application, we use these relations for a derivation of analytical Bethe ansatz equations [Arnaudon D. et al., Ann. Henri Poincaré 7 (2006), 1217-1268, math-ph/0512037] for the parameters of universal Bethe vectors of the algebra Uq(^gl2).

  19. Antigenic structures stably expressed by recombinant TGEV-derived vectors.

    PubMed

    Becares, Martina; Sanchez, Carlos M; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zuñiga, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-stranded RNA viruses with potential as immunization vectors, expressing high levels of heterologous genes and eliciting both secretory and systemic immune responses. Nevertheless, its high recombination rate may result in the loss of the full-length foreign gene, limiting their use as vectors. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was engineered to express porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) small protein domains, as a strategy to improve heterologous gene stability. After serial passage in tissue cultures, stable expression of small PRRSV protein antigenic domains was achieved. Therefore, size reduction of the heterologous genes inserted in CoV-derived vectors led to the stable expression of antigenic domains. Immunization of piglets with these TGEV vectors led to partial protection against a challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain, as immunized animals showed reduced clinical signs and lung damage. Further improvement of TGEV-derived vectors will require the engineering of vectors with decreased recombination rate.

  20. Generalized fermion symmetry, its currents algebra, and Ward-Takahashi identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a new local symmetry into the fermion sector of a gauge invariant Lagrangian which may or may not contain a scalar or spontaneous symmetry breaking. The standard model in the unitary gauge and QCD are particular cases where this symmetry may apply. We determine the associated vector and axial vector currents and their conservation laws. We show that a single current conservation law may lead to multiple Ward-Takahashi identities. Our results can potentially have important consequences for effective models of low-energy QCD and hadron structure. As a specific example, we discuss the construction of tetraquark states within a generalized linear sigma model and show that this new symmetry probes the tetraquarks in a manner that is consistent with the large Nc limit of QCD.

  1. Vectorized schemes for conical potential flow using the artificial density method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, P. F.; Dwoyer, D. L.; South, J. C., Jr.; Keen, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A method is developed to determine solutions to the full-potential equation for steady supersonic conical flow using the artificial density method. Various update schemes used generally for transonic potential solutions are investigated. The schemes are compared for speed and robustness. All versions of the computer code have been vectorized and are currently running on the CYBER-203 computer. The update schemes are vectorized, where possible, either fully (explicit schemes) or partially (implicit schemes). Since each version of the code differs only by the update scheme and elements other than the update scheme are completely vectorizable, comparisons of computational effort and convergence rate among schemes are a measure of the specific scheme's performance. Results are presented for circular and elliptical cones at angle of attack for subcritical and supercritical crossflows.

  2. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato; Lepe-Lopez, Manuel A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian regions to the Andes Mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. We estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne diseases under present-day and future climates. Our results consistently suggest that climate warming is likely threatening some vector species with extinction, locally or completely. These results suggest that climate change could reduce the burden of specific vector species. Other vector species are likely to shift and constrain their geographic range to the highlands in Ecuador potentially affecting novel areas and populations. These forecasts show the need for development of early prevention strategies for vector species currently absent in areas projected as suitable under future climate conditions. Informed interventions could reduce the risk of human exposure to vector species with distributional shifts, in response to current and future climate changes. Based on the mixed effects of future climate on human exposure to disease vectors, we argue that research on vector-borne diseases should be cross-scale and include climatic, demographic, and landscape factors, as well as forces facilitating disease transmission at fine scales.

  3. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato; Lepe-Lopez, Manuel A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian regions to the Andes Mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. We estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne diseases under present-day and future climates. Our results consistently suggest that climate warming is likely threatening some vector species with extinction, locally or completely. These results suggest that climate change could reduce the burden of specific vector species. Other vector species are likely to shift and constrain their geographic range to the highlands in Ecuador potentially affecting novel areas and populations. These forecasts show the need for development of early prevention strategies for vector species currently absent in areas projected as suitable under future climate conditions. Informed interventions could reduce the risk of human exposure to vector species with distributional shifts, in response to current and future climate changes. Based on the mixed effects of future climate on human exposure to disease vectors, we argue that research on vector-borne diseases should be cross-scale and include climatic, demographic, and landscape factors, as well as forces facilitating disease transmission at fine scales. PMID:27982119

  4. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato; Lepe-Lopez, Manuel A; Craft, Meggan E; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-16

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian regions to the Andes Mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. We estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne diseases under present-day and future climates. Our results consistently suggest that climate warming is likely threatening some vector species with extinction, locally or completely. These results suggest that climate change could reduce the burden of specific vector species. Other vector species are likely to shift and constrain their geographic range to the highlands in Ecuador potentially affecting novel areas and populations. These forecasts show the need for development of early prevention strategies for vector species currently absent in areas projected as suitable under future climate conditions. Informed interventions could reduce the risk of human exposure to vector species with distributional shifts, in response to current and future climate changes. Based on the mixed effects of future climate on human exposure to disease vectors, we argue that research on vector-borne diseases should be cross-scale and include climatic, demographic, and landscape factors, as well as forces facilitating disease transmission at fine scales.

  5. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

  7. Viral Vector Production: Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julius W; Morshed, Ramin A; Kane, J Robert; Auffinger, Brenda; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have proven to be valuable resources in the development of novel therapies aimed at targeting pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease and neoplastic brain lesions. Not only can some genetically engineered adenoviral vectors achieve remarkably efficient and specific gene delivery to target cells, but they also may act as anticancer agents by selectively replicating within cancer cells.Due to the great interest in using adenoviral vectors for various purposes, the need for a comprehensive protocol for viral vector production is especially apparent. Here, we describe the process of generating an adenoviral vector in its entirety, including the more complex process of adenoviral fiber modification to restrict viral tropism in order to achieve more efficient and specific gene delivery.

  8. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  9. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  10. Liver Transduction with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Is Primarily Restricted by Capsid Serotype Not Vector Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Dirk; Pandey, Kusum; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Storm, Theresa A.; Kay, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    We and others have recently reported highly efficient liver gene transfer with adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV-8) pseudotypes, i.e., AAV-2 genomes packaged into AAV-8 capsids. Here we studied whether liver transduction could be further enhanced by using viral DNA packaging sequences (inverted terminal repeats [ITRs]) derived from AAV genotypes other than 2. To this end, we generated two sets of vector constructs carrying expression cassettes embedding a gfp gene or the human factor IX (hfIX) gene flanked by ITRs from AAV genotypes 1 through 6. Initial in vitro analyses of gfp vector DNA replication, encapsidation, and cell transduction revealed a surprisingly high degree of interchangeability among the six genotypes. For subsequent in vivo studies, we cross-packaged the six hfIX variants into AAV-8 and infused mice via the portal vein with doses of 5 × 1010 to 1.8 × 1012 particles. Notably, all vectors expressed comparably high plasma hFIX levels within a dose cohort over the following 6 months, concurrent with the finding of equivalent vector DNA copy numbers per cell. Partial hepatectomies resulted in ∼80% drops of hFIX levels and vector DNA copy numbers in all groups, indicating genotype-independent persistence of predominantly episomal vector DNA. Southern blot analyses of total liver DNA in fact confirmed the presence of identical and mostly nonintegrated molecular vector forms for all genotypes. We conclude that, unlike serotypes, AAV genotypes are not critical for efficient hepatocyte transduction and can be freely substituted. This corroborates our current model for AAV vector persistence in the liver and provides useful information for the future design and application of recombinant AAV. PMID:16352567

  11. Vector wind profile gust model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1979-01-01

    Work towards establishing a vector wind profile gust model for the Space Transportation System flight operations and trade studies is reported. To date, all the statistical and computational techniques required were established and partially implemented. An analysis of wind profile gust at Cape Kennedy within the theoretical framework is presented. The variability of theoretical and observed gust magnitude with filter type, altitude, and season is described. Various examples are presented which illustrate agreement between theoretical and observed gust percentiles. The preliminary analysis of the gust data indicates a strong variability with altitude, season, and wavelength regime. An extension of the analyses to include conditional distributions of gust magnitude given gust length, distributions of gust modulus, and phase differences between gust components has begun.

  12. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  13. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  14. Line Integral of a Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…

  15. [Dosimetric comparison of external partial breast irradiation with whole breast irradiation and partial breast brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Bodács, István; Polgár, Csaba; Major, Tibor

    2014-06-01

    Different techniques exist for the delivery of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery. The conventional method is whole breast irradiation. However, in selected patients partial breast irradiation can be performed, either with external beams or brachytherapy. In the current study three irradiation techniques are compared regarding dosimetric aspects. Treatment plans of thirty women treated with external beam conformal partial breast irradiation (CONF) were evaluated using dose-volume histograms. For the same patients whole breast irradiation plans (WBI) were made and compared with the CONF ones. Breast and lung of both sides, and heart at left sided lesions were contoured as organs at risk. After this, dose plans of another thirty patients treated with interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) were analyzed and compared with the CONF plans. According to our results the 90% isodose curve covered at least 97% of the target volume at all three techniques, and this value was 100% for CONF. The maximal dose within target volume was 106% in CONF and 115% in WBI plans. Volume of ipsilateral breast receiving the prescribed dose was 66%, 15% and 13% in the WBI, CONF and IBT plans, respectively. The dose to the contralateral breast was less for CONF compared to WBI. Volume of the ipsilateral lung receiving 30% of the prescribed dose was 15%, 8% and 1%, the maximal dose was 105%, 94% and 47% in the WBI, CONF and IBT plans, respectively. In the same order the maximal dose to the heart was 82%, 49% and 25%, while the dose irradiated to 5% of the heart volume was 27%, 19% and 14% at left sided lesions. Regarding target coverage, the conformal technique was the best, and the dose was more homogeneous than at WBI. With respect to dose to organs at risk the partial breast irradiation techniques were much more favorable than WBI, and the lowest doses occurred in the IBT treatment plans.

  16. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Tann, Anne W; Hatch, Sandra S; Joyner, Melissa M; Wiederhold, Lee R; Swanson, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) focuses higher doses of radiation during a shorter interval to the lumpectomy cavity, in the setting of breast conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. The utilization of APBI has increased in the past decade because of the shorter treatment schedule and a growing body of outcome data showing positive cosmetic outcomes and high local control rates in selected patients undergoing breast conserving therapy. Technological advances in various APBI modalities, including intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy, intraoperative radiation therapy, and external beam radiation therapy, have made APBI more accessible in the community. Results of early APBI trials served as the basis for the current consensus guidelines, and multiple prospective randomized clinical trials are currently ongoing. The pending long term results of these trials will help us identify optimal candidates that can benefit from ABPI. Here we provide an overview of the clinical and cosmetic outcomes of various APBI techniques and review the current guidelines for selecting suitable breast cancer patients. We also discuss the impact of APBI on the economics of cancer care and patient reported quality of life. PMID:27777879

  17. Establishment of a self-propagating population of the African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The successful control of insect disease vectors relies on a thorough understanding of their ecology and behaviour. However, knowledge of the ecology of many human disease vectors lags behind that of agricultural pests. This is partially due to the paucity of experimental tools for investigating their ecology under natural conditions without risk of exposure to disease. Assessment of vector life-history and demographic traits under natural conditions has also been hindered by the inherent difficulty of sampling these seasonally and temporally varying populations with the limited range of currently available tools. Consequently much of our knowledge of vector biology comes from studies of laboratory colonies, which may not accurately represent the genetic and behavioural diversity of natural populations. Contained semi-field systems (SFS) have been proposed as more appropriate tools for the study of vector ecology. SFS are relatively large, netting-enclosed, mesocosms in which vectors can fly freely, feed on natural plant and vertebrate host sources, and access realistic resting and oviposition sites. Methods A self-replicating population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis was established within a large field cage (21 × 9.1 × 7.1 m) at the Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania that mimics the natural habitat features of the rural village environments where these vectors naturally occur. Offspring from wild females were used to establish this population whose life-history, behaviour and demography under semi-field conditions was monitored over 24 generations. Results This study reports the first successful establishment and maintenance of an African malaria vector population under SFS conditions for multiple generations (> 24). The host-seeking behaviour, time from blood feeding to oviposition, larval development, adult resting and swarming behaviour exhibited by An. arabiensis under SFS conditions were similar to those seen in nature. Conclusions

  18. Establishment of a self-propagating population of the African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ng'habi, Kija R N; Mwasheshi, Dickson; Knols, Bart G J; Ferguson, Heather M

    2010-12-08

    The successful control of insect disease vectors relies on a thorough understanding of their ecology and behaviour. However, knowledge of the ecology of many human disease vectors lags behind that of agricultural pests. This is partially due to the paucity of experimental tools for investigating their ecology under natural conditions without risk of exposure to disease. Assessment of vector life-history and demographic traits under natural conditions has also been hindered by the inherent difficulty of sampling these seasonally and temporally varying populations with the limited range of currently available tools. Consequently much of our knowledge of vector biology comes from studies of laboratory colonies, which may not accurately represent the genetic and behavioural diversity of natural populations. Contained semi-field systems (SFS) have been proposed as more appropriate tools for the study of vector ecology. SFS are relatively large, netting-enclosed, mesocosms in which vectors can fly freely, feed on natural plant and vertebrate host sources, and access realistic resting and oviposition sites. A self-replicating population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis was established within a large field cage (21 × 9.1 × 7.1 m) at the Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania that mimics the natural habitat features of the rural village environments where these vectors naturally occur. Offspring from wild females were used to establish this population whose life-history, behaviour and demography under semi-field conditions was monitored over 24 generations. This study reports the first successful establishment and maintenance of an African malaria vector population under SFS conditions for multiple generations (> 24). The host-seeking behaviour, time from blood feeding to oviposition, larval development, adult resting and swarming behaviour exhibited by An. arabiensis under SFS conditions were similar to those seen in nature. This study presents proof

  19. Volumetric Acoustic Vector Intensity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    A new measurement tool capable of imaging the acoustic intensity vector throughout a large volume is discussed. This tool consists of an array of fifty microphones that form a spherical surface of radius 0.2m. A simultaneous measurement of the pressure field across all the microphones provides time-domain near-field holograms. Near-field acoustical holography is used to convert the measured pressure into a volumetric vector intensity field as a function of frequency on a grid of points ranging from the center of the spherical surface to a radius of 0.4m. The volumetric intensity is displayed on three-dimensional plots that are used to locate noise sources outside the volume. There is no restriction on the type of noise source that can be studied. The sphere is mobile and can be moved from location to location to hunt for unidentified noise sources. An experiment inside a Boeing 757 aircraft in flight successfully tested the ability of the array to locate low-noise-excited sources on the fuselage. Reference transducers located on suspected noise source locations can also be used to increase the ability of this device to separate and identify multiple noise sources at a given frequency by using the theory of partial field decomposition. The frequency range of operation is 0 to 1400Hz. This device is ideal for the study of noise sources in commercial and military transportation vehicles in air, on land and underwater.

  20. World Conservation Strategy in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Rob

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a framework for approaching and evaluating current global conservation conditions in terms of psychological, intellectual, and moral behavior. Applies the psychoanalytic theory of Velikovsky, the intellectual development theory of Piaget, and Kolberg's theory of moral development in analyzing the current status and future needs of global…

  1. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  2. Autonomous parvovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Ian H; Terrell, Kristina L; Maxwell, Françoise

    2002-10-01

    Parvoviruses are small, icosahedral viruses (approximately 25 nm) containing a single-strand DNA genome (approximately 5 kb) with hairpin termini. Autonomous parvoviruses (APVs) are found in many species; they do not require a helper virus for replication but they do require proliferating cells (S-phase functions) and, in some cases, tissue-specific factors. APVs can protect animals from spontaneous or experimental tumors, leading to consideration of these viruses, and vectors derived from them, as anticancer agents. Vector development has focused on three rodent APVs that can infect human cells, namely, LuIII, MVM, and H1. LuIII-based vectors with complete replacement of the viral coding sequences can direct transient or persistent expression of transgenes in cell culture. MVM-based and H1-based vectors with substitution of transgenes for the viral capsid sequences retain viral nonstructural (NS) coding sequences and express the NS1 protein. The latter serves to amplify the vector genome in target cells, potentially contributing to antitumor activity. APV vectors have packaging capacity for foreign DNA of approximately 4.8 kb, a limit that probably cannot be exceeded by more than a few percent. LuIII vectors can be pseudotyped with capsid proteins from related APVs, a promising strategy for controlling tissue tropism and circumventing immune responses to repeated administration. Initial success has been achieved in targeting such a pseudotyped vector by genetic modification of the capsid. Subject to advances in production and purification methods, APV vectors have potential as gene transfer agents for experimental and therapeutic use, particularly for cancer therapy. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  3. Incorporating future change into current conservation planning: Evaluating tidal saline wetland migration along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2015-11-02

    In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, quantified the potential for landward migration of tidal saline wetlands along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. Our analyses focused exclusively on tidal saline wetlands (that is, mangrove forests, salt marshes, and salt flats), and we combined these diverse tidal saline wetland ecosystems into a single grouping, “tidal saline wetland.” Collectively, our approach and findings can provide useful information for scientists and environmental planners working to develop future-focused adaptation strategies for conserving coastal landscapes and the ecosystem goods and services provided by tidal saline wetlands. The primary product of this work is a public dataset that identifies locations where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is expected to occur under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. In addition to identifying areas where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is possible because of the absence of barriers, these data also identify locations where landward migration of these wetlands could be prevented by barriers associated with current urbanization, future urbanization, and levees.

  4. [Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: technique and outcomes].

    PubMed

    Colombo, J R; Gill, I S

    2006-05-01

    The indication of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has evolved considerably, and the technique is approaching established status at our institution. Over the past 5 years, the senior author has performed more than 450 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies at the Cleveland Clinic. Herein we present our current technique, review contemporary data and oncological outcomes of LPN.

  5. Null Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukács, B.; Perjés, Z.; Sebestyén, Á.

    1981-06-01

    Space-times admitting a null Killing vector are studied, using the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism. The properties of the eigenrays (principal null curves of the Killing bivector) are shown to be related to the twist of the null Killing vector. Among the electrovacs, the ones containing a null Maxwell field turn out to belong to the twist-free class. An electrovac solution is obtained for which the null Killing vector is twisting and has geodesic and shear-free eigenrays. This solution is parameterless and appears to be the field of a zero-mass, spinning, and charged source.

  6. Integrating Transgenic Vector Manipulation with Clinical Interventions to Manage Vector-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kenichi W.; Gould, Fred; Lloyd, Alun L.

    2016-01-01

    Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication) can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted). We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences—consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even modest

  7. An assessment of land conservation patterns in Maine based on spatial analysis of ecological and socioeconomic indicators.

    PubMed

    Cronan, Christopher S; Lilieholm, Robert J; Tremblay, Jill; Glidden, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Given the nature of modern conservation acquisitions, which often result from gifts and opportunistic purchases of full or partial property rights, there is a risk that the resulting mosaic of conserved resources may not represent a coherent set of public values and benefits. With different public and private entities engaged in land conservation, one would further expect that each organization would apply separate goals and criteria to the selection and acquisition of its conservation portfolio. This set of circumstances raises an important question: what is the aggregate outcome of this land conservation process? Retrospective assessments provide a means of reviewing cumulative historical decisions and elucidating lessons for improving future conservation strategies. This study used GIS-based spatial analysis to examine the relationships of private and public conservation lands in Maine to a variety of landscape metrics in order to determine the degree to which these lands represent core ecological and socioeconomic values that are meaningful to a wide cross-section of citizens. Results revealed that the gains of past conservation efforts in Maine are counter-balanced to some extent by apparent gaps in the existing fabric of conservation holdings. Conservation lands capture a representative sample of diverse habitat, provide a large measure of protection for multiple conservation values and indicators, and offer an unusual mix of outdoor recreational opportunities for residents and visitors alike. Yet, the majority of parcels are relatively small and isolated, and thus do not provide contiguous habitat blocks that offset ongoing processes of landscape fragmentation. Furthermore, the majority of area associated with many of the ecological metrics examined in this report is located outside the boundaries of current conservation holdings. The under-represented metrics identified in this investigation can be viewed as potential targets for new strategic conservation

  8. An Assessment of Land Conservation Patterns in Maine Based on Spatial Analysis of Ecological and Socioeconomic Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronan, Christopher S.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Tremblay, Jill; Glidden, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Given the nature of modern conservation acquisitions, which often result from gifts and opportunistic purchases of full or partial property rights, there is a risk that the resulting mosaic of conserved resources may not represent a coherent set of public values and benefits. With different public and private entities engaged in land conservation, one would further expect that each organization would apply separate goals and criteria to the selection and acquisition of its conservation portfolio. This set of circumstances raises an important question: what is the aggregate outcome of this land conservation process? Retrospective assessments provide a means of reviewing cumulative historical decisions and elucidating lessons for improving future conservation strategies. This study used GIS-based spatial analysis to examine the relationships of private and public conservation lands in Maine to a variety of landscape metrics in order to determine the degree to which these lands represent core ecological and socioeconomic values that are meaningful to a wide cross-section of citizens. Results revealed that the gains of past conservation efforts in Maine are counter-balanced to some extent by apparent gaps in the existing fabric of conservation holdings. Conservation lands capture a representative sample of diverse habitat, provide a large measure of protection for multiple conservation values and indicators, and offer an unusual mix of outdoor recreational opportunities for residents and visitors alike. Yet, the majority of parcels are relatively small and isolated, and thus do not provide contiguous habitat blocks that offset ongoing processes of landscape fragmentation. Furthermore, the majority of area associated with many of the ecological metrics examined in this report is located outside the boundaries of current conservation holdings. The under-represented metrics identified in this investigation can be viewed as potential targets for new strategic conservation

  9. Cone Characterizations of Approximate Solutions in Real-Vector Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 198(1):248–261. Loridan, P. (1984). ²-solutions in vector minimization problems. Journal of...elements of sets in partially ordered vector spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 239(2):427–439. Luenberger, D. G. (1969...via exact penalty functions. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 187(1):296–305.

  10. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Wardrop, Nicola A

    2016-02-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal surveys, could form the backbone for epidemiological integration, enabling explicit assessment of the animal-human (and vector) interface, and subsequent implications for spill-over to human populations. Currently available data on the spatial distribution of human African trypanosomiasis allow an illustrative example.

  11. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  12. The Vector Decomposition Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Maki; Mitsunari, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Toru

    This paper introduces a new computational problem on a two-dimensional vector space, called the vector decomposition problem (VDP), which is mainly defined for designing cryptosystems using pairings on elliptic curves. We first show a relation between the VDP and the computational Diffie-Hellman problem (CDH). Specifically, we present a sufficient condition for the VDP on a two-dimensional vector space to be at least as hard as the CDH on a one-dimensional subspace. We also present a sufficient condition for the VDP with a fixed basis to have a trapdoor. We then give an example of vector spaces which satisfy both sufficient conditions and on which the CDH is assumed to be hard in previous work. In this sense, the intractability of the VDP is a reasonable assumption as that of the CDH.

  13. Targeted adenoviral vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Joanne T.

    The practical implementation of gene therapy in the clinical setting mandates gene delivery vehicles, or vectors, capable of efficient gene delivery selectively to the target disease cells. The utility of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy is restricted by their dependence on the native adenoviral primary cellular receptor for cell entry. Therefore, a number of strategies have been developed to allow CAR-independent infection of specific cell types, including the use of bispecific conjugates and genetic modifications to the adenoviral capsid proteins, in particular the fibre protein. These targeted adenoviral vectors have demonstrated efficient gene transfer in vitro , correlating with a therapeutic benefit in preclinical animal models. Such vectors are predicted to possess enhanced efficacy in human clinical studies, although anatomical barriers to their use must be circumvented.

  14. Vector inflation and vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M. )

    1991-09-15

    A vector field {ital A}{sub {mu}} is coupled to the Einstein equations with a linearly perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, constructed to generate first-order vector perturbations. A working classical chaotic vector inflation is demonstrated and then quantum fluctuations of the field are used to constrain the cosmological perturbations. In particular, the vector momentum flux {ital T}{sub 0{ital i}} is tracked to the epoch where radiation-dominated matter exists. Matching conditions using observational constraints of the cosmic microwave background radiation give rise to a peculiar cosmological velocity of the order of 10{sup {minus}100}{ital c}. Amplification of this number, e.g., by breaking the conformal invariance of the field, could be used to generate cosmic magnetic fields using a dynamo mechanism.

  15. 31 CFR 353.41 - Partial redemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH General Provisions for Payment § 353.41 Partial redemption. A bond of Series EE or HH may be redeemed in part at current redemption value, but only in amounts...

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shuttle vectors.

    PubMed

    Gnügge, Robert; Rudolf, Fabian

    2017-01-10

    Yeast shuttle vectors are indispensable tools in yeast research. They enable cloning of defined DNA sequences in Escherichia coli and their direct transfer into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. There are three types of commonly used yeast shuttle vectors: centromeric plasmids, episomal plasmids and integrating plasmids. In this review, we discuss the different plasmid systems and their characteristic features. We focus on their segregational stability and copy number and indicate how to modify these properties. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Poynting-vector filter

    DOEpatents

    Carrigan, Charles R [Tracy, CA

    2011-08-02

    A determination is made of frequency components associated with a particular bearing or location resulting from sources emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. The broadband frequency components associated with a specific direction or location of interest are isolated from other components in the power spectrum that are not associated with the direction or location of interest. The collection of pointing vectors can be used to characterize the source.

  18. Bloch vector projection noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.

  19. Combined Use of Systematic Conservation Planning, Species Distribution Modelling, and Connectivity Analysis Reveals Severe Conservation Gaps in a Megadiverse Country (Peru)

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Javier; Lessmann, Janeth; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Devenish, Christian; Muñoz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning is crucial for megadiverse countries where biodiversity is coupled with incomplete reserve systems and limited resources to invest in conservation. Using Peru as an example of a megadiverse country, we asked whether the national system of protected areas satisfies biodiversity conservation needs. Further, to complement the existing reserve system, we identified and prioritized potential conservation areas using a combination of species distribution modeling, conservation planning and connectivity analysis. Based on a set of 2,869 species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, and plants, we used species distribution models to represent species' geographic ranges to reduce the effect of biased sampling and partial knowledge about species' distributions. A site-selection algorithm then searched for efficient and complementary proposals, based on the above distributions, for a more representative system of protection. Finally, we incorporated connectivity among areas in an innovative post-hoc analysis to prioritize those areas maximizing connectivity within the system. Our results highlight severe conservation gaps in the Coastal and Andean regions, and we propose several areas, which are not currently covered by the existing network of protected areas. Our approach helps to find areas that contribute to creating a more representative, connected and efficient network. PMID:25479411

  20. Combined use of systematic conservation planning, species distribution modelling, and connectivity analysis reveals severe conservation gaps in a megadiverse country (Peru).

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Javier; Lessmann, Janeth; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Devenish, Christian; Muñoz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning is crucial for megadiverse countries where biodiversity is coupled with incomplete reserve systems and limited resources to invest in conservation. Using Peru as an example of a megadiverse country, we asked whether the national system of protected areas satisfies biodiversity conservation needs. Further, to complement the existing reserve system, we identified and prioritized potential conservation areas using a combination of species distribution modeling, conservation planning and connectivity analysis. Based on a set of 2,869 species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, and plants, we used species distribution models to represent species' geographic ranges to reduce the effect of biased sampling and partial knowledge about species' distributions. A site-selection algorithm then searched for efficient and complementary proposals, based on the above distributions, for a more representative system of protection. Finally, we incorporated connectivity among areas in an innovative post-hoc analysis to prioritize those areas maximizing connectivity within the system. Our results highlight severe conservation gaps in the Coastal and Andean regions, and we propose several areas, which are not currently covered by the existing network of protected areas. Our approach helps to find areas that contribute to creating a more representative, connected and efficient network.

  1. Measurement of tidal and residual currents in the Strait of Hormuz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizpour, Jafar; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa; Chegini, Vahid

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the current in the Strait of Hormuz (SH) is vital for understanding the circulation in the Persian Gulf. To measure the current in the strait, four subsurface moorings were deployed at four different stations close to SH from early November 2012 to the end of January 2013. Tidal current were dominant in the SH. The tides in the SH were complex partially standing waves and the dominant pattern varied from being primarily semi-diurnal to diurnal. The phase difference between tidal constituents of current and sea level elevation time series was used as an index to show the partially progressive wave pattern inside the study area. At mooring positions 3 and 4, located to the left of SH, the phase differences were close to 160° and 100°, respectively. It indicates partially progressive waves in opposite direction at these stations. K1 and M2 were the two main constituents at all stations inside the study area. At surface, the magnitude of semi-major axis of ellipses for M2 constituent was larger than corresponding value for K1 whereas at the bottom layer, the opposite pattern was observed. The M2 rotary coefficients at mooring 1 illustrated that current vector at the bottom layer rotated in opposite direction compared to current vectors at the middle and surface layers. The rotation was counterclockwise in the bottom layer, while it was clockwise in the surface and middle layers.

  2. Unveiling locally linearly polarized vector fields with broken axial symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xilin; Lou Kai; Chen Jing; Gu Bing; Li Yongnan; Wang Huitian

    2011-06-15

    We explore how the focusing of axial-symmetry-broken vector fields is associated with a sector aperture whose apex coincides with the field axis. Its focused field is azimuthally split into a pair of orthogonal right- and left-handed circularly polarized partial rings which are rotated by angles of {+-}{pi}/2 with respect to the input vector field carrying no orbital angular momentum (OAM) and no spin angular momentum (SAM), respectively. Each member of the pair of partial rings carries not only the opposite OAM but also the opposite SAM. We unveil the underlying physics behind such an effect.

  3. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory

  4. Self-steering partially coherent beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a class of shape-invariant partially coherent beams with a moving guiding center which we term self-steering partially coherent beams. The guiding center of each such beam evolves along a straight line trajectory which can be engineered to make any angle with the x-axis. We show that the straight line trajectory of the guiding center is the only option in free space due to the linear momentum conservation. We experimentally generate a particular subclass of new beams, self-steering Gaussian Schell beams and argue that they can find applications for mobile target tracing and trapped micro- and/or nanoparticle transport.

  5. Self-steering partially coherent beams

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a class of shape-invariant partially coherent beams with a moving guiding center which we term self-steering partially coherent beams. The guiding center of each such beam evolves along a straight line trajectory which can be engineered to make any angle with the x-axis. We show that the straight line trajectory of the guiding center is the only option in free space due to the linear momentum conservation. We experimentally generate a particular subclass of new beams, self-steering Gaussian Schell beams and argue that they can find applications for mobile target tracing and trapped micro- and/or nanoparticle transport. PMID:28051164

  6. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  7. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  8. Evaluation of a Fiber-Modified Adenovirus Vector Vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Gisselle N.; Montiel, Nestor; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Sturza, Diego; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4+ and CD8+ gamma interferon (IFN-γ)+ cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle. PMID:26607309

  9. Current margin practice and effect on re-excision rates following the publication of the SSO-ASTRO consensus and ABS consensus guidelines: a national prospective study of 2858 women undergoing breast-conserving therapy in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sarah Shuk-Kay; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Haddow, James B; Mondani, Giuseppina; Elsberger, Beatrix; Tasoulis, Marios Konstantinos; Obondo, Christine; Johns, Neil; Ismail, Wisam; Syed, Asim; Kissias, Panayioti; Venn, Mary; Sundaramoorthy, Souganthy; Irwin, Gareth; Sami, Amtul S; Elfadl, Dalia; Baggaley, Alice; Remoundos, Dionysios Dennis; Langlands, Fiona; Charalampoudis, Petros; Barber, Zoe; Hamilton-Burke, Werbena L S; Khan, Ayesha; Sirianni, Chiara; Merker, Louise Anne-Marie Grant; Saha, Sunita; Lane, Risha Arun; Chopra, Sharat; Dupré, Sophie; Manning, Aidan T; St John, Edward R; Musbahi, Aya; Dlamini, Nokwanda; McArdle, Caitlin L; Wright, Chloe; Murphy, James O; Aggarwal, Ravi; Dordea, Matei; Bosch, Karen; Egbeare, Donna; Osman, Hisham; Tayeh, Salim; Razi, Faraz; Iqbal, Javeria; Ledwidge, Serena F C; Albert, Vanessa; Masannat, Yazan

    2017-10-01

    There is variation in margin policy for breast conserving therapy (BCT) in the UK and Ireland. In response to the Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society for Radiation Oncology (SSO-ASTRO) margin consensus ('no ink on tumour' for invasive and 2 mm for ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]) and the Association of Breast Surgery (ABS) consensus (1 mm for invasive and DCIS), we report on current margin practice and unit infrastructure in the UK and Ireland and describe how these factors impact on re-excision rates. A trainee collaborative-led multicentre prospective study was conducted in the UK and Ireland between 1st February and 31st May 2016. Data were collected on consecutive BCT patients and on local infrastructure and policies. A total of 79 sites participated in the data collection (75% screening units; average 372 cancers annually, range 70-900). For DCIS, 53.2% of units accept 1 mm and 38% accept 2-mm margins. For invasive disease 77.2% accept 1 mm and 13.9% accept 'no ink on tumour'. A total of 2858 patients underwent BCT with a mean re-excision rate of 17.2% across units (range 0-41%). The re-excision rate would be reduced to 15% if all units applied SSO-ASTRO guidelines and to 14.8% if all units followed ABS guidelines. Of those who required re-operation, 65% had disease present at margin. There continues to be large variation in margin policy and re-excision rates across units. Altering margin policies to follow either SSO-ASTRO or ABS guidelines would result in a modest reduction in the national re-excision rate. Most re-excisions are for involved margins rather than close margins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens.

  11. Vector Meson Form Factors and Wave Functions from Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hovhannes Grigoryan; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-10-10

    Based on the holographic dual model of QCD, we study 2- and 3-point functions of vector currents and derive form factors as well as wave functions for the vector mesons. As a result, generalized vector-meson dominance representation for form factors is obtained with a very specific VMD pattern. The calculated electric radius of the rho-meson is shown to be in a good agreement with predictions from lattice QCD.

  12. An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0629 TITLE: An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Igor P. Dmitriev...Aug 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1...epithelial cells, the origin of most human cancers. However, realization of the full potential of Ad vectors for targeted cancer treatment is currently

  13. Vector and Axial Vector Pion Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitz, Michael; PEN Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Radiative pion decay π+ -->e+ νγ (RPD) provides critical input to chiral perturbation theory (χPT). Aside from the uninteresting ``inner bremsstrahlung'' contribution from QED, the RPD rate contains ``structure dependent'' terms given by FV and FA, the vector and axial-vector pion form factors, respectively. The two appear in the decay rate in combinations FV -FA and FV +FA , i.e., in the so-called SD- and SD+ terms, respectively. The latter has been measured to high precision by the PIBETA collaboration. We report on the analysis of new data, measured by the PEN collaboration in runs between 2008 and 2010 at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. We particularly focus on the possibility of improvement in the determination of the SD- term. Precise determinations of FV and FA test the validity of the CVC hypothesis, provide numerical input for the l9 +l10 terms in the χPT lagrangian, and constrain potential non-(V - A) terms, such as a possible tensor term FT. NSF grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  14. Bunyavirus-vector interactions.

    PubMed

    Beaty, B J; Bishop, D H

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of bunyaviruses have been applied to understanding bunyavirus-vector interactions. Such approaches have revealed which virus gene and gene products are important in establishing infections in vectors and in transmission of viruses. However, much more information is required to understand the molecular mechanisms of persistent infections of vectors which are lifelong but apparently exert no untoward effect. In fact, it seems remarkable that LAC viral antigen can be detected in almost every cell in an ovarian follicle, yet no untoward effect on fecundity and no teratology is seen. Similarly the lifelong infection of the vector would seem to provide ample opportunity for bunyavirus evolution by genetic drift and, under the appropriate circumstances, by segment reassortment. The potential for bunyavirus evolution by segment reassortment in vectors certainly exists. For example the Group C viruses in a small forest in Brazil seem to constitute a gene pool, with the 6 viruses related alternately by HI/NT and CF reactions, which assay respectively M RNA and S RNA gene products (Casals and Whitman, 1960; Shope and Causey, 1962). Direct evidence for naturally occurring reassortant bunyaviruses has also been obtained. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analyses of field isolates of LAC virus and members of the Patois serogroup of bunyaviruses have demonstrated that reassortment does occur in nature (El Said et al., 1979; Klimas et al., 1981; Ushijima et al., 1981). Determination of the genotypic frequencies of viruses selected by the biological interactions of viruses and vectors after dual infection and segment reassortment is an important issue. Should a virus result that efficiently interacts with alternate vector species, the virus could be expressed in different circumstances with serious epidemiologic consequences. Dual infection of vectors with different viruses is not unlikely, because many bunyaviruses are sympatric in

  15. Scalable motion vector coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  16. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of some nonlinear fifth- and seventh-order differential equations and recursion formulas for their symmetries and conserved covariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchssteiner, Benno; Oevel, Walter

    1982-03-01

    Using a bi-Hamiltonian formulation we give explicit formulas for the conserved quantities and infinitesimal generators of symmetries for some nonlinear fifth- and seventh-order nonlinear partial differential equations; among them, the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation and the Kupershmidt equation. We show that the Lie algebras of the symmetry groups of these equations are of a very special form: Among the C∞ vector fields they are generated from two given commuting vector fields by a recursive application of a single operator. Furthermore, for some higher order equations, those multisoliton solutions, which for ||t||→∞ asymptotically decompose into traveling wave solutions, are characterized as eigenvector decompositions of certain operators.

  17. Vector financial rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  18. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

  19. Lorentz-diffeomorphism quasi-local conserved charges and Virasoro algebra in Chern-Simons-like theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2016-08-01

    The Chern-Simons-like theories of gravity (CSLTG) are formulated at first order formalism. In this formalism, the derivation of the entropy of a black hole on bifurcation surface, as a quasi-local conserved charge is problematic. In this paper we overcome these problems by considering the concept of total variation and the Lorentz-Lie derivative. We firstly find an expression for the ADT conserved current in the context of the CSLTG which is based on the concept of the Killing vector fields. Then, we generalize it to be conserved for all diffeomorphism generators. Thus, we can extract an off-shell conserved charge for any vector field which generates a diffeomorphism. The formalism presented here is based on the concept of quasi-local conserved charges which are off-shell. The charges can be calculated on any codimension two space-like surface surrounding a black hole and the results are independent of the chosen surface. By using the off-shell quasi-local conserved charge, we investigate the Virasoro algebra and find a formula to calculate the central extension term. We apply the formalism to the BTZ black hole solution in the context of the Einstein gravity and the Generalized massive gravity, then we find the eigenvalues of their Virasoro generators as well as the corresponding central charges. Eventually, we calculate the entropy of the BTZ black hole by the Cardy formula and we show that the result exactly matches the one obtained by the concept of the off-shell conserved charges.

  20. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions

    PubMed Central

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277