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Sample records for partial digeorge syndrome

  1. Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura in partial DiGeorge syndrome: case presentation.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Nieto, Leticia; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio; Lieberman-Hernández, Esther; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva

    2011-08-01

    The absence of an appropriate central tolerance in primary immunodeficiencies favors proliferation of autoreactive lymphocyte clones, causing a greater incidence of autoimmunity. Del 22q11.2 syndrome presents an increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases. One of the most relevant and frequent immune manifestations is autoimmune thrombocytopenia. We present the case of a pediatric patient with autoimmune thrombocytopenia due to the immunological dysregulation observed in partial DiGeorge syndrome.

  2. MOZ regulates the Tbx1 locus, and Moz mutation partially phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voss, Anne K; Vanyai, Hannah K; Collin, Caitlin; Dixon, Mathew P; McLennan, Tamara J; Sheikh, Bilal N; Scambler, Peter; Thomas, Tim

    2012-09-11

    DiGeorge syndrome, caused by a 22q11 microdeletion or mutation of the TBX1 gene, varies in severity greatly, even among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic phenomena have been invoked to explain phenotypic differences in individuals of identical genetic composition, although specific chromatin modifications relevant to DiGeorge syndrome are elusive. Here we show that lack of the histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3/KAT6A) phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome, and the MOZ complex occupies the Tbx1 locus, promoting its expression and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation. Importantly, DiGeorge syndrome-like anomalies are present in mice with homozygous mutation of Moz and in heterozygous Moz mutants when combined with Tbx1 haploinsufficiency or oversupply of retinoic acid. Conversely, a Tbx1 transgene rescues the heart phenotype in Moz mutants. Our data reveal a molecular mechanism for a specific chromatin modification of the Tbx1 locus intersecting with an environmental determinant, modeling variability in DiGeorge syndrome.

  3. p53 suppression partially rescues the mutant phenotype in mouse models of DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Cinzia; Baldini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    T-box 1 (Tbx1), a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor, is required for embryonic development in humans and mice. Half dosage of this gene in humans causes most of the features of the DiGeorge or Velocardiofacial syndrome phenotypes, including aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract abnormalities. Here we found a strong genetic interaction between Tbx1 and transformation related protein 53 (Trp53). Indeed, genetic ablation of Trp53, or pharmacological inhibition of its protein product p53, rescues significantly the cardiovascular defects of Tbx1 heterozygous and hypomorphic mutants. We found that the Tbx1 and p53 proteins do not interact directly but both occupy a genetic element of Gbx2, which is required for aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract development, and is a known genetic interactor of Tbx1. We found that Gbx2 expression is down-regulated in Tbx1+/− embryos and is restored to normal levels in Tbx1+/−;Trp53+/− embryos. In addition, we found that the genetic element that binds both Tbx1 and p53 is highly enriched in H3K27 trimethylation, and upon p53 suppression H3K27me3 levels are reduced, along with Ezh2 enrichment. This finding suggests that the rescue of Gbx2 expression in Tbx1+/−;Trp53+/− embryos is due to reduction of repressive chromatin marks. Overall our data identify unexpected genetic interactions between Tbx1 and Trp53 and provide a proof of principle that developmental defects associated with reduced dosage of Tbx1 can be rescued pharmacologically. PMID:25197075

  4. p53 Suppression partially rescues the mutant phenotype in mouse models of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caprio, Cinzia; Baldini, Antonio

    2014-09-16

    T-box 1 (Tbx1), a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor, is required for embryonic development in humans and mice. Half dosage of this gene in humans causes most of the features of the DiGeorge or Velocardiofacial syndrome phenotypes, including aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract abnormalities. Here we found a strong genetic interaction between Tbx1 and transformation related protein 53 (Trp53). Indeed, genetic ablation of Trp53, or pharmacological inhibition of its protein product p53, rescues significantly the cardiovascular defects of Tbx1 heterozygous and hypomorphic mutants. We found that the Tbx1 and p53 proteins do not interact directly but both occupy a genetic element of Gbx2, which is required for aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract development, and is a known genetic interactor of Tbx1. We found that Gbx2 expression is down-regulated in Tbx1(+/-) embryos and is restored to normal levels in Tbx1(+/-);Trp53(+/-) embryos. In addition, we found that the genetic element that binds both Tbx1 and p53 is highly enriched in H3K27 trimethylation, and upon p53 suppression H3K27me3 levels are reduced, along with Ezh2 enrichment. This finding suggests that the rescue of Gbx2 expression in Tbx1(+/-);Trp53(+/-) embryos is due to reduction of repressive chromatin marks. Overall our data identify unexpected genetic interactions between Tbx1 and Trp53 and provide a proof of principle that developmental defects associated with reduced dosage of Tbx1 can be rescued pharmacologically.

  5. Severe dystrophy in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rózsai, Barnabás; Kiss, Akos; Csábi, Györgyi; Czakó, Márta; Decsi, Tamás

    2009-03-21

    We present the case history of a 3-year-old girl who was examined because of severe dystrophy. In the background, cow's milk allergy was found, but her body weight was unchanged after eliminating milk from her diet. Other types of malabsorption were excluded. Based on nasal regurgitation and facial dysmorphisms, the possibility of DiGeorge syndrome was suspected and was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The authors suggest a new feature associated with DiGeorge syndrome.

  6. Case report: two patients with partial DiGeorge syndrome presenting with attention disorder and learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Berberoğlu, Merih; Şıklar, Zeynep; Doğu, Figen; Bilir, Pelin; Savaş Erdeve, Şenay; İkincioğulları, Aydan; Öçal, Gönül

    2011-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) has classically been characterized by the triad of clinical features including congenital cardiac defects, immune deficiencies secondary to aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus, and hypocalcaemia due to small or absent parathyroid glands. The phenotypic features of these patients are much more variable and extensive than previously recognized. The acknowledgement of similarities and phenotypic overlap of DGS with other disorders associated with genetic defects in 22q11 has led to an expanded description of the phenotypic features of DGS including palatal/speech abnormalities, as well as cognitive, neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, we report the cases of two DGS patients with dysmorphic facial features who were initially admitted to the Psychiatry Department for attention disorder and learning difficulties.

  7. Absent Aortic Valve in DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Elizabeth C; Minturn, Lucy; Gotteiner, Nina L; Ernst, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    A 20-week-old fetus with the 22q11.2 deletion characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome is described with vertebral segmentation abnormalities and complex cardiovascular anomalies including an absent aortic valve. This is only the second known case of absent aortic valve in association with DiGeorge syndrome. We discuss the association of absent aortic valve with other conotruncal defects and the utility of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome.

  8. Limb anomalies in DiGeorge and CHARGE syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, C.; Quackenbush, E.J.; Whiteman, D.; Korf, B.

    1997-01-20

    Limb anomalies are not common in the DiGeorge or CHARGE syndromes. We describe limb anomalies in two children, one with DiGeorge and the other with CHARGE syndrome. Our first patient had a bifid left thumb, Tetralogy of Fallot, absent thymus, right facial palsy, and a reduced number of T-cells. A deletion of 22q11 was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The second patient, with CHARGE syndrome, had asymmetric findings that included right fifth finger clinodactyly, camptodactyly, tibial hemimelia and dimpling, and severe club-foot. The expanded spectrum of the DiGeorge and CHARGE syndromes includes limb anomalies. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  9. [DiGeorge syndrome/velcardiofacial syndrome: oral and maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Pradel, W; Bartsch, O; Müller, R; Lauer, G; Eckelt, U

    2003-09-01

    The DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome is the most frequent chromosomal microdeletion syndrome. Partial deletion of chromosome 22q11 may lead to symptoms including facial dysmorphy, hypoparathyroidism, thymic aplasia, congenital heart disease, developmental retardation, and disturbance of speech development. According to the literature, 9% of patients have cleft palate, an additional 5% have a submucosal cleft, and a total of 32% show velopharyngeal insufficiency. We studied 64 children with a cleft, or with delayed speech development and a submucosal or occult cleft, for the presence of the 22q11deletion using fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Five patients had the 22q11 deletion. We conclude that patients presenting with nasal speech and additional anomalies should all be studied for the presence of submucosal or occult clefting and for the presence of the DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome.

  10. Upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier-Daire, V.; Iserin, L.; Sidi, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on upper limb anomalies in two children with a complete DiGeorge sequence: conotruncal defects, hypocalcemia, thymic aplasia, and facial anomalies. One child had preaxial polydactyly, and the other had club hands with hypoplastic first metacarpal. In both patients, molecular analysis documented a 22q11 deletion. To our knowledge, limb anomalies have rarely been reported in DiGeorge syndrome, and they illustrate the variable clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Persistent low thymic activity and non-cardiac mortality in children with chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion and partial DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eberle, P; Berger, C; Junge, S; Dougoud, S; Büchel, E Valsangiacomo; Riegel, M; Schinzel, A; Seger, R; Güngör, T

    2009-02-01

    A subgroup of patients with 22q11.2 microdeletion and partial DiGeorge syndrome (pDGS) appears to be susceptible to non-cardiac mortality (NCM) despite sufficient overall CD4(+) T cells. To detect these patients, 20 newborns with 22q11.2 microdeletion and congenital heart disease were followed prospectively for 6 years. Besides detailed clinical assessment, longitudinal monitoring of naive CD4(+) and cytotoxic CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells (CTL) was performed. To monitor thymic activity, we analysed naive platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31(+)) expressing CD45RA(+)RO(-)CD4(+) cells containing high numbers of T cell receptor excision circle (T(REC))-bearing lymphocytes and compared them with normal values of healthy children (n = 75). Comparing two age periods, low overall CD4(+) and naive CD4(+) T cell numbers were observed in 65%/75%, respectively, of patients in period A (< 1 year) declining to 22%/50%, respectively, of patients in period B (> 1/< 7 years). The percentage of patients with low CTLs (< P10) remained robust until school age (period A: 60%; period B: 50%). Low numbers of CTLs were associated with abnormally low naive CD45RA(+)RO(-)CD4(+) T cells. A high-risk (HR) group (n = 11) and a standard-risk (SR) (n = 9) group were identified. HR patients were characterized by low numbers of both naive CD4(+) and CTLs and were prone to lethal infectious and lymphoproliferative complications (NCM: four of 11; cardiac mortality: one of 11) while SR patients were not (NCM: none of nine; cardiac mortality: two of nine). Naive CD31(+)CD45RA(+)RO(-)CD4(+), naive CD45RA(+)RO(-)CD4(+) T cells as well as T(RECs)/10(6) mononuclear cells were abnormally low in HR and normal in SR patients. Longitudinal monitoring of naive CD4(+) and cytotoxic T cells may help to discriminate pDGS patients at increased risk for NCM.

  12. Immunoglobulin deficiencies: the B-lymphocyte side of DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kiran; Akhter, Javeed; Kobrynski, Lisa; Benjamin Gathmann, M A; Gathman, Benjamin; Davis, Onika; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2012-11-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a T-lymphocyte immunodeficiency. The prevalence of hypogammaglobulinemia has not been reported. We found that 3% of patients with DiGeorge syndrome were receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy and 6% of patients over the age of 3 years had hypogammaglobulinemia. We conclude that DiGeorge syndrome is associated with significant humoral immune deficiency.

  13. DiGeorge syndrome: part of CATCH 22.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D I; Burn, J; Scambler, P; Goodship, J

    1993-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) comprises thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcaemia, outflow tract defects of the heart, and dysmorphic facies. It results in almost all cases from a deletion within chromosome 22q11. We report the clinical findings in 44 cases. We propose that DiGeorge syndrome should be seen as the severe end of the clinical spectrum embraced by the acronym CATCH 22 syndrome; Cardiac defects, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, Cleft palate, and Hypocalcaemia resulting from 22q11 deletions. Images PMID:8230162

  14. A case of DiGeorge syndrome in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Chikovani, M; Kutubidze, T; Khvedeliani, N; Pagava, K

    2011-04-01

    Patient 6 - year- old boy, with history of recurrent otitis, cleft palate, was admitted to the hospital for fever, abdominal pain; He had high ESR,CRP, low T lymphocytes, VSD. Peritoneal fluid was positive for pseudomona aeroginoza. Diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome was confirmed by further genetical study. Immune deficiencies should be considered when infections are severe, persistent resistant to standard treatment, or caused by opportunistic organisms. Treatments can often correct many of the critical and immediate problems associated with DiGeorge syndrome such as heart defects, calcium defects, poor immune system functions and cleft palate. People who had poor immune function as children due to small or missing thymus, may have an increased risk of autoimmune disorders, such as a rheumatoid arthritis and Graves disease. Because DiGeorge syndrome can result in so many disorders, a number of specialists should be involved in diagnosing specific conditions, recommending treatments and providing care.

  15. DiGeorge syndrome associated with solitary median maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huai-Chih; Shyur, Shyh-Dar; Huang, Li-Hsin; Chang, Yi-Chi; Wen, Da-Chin; Liang, Pei-Hsuan; Lin, Mao-Tsair

    2005-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by dysgenesis of the thymus and parathyroid glands, conotruncal cardiac anomalies, and other dysmorphic features. Although most patients have a common microscopic deletion in chromosome 22q11.2, marked clinical variability exists. A solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly which may be an isolated occurrence or associated with congenital nasal airway abnormalities or holoprosencephaly. We report a patient with DiGeorge syndrome who was diagnosed at nearly 1 month of age and was later found to have a solitary median central incisor. Initially, the patient presented with recurrent episodes of respiratory distress attributed to partial airway obstruction, one of the phenotypic features of SMMCI. A fluorescence in situ hybridization study showed a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion.

  16. Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Han, Yun-Joung

    2011-06-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and manifests with variable clinical findings. Aspiration pneumonia can be a perioperative complication of great concern in this syndrome. In this report, we present a case of a 16-month old child with DiGeorge syndrome undergoing cranioplasty. He developed perioperative aspiration pneumonia but was managed successfully.

  17. DiGeorge syndrome who developed lymphoproliferative mediastinal mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Ji Ae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Dong Soo

    2015-03-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficient disease associated with abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches. As a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 occurs, various clinical phenotypes are shown with a broad spectrum. Conotruncal cardiac anomalies, hypoplastic thymus, and hypocalcemia are the classic triad of DiGeorge syndrome. As this syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, there are missing thymic shadow on their plain chest x-ray. Immunodeficient patients are traditionally known to be at an increased risk for malignancy, especially lymphoma. We experienced a 7-year-old DiGeorge syndrome patient with mediastinal mass shadow on her plain chest x-ray. She visited Severance Children's Hospital hospital with recurrent pneumonia, and throughout her repeated chest x-ray, there was a mass like shadow on anterior mediastinal area. We did full evaluation including chest computed tomography, chest ultrasonography, and chest magnetic resonance imaging. To rule out malignancy, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done. Final diagnosis of the mass which was thought to be malignancy, was lymphoproliferative lesion.

  18. Dental aspects in patients with DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toka, Okan; Karl, Matthias; Dittrich, Sven; Holst, Stefan; Holst, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, which is caused by a microdeletion of 1.5 to 3.0 megabases on the long arm of chromosome 22, has an incidence of approximately 1:4,000 to 1:5,000 live births. The phenotypic spectrum of this disorder includes congenital heart defects, immunodeficiency due to thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, transient or permanent hypocalcemia due to parathyroid hypoplasia or aplasia, developmental retardation, and psychiatric disorders. Dental aspects in these patients include skeletal malformations, velopharyngeal insufficiency with or without cleft palate, small mouth, and hypotonus orofacial musculature, as well as impaired salivary flow. Enamel aberrations related to hypocalcemia may result in a higher frequency of dental caries. Based on a series of five patients, the medical and dental aspects that have to be considered in the care of patients with DiGeorge syndrome are presented.

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy: a preventable presentation of DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A; Smith, C J

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiac failure require careful evaluation to determine the precise nature of the cause of their illness. Genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy are well known but inherited conditions may lead to unexpected consequences through intermediate mechanisms not readily recognised as a feature of the inherited disorder. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy resulting from prolonged hypocalcaemia due to previously undiagnosed hypoparathyroidism resulting from DiGeorge Syndrome and describe the features of this case and the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.

  20. DiGeorge syndrome with vertebral and rib dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Puno-Cocuzza, C.; David, K.; Kogekar, N.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome results from defect in the development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and is characterized by conotruncal heart defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of thymus and parathyroid glands resulting in immune deficiency and hypocalcemia. Other associated abnormalities include renal, thyroid and diaphragmatic defects, oral clefting, etc. Etiologically, it is heterogeneous, with a microdeletion of 22q11 present in over 80% of cases. Our patient was born following a pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent gestational diabetes. There was truncus arteriosus type 2, absense of thymic shadow on CXR with severe deficiency of T cell function, and persistent hypocalcemia with low parathormone. Right kidney was absent. Dysplastic ribs including fused and bifid ribs were noted. Hypoplastic vertebrae and hemivertebrae were present through thoracic and lumbar regions. Chromosome analysis was normal, and metaphase FISH analysis with probe N25 representing locus D22S75 did not show any deletion of 22q11.2. The skeletal findings similar to these have not been previously reported in association with DiGeorge syndrome to our knowledge. Vertebral and rib abnormalities are known to occur with pregestational maternal diabetes. Maternal diabetes has also been suggested to be a possible etiology in a very small proportion of DiGeorge syndrome cases. It is possible that these findings occured together on account of gestational maternal diabetes in our case.

  1. Three clinical cases of the DiGeorge syndrome manifested with the biliary system disease.

    PubMed

    Tabutsadze, T; Pachkoria, Kh; Atuashvili, G

    2007-11-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a rare congenital disease that affects the baby's immune system. Its symptoms vary greatly between individuals but commonly include a history of recurrent infection, heart defects, and characteristic facial features. Few cases of DiGeorge syndrome have been reported in adults. The article describes rare (three cases of DiGeorge syndrome) in adults (18, 32 and 34 years old patients) in Georgia (Caucasus). In clinical practice DiGeorge syndrome may proceed under the course of gastroenterologic, endocrine, nervous and surgical symptoms. 3 cases of DiGeorge syndrome are reported in the article. The authors describe DiGeroge syndrome as a multidisciplinary disorder; it is masqueraded by acute surgical diseases; with sharp immunodeficiency and endocrine, cardiologic and neurologic semiotics.

  2. Diversification, not use, of the immunoglobulin VH gene repertoire is restricted in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haire, R N; Buell, R D; Litman, R T; Ohta, Y; Fu, S M; Honjo, T; Matsuda, F; de la Morena, M; Carro, J; Good, R A

    1993-09-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) genes were isolated from unamplified conventional as well as polymerase chain reaction-generated cDNA libraries constructed from the peripheral blood cells of a patient with complete DiGeorge syndrome. Comparison of the sequences of 36 heavy chain clones to the recently expanded database of human VH genes permitted identification of the germline VH genes that are expressed in this patient as well as placement of 19 of these genes in a partially resolved 0.8-mb region of the human VH locus. The pattern of VH gene use does not resemble the fetal (early) repertoire. However, as in the fetal repertoire, there are a number of cDNAs derived from germline genes that previously have been identified as autoantibodies. Two D mu sequences also were identified, as was another sequence resulting from a unique recombination event linking JH to an unidentified sequence containing a recombination signal sequence-like heptamer. All of the DiGeorge cDNAs are closely related to germline VH genes, showing little or no evidence of somatic mutation. In contrast, comparably selected IgM VH sequences derived from normal adult and age-matched human libraries, and from a second DiGeorge syndrome patient in whom the degree of thymic dysfunction is much less severe, exhibit considerable evidence of somatic mutation. The absence of somatic mutation is consistent with the atypical development of functional antibody responses associated with complete DiGeorge syndrome and implicates a role for T cells in the generation of diversity within the B cell repertoire.

  3. Velocardiofacial syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome: the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kobrynski, Lisa J; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2007-10-20

    Velocardiofacial syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, and some other clinical syndromes have in common a high frequency of hemizygous deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. This deletion syndrome is very common, affecting nearly one in 3000 children. Here, we focus on recent advances in cardiac assessment, speech, immunology, and pathophysiology of velocardiofacial syndrome. The complex medical care of patients needs a multidisciplinary approach, and every patient has his own unique clinical features that need a tailored approach. Patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome might have high level of functioning, but most often need interventions to improve the function of many organ systems.

  4. The cutaneous manifestations of atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome: a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Selim, Maria Angelica; Markert, Mary L; Burchette, James L; Herman, Christopher M; Turner, John W

    2008-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a congenital anomaly with a constellation of findings that includes thymic hypoplasia. Only a small subset of patients with DiGeorge syndrome has complete athymia, classified as complete DiGeorge anomaly; one third of these patients show an eczematous dermatitis, oligoclonal T-cells and lymphadenopathy, known as atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. Six biopsies from six patients with the distinctive clinical phenotype of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly were studied. Every biopsy showed exocytosis (100%), parakeratosis, often confluent and spongiosis (100%). Neutrophilic abscesses (50%), dyskeratosis (67%) and satellite cell necrosis (50%) were seen. Perieccrine and perivascular inflammation were seen in half of the cases. Eosinophils were identified (83%); most commonly in both the epidermis and dermis. All of lymphocytes were CD3 positive. Most (83%) of cases contained T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) positive cells. Special testing of the selected patients using spectratyping identified oligoclonal T-cell populations. The presence of dyskeratotic keratinocytes, satellite cell necrosis and parakeratotic scale with neutrophils characterizes the cutaneous rash seen in this subset of complete DiGeorge syndrome patients. Such skin lesions from patients with DiGeorge anomaly should alert the pathologist to the potential diagnosis of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. The pathophysiologic role of the oligoclonal T-cells in this entity requires additional study.

  5. Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yun-Joung

    2011-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and manifests with variable clinical findings. Aspiration pneumonia can be a perioperative complication of great concern in this syndrome. In this report, we present a case of a 16-month old child with DiGeorge syndrome undergoing cranioplasty. He developed perioperative aspiration pneumonia but was managed successfully. PMID:21738851

  6. DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome: the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2007-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (CH22qD) syndrome is also known as DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome. This deletion syndrome is extremely common with nearly one in 4000 children being affected. Recent advances and a holistic approach to patients have improved the care and well-being of these patients. This review will summarize advances in understanding the health needs and immune system of patients with CH22qD syndrome. Patients will most often need interventions directed at maximizing function for many organ systems but can ultimately have a high level of functioning.

  7. Pancreatic Panniculitis in an 18-Month-Old with Complete DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aivaz, Ohara; Radfar, Arash; Kirkorian, Anna Yasmine

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis, characterized by tender, erythematous subcutaneous nodules occurring most commonly on the lower extremities, occurs in 2% of cases of pancreatic disease. We present a rare case of pancreatic panniculitis in a child with complete DiGeorge syndrome.

  8. [Autoimmune disorder secondary to DiGeorge syndrome: a long-term follow-up case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Guo, J Q; Hua, Y; Zhao, W H; Sun, Q; Lu, X T

    2016-12-18

    DiGeorge syndrome is the most common chromosome microdeletion disease. The classical complications include congenital heart disease, hypothyroidism, immunodeficiency, facial abnormalities, and hypocalcemia. According to whether there is an absence or hypoplasia of the thymus, DiGeorge syndrome can be divided into two types, complete DiGeorge syndrome and partial DiGeorge syndrome. The patient was a female born with congenital heart disease, facial abnormalities and cleft palate. When the patient went to school, she had learning difficulty and had problems in communication and personal social behavior. Breath-holding occurred when she was 6 years old. She got infections about 2-3 times a year, which was easy to be cured each time. Chromosome microdeletion test of peripheral blood showed the classical 22q11.2 microdeletion, and no evidence showed that she has thymus absence, thus her disease was diagnosed as partial DiGeorge syndrome. When the patient was 6 years old, the blood routine test showed slight thrombocytopenia, and reexaminations after that indicated the similar result. When 9 years old, she was found with anemia and severe thrombocytopenia. At the age of 10, the patient was admitted to our hospital, complaining of petechia in the body and mucous of mouth. According to the various examinations results, doctors eventually considered the situation as an autoimmune disorder phenomenon. After being treated by pulse-dose methylprednisolone for three days, the bleeding ceased. Then the patient orally took prednisone acetate and pulse-dose cyclophosphamide, however the thrombocyte and hemoglobin levels had not been back to a normal range. But when the dose of prednisone acetate was reduced, the blood platelet count declined again while the hemoglobin kept normal. The long-term follow-up of this case lasted for more than 20 years. Until now, the patient is taking orally prednisone acetate as a maintainance treatment, and the anemia has been improved since, but

  9. Isolation of a zinc finger gene consistently deleted in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aubry, M; Demczuk, S; Desmaze, C; Aikem, M; Aurias, A; Julien, J P; Rouleau, G A

    1993-10-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a human developmental disorder resulting in hypoplasia of the thymus and parathyroids, and conotruncal heart defects. We recently isolated four genes with zinc finger DNA binding motifs mapping to chromosome 22q11.2 DiGeorge critical region. We now report that one of them, ZNF74 gene, is hemizygously deleted in 23 out of 24 DiGeorge syndrome patients tested. ZNF74 mRNA transcripts are detected in human and mouse embryos but not in adult tissues. Sequence analysis of a corresponding cDNA reveals an an open reading frame encoding 12 zinc finger motifs of the Kruppel/TFIIIA type as well as N-terminal and C-terminal non-zinc finger domains. These results suggest that changes in the dosage of a putative transcription factor through ZNF74 hemizygous deletion may be critical for DiGeorge developmental anomalies.

  10. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2008-05-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, or chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a disorder affecting multiple organ systems. The immunologist may be called on to coordinate complex medical care tailored to the specific needs and unique clinical features of each patient. This article focuses on the immune system, but patients require a holistic approach. Attention to cardiac, nutritional, and developmental needs in early infancy is important, and it is critical to identify the rare infants who require either a lymphocyte or thymus transplant. Later, speech and school issues dominate the picture. Allergies and autoimmune disorders also may be troubling for some school-age children.

  11. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome).

    PubMed

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common syndrome also known as DiGeorge syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome. It occurs in approximately 1:4000 births, and the incidence is increasing due to affected parents bearing their own affected children. The manifestations of this syndrome cross all medical specialties, and care of the children and adults can be complex. Many patients have a mild to moderate immune deficiency, and the majority of patients have a cardiac anomaly. Additional features include renal anomalies, eye anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, skeletal defects, and developmental delay. Each child's needs must be tailored to his or her specific medical problems, and as the child transitions to adulthood, additional issues will arise. A holistic approach, addressing medical and behavioral needs, can be very helpful.

  12. Inherited t(9;22) as the cause of DiGeorge syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shuib, Salwati; Abdul Latif, Zarina; Abidin, Nor Zarina Zainal; Akmal, Sharifah Noor; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2009-12-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. Most cases occur sporadically although vertical transmission has been documented. We report a rare case of DiGeorge syndrome in an 8-year-old girl. Blood sample of the patient was cultured and harvested following standard procedure. All of the 20 cells analysed showed a karyotype of 45, XX, -22, t (9;22) (p23; q11.2). Cytogenetic investigation done on the patient's mother revealed that she was the carrier for the translocation. Her karyotype was 46, XX, t (9;22) (p23; q11.2). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis using TUPLE1 and N25 (Vysis, USA) probes showed deletion of the 22q11.2 region in the patient, confirming the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome. FISH analysis showed no deletion of the region in the mother.

  13. Cardiovascular Malformations in CHARGE Syndrome with DiGeorge Phenotype: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kazushi; Morihana, Eiji; Fusazaki, Naoki; Ishikawa, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Both CHARGE syndrome and DiGeorge anomaly are frequently accompanied by cardiovascular malformations. Some specific cardiovascular malformations such as interrupted aortic arch type B and truncus arteriosus are frequently associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, while conotruncal defects and atrioventricular septal defects are overrepresented in patients with CHARGE syndrome. CHD7 gene mutation is identified in approximately two-thirds of patients with CHARGE syndrome, and chromosomal microdeletion at 22q11.2 is found in more than 95% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. CHARGE syndrome is occasionally accompanied by DiGeorge phenotype. We report two patients with dysmorphic features of both CHARGE syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Although both of the two cases did not have 22q11.2 deletion, they had typical dysmorphic features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome including cardiovascular malformations such as interrupted aortic arch type B. They also had characteristic features of CHARGE syndrome including ear malformation, genital hypoplasia, limb malformation, and endocrinological disorders. CHD7 gene mutation was confirmed in one of the two cases. When a patient with cardiovascular malformations frequently associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome does not have 22q11.2 deletion, we suggest that associated malformations characteristic of CHARGE syndrome should be searched for.

  14. Cardiovascular Malformations in CHARGE Syndrome with DiGeorge Phenotype: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Morihana, Eiji; Fusazaki, Naoki; Ishikawa, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Both CHARGE syndrome and DiGeorge anomaly are frequently accompanied by cardiovascular malformations. Some specific cardiovascular malformations such as interrupted aortic arch type B and truncus arteriosus are frequently associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, while conotruncal defects and atrioventricular septal defects are overrepresented in patients with CHARGE syndrome. CHD7 gene mutation is identified in approximately two-thirds of patients with CHARGE syndrome, and chromosomal microdeletion at 22q11.2 is found in more than 95% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. CHARGE syndrome is occasionally accompanied by DiGeorge phenotype. We report two patients with dysmorphic features of both CHARGE syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Although both of the two cases did not have 22q11.2 deletion, they had typical dysmorphic features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome including cardiovascular malformations such as interrupted aortic arch type B. They also had characteristic features of CHARGE syndrome including ear malformation, genital hypoplasia, limb malformation, and endocrinological disorders. CHD7 gene mutation was confirmed in one of the two cases. When a patient with cardiovascular malformations frequently associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome does not have 22q11.2 deletion, we suggest that associated malformations characteristic of CHARGE syndrome should be searched for. PMID:27957375

  15. Dermatological clues to the diagnosis of atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Kole, Lauren; Knapp, Charles; Fort, Prem; Kankirawatana, Suthida; Atkinson, T Prescott; McKay, Kristopher M; Theos, Amy

    2016-11-15

    Atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is an extremely rare congenital disease characterized by an eczematous dermatitis, lymphadenopathy, and an oligoclonal T-cell proliferation. Because its initial presentation may be confused with other types of eczematous dermatitis, diagnosis and treatment are usually delayed. We describe herein a case of an infant with atypical complete DGS to draw attention to the clinical and histopathological findings that lead us to the diagnosis.

  16. Thymus transplantation in complete DiGeorge syndrome: immunologic and safety evaluations in 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Markert, M Louise; Sarzotti, Marcella; Ozaki, Daniel A; Sempowski, Gregory D; Rhein, Maria E; Hale, Laura P; Le Deist, Francoise; Alexieff, Marilyn J; Li, Jie; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Haynes, Barton F; Rice, Henry E; Skinner, Michael A; Mahaffey, Samuel M; Jaggers, James; Stein, Leonard D; Mill, Michael R

    2003-08-01

    Complete DiGeorge syndrome is a fatal condition in which infants have no detectable thymus function. The optimal treatment for the immune deficiency of complete DiGeorge syndrome has not been determined. Safety and efficacy of thymus transplantation were evaluated in 12 infants with complete DiGeorge syndrome who had less than 20-fold proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin. All but one had fewer than 50 T cells/mm3. Allogeneic postnatal cultured thymus tissue was transplanted. T-cell development was followed by flow cytometry, lymphocyte proliferation assays, and T-cell receptor Vbeta (TCRBV) repertoire evaluation. Of the 12 patients, 7 are at home 15 months to 8.5 years after transplantation. All 7 survivors developed T-cell proliferative responses to mitogens of more than 100 000 counts per minute (cpm). By one year after transplantation, 6 of 7 patients developed antigen-specific proliferative responses. The TCRBV repertoire showed initial oligoclonality that progressed to polyclonality within a year. B-cell function developed in all 3 patients tested after 2 years. Deaths were associated with underlying congenital problems. Risk factors for death included tracheostomy, long-term mechanical ventilation, and cytomegalovirus infection. Adverse events in the first 3 months after transplantation included eosinophilia, rash, lymphadenopathy, development of CD4-CD8- peripheral T cells, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and possible pulmonary inflammation. Adverse events related to the immune system occurring more than 3 months after transplantation included thrombocytopenia in one patient and hypothyroidism and alopecia in one other patient. Thymic transplantation is efficacious, well tolerated, and should be considered as treatment for infants with complete DiGeorge syndrome.

  17. Hypocalcemic seizure mistaken for idiopathic epilepsy in two cases of DiGeorge syndrome (chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Lin; Lian, Li-Ming; Chen, Wei-Hung

    2009-12-01

    The chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome, which is synonymous with DiGeorge syndrome, is a congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal facies, congenital heart defects, hypoparathyroidism with hypocalcemia, and immunodeficiency. Neurological manifestations of the chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome are variable, and include mental deficiency, speech disturbances, learning difficulties, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia cause recurrent seizures if patients are not properly treated. We present two patients with poorly controlled epileptic seizures that turned out to be caused by DiGeorge syndrome with hypocalcemia. For such patients, the definitive treatment of seizures depends on recognition of this syndrome and correction of the hypocalcemic state, rather than the use of anticonvulsants.

  18. DiGeorge Syndrome Presenting as Hypocalcaemia-Induced Seizures in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Adrian; Grech Marguerat, Deborah; Psaila, Josephine; Attard, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. DiGeorge syndrome is a developmental defect commonly caused by a microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 or less frequently by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 10. Case report. We report a case of a gentleman with mild dysmorphic features who presented with hypocalcaemia-induced seizures and an associated thyroid mass with a background of learning difficulties and abnormal immune function. Discussion. DiGeorge syndrome was initially described in 1967 by Angelo DiGeorge. The majority of cases are due to a novel mutation. The resulting learning difficulties, congenital heart disease, palatal abnormalities, hypoplasia/aplasia of the parathyroid and thymus glands, and immune deficiency generally lead to diagnosis in childhood. Presentation in adulthood is rare but must be borne in mind when dealing with cases of hypocalcaemia even in the absence of florid phenotypic features. A link with malignant disease has also been reported and should lead to prompt investigation of concerning masses.

  19. Role of Imaging and Cytogenetics in Evaluation of DiGeorge Syndrome - A Rare Entity in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rajoo; Babu, Sellappan Rajamanickam; Ilanchezhian, Subramanian; Radhakrishnan, Prabhu Radhan

    2015-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a congenital genetic disorder that affects the endocrine system, mainly the thymus and parathyroid glands. The syndrome produces different symptoms, which vary in severity and character between patients. It manifests with craniofacial dysmorphism and defects in the heart, parathyroid, and thymus. Patients can present with a palatal deformity and nasal speech. This rare entity is caused mainly due to deletion of chromosome 22q11.2. Radiographic evaluation of DiGeorge syndrome is necessary to define aberrant anatomy, evaluate central nervous system, craniofacial abnormalities, musculoskeletal system, and cardiothoracic contents. It also helps in planning surgical procedures and surgical reconstructions. We report a case of DiGeorge syndrome in a 4-month-old neonate and discuss the clinical, imaging, and cytogenetic findings that helped in the diagnosis of this rare entity.

  20. Noncardiac DiGeorge syndrome diagnosed with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: A case report.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chih-Hsuan; Leung, Cheung; Kao, Chuan-Hong; Yeh, Shu-Jen

    2015-08-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is not really a rare disease. A microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is found in most patients. Sharing the same genetic cause, a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations such as conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, Cayler cardiofacial syndrome, and velocardiofacial syndrome have been reported. Classic characteristics are cardiac defects, abnormal facial features, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia. We report a 6-year-old female child presenting with generalized seizure resulting from hypocalcemia. She had no cardiac defects and no hypocalcemia episode in neonatal stage, and had been said to be normal before by her parents until the diagnosis was made. This highlights the importance of extracardiac manifestations in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome, and many affected patients may be underestimated with minor facial dysmorphism. As health practitioners, it is our duty to identify the victims undermined in the population, and start thorough investigations and the following rehabilitation as soon as possible. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is a rapid, reliable, and economical alternative for the diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion.

  1. Genetic Drivers of Kidney Defects in the DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rivera, Esther; Liu, Yangfan P; Verbitsky, Miguel; Anderson, Blair R; Capone, Valentina P; Otto, Edgar A; Yan, Zhonghai; Mitrotti, Adele; Martino, Jeremiah; Steers, Nicholas J; Fasel, David A; Vukojevic, Katarina; Deng, Rong; Racedo, Silvia E; Liu, Qingxue; Werth, Max; Westland, Rik; Vivante, Asaf; Makar, Gabriel S; Bodria, Monica; Sampson, Matthew G; Gillies, Christopher E; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Maiorana, Mariarosa; Petrey, Donald S; Honig, Barry; Lozanovski, Vladimir J; Salomon, Rémi; Heidet, Laurence; Carpentier, Wassila; Gaillard, Dominique; Carrea, Alba; Gesualdo, Loreto; Cusi, Daniele; Izzi, Claudia; Scolari, Francesco; van Wijk, Joanna A E; Arapovic, Adela; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan; Kunac, Nenad; Samii, Ali; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Crowley, Terrence B; Zackai, Elaine H; Drozdz, Dorota; Miklaszewska, Monika; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Sikora, Przemyslaw; Szczepanska, Maria; Mizerska-Wasiak, Malgorzata; Krzemien, Grazyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Zaniew, Marcin; Darlow, John M; Puri, Prem; Barton, David; Casolari, Emilio; Furth, Susan L; Warady, Bradley A; Gucev, Zoran; Hakonarson, Hakon; Flogelova, Hana; Tasic, Velibor; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Materna-Kiryluk, Anna; Allegri, Landino; Wong, Craig S; Drummond, Iain A; D'Agati, Vivette; Imamoto, Akira; Barasch, Jonathan M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Lifton, Richard P; Morrow, Bernice E; Jeanpierre, Cecile; Papaioannou, Virginia E; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Gharavi, Ali G; Katsanis, Nicholas; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone

    2017-02-23

    Background The DiGeorge syndrome, the most common of the microdeletion syndromes, affects multiple organs, including the heart, the nervous system, and the kidney. It is caused by deletions on chromosome 22q11.2; the genetic driver of the kidney defects is unknown. Methods We conducted a genomewide search for structural variants in two cohorts: 2080 patients with congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies and 22,094 controls. We performed exome and targeted resequencing in samples obtained from 586 additional patients with congenital kidney anomalies. We also carried out functional studies using zebrafish and mice. Results We identified heterozygous deletions of 22q11.2 in 1.1% of the patients with congenital kidney anomalies and in 0.01% of population controls (odds ratio, 81.5; P=4.5×10(-14)). We localized the main drivers of renal disease in the DiGeorge syndrome to a 370-kb region containing nine genes. In zebrafish embryos, an induced loss of function in snap29, aifm3, and crkl resulted in renal defects; the loss of crkl alone was sufficient to induce defects. Five of 586 patients with congenital urinary anomalies had newly identified, heterozygous protein-altering variants, including a premature termination codon, in CRKL. The inactivation of Crkl in the mouse model induced developmental defects similar to those observed in patients with congenital urinary anomalies. Conclusions We identified a recurrent 370-kb deletion at the 22q11.2 locus as a driver of kidney defects in the DiGeorge syndrome and in sporadic congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. Of the nine genes at this locus, SNAP29, AIFM3, and CRKL appear to be critical to the phenotype, with haploinsufficiency of CRKL emerging as the main genetic driver. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  2. Undiagnosed DiGeorge syndrome presenting in middle age with an aortic root aneurysm and chronic dissection.

    PubMed

    King, Christopher

    2015-09-21

    DiGeorge syndrome is the second commonest cause of congenital heart disease after trisomy 21. This case illustrates an undiagnosed case of DiGeorge syndrome for a patient who had a ventricular septal defect repair in childhood. He survived well into his adult years, and was only diagnosed post mortem after an unsuccessful repair of an aortic root aneurysm. The case serves as an example supporting genetic screening of children with congenital heart disease, and lifelong cardiology follow-up for patients with a confirmed genotype.

  3. Revision Surgery in Permanent Patellar Dislocation in DiGeorge Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Berruto, Massimo; Parente, Andrea; Ferrua, Paolo; Pasqualotto, Stefano; Uboldi, Francesco; Usellini, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A 29-year-old patient, suffering from DiGeorge syndrome, came to our attention with a history of persistent pain and patellar instability in the left knee after failure of arthroscopic lateral release and Elmslie-Trillat procedure. The patient was unable to walk without crutches and severely limited in daily living activities. Because of arthritic changes of the patellofemoral joint and the failure of previous surgeries it was decided to perform only an open lateral release and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction using a biosynthetic ligament in order to obtain patellofemoral stability. At one year post-op range of motion (ROM) was 0–120 with a firm end point at medial patellar mobilization; patella was stable throughout the entire ROM. All the scores improved and she could be able to perform daily activity without sensation of instability. Bilateral patellar subluxation and systemic hyperlaxity are characteristics of syndromic patients and according to literature can be also present in DiGeorge syndrome. MPFL reconstruction with lateral release was demonstrated to be the correct solution in the treatment of patellar instability in this complex case. The choice of an artificial ligament to reconstruct the MPFL was useful in this specific patient with important tissue laxity due to her congenital syndrome. PMID:26783479

  4. Revision Surgery in Permanent Patellar Dislocation in DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berruto, Massimo; Parente, Andrea; Ferrua, Paolo; Pasqualotto, Stefano; Uboldi, Francesco; Usellini, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A 29-year-old patient, suffering from DiGeorge syndrome, came to our attention with a history of persistent pain and patellar instability in the left knee after failure of arthroscopic lateral release and Elmslie-Trillat procedure. The patient was unable to walk without crutches and severely limited in daily living activities. Because of arthritic changes of the patellofemoral joint and the failure of previous surgeries it was decided to perform only an open lateral release and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction using a biosynthetic ligament in order to obtain patellofemoral stability. At one year post-op range of motion (ROM) was 0-120 with a firm end point at medial patellar mobilization; patella was stable throughout the entire ROM. All the scores improved and she could be able to perform daily activity without sensation of instability. Bilateral patellar subluxation and systemic hyperlaxity are characteristics of syndromic patients and according to literature can be also present in DiGeorge syndrome. MPFL reconstruction with lateral release was demonstrated to be the correct solution in the treatment of patellar instability in this complex case. The choice of an artificial ligament to reconstruct the MPFL was useful in this specific patient with important tissue laxity due to her congenital syndrome.

  5. A prospective cytogenetic study of 36 cases of DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.I.; Cross, I.E.; Goodship, J.A.; Brown, J.; Burn, Bain, H.H.; Wolstenholme, J. ); Scambler, P.J. ); Taylor, J.F.N. ); Walsh, K. )

    1992-11-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a prospective series of 36 children with DiGeorge syndrome. High-resolution banding (>850 bands/haploid set) was achieved in 30 cases. Monosomy 22q11.21[yields]q11.23 was found in 9 of these 30 cases. In each of these cases monosomy 22q11.21[yields]q.11.23 resulted from an interstitial deletion and not from a translocation. No other chromosome abnormalities were seen. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. DiGeorge syndrome presenting as late onset hypocalcaemia in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Philip C; Donnelly, Deirdre E; Donnelly, Deirdre K; Morrison, Patrick J; Hunter, Steven J

    2008-09-01

    We report a 29 year old female with mild dysmorphic facial features, presenting with late onset symptomatic hypocalcaemia in adulthood. The presence of hypoparathyroidism in association with a history of transient neonatal hypocalcaemia and velopharyngeal incompetence during childhood, prompted chromosomal analysis for DiGeorge Syndrome. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis revealed a deletion of chromosome 22q11.2. This case is unusual in that the patient remained asymptomatic apart from speech and language delay after the first few months of life and presented in adulthood without any associated immunological, cardiac or renal abnormalities. The diagnosis has important implications for health and family planning.

  7. Tbx1 haploinsufficieny in the DiGeorge syndrome region causes aortic arch defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, E A; Vitelli, F; Su, H; Morishima, M; Huynh, T; Pramparo, T; Jurecic, V; Ogunrinu, G; Sutherland, H F; Scambler, P J; Bradley, A; Baldini, A

    2001-03-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is characterized by cardiovascular, thymus and parathyroid defects and craniofacial anomalies, and is usually caused by a heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 22q11.2 (del22q11) (ref. 1). A targeted, heterozygous deletion, named Df(16)1, encompassing around 1 megabase of the homologous region in mouse causes cardiovascular abnormalities characteristic of the human disease. Here we have used a combination of chromosome engineering and P1 artificial chromosome transgenesis to localize the haploinsufficient gene in the region, Tbx1. We show that Tbx1, a member of the T-box transcription factor family, is required for normal development of the pharyngeal arch arteries in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Deletion of one copy of Tbx1 affects the development of the fourth pharyngeal arch arteries, whereas homozygous mutation severely disrupts the pharyngeal arch artery system. Our data show that haploinsufficiency of Tbx1 is sufficient to generate at least one important component of the DiGeorge syndrome phenotype in mice, and demonstrate the suitability of the mouse for the genetic dissection of microdeletion syndromes.

  8. Postnatal thymus transplantation with immunosuppression as treatment for DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Markert, M Louise; Alexieff, Marilyn J; Li, Jie; Sarzotti, Marcella; Ozaki, Daniel A; Devlin, Blythe H; Sedlak, Debra A; Sempowski, Gregory D; Hale, Laura P; Rice, Henry E; Mahaffey, Samuel M; Skinner, Michael A

    2004-10-15

    Complete DiGeorge syndrome is a fatal congenital disorder characterized by athymia, hypoparathyroidism, and heart defects. Less than half of patients are 22q11 hemizygous. The goal of this study was to assess if immune suppression followed by postnatal thymus transplantation would lead to T-cell function in 6 infant patients who had host T cells at the time of transplantation. All infants had fewer than 50 recent thymic emigrants (CD3(+)CD45RA(+)CD62L(+)) per cubic millimeter (mm(3)) and all had some proliferative response to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin. Four infants had rash, lymphadenopathy, and oligoclonal populations of T cells in the periphery. Five of 6 patients are alive at the follow-up interval of 15 months to 30 months. The 5 surviving patients developed a mean of 983 host CD3(+) T cells/mm(3) (range, 536/mm(3)-1574/mm(3)), a mean of 437 recent thymic emigrants/mm(3) (range, 196/mm(3)-785/mm(3)), and normal proliferative responses to phytohemaglutinin (follow-up from day 376 to day 873). The TCR repertoire became polyclonal in patients who presented with oligoclonal T cells. All patients had thymopoiesis on allograft biopsy. Postnatal thymus transplantation after treatment with Thymoglobulin shows promise as therapy for infants with complete DiGeorge syndrome who have significant proliferative responses to mitogens or who develop rash, lymphadenopathy, and oligoclonal T cells.

  9. Localization of the human mitochondrial citrate transporter protein gene to chromosome 22Q11 in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region.

    PubMed

    Heisterkamp, N; Mulder, M P; Langeveld, A; ten Hoeve, J; Wang, Z; Roe, B A; Groffen, J

    1995-09-20

    A high percentage of patients with DiGeorge syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome have interstitial deletions on chromosome 22q11. The shortest region of overlap is currently estimated to be around 55 kb. Two segments of DNA from chromosome 22q11, located 160 kb apart, were cloned because they contained NotI restriction enzyme sites. In the current study we demonstrate that these segments are absent from chromosomes 22 carrying microdeletions of two different DiGeorge patients. Fluorescence in situ and Southern blot hybridization was further used to show that this locus is within the DiGeorge critical region. Phylogenetically conserved sequences adjacent to one human cell lines. cDNAs isolated with a probe from this segment showed it to contain the gene for teh human mitochondrial citrate transporter protein. Deletion of this gene in DiGeorge syndrome and velocardio-facial syndrome may contribute to the mental deficiency seen in the patients.

  10. “FISHed” out the diagnosis: A case of DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, S; Thombare, TS; Tullu, MS; Agrawal, M

    2016-01-01

    Our patient presented with congenital heart disease (CHD: Tetralogy of Fallot), hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, and facial dysmorphisms. Suspecting DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for 22q11.2 deletion was made. The child had a hemizygous deletion in the 22q11.2 region, diagnostic of DGS. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to the heart disease. DGS is the most common microdeletion syndrome, and probably underrecognized due to the varied manifestations. This case stresses the importance of a detailed physical examination and a high index of suspicion for diagnosing this genetic condition. Timely diagnosis can help manage and monitor these patients better and also offer prenatal diagnosis in the next pregnancy. PMID:26489877

  11. "FISHed" out the diagnosis: A case of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, S; Thombare, T S; Tullu, M S; Agrawal, M

    2016-01-01

    Our patient presented with congenital heart disease (CHD: Tetralogy of Fallot), hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, and facial dysmorphisms. Suspecting DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for 22q11.2 deletion was made. The child had a hemizygous deletion in the 22q11.2 region, diagnostic of DGS. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to the heart disease. DGS is the most common microdeletion syndrome, and probably underrecognized due to the varied manifestations. This case stresses the importance of a detailed physical examination and a high index of suspicion for diagnosing this genetic condition. Timely diagnosis can help manage and monitor these patients better and also offer prenatal diagnosis in the next pregnancy.

  12. Immunologic reconstitution in 22q deletion (DiGeorge) syndrome.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Sean A; Lloret, Maria Garcia; Stiehm, E Richard

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of mature T cells (ATMTC) through bone marrow (BM) transplantation, first attempted over 20 years ago, has recently emerged as a successful therapy for complete 22q deletion syndrome (22qDS). This provides a potential option to thymic transplantation (TT) for immune reconstitution in 22qDS. Compared to thymic transplant, ATMTC is an easier procedure to accomplish and is available at more centers. However, there are differences in the nature of the T-cell reconstitution that results. Predictably, more naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants are present in patients treated with thymus transplant. There are no significant differences in mortality between the two procedures, but the number of patients is too limited to conclude that the procedures are equally effective. Adoptive transfer should be pursued as a reasonable treatment for 22qDS patients requiring immune reconstitution when thymus transplant is not available.

  13. Immunodeficiency in DiGeorge Syndrome and Options for Treating Cases with Complete Athymia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E. Graham

    2013-01-01

    The commonest association of thymic stromal deficiency resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency is the DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). This results from abnormal development of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches and is most commonly associated with a microdeletion at chromosome 22q11 though other genetic and non-genetic causes have been described. The immunological competence of affected individuals is highly variable, ranging from normal to a severe combined immunodeficiency when there is complete athymia. In the most severe group, correction of the immunodeficiency can be achieved using thymus allografts which can support thymopoiesis even in the absence of donor-recipient matching at the major histocompatibility loci. This review focuses on the causes of DGS, the immunological features of the disorder, and the approaches to correction of the immunodeficiency including the use of thymus transplantation. PMID:24198816

  14. Cloning of a balanced translocation breakpoint mapping in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Demczuk, S.; Zucman, J.; Desmaze, C.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of thymus, parathyroids and heart, which is associated with microdeletions in chromosomal region 22q11.2. A detailed physical map of the region has been established and a shortest region of overlap based on deletions and unbalanced translocations giving rise to DGS has been derived. Moreover, the breakpoint of a balanced translocation borne by a DGS patient has been localized in that critical region; thereby suggesting that the translocation breakpoint interrupts the or one of the major gene(s) implicated in DGS. We have initiated a chromosome walk by establishing cosmid contigs from probes distally flanking the breakpoint. One contig covers 150 kb of genomic DNA and a second one spans 350 kb in the region and contains the balanced translocation breakpoint. Phylogenetically conserved sequences are being searched for in the vicinity of the breakpoint to be used as probes in order to isolate cDNAs.

  15. Molecular genetic study of the frequency of monosomy 22q11 in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, A.H.; Kelly, D.; Halford, S.; Wadey, R.; Williamson, R.; Scambler, P.J. ); Wilson, D.; Goodship, J.; Burn, J. ); Paul, T. )

    1992-11-01

    It is well established that DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) may be associated with monosomy of 22q11-pter. More recently, DNA probes have been used to detect hemizygosity for this region in patients with no visible karyotypic abnormality. However, DGS has also been described in cases where the cytogenetic abnormality does not involve 22q11; for instance, four cases of 10p- have been reported. In this study the authors have prospectively analyzed patients, but using DNA markers from 22q11, to assess the frequency of 22q11 rearrangements in DGS. Twenty-one of 22 cases had demonstrable hemizygosity for 22q11. Cytogenetic analysis had identified interstitial deletion in 6 of 16 cases tested; in 6 other cases no karyotype was available. When these results are combined with those of previous studies, 33 of 35 DGS patients had chromosome 22q11 deletions detectable by DNA probes. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Immunodeficiency in DiGeorge Syndrome and Options for Treating Cases with Complete Athymia.

    PubMed

    Davies, E Graham

    2013-10-31

    The commonest association of thymic stromal deficiency resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency is the DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). This results from abnormal development of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches and is most commonly associated with a microdeletion at chromosome 22q11 though other genetic and non-genetic causes have been described. The immunological competence of affected individuals is highly variable, ranging from normal to a severe combined immunodeficiency when there is complete athymia. In the most severe group, correction of the immunodeficiency can be achieved using thymus allografts which can support thymopoiesis even in the absence of donor-recipient matching at the major histocompatibility loci. This review focuses on the causes of DGS, the immunological features of the disorder, and the approaches to correction of the immunodeficiency including the use of thymus transplantation.

  17. A human gene similar to Drosophila melanogaster peanut maps to the DiGeorge syndrome region of 22q11.

    PubMed

    McKie, J M; Sutherland, H F; Harvey, E; Kim, U J; Scambler, P J

    1997-11-01

    A Drosophila-related expressed sequence tag (DRES) with sequence similarity to the peanut gene has previously been localized to human chromosome 22q11. We have isolated the cDNA corresponding to this DRES and show that it is a novel member of the family of septin genes, which encode proteins with GTPase activity thought to interact during cytokinesis. The predicted protein has P-loop nucleotide binding and GTPase motifs. The gene, which we call PNUTL1, maps to the region of 22q11.2 frequently deleted in DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes and is particularly highly expressed in the brain. The mouse homologue, Pnutl1, maps to MMU16 adding to the growing number of genes from the DiGeorge syndrome region that map to this chromosome.

  18. Cloning of a balanced translocation breakpoint in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region and isolation of a novel potential adhesion receptor gene in its vicinity.

    PubMed

    Demczuk, S; Aledo, R; Zucman, J; Delattre, O; Desmaze, C; Dauphinot, L; Jalbert, P; Rouleau, G A; Thomas, G; Aurias, A

    1995-04-01

    Deletions of the 22q11.2 have been associated with a wide range of developmental defects (notably DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, conotruncal anomaly face syndrome and isolated conotruncal cardiac defects) classified under the acronym CATCH 22. A DiGeorge syndrome patient bearing a balanced translocation whose breakpoint maps within the critical region has been previously described. We report the construction of a cosmid contig spanning the translocation breakpoint and the isolation of a gene mapping 10 kb telomeric to the breakpoint. This gene encodes a novel putative adhesion receptor protein, which could play a role in neural crest cells migration, a process which has been proposed to be altered in DiGeorge syndrome.

  19. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the DiGeorge syndrome region using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A. Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London ); Halford, S.; Wadey, R.; Scambler, P.J. ); Baldini, A. )

    1993-08-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect characterized by cardiac defects, facial dysmorphism, and mental retardation. Several studies have described a critical region for DGS at 22q11, within which the majority of DGS patients have deletions. The authors have isolated nine cosmid and three YAC clones using previously described and newly isolated probes that have been shown to be deleted in many DGS patients. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and digital imaging, they have mapped and ordered these clones relative to the breakpoints of two balanced translocations at 22q11 (one in a DGS patient and one in the unaffected parent of a DGS child). The data indicate that the breakpoint in the unaffected individual distally limits the DGS critical region (defined as the smallest region of overlap), while proximally the region is limited by repeat-rich DNA. The critical region includes the balanced translocation breakpoint of the DGS patient that presumably disrupts the gene causing this syndrome.

  20. Identification of a novel transcript disrupted by a balanced translocation associated with DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.F.; Wadey, R.; McKie, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    Most cases of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and related abnormalities are associated with deletions within 22q11. Shortest region on deletion overlap (SRO) mapping previously identified a critical region (the DGCR) of 500 kb, which was presumed to contain a gene or genes of major effect in the haploinsufficiency syndromes. The DGCR also contains sequences disrupted by a balanced translocation that is associated with DGS - the ADU breakpoint. We have cloned sequences at the breakpoint and screened for novel genes in its vicinity. A series of alternatively spliced transcripts expressed during human and murine embryogenesis, but with no obvious protein encoding potential, were identified. The gene encoding these RNAs has been named DGCR5 and it is disrupted by the patient ADU breakpoint. DGCR5 is distinct from the DGCR3 open reading frame (ORF) previously shown to be interrupted by the ADU translocation, although DGCR3 is embedded within a DGCR5 intron and in the same (predicted) transcriptional orientation. No mutations of DGCR5 have yet been detected. By analogy to other loci encoding conserved, nontranslated RNAs, it is possible that DGCR5 originates from a cis-acting transcriptional control element in the vicinity of the ADU/VDU breakpoint. Disruption of such an element would result in altered transcription of neighboring genes secondary to a position effect, a hypothesis in keeping with recent refinement of the SRO placing the ADU breakpoint outside the DGCR. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. [DiGeorge syndrome and vascular ring. An unusual association with multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Pedro; Anjos, Rui; Abecassis, Miguel; Santos, José A Oliveira; Martins, F Maymone

    2009-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge/CATCH 22 is a spectrum of association, characterized by unusual face, cleft or incompetent palate, congenital heart disease with defects of the outflow tracts, absence of the thymus and parathyroid glands, often associated with developmental and behavioral disorders. This association is caused by a microdeletion in chromosome band 22q11.2. In a 4-month-old infant, with obstructive lower respiratory distress and poor weight gain since 2 months of age, truncus arteriosus was diagnosed and surgically corrected. On the postoperative period maintained dependency on mechanical ventilation, with persistent hypoventilation of the left lung. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete obstruction of the left main bronchus by an extrinsic compression due to a vascular ring diagnosed by cardiac catheterization that showed a common anomalous origin of both right and left subclavian arteries and the ligamentum arteriosum. A second surgery by left lateral thoracotomy corrected the vascular ring. The maintenance of the collapse of the left main bronchus led to selective endobronchial stenting. The migration of the stent to the trachea, with acute respiratory distress, required emergent endoscopic removal of the stent. Thereafter, the evolution was uneventful. The association of DiGeorge syndrome with vascular ring is unusual. Unexpected evolution in these patients require a multidisciplinary technical approach for diagnosis and eventual emergent intervention.

  2. Identification of a novel transcript disrupted by a balanced translocation associated with DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, H F; Wadey, R; McKie, J M; Taylor, C; Atif, U; Johnstone, K A; Halford, S; Kim, U J; Goodship, J; Baldini, A; Scambler, P J

    1996-07-01

    Most cases of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and related abnormalities are associated with deletions within 22q11. Shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO) mapping previously identified a critical region (the DGCR) of 500 kb, which was presumed to contain a gene or genes of major effect in the haploinsufficiency syndromes. The DGCR also contains sequences disrupted by a balanced translocation that is associated with DGS--the ADU breakpoint. We have cloned sequences at the breakpoint and screened for novel genes in its vicinity. A series of alternatively spliced transcripts expressed during human and murine embryogenesis, but with no obvious protein encoding potential, were identified. The gene encoding these RNAs has been named DGCR5 and it is disrupted by the patient ADU breakpoint. DGCR5 is distinct from the DGCR3 open reading frame (ORF) previously shown to be interrupted by the ADU translocation, although DGCR3 is embedded within a DGCR5 intron and in the same (predicted) transcriptional orientation. No mutations of DGCR5 have yet been detected. By analogy to other loci encoding conserved, nontranslated RNAs, it is possible that DGCR5 originates from a cis-acting transcriptional control element in the vicinity of the ADU/VDU breakpoint. Disruption of such an element would result in altered transcription of neighboring genes secondary to a position effect, a hypothesis in keeping with recent refinement of the SRO placing the ADU breakpoint outside the DGCR.

  3. DiGeorge syndrome gene tbx1 functions through wnt11r to regulate heart looping and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Priya; Trede, Nikolaus S

    2013-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome, and is characterized by congenital cardiac, craniofacial and immune system abnormalities. The cardiac defects in DGS patients include conotruncal and ventricular septal defects. Although the etiology of DGS is critically regulated by TBX1 gene, the molecular pathways underpinning TBX1's role in heart development are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized heart defects and downstream signaling in the zebrafish tbx1(-/-) mutant, which has craniofacial and immune defects similar to DGS patients. We show that tbx1(-/-) mutants have defective heart looping, morphology and function. Defective heart looping is accompanied by failure of cardiomyocytes to differentiate normally and failure to change shape from isotropic to anisotropic morphology in the outer curvatures of the heart. This is the first demonstration of tbx1's role in regulating heart looping, cardiomyocyte shape and differentiation, and may explain how Tbx1 regulates conotruncal development in humans. Next we elucidated tbx1's molecular signaling pathway guided by the cardiac phenotype of tbx1(-/-) mutants. We show for the first time that wnt11r (wnt11 related), a member of the non-canonical Wnt pathway, and its downstream effector gene alcama (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule a) regulate heart looping and differentiation similarly to tbx1. Expression of both wnt11r and alcama are downregulated in tbx1(-/-) mutants. In addition, both wnt11r (-/-) mutants and alcama morphants have heart looping and differentiation defects similar to tbx1(-/-) mutants. Strikingly, heart looping and differentiation in tbx1(-/-) mutants can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of wnt11r or alcama, supporting a model whereby heart looping and differentiation are regulated by tbx1 in a linear pathway through wnt11r and alcama. This is the first study linking tbx1 and non-canonical Wnt signaling and extends our understanding of DGS and

  4. [A case of DiGeorge syndrome with left internal carotid artery absence probably causing one-and-a-half syndrome].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shigeru; Suda, Masashi; Kobayashi, Takehiro

    2012-09-01

    We experienced a case of DiGeorge syndrome with left internal carotid artery absence probably causing one-and-a-half syndrome. MR angiogram demonstrated the apparent absence of the left internal carotid artery and consequently abnormal blood supply to the left middle cerebral artery, which was derived from the basilar artery via the left posterior communicating artery. The patient alsoshowed both an extremely narrow carotid canal on the left side and a very fine vessel extending to the terminal of the left internal carotid artery. Therefore, we regarded this abnormality as severe hypoplasia of left internal carotid artery and supposed that this hypoplasia had originated in maldevelopment of the third aortic arch based on the coexisting lower bifurcation of the right common carotid artery. Since the lesion of one-and-a-half syndrome is restricted to the pontine tegmentum, we speculated that it had resulted from ischemia of the basilar artery area during the embryonic period associated with the absence of the internal carotid artery. To our knowledge, DiGeorge syndrome has never been reported as a complication of internal carotid artery absence. The patient did not demonstrate either chromosome 22q11.2 deletion or TBX1 gene mutation, which is considered the gene responsible for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Therefore, the etiology of DiGeorge syndrome in this case remains unclear.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a novel gene DGCR8 located in the DiGeorge syndrome chromosomal region.

    PubMed

    Shiohama, Aiko; Sasaki, Takashi; Noda, Setsuko; Minoshima, Shinsei; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2003-04-25

    We have identified and cloned a novel gene (DGCR8) from the human chromosome 22q11.2. This gene is located in the DiGeorge syndrome chromosomal region (DGCR). It consists of 14 exons spanning over 35kb and produces transcripts with ORF of 2322bp, encoding a protein of 773 amino acids. We also isolated a mouse ortholog Dgcr8 and found it has 95.3% identity with human DGCR8 at the amino acid sequence level. Northern blot analysis of human and mouse tissues from adult and fetus showed rather ubiquitous expression. However, the in situ hybridization of mouse embryos revealed that mouse Dgcr8 transcripts are localized in neuroepithelium of primary brain, limb bud, vessels, thymus, and around the palate during the developmental stages of embryos. The expression profile of Dgcr8 in developing mouse embryos is consistent with the clinical phenotypes including congenital heart defects and palate clefts associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS)/conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CAFS)/velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), which are caused by monoallelic microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2.

  6. Isolation of a putative transcriptional regulator from the region of 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, Shprintzen syndrome and familial congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Halford, S; Wadey, R; Roberts, C; Daw, S C; Whiting, J A; O'Donnell, H; Dunham, I; Bentley, D; Lindsay, E; Baldini, A

    1993-12-01

    A wide spectrum of birth defects are caused by deletions of the DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGCR) at human chromosome 22q11. Over one hundred such deletions have now been examined and a minimally deleted region of 300kb defined. Within these sequences we have identified a gene expressed during human and murine embryogenesis. The gene, named TUPLE1, and its murine homologue, encodes a protein containing repeated motifs similar to the WD40 domains found in the beta-transducin/enhancer of split (TLE) family. The TUPLE1 product has several features typical of transcriptional control proteins and in particular has homology with the yeast Tup1 transcriptional regulator. We propose that haploinsufficiency for TUPLE1 is at least partly responsible for DiGeorge syndrome and related abnormalities.

  7. Towards a transcription map spanning a 250 kb area within the DiGeorge syndrome chromosome region

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.; Emanuel, B.S.; Siegert, J.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) are congenital anomalies affecting predominantly the thymus, parathyroid glands, heart and craniofacial development. Detection of 22q11.2 deletions in the majority of DGS and VCFS patients implicate 22q11 haploinsufficiency in the etiology of these disorders. The VCFS/DGS critical region lies within the proximal portion of a commonly deleted 1.2 Mb region in 22q11. A 250 kb cosmid contig covering this critical region and containing D22S74 (N25) has been established. From this contig, eleven cosmids with minimal overlap were biotinylated by nick translation, and hybridized to PCR-amplified cDNAs prepared from different tissues. The use of cDNAs from a variety of tissues increases the likelihood of identifying low abundance transcripts and tissue-specific expressed sequences. A DGCR-specific cDNA sublibrary consisting of 670 cDNA clones has been constructed. To date, 49 cDNA clones from this sub-library have been identified with single copy probes and cosmids containing putative CpG islands. Based on sequence analysis, 25 of the clones contain regions of homology to several cDNAs which map within the proximal contig. LAN is a novel partial cDNA isolated from a fetal brain library probed with one of the cosmids in the proximal contig. Using LAN as a probe, we have found 19 positive clones in the DGCR-specific cDNA sub-library (4 clones from fetal brain, 14 from adult skeletal muscle and one from fetal liver). Some of the LAN-positive clones extend the partial cDNA in the 5{prime} direction and will be useful in assembling a full length transcript. This resource will be used to develop a complete transcriptional map of the critical region in order to identify candidate gene(s) involved in the etiology of DGS/VCFS and to determine the relationship between the transcriptional and physical maps of 22q11.

  8. Successful cord blood transplantation for a CHARGE syndrome with CHD7 mutation showing DiGeorge sequence including hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Takada, Hidetoshi; Kusuda, Takeshi; Goto, Takako; Ochiai, Masayuki; Kinjo, Tadamune; Muneuchi, Jun; Takahata, Yasushi; Takahashi, Naomi; Morio, Tomohiro; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Hara, Toshiro

    2010-07-01

    It is rare that coloboma, heart anomalies, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, and genital and ear anomalies (CHARGE) syndrome patients have DiGeorge sequence showing severe immunodeficiency due to the defect of the thymus. Although the only treatment to achieve immunological recovery for these patients in countries where thymic transplantation is not ethically approved would be hematopoietic cell transplantation, long-term survival has not been obtained in most patients. On the other hand, it is still not clarified whether hypoparathyroidism is one of the manifestations of CHARGE syndrome. We observed a CHARGE syndrome patient with chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 mutation showing DiGeorge sequence including the defect of T cells accompanied with the aplasia of the thymus, severe hypoparathyroidism, and conotruncal cardiac anomaly. He received unrelated cord blood transplantation without conditioning at 4 months of age. Recovery of T cell number and of proliferative response against mitogens was achieved by peripheral expansion of mature T cells in cord blood without thymic output. Although he is still suffering from severe hypoparathyroidism, he is alive without serious infections for 10 months.

  9. Cloning and developmental expression analysis of chick Hira (Chira), a candidate gene for DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C; Daw, S C; Halford, S; Scambler, P J

    1997-02-01

    Deletions within human chromosome 22q11 cause a wide variety of birth defects including the DiGeorge syndrome and velo-cardio-facial (Shprintzen) syndrome. Despite the positional cloning of several genes from the critical region, it is still not possible to state whether the phenotype is secondary to haploinsufficiency of one or more than one gene. In embryological studies phenocopies of these abnormalities are produced by a variety of actions which disrupt the contribution made by the cranial and cardiac neural crest to development. The TUPLE1/HIRA gene is related to WD40 domain transcriptional regulators and maps within the DiGeorge critical region. We have cloned the chick homologue of HIRA and conducted in situ expression analysis in early chick embryos. Hira is expressed in the developing neural plate, the neural tube, neural crest and the mesenchyme of the head and branchial arch structures. HIRA may therefore have a role in the haploinsufficiency syndromes caused by deletion of 22q11.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, H; Akagi, K; Inazawa, J; Ohta, T; Niikawa, N; Kayatani, F; Sano, T; Okada, S; Nishisho, I

    1995-04-01

    The region commonly deleted in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) has been localized at 22q11.1-q11.2 with the aid of a high resolution banding technique. A 22q11 specific plasmid library was constructed with a microdissection and microcloning method. Dosage analysis proved three of 144 randomly selected microclones to detect hemizygosity in two patients with DGS. Two of the clones were found to contain independent low-copy-number repetitive sequences, all of which were included in the region deleted in the DGS patients. Screening of the cosmid library and subsequent cosmid walking allowed us to obtain two cosmid contigs corresponding to the microclones within the deletion (contig 1 and contig 2), whose order fluorescence in situ hybridization identified as centromere-contig 1-contig 2-telomere on 22q. By direct selection strategy using one of the cosmids of contig 1, a 4.3 kb cDNA was obtained from fetal brain cDNA library. Sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed an open reading frame encoding 552 amino acids which had several characteristics of DNA-binding proteins. The gene, designated LZTR-1, which was transcribed in several essential fetal organs, proved to be hemizygously deleted in seven of eight DGS patients or its variants, but not in one DGS patient and GM00980. Although LZTR-1 does not locate in the shortest region of overlap, several of its structural characteristics identifying it as transcriptional regulator suggest that it plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and that haploinsufficiency of this gene may be partly related to the development of DGS.

  11. A patient with DiGeorge syndrome with spina bifida and sacral myelomeningocele, who developed both hypocalcemia-induced seizure and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Kokudo, Takashi; Ide, Takafumi; Kondo, Yasushi; Mori, Tokuo; Homma, Yasunobu; Yasuda, Mutsuko; Tomiyama, Junji; Yakushiji, Fumiatsu

    2010-06-01

    DiGeorge syndrome - a component of the 22q11 deletion syndrome - causes a disturbance in cervical neural crest migration that results in parathyroid hypoplasia. Patients can develop hypocalcemia-induced seizures. Spina bifida is caused by failure of neurulation, including a disturbance in the adhesion processes at the neurula stage. Spina bifida has been reported as a risk factor for epilepsy. We report, for the first time, the case of a patient with DiGeorge syndrome with spina bifida and sacral myelomeningocele, who developed both hypocalcemia-induced seizures and epilepsy. The patient had spina bifida and sacral myelomeningocele at birth. At the age of 13 years, he experienced a seizure for the first time. At this time, the calcium concentration was normal. An electroencephalogram (EEG) proved that the seizure was due to epilepsy. Antiepileptic medications controlled the seizure. At the age of 29, the patient's calcium concentration began to reduce. At the age of 40, hypocalcemia-induced seizure occurred. At this time, the calcium concentration was 5.5mg/dL (reference range, 8.7-10.1mg/dL). The level of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 6 pg/mL (reference range, 10-65 pg/mL). Chromosomal and genetic examinations revealed a deletion of TUP-like enhancer of split gene 1 (tuple1)-the diagnostic marker of DiGeorge syndrome. Many patients with DiGeorge syndrome have cardiac anomalies; however, our patient had none. We propose that the association among DiGeorge syndrome, spina bifida, epilepsy, cardiac anomaly, 22q11, tuple1, and microdeletion inheritance should be clarified for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a novel transcript embedded within HIRA, a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pizzuti, A; Novelli, G; Ratti, A; Amati, F; Bordoni, R; Mandich, P; Bellone, E; Conti, E; Bengala, M; Mari, A; Silani, V; Dallapiccola, B

    1999-07-01

    We have isolated a few cDNAs from different human tissues, transcribed from the first intron of HIRA, a gene deleted in the DiGeorge syndrome. These cDNAs are produced by an intronic gene (22k48) which is transcribed by the HIRA opposite strand and is itself arranged in exons and subjected to alternative splicing. The longest continuum cDNA sequence we obtained is 3.6 kb long and contains 3 different exons and 2 introns. 22k48 cDNA is composed of several tandemly arranged repeated elements (Alu, LINEs, CAn) surrounding a unique sequence. In situ hybridization showed the presence of 22k48 RNA in the cytoplasm of CNS and PNS neurons. 22k48 RNA is able to bind cytoplasmic proteins in the range of 45 to 60 kDa. 22k48 is a new member of the small group of genes that are transcribed but not translated, and its haploinsufficiency could contribute to the pathogenesis of the DiGeorge syndrome.

  13. Prevalence of 22q11 microdeletions in DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes: implications for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, D A; Salvin, J; Sellinger, B; Budarf, M L; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Zackai, E H; Emanuel, B S

    1993-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 22q11 have been seen in association with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). In the present study, we analysed samples from 76 patients referred with a diagnosis of either DGS or VCFS to determine the prevalence of 22q11 deletions in these disorders. Using probes and cosmids from the DiGeorge critical region (DGCR), deletions of 22q11 were detected in 83% of DGS and 68% of VCFS patients by DNA dosage analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridisation, or by both methods. Combined with our previously reported patients, deletions have been detected in 88% of DGS and 76% of VCFS patients. The results of prenatal testing for 22q11 deletions by FISH in two pregnancies are presented. We conclude that FISH is an efficient and direct method for the detection of 22q11 deletions in subjects with features of DGS and VCFS as well as in pregnancies at high risk for a deletion. Images PMID:8230155

  14. The murine homologue of HIRA, a DiGeorge syndrome candidate gene, is expressed in embryonic structures affected in human CATCH22 patients.

    PubMed

    Wilming, L G; Snoeren, C A; van Rijswijk, A; Grosveld, F; Meijers, C

    1997-02-01

    A wide spectrum of birth defects is caused by deletions of the DiGeorge syndrome chromosomal region at 22q11. Characteristic features include cranio-facial, cardiac and thymic malformations, which are thought to arise form disturbances in the interactions between hindbrain neural crest cells and the endoderm of the pharyngeal pouches. Several genes have been identified in the shortest region of deletion overlap at 22q11, but nothing is known about the expression of these genes in mammalian embryos. We report here the isolation of several murine embryonic cDNAs of the DiGeorge syndrome candidate gene HIRA. We identified several alternatively spliced transcripts. Sequence analysis reveals that Hira bears homology to the p60 subunit of the human Chromatin Assembly Factor I and yeast hir1p and Hir2p, suggesting that Hira might have some role in chromatin assembly and/or histone regulation. Whole mount in situ hybridization of mouse embryos at various stages of development show that Hira is ubiquitously expressed. However, higher levels of transcripts are detected in the cranial neural folds, frontonasal mass, first two pharyngeal arches, circumpharyngeal neural crest and the limb buds. Since many of the structures affected in DiGeorge syndrome derive from these Hira expressing cell populations we propose that haploinsufficiency of HIRA contributes to at least some of the features of the DiGeorge phenotype.

  15. Molecular analysis of DiGeorge Syndrome-related translocation breakpoints in 22q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Chieffo, C.; Barnoski, B.L.; Emanuel, B.S.

    1994-09-01

    22q11 demonstrates a high frequency of disease-specific rearrangements. Several of the rearrangements are associated with developmental abnormalities such as DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS), Velocardiofacial Syndrome (VCFS), Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) and Supernumerary der(22)t(11;22) Syndrome. DGS and VCFS involve deletions of 22q11.2 resulting from unbalanced translocations or microdeletions. In contrast, CES and Supernumerary der(22)t(11;22) Syndrome result from duplications of this region via inter- or intra- chromosomal exchange. Although the molecular mechanism giving rise to these rearrangements has yet to be elucidated, the presence of known 22q11 repetitive elements are likely to be involved. GM5878 is a 46,XY,t(10;22) cell line from a balanced translocation carrier father of an unbalanced DGS patient. GM0980 is a cell line from a patient with features of DGS/VCFS with an unbalanced karyotype. Using FISH cosmids, we have localized these translocation breakpoints near pH160b (D22S66) which maps to the center of the DiGeorge chromosomal region (DGCR). To further localize the breakpoint of GM5878, overlapping cosmids spanning this region were used as probes for FISH. Use of additional overlapping cosmids allowed the sublocalization of the breakpoint to a 10kb region. A 4.8 kb BglII fragment predicted to cross the breakpoint was isolated. When this fragment was used as a probe to normal and GM5878 DNA, novel bands were detected in GM5878 DNA digested with EcoRI and BglII. Similar analysis of the GM0980 breakpoint is being pursued. Full molecular characterization of these translocations is in progress using inverse PCR to clone the junctional fragments for sequencing. Detailed analysis of the region may reveal molecular features which make this a rearrangement prone area of the genome and help elucidate its relationship to human cytogenetic disease.

  16. 22q11.2 distal deletion: a recurrent genomic disorder distinct from DiGeorge syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shachar, Shay; Ou, Zhishuo; Shaw, Chad A; Belmont, John W; Patel, Millan S; Hummel, Marybeth; Amato, Stephen; Tartaglia, Nicole; Berg, Jonathan; Sutton, V Reid; Lalani, Seema R; Chinault, A Craig; Cheung, Sau W; Lupski, James R; Patel, Ankita

    2008-01-01

    Microdeletions within chromosome 22q11.2 cause a variable phenotype, including DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). About 97% of patients with DGS/VCFS have either a common recurrent approximately 3 Mb deletion or a smaller, less common, approximately 1.5 Mb nested deletion. Both deletions apparently occur as a result of homologous recombination between nonallelic flanking low-copy repeat (LCR) sequences located in 22q11.2. Interestingly, although eight different LCRs are located in proximal 22q, only a few cases of atypical deletions utilizing alternative LCRs have been described. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis, we have detected six unrelated cases of deletions that are within 22q11.2 and are located distal to the approximately 3 Mb common deletion region. Further analyses revealed that the rearrangements had clustered breakpoints and either a approximately 1.4 Mb or approximately 2.1 Mb recurrent deletion flanked proximally by LCR22-4 and distally by either LCR22-5 or LCR22-6, respectively. Parental fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that none of the available parents (11 out of 12 were available) had the deletion, indicating de novo events. All patients presented with characteristic facial dysmorphic features. A history of prematurity, prenatal and postnatal growth delay, developmental delay, and mild skeletal abnormalities was prevalent among the patients. Two patients were found to have a cardiovascular malformation, one had truncus arteriosus, and another had a bicuspid aortic valve. A single patient had a cleft palate. We conclude that distal deletions of chromosome 22q11.2 between LCR22-4 and LCR22-6, although they share some characteristic features with DGS/VCFS, represent a novel genomic disorder distinct genomically and clinically from the well-known DGS/VCF deletion syndromes.

  17. The zebrafish van gogh mutation disrupts tbx1, which is involved in the DiGeorge deletion syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Tatjana; Ahn, Dae-gwon; Schilling, Thomas F; Nair, Sreelaja; Ruvinsky, Ilya; Geisler, Robert; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Haffter, Pascal; Zon, Leonard I; Zhou, Yi; Foott, Helen; Dawid, Igor B; Ho, Robert K

    2003-10-01

    The van gogh (vgo) mutant in zebrafish is characterized by defects in the ear, pharyngeal arches and associated structures such as the thymus. We show that vgo is caused by a mutation in tbx1, a member of the large family of T-box genes. tbx1 has been recently suggested to be a major contributor to the cardiovascular defects in DiGeorge deletion syndrome (DGS) in humans, a syndrome in which several neural crest derivatives are affected in the pharyngeal arches. Using cell transplantation studies, we demonstrate that vgo/tbx1 acts cell autonomously in the pharyngeal mesendoderm and influences the development of neural crest-derived cartilages secondarily. Furthermore, we provide evidence for regulatory interactions between vgo/tbx1 and edn1 and hand2, genes that are implicated in the control of pharyngeal arch development and in the etiology of DGS.

  18. Refining the 22q11.2 deletion breakpoints in DiGeorge syndrome by aCGH.

    PubMed

    Bittel, D C; Yu, S; Newkirk, H; Kibiryeva, N; Holt, A; Butler, M G; Cooley, L D

    2009-01-01

    Hemizygous deletions of the chromosome 22q11.2 region result in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome also referred to as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial or Shprintzen syndromes. The phenotype is variable but commonly includes conotruncal cardiac defects, palatal abnormalities, learning and behavioral problems, immune deficiency, and facial anomalies. Four distinct highly homologous blocks of low copy number repeat sequences (LCRs) flank the deletion region. Mispairing of LCRs during meiosis with unequal meiotic exchange is assumed to cause the recurrent and consistent deletions. The proximal LCR is reportedly located at 22q11.2 from 17.037 to 17.083 Mb while the distal LCR is located from 19.835 to 19.880 Mb. Although the chromosome breakpoints are thought to localize to the LCRs, the positions of the breakpoints have been investigated in only a few individuals. Therefore, we used high resolution oligonucleotide-based 244K microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to resolve the breakpoints in a cohort of 20 subjects with known 22q11.2 deletions. We also investigated copy number variation (CNV) in the rest of the genome. The 22q11.2 breaks occurred on either side of the LCR in our subjects, although more commonly on the distal side of the reported proximal LCR. The proximal breakpoints in our subjects spanned the region from 17.036 to 17.398 Mb. This region includes the genes DGCR6 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region protein 6) and PRODH (proline dehydrogenase 1), along with three open reading frames that may encode proteins of unknown function. The distal breakpoints spanned the region from 19.788 to 20.122 Mb. This region includes the genes GGT2 (gamma-glutamyltransferase-like protein 2), HIC2 (hypermethylated in cancer 2), and multiple transcripts of unknown function. The genes in these two breakpoint regions are variably hemizygous depending on the location of the breakpoints. Our 20 subjects had 254 CNVs throughout the genome, 94 duplications and 160 deletions

  19. Localization of the human mitochondrial citrate transporter protein gene to chromosome 22q11 in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Heisterkamp, N.; Hoeve, J.T.; Groffen, J.

    1995-09-20

    A high percentage of patients with DiGeorge syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome have interstitial deletions on chromosome 22q11. The shortest region of overlap is currently estimated to be around 500 kb. Two segments of DNA from chromosome 22q11, located 160 kb apart, were cloned because they contained NotI restriction enzyme sites. In the current study we demonstrate that these segments are absent from chromosomes 22 carrying microdeletions of two different DiGeorge patients. Fluorescence in situ and Southern blot hybridization was further used to show that this locus is within the DiGeorge critical region. Phylogenetically conserved sequences adjacent to one of the two NotI sites hybridized to mRNAs in different human cell lines. cDNAs isolated with a probe from this segment showed it to contain the gene for the human mitochondrial citrate transporter protein. Deletion of this gene in DiGeorge may contribute to the mental deficiency seen in the patients. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Identification of a Novel ENU-Induced Mutation in Mouse Tbx1 Linked to Human DiGeorge Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiaofeng; Zhang, Xue; Li, Jie; Song, Chenmeng

    2016-01-01

    The patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), caused by deletion containing dozens of genes in chromosome 22, often carry cardiovascular problem and hearing loss associated with chronic otitis media. Inside the deletion region, a transcription factor TBX1 was highly suspected. Furthermore, similar DGS phenotypes were found in the Tbx1 heterozygous knockout mice. Using ENU-induced mutagenesis and G1 dominant screening strategy, here we identified a nonsynonymous mutation p.W118R in T-box of TBX1, the DNA binding domain for transcription activity. The mutant mice showed deficiency of inner ear functions, including head tossing and circling, plus increased hearing threshold determined by audiometry. Therefore, our result further confirms the pathogenic basis of Tbx1 in DGS, points out the crucial role of DNA binding activity of TBX1 for the ear function, and provides additional animal model for studying the DGS disease mechanisms. PMID:28105375

  1. Identification of a Novel ENU-Induced Mutation in Mouse Tbx1 Linked to Human DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaofeng; Zhang, Xue; Li, Jie; Song, Chenmeng; Jia, Yichang; Xiong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), caused by deletion containing dozens of genes in chromosome 22, often carry cardiovascular problem and hearing loss associated with chronic otitis media. Inside the deletion region, a transcription factor TBX1 was highly suspected. Furthermore, similar DGS phenotypes were found in the Tbx1 heterozygous knockout mice. Using ENU-induced mutagenesis and G1 dominant screening strategy, here we identified a nonsynonymous mutation p.W118R in T-box of TBX1, the DNA binding domain for transcription activity. The mutant mice showed deficiency of inner ear functions, including head tossing and circling, plus increased hearing threshold determined by audiometry. Therefore, our result further confirms the pathogenic basis of Tbx1 in DGS, points out the crucial role of DNA binding activity of TBX1 for the ear function, and provides additional animal model for studying the DGS disease mechanisms.

  2. Immune constitution monitoring after PBMC transplantation in complete DiGeorge syndrome: an eight-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Daguindau, Nicolas; Decot, Véronique; Nzietchueng, Rosine; Ferrand, Christophe; Picard, Capucine; Latger-Cannard, Véronique; Gregoire, Marie José; Beri, Mylène; Salmon, Alexandra; Stoltz, Jean François; Bordigoni, Pierre; Bensoussan, Danièle

    2008-08-01

    A young boy with a confirmed complete DiGeorge Syndrome (cDGS) underwent a peripheral blood mononuclear cell transplantation (PBMCT) from his HLA-identical sister at 4.5 years of age, without a conditioning regimen. Eight years later, he is healthy with good immunological functions in the presence of a stable mixed T-cell chimerism. Absence of recent thymic emigrants is confirmed. We observe an inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio, related to the CD8 subset expansion, a skewing of the TCR repertoire, especially on the CD8+ subset and a telomere loss on the CD8+ cells compared to the donor. However, these anomalies do not seem to have an impact on functional immunity. PBMCT in cDGS using an HLA-matched sibling donor provides good long-lasting immunity and is an easy alternative to bone marrow transplantation and to thymic transplantation.

  3. Unusual (CGG)n expansion and recombination in a family with fragile X and DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, J N; Curtis, G; Crolla, J A; Dennis, N; Migeon, B; Grewal, P K; Hirst, M C; Davies, K E; Jacobs, P A

    1995-03-01

    In a fragile X family referred for prenatal diagnosis, the female fetus did not inherit the full fragile X mutation from her mother, but an unexpected expansion within the normal range of CGG repeats from 29 to 39 was observed in the paternal X chromosome. Also, a rare recombination between DXS548 and FRAXAC1 was recorded in the maternal meiosis. Follow up of the neonate confirmed the same DNA genotype as in the CVS, but the child died of DiGeorge syndrome after four days and was subsequently found to carry a microdeletion of chromosome 22 using probe cEO. It is suggested that in this family the deletion of chromosome 22 is likely to be a chance event but the rare recombinant and the fragile X mutation might be causally related.

  4. Cloning a balanced translocation associated with DiGeorge syndrome and identification of a disrupted candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Budarf, M L; Collins, J; Gong, W; Roe, B; Wang, Z; Bailey, L C; Sellinger, B; Michaud, D; Driscoll, D A; Emanuel, B S

    1995-07-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), a developmental defect, is characterized by cardiac defects and aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathyroid glands. DGS has been associated with visible chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions of 22q11, but only one balanced translocation--ADU/VDU t(2;22)(q14;q11.21). We now report the cloning of this translocation, the identification of a gene disrupted by the rearrangement and the analysis of other transcripts in its vicinity. Transcripts were identified by direct screening of cDNA libraries, exon amplification, cDNA selection and genomic sequence analysis using GRAIL. Disruption of a gene in 22q11.2 by the breakpoint and haploinsufficiency of this locus in deleted DGS patients make it a strong candidate for the major features associated with this disorder.

  5. Isolation of a novel gene from the DiGeorge syndrome critical region with homology to Drosophila gdl and to human LAMC1 genes.

    PubMed

    Demczuk, S; Thomas, G; Aurias, A

    1996-05-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, and more widely the CATCH 22 syndrome, are associated with microdeletions in chromosomal region 22q11.2. A critical region of 500 kb has been delimited within which maps the breakpoint of a balanced translocation associated with mild CATCH 22 phenotypes. We report the isolation from this critical region of a novel gene, DGCR6, which maps 115 kb centromeric to the balanced translocation breakpoint. The DGCR6 gene product shares homology with the Drosophila melanogaster gonadal protein, which participates in gonadal and germ-line cells development, and with the human laminin. gamma-1 chain, which upon polymerization with alpha- and beta- chains forms the laminin molecule. Laminin binds to cells through interaction with a receptor and has functions in cell attachment, migration and tissue organization during development. DGCR6 could be a candidate for involvement in the DiGeorge syndrome pathology by playing a role in neural crest cell migration into the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, the structures from which derive the organs affected in DiGeorge syndrome.

  6. Vitamin B12 ameliorates the phenotype of a mouse model of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lania, Gabriella; Bresciani, Alberto; Bisbocci, Monica; Francone, Alessandra; Colonna, Vincenza; Altamura, Sergio; Baldini, Antonio

    2016-08-09

    Pathological conditions caused by reduced dosage of a gene, such as gene haploinsufficiency, can potentially be reverted by enhancing the expression of the functional allele. In practice, low specificity of therapeutic agents, or their toxicity reduces their clinical applicability. Here, we have used a high throughput screening (HTS) approach to identify molecules capable of increasing the expression of the gene Tbx1, which is involved in one of the most common gene haploinsufficiency syndromes, the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Surprisingly, we found that one of the two compounds identified by the HTS is the vitamin B12. Validation in a mouse model demonstrated that vitamin B12 treatment enhances Tbx1 gene expression and partially rescues the haploinsufficiency phenotype. These results lay the basis for preclinical and clinical studies to establish the effectiveness of this drug in the human syndrome.

  7. Patient with a 22q11.2 deletion with no overlap of the minimal DiGeorge syndrome critical region (MDGCR).

    PubMed

    McQuade, L; Christodoulou, J; Budarf, M; Sachdev, R; Wilson, M; Emanuel, B; Colley, A

    1999-09-03

    The apparent lack of genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with the DiGeorge anomaly and velocardiofacial syndrome (DGA/VCFS; the "22q11 deletion syndrome") indicates a complex genetic condition. Most cases, whatever the phenotype, have a 1.5-3 Mb chromosomal deletion that includes the minimal DiGeorge critical region (MDGCR). Another potential critical region on 22q11 has been suggested based on two patients with distal deletions outside the MDGCR. We report on a patient with a VCFS phenotype who has a deletion, mapped by short tandem repeat polymorphic loci and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, distal to and not overlapping the MDGCR. This patient is deleted for several genes, including the T-box 1 gene (TBX1; a transcription regulator expressed early in embryogenesis) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; involved in neurotransmitter metabolism). We discuss the role these two genes may play in the clinical phenotype of the patient.

  8. The human DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 and Its D. melanogaster homolog are required for miRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Landthaler, Markus; Yalcin, Abdullah; Tuschl, Thomas

    2004-12-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a family of small noncoding RNAs that are found in plants and animals (for recent reviews, see ). miRNAs are expressed in a developmentally and tissue-specific manner and regulate the translational efficiency and stability of partial or fully sequence-complementary mRNAs. miRNAs are excised in a stepwise process from double-stranded RNA precursors that are embedded in long RNA polymerase II primary transcripts (pri-miRNA). Drosha RNase III catalyzes the first excision event, the release in the nucleus of a hairpin RNA (pre-miRNA), which is followed by export of the pre-miRNA to the cytoplasm and further processing by Dicer to mature miRNAs. Here, we characterize the human DGCR8, the DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8, and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog. We provide biochemical and cell-based readouts to demonstrate the requirement of DGCR8 for the maturation of miRNA primary transcripts. RNAi knockdown experiments of fly and human DGCR8 resulted in accumulation of pri-miRNAs and reduction of pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs. Our results suggest that DGCR8 and Drosha interact in human cells and reside in a functional pri-miRNA processing complex.

  9. SDF1-CXCR4 signaling: A new player involved in DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duband, Jean-Loup; Escot, Sophie; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as velocardiofacial syndrome, is a congenital disease causing numerous structural and behavioral disorders, including cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from a unique chromosomal microdeletion on the 22q11.2 region in which the transcriptional activator TBX1 is decisive for the occurrence of the disease. During embryogenesis, Tbx1 is required for patterning of pharyngeal region giving rise to structures of the face, neck and chest. Genetic and developmental studies demonstrated that the severity and variability of the syndrome are determined by Tbx1 targets involved in pharyngeal neural crest cell migration and survival. Recently, we demonstrated that the chemokine Sdf1/Cxcl12 and its receptor Cxcr4 are genetically downstream of Tbx1 during pharyngeal development and that reduction of CXCR4 signaling results in defects which recapitulate the major morphological anomalies of 22q11DS, supporting the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in its etiology.

  10. SDF1-CXCR4 signaling: A new player involved in DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Duband, Jean-Loup; Escot, Sophie; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as velocardiofacial syndrome, is a congenital disease causing numerous structural and behavioral disorders, including cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from a unique chromosomal microdeletion on the 22q11.2 region in which the transcriptional activator TBX1 is decisive for the occurrence of the disease. During embryogenesis, Tbx1 is required for patterning of pharyngeal region giving rise to structures of the face, neck and chest. Genetic and developmental studies demonstrated that the severity and variability of the syndrome are determined by Tbx1 targets involved in pharyngeal neural crest cell migration and survival. Recently, we demonstrated that the chemokine Sdf1/Cxcl12 and its receptor Cxcr4 are genetically downstream of Tbx1 during pharyngeal development and that reduction of CXCR4 signaling results in defects which recapitulate the major morphological anomalies of 22q11DS, supporting the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in its etiology. PMID:27500073

  11. The TREC/KREC Assay for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Patients with DiGeorge Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Froňková, Eva; Klocperk, Adam; Svatoň, Michael; Nováková, Michaela; Kotrová, Michaela; Kayserová, Jana; Kalina, Tomáš; Keslová, Petra; Votava, Felix; Vinohradská, Hana; Freiberger, Tomáš; Mejstříková, Ester; Trka, Jan; Šedivá, Anna

    2014-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) presents with a wide spectrum of thymic pathologies. Nationwide neonatal screening programs of lymphocyte production using T-cell recombination excision circles (TREC) have repeatedly identified patients with DGS. We tested what proportion of DGS patients could be identified at birth by combined TREC and kappa-deleting element recombination circle (KREC) screening. Furthermore, we followed TREC/KREC levels in peripheral blood (PB) to monitor postnatal changes in lymphocyte production. Methods TREC/KREC copies were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and were related to the albumin control gene in dry blood spots (DBSs) from control (n = 56), severe immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID, n = 10) and DGS (n = 13) newborns. PB was evaluated in DGS children (n = 32), in diagnostic samples from SCID babies (n = 5) and in 91 controls. Results All but one DGS patient had TREC levels in the normal range at birth, albeit quantitative TREC values were significantly lower in the DGS cohort. One patient had slightly reduced KREC at birth. Postnatal DGS samples revealed reduced TREC numbers in 5 of 32 (16%) patients, whereas KREC copy numbers were similar to controls. Both TREC and KREC levels showed a more pronounced decrease with age in DGS patients than in controls (p<0.0001 for both in a linear model). DGS patients had higher percentages of NK cells at the expense of T cells (p<0.0001). The patients with reduced TREC levels had repeated infections in infancy and developed allergy and/or autoimmunity, but they were not strikingly different from other patients. In 12 DGS patients with paired DBS and blood samples, the TREC/KREC levels were mostly stable or increased and showed similar kinetics in respective patients. Conclusions The combined TREC/KREC approach with correction via control gene identified 1 of 13 (8%) of DiGeorge syndrome patients at birth in our cohort. The majority of patients had TREC/KREC levels in the normal range

  12. Biased T-cell receptor repertoires in patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome).

    PubMed

    Pierdominici, M; Mazzetta, F; Caprini, E; Marziali, M; Digilio, M C; Marino, B; Aiuti, A; Amati, F; Russo, G; Novelli, G; Pandolfi, F; Luzi, G; Giovannetti, A

    2003-05-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (del22q11.2) syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome) is a common syndrome typically consisting of congenital heart disease, hypoparathyroidism, developmental delay and immunodeficiency. Although a broad range of immunologic defects have been described in these patients, limited information is currently available on the diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) variable beta (BV) chain repertoire. The TCRBV repertoires of nine patients with del22q11.2 syndrome were determined by flow cytometry, fragment size analysis of the third complementarity determining region (CDR3 spectratyping) and sequencing of V(D)J regions. The rate of thymic output and the phenotype and function of peripheral T cells were also studied. Expanded TCRBV families were detected by flow cytometry in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. A decreased diversity of TCR repertoires was also demonstrated by CDR3 spectratyping, showing altered CDR3 profiles in the majority of TCRBV families investigated. The oligoclonal nature of abnormal peaks detected by CDR3 spectratyping was confirmed by the sequence analysis of the V(D)J regions. Thymic output, evaluated by measuring TCR rearrangement excision circles (TRECs), was significantly decreased in comparison with age-matched controls. Finally, a significant up-regulation in the percentage, but not in the absolute count, of activated CD4+ T cells (CD95+, CCR5+, HLA-DR+), IFN-gamma - and IL-2-expressing T cells was detected. These findings suggest that the diversity of CD4 and CD8 TCRBV repertoires is decreased in patients with del22q11.2 syndrome, possibly as a result of either impaired thymic function and/or increased T-cell activation.

  13. Humoral immune responses and CD27+ B cells in children with DiGeorge syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome).

    PubMed

    Finocchi, A; Di Cesare, S; Romiti, M L; Capponi, C; Rossi, P; Carsetti, R; Cancrini, C

    2006-08-01

    The spectrum of T-cell abnormalities in 22q11.2 syndrome is quite broad, ranging from profound and life threatening to non-existent defects. Humoral abnormalities have been described in some of these patients, although no data are currently available on their phenotypical and functional B cell subsets. The purpose of this study was to investigate humoral immune function in a cohort of 13 children with DiGeorge syndrome by immunophenotyping B and by analysing their functionality in vivo. Humoral immunity was assessed by serum immunoglobulin evaluation, IgG subclasses determination, and testing of specific antibody titers to recall antigens. B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and the relevant percentage of membrane surface expression of CD27, IgM, IgD was evaluated. In our cohort, one of 13 children (7.7%) had a complete IgA deficiency, four of 13 (30.7%) had minor immunoglobulin abnormalities, and five (38%) had an impaired production of specific antibodies. Five of 13 children (38%) had recurrent infections. Interestingly, peripheral CD27+ B cells were reduced in our patients as compared with age-matched healthy controls, and this decrement was statistically significant for IgM+ IgD+ CD27+ B cells. Immunoglobulin abnormalities were associated with the occurrence of recurrent infections. We conclude that a significant proportion of patients with DiGeorge syndrome have defective humoral immunity, which may represent an additional pathogenic mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility to infections. Whether the decreased CD27+ B-cell subset might be one of the defects that contribute to impaired humoral immunity, and to susceptibility to infection remains to be elucidated.

  14. Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome and DiGeorge sequence with meningomyelocele and deletions of the 22q11 region

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, R.E.; Pillers, D.M.; Merkens, M.; Magenis, R.E.; Zonana, J.; Driscoll, D.A.; Emanuel, B.S.

    1994-10-01

    Approximately 5% of children with neural tube defects (NTDs) have a congenital heart defect and/or cleft lip and palate. The cause of isolated meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, or cleft lip and palate has been largely thought to be multifactorial. However, chromosomal, teratogenic, and single gene causes of combinations of NTDs with congenital heart defects and/or cleft lip and palate have been reported. We report on 3 patients with meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, and 22q11 deletions. Two of the children had the clinical diagnosis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS); both have bifid uvula. The third child had DiGeorge sequence (DGS). The association of NTDs with 22q11 deletion has not been reported previously. An accurate diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion is critical as this micro-deletion and its associated clinical problems is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait due to the inheritance of the deletion-bearing chromosome. We recommend that all children with NTDs and congenital heart defects, with or without cleft palate, have cytogenetic and molecular studies performed to detect 22q11 deletions. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Tetralogy of Fallot with complete DiGeorge syndrome: report of a case and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Sallaam, Salaam; Humes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Complete DiGeorge syndrome (CDGS) has a severe T-cell immunodeficiency and is fatal without thymus or bone marrow transplantation. Associated congenital heart disease (CHD) further complicates the clinical management. We report an infant with tetralogy of Fallot, confluent and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries, right aortic arch, and aberrant left subclavian artery. He was athymic with no CD3+ T cells. CDGS was diagnosed with 22q11.2 deletion. The patient underwent central aortopulmonary shunt at 12 days of age. The patient died at 5 weeks of age awaiting thymus transplantation. We performed a review of the literature regarding CDGS and CHD. We found 43 cases including conotruncal defects (20) and nonconotruncal defects (23). The overall mortality rate was 67%. Among 30 cases undergoing transplantation (bone marrow 16 and thymus 12, bone marrow + thymus 2), the mortality rate was 53%. The patients with conotruncal defects were more likely to die before transplantation (45% vs. 16%, P =.04). The main cause of death was infection before and after transplantation. We conclude that children with CDGS and CHD have a high mortality. Bone marrow and thymus transplantation can improve the survival, but the overall management of these high risk patients remains challenging.

  16. Beta-catenin deficiency causes DiGeorge syndrome-like phenotypes through regulation of Tbx1.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sung-Ho; Ornitz, David M

    2010-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a common genetic disease characterized by pharyngeal apparatus malformations and defects in cardiovascular, craniofacial and glandular development. TBX1 is the most likely candidate disease-causing gene and is located within a 22q11.2 chromosomal deletion that is associated with most cases of DGS. Here, we show that canonical Wnt-beta-catenin signaling negatively regulates Tbx1 expression and that mesenchymal inactivation of beta-catenin (Ctnnb1) in mice caused abnormalities within the DGS phenotypic spectrum, including great vessel malformations, hypoplastic pulmonary and aortic arch arteries, cardiac malformations, micrognathia, thymus hypoplasia and mislocalization of the parathyroid gland. In a heterozygous Fgf8 or Tbx1 genetic background, ectopic activation of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling caused an increased incidence and severity of DGS-like phenotypes. Additionally, reducing the gene dosage of Fgf8 rescued pharyngeal arch artery defects caused by loss of Ctnnb1. These findings identify Wnt-beta-catenin signaling as a crucial upstream regulator of a Tbx1-Fgf8 signaling pathway and suggest that factors that affect Wnt-beta-catenin signaling could modify the incidence and severity of DGS.

  17. Disruption of CXCR4 signaling in pharyngeal neural crest cells causes DiGeorge syndrome-like malformations.

    PubMed

    Escot, Sophie; Blavet, Cédrine; Faure, Emilie; Zaffran, Stéphane; Duband, Jean-Loup; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2016-02-15

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital disease causing cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from defective development of neural crest cells (NCs) that colonize the pharyngeal arches and contribute to lower jaw, neck and heart tissues. Although TBX1 has been identified as the main gene accounting for the defects observed in human patients and mouse models, the molecular mechanisms underlying DGS etiology are poorly identified. The recent demonstrations that the SDF1/CXCR4 axis is implicated in NC chemotactic guidance and impaired in cortical interneurons of mouse DGS models prompted us to search for genetic interactions between Tbx1, Sdf1 (Cxcl12) and Cxcr4 in pharyngeal NCs and to investigate the effect of altering CXCR4 signaling on the ontogeny of their derivatives, which are affected in DGS. Here, we provide evidence that Cxcr4 and Sdf1 are genetically downstream of Tbx1 during pharyngeal NC development and that reduction of CXCR4 signaling causes misrouting of pharyngeal NCs in chick and dramatic morphological alterations in the mandibular skeleton, thymus and cranial sensory ganglia. Our results therefore support the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in DGS etiology.

  18. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome and DiGeorge sequence with meningomyelocele and deletions of the 22q11 region.

    PubMed

    Nickel, R E; Pillers, D A; Merkens, M; Magenis, R E; Driscoll, D A; Emanuel, B S; Zonana, J

    1994-10-01

    Approximately 5% of children with neural tube defects (NTDs) have a congenital heart defect and/or cleft lip and palate. The cause of isolated meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, or cleft lip and palate has been largely thought to be multifactorial. However, chromosomal, teratogenic, and single gene causes of combinations of NTDs with congenital heart defects and/or cleft lip and palate have been reported. We report on 3 patients with meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, and 22q11 deletions. Two of the children had the clinical diagnosis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS); both also have bifid uvula. The third child had DiGeorge sequence (DGS). The association of NTDs with 22q11 deletions has not been reported previously. An accurate diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion is critical as this micro-deletion and its associated clinical problems is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait due to the inheritance of the deletion-bearing chromosome. We recommend that all children with NTDs and congenital heart defects, with or without cleft palate, have cytogenetic and molecular studies performed to detect 22q11 deletions.

  19. The 22q11 deletion: DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes and the role of TBX1.

    PubMed

    Papangeli, Irinna; Scambler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hemizygous deletion of 22q11 affects approximately 1:4000 live births and may give rise to many different malformations but classically results in a constellation of phenotypes that receive a diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome. Particularly affected are the heart and great vessels, the endocrine glands of the neck, the face, the soft palate, and cognitive development. Although up to 50 genes may be deleted, it is haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor TBX1 that is thought to make the greatest contribution to the disorder. Mouse embryos are exquisitely sensitive to varying levels of Tbx1 mRNA, and Tbx1 is required in all three germ layers of the embryonic pharyngeal region for normal development. TBX1 controls cell proliferation and affects cellular differentiation in a cell autonomous fashion, but it also directs non-cell autonomous effects, most notably in the signaling between pharyngeal surface ectoderm and the rostral neural crest. TBX1 interacts with several signaling pathways, including fibroblast growth factor, retinoic acid, CTNNB1 (formerly known as β-catenin), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and may regulate pathways by both DNA-binding and non-binding activity. In addition to the structural abnormalities seen in 22q11 deletion syndrome (DS) and Tbx1 mutant mouse models, patients reaching adolescence and adulthood have a predisposition to psychiatric illness. Whether this has a developmental basis and, if so, which genes are involved is an ongoing strand of research. Thus, knowledge of the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying 22q11DS has the potential to inform about common disease as well as developmental defect.

  20. Structural and mutational analysis of a conserved gene (DGSI) from the minimal DiGeorge syndrome critical region.

    PubMed

    Gong, W; Emanuel, B S; Galili, N; Kim, D H; Roe, B; Driscoll, D A; Budarf, M L

    1997-02-01

    The majority of patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS) and some individuals with familial or sporadic conotruncal cardiac defects have hemizygous deletions of chromosome 22. Most patients with these disorders share a common large deletion, spanning > 1.5 Mb within 22q11.21-q11.23. Recently, the smallest region of deletion overlap has been narrowed to a 250 kb area, the minimal DGS critical region (MDGCR), which includes the locus D22S75 (N25). We have isolated and characterized a novel, highly conserved gene, DGSI, within the MDGCR. DGSI has 10 exons and nine introns encompassing 1702 bp of cDNA sequence and 11 kb of genomic DNA. The encoded protein has 476 amino acids with a predicted mol. wt of 52.6 kDa. The intron-exon boundaries have been analyzed and conform to the consensus GT/AG motif. The corresponding murine Dgsi has been isolated and localized to proximal mouse chromosome 16. The mouse gene contains the same number of exons and introns, and the predicted protein has 479 amino acids with 93.2% identity to that of the human DGSI gene. By database searching, both genes have significant homology to a Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical protein, F42H10.7. Further, mutation analysis has been performed in 16 patients, who have no detectable 22q11.2 deletion and some of the characteristic clinical features of DGS/VCFS. We have detected eight sequence variants in DGSI. These occurred in the 5'-untranslated region, the coding region and the intronic regions adjacent to the intron-exon boundaries of the gene. Seven of the eight variants were also present in normal controls or unaffected family members, suggesting they may not be of etiologic significance.

  1. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... female genitals develop depending on the pair of sex chromosomes from the parents. It also depends on the ... genitals , which leads to confusion over the baby's sex. The syndrome ... with two X chromosomes are not affected if only one copy of ...

  2. What`s in a name? Chromosome 22q abnormalities and the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial and conotruncal anomalies face syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Wulfsberg, E.A.; Leana-Cox, J.; Neri, G.

    1996-11-11

    The recent advances in our understanding of the phenotype associated with deletion of the DiGeorge Chromosome Region (DGCR) at 22q11.2 are in many ways analogous to the fable about the blind men and the elephant. Originally described as three distinct phenotypes (DiGeorge (DG) syndrome, velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome, and the conotruncal anomalies face (CTAF) syndrome), it is now clear that there is only a single broad and variable phenotype associated with deletion of the DGCR. As in the fable, distinguished clinicians approached this phenotypic {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} from different perspectives and provided three separate, although overlapping descriptions. Our analogy to this fable is not to imply some {open_quotes}blindness{close_quotes} on the part of these clinicians, but rather to point out the well-known difficulty in delineating the indistinct phenotypic boundaries of a syndrome until a genetic or biochemical marker for the condition is available. The recent availability of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe to detect deletion of the DGCR now allows delineation of the broad phenotype of our {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} which spans from lethal DG phenotypes through the intermediate VCF and CTAF phenotypes to the newly recognized {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} phenotype consisting of only developmental delays and subtle facial abnormalities. 33 refs.

  3. Isolation of a gene expressed during early embryogenesis from the region of 22q11 commonly deleted in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halford, S; Wilson, D I; Daw, S C; Roberts, C; Wadey, R; Kamath, S; Wickremasinghe, A; Burn, J; Goodship, J; Mattei, M G

    1993-10-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is one of several syndromes associated with deletions within the proximal long-arm of chromosome 22. The region of chromosome 22q11 responsible for the haploinsufficiency syndromes (the DiGeorge Critical Region or DGCR) has been mapped using RFLPs, quantitative Southern blotting and FISH. Similar deletions are seen in the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and familial congenital heart defects. It is not known whether the phenotypic spectrum is the result of the hemizygosity of one gene or whether it is a consequence of contiguous genes being deleted. However, the majority of patients have a large (> = 2Mb deletion). In this paper we report the isolation of a gene, lab name T10, encoding a serine/threonine rich protein of unknown function which maps to the commonly deleted region of chromosome 22q11. Studies in the mouse indicate that it maps to MMU16 and is expressed during early embryogenesis. Although not mapping within the shortest region of overlap for DGS/VCFS, and therefore not the major gene involved in DGS, the expression pattern suggests that this gene may be involved in modifying the haploinsufficient phenotype of hemizygous patients.

  4. Human homologue sequences to the Drosophila dishevelled segment-polarity gene are deleted in the DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzuti, A.; Ratti, A.; Penso, D.; Silani, V.; Scarlato, G.

    1996-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of some of the neural crest derivatives. Most DGS patients show haploinsufficiency due to interstitial deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Deletions of 22q11 have also been reported in patients with the velo-cardio-facial syndrome and familial conotruncal heart defects. It has been suggested that the wide phenotype spectrum associated with 22q11 monosomy is a consequence of contiguous-gene deletions. We report the isolation of human cDNAs homologous to the Drosophila dishevelled (dsh) segment-polarity gene. Sequences homologous to the 3{prime} UTR of these transcripts (DVL-22) were positioned within the DGS critical region and were found to be deleted in DGS patients. Human DVL mRNAs are expressed in several fetal and adult tissues, including the thymus and, at high levels, the heart. Two transcripts, 3.2 and 5 kb, were detected, in Northern blot analysis, with different expression patterns in the surveyed tissues when different cDNAs were used. The isolated cDNAs exhibit high amino acid homology with the mouse and Xenopus Dvl-1 gene, the only other vertebrate dsh homologues so far isolated. The pivotal role of dsh in fly development suggests an analogous key function in vertebrate embryogenesis of its homologue genes. Since DGS may be due to perturbation of differentiation mechanisms at decisive embryological stages, a Dsh-like gene in the small-region overlap (SRO) might be a candidate for the pathogenesis of this disorder. 52 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Human homologue sequences to the Drosophila dishevelled segment-polarity gene are deleted in the DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pizzuti, A; Novelli, G; Mari, A; Ratti, A; Colosimo, A; Amati, F; Penso, D; Sangiuolo, F; Calabrese, G; Palka, G; Silani, V; Gennarelli, M; Mingarelli, R; Scarlato, G; Scambler, P; Dallapiccola, B

    1996-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of some of the neural crest derivatives. Most DGS patients show haploinsufficiency due to interstitial deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Deletions of 22q11 have also been reported with patients with the velocardio-facial syndrome and familial conotruncal heart defects. It has been suggested that the wide phenotype spectrum associated with 22q11 monosomy is a consequence of contiguous-gene deletions. We report the isolation of human cDNAs homologous to the Drosophila dishevelled (dsh) segment-polarity gene. Sequences homologous to the 3' UTR of these transcripts (DVL-22) were positioned within the DGS critical region and were found to be deleted in DGS patients. Human DVL mRNAs are expressed in several fetal and adult tissues, including the thymus and, at high levels, the heart. Two transcripts, 3.2 and 5kb, were detected, in northern blot analysis, with different expression patterns in the surveyed tissues when different cDNAs were used. The isolated cDNAs exhibit high amino acid homology with the mouse and Xenopus Dvl-1 gene, the only other vertebrate dsh homologues so far isolated. The pivotal role of dsh in fly development suggests an analogous key function in vertebrate embryogenesis of its homologue genes. Since DGS may be due to perturbation of differentiation mechanisms at decisive embryological stages, a Dsh-like gene in the small-region overlap (SRO) might be a candidate for the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  6. Human homologue sequences to the Drosophila dishevelled segment-polarity gene are deleted in the DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzuti, A.; Novelli, G.; Mari, A.; Ratti, A.; Colosimo, A.; Amati, F.; Penso, D.; Sangiuolo, F.; Calabrese, G.; Palka, G.; Silani, V.; Gennarelli, M.; Mingarelli, R.; Scarlato, G.; Scambler, P.; Dallapiccola, B.

    1996-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of some of the neural crest derivatives. Most DGS patients show haploinsufficiency due to interstitial deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Deletions of 22q11 have also been reported with patients with the velocardio-facial syndrome and familial conotruncal heart defects. It has been suggested that the wide phenotype spectrum associated with 22q11 monosomy is a consequence of contiguous-gene deletions. We report the isolation of human cDNAs homologous to the Drosophila dishevelled (dsh) segment-polarity gene. Sequences homologous to the 3' UTR of these transcripts (DVL-22) were positioned within the DGS critical region and were found to be deleted in DGS patients. Human DVL mRNAs are expressed in several fetal and adult tissues, including the thymus and, at high levels, the heart. Two transcripts, 3.2 and 5kb, were detected, in northern blot analysis, with different expression patterns in the surveyed tissues when different cDNAs were used. The isolated cDNAs exhibit high amino acid homology with the mouse and Xenopus Dvl-1 gene, the only other vertebrate dsh homologues so far isolated. The pivotal role of dsh in fly development suggests an analogous key function in vertebrate embryogenesis of its homologue genes. Since DGS may be due to perturbation of differentiation mechanisms at decisive embryological stages, a Dsh-like gene in the small-region overlap (SRO) might be a candidate for the pathogenesis of this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8644734

  7. Resolution of airflow obstruction on polysomnography after laryngotracheal reconstruction with anterior tracheal wall suspension in a patient with DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jon, Cindy; Mitchell, Sarah E; Mosquera, Ricardo A; Stark, James M; Yuksel, Sancak

    2014-10-01

    DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) may be associated with airway abnormalities including laryngomalacia and suprastomal collapse of the trachea (SCT), which may lead to sleep disordered breathing (SDB). We present a 4-year-old boy with DGS, SCT, and SDB by polysomnography (PSG) while the tracheostomy tube was capped. The patient underwent anterior tracheal wall suspension (ATWS) with concurrent tracheostomy decannulation. Following the repair, the patient experienced improved airway patency visually and by PSG with resolution of obstructive sleep apnea and hypoventilation. ATWS is an effective method to repair SCT in selected patients and may lead to early decannulation and improvement of SDB.

  8. Laryngotracheal reconstruction in glottic-subglottic stenosis associated with DiGeorge syndrome in a four and a half-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Bottero, S; Peradotto, F; Roma, R; Tucci, F

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal subglottic stenosis still remains a substantial challenge for paediatric ENT surgeons. Herein, we present a case of a single stage laryngotracheal reconstruction for a glottic-subglottic stenosis in an 18-week-old, 7.2 kg infant with DiGeorge syndrome. Our surgical approach was compared with those reported in the literature. Paediatric airway surgery should be tailored to individual patients according to age, weight, comorbidities and family collaboration, with the ultimate objective to minimise the invasiveness of the procedure.

  9. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M.; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S. Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K.; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain–hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl−/− mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl−/− mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl−/− mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep. PMID:20921407

  10. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-10-19

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain-hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl(-/-) mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl(-/-) mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl(-/-) mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep.

  11. The core microprocessor component DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) is a nonspecific RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Roth, Braden M; Ishimaru, Daniella; Hennig, Mirko

    2013-09-13

    MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis follows a conserved succession of processing steps, beginning with the recognition and liberation of an miRNA-containing precursor miRNA hairpin from a large primary miRNA transcript (pri-miRNA) by the Microprocessor, which consists of the nuclear RNase III Drosha and the double-stranded RNA-binding domain protein DGCR8 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region protein 8). Current models suggest that specific recognition is driven by DGCR8 detection of single-stranded elements of the pri-miRNA stem-loop followed by Drosha recruitment and pri-miRNA cleavage. Because countless RNA transcripts feature single-stranded-dsRNA junctions and DGCR8 can bind hundreds of mRNAs, we explored correlations between RNA binding properties of DGCR8 and specific pri-miRNA substrate processing. We found that DGCR8 bound single-stranded, double-stranded, and random hairpin transcripts with similar affinity. Further investigation of DGCR8/pri-mir-16 interactions by NMR detected intermediate exchange regimes over a wide range of stoichiometric ratios. Diffusion analysis of DGCR8/pri-mir-16 interactions by pulsed field gradient NMR lent further support to dynamic complex formation involving free components in exchange with complexes of varying stoichiometry, although in vitro processing assays showed exclusive cleavage of pri-mir-16 variants bearing single-stranded flanking regions. Our results indicate that DGCR8 binds RNA nonspecifically. Therefore, a sequential model of DGCR8 recognition followed by Drosha recruitment is unlikely. Known RNA substrate requirements are broad and include 70-nucleotide hairpins with unpaired flanking regions. Thus, specific RNA processing is likely facilitated by preformed DGCR8-Drosha heterodimers that can discriminate between authentic substrates and other hairpins.

  12. Endothelial Neuropilin Disruption in Mice Causes DiGeorge Syndrome-Like Malformations via Mechanisms Distinct to Those Caused by Loss of Tbx1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingjing; Pashmforoush, Mohammad; Sucov, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of human congenital malformations known as DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is replicated in mice by mutation of Tbx1. Vegfa has been proposed as a modifier of DGS, based in part on the occurrence of comparable phenotypes in Tbx1 and Vegfa mutant mice. Many additional genes have been shown to cause DGS-like phenotypes in mice when mutated; these generally intersect in some manner with Tbx1, and therefore impact the same developmental processes in which Tbx1 itself is involved. In this study, using Tie2Cre, we show that endothelial-specific mutation of the gene encoding the VEGFA coreceptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) also replicates the most prominent terminal phenotypes that typify DGS. However, the developmental etiologies of these defects are fundamentally different from those caused by absence of TBX1. In Tie2Cre/Nrp1 mutants, initial pharyngeal organization is normal but subsequent pharyngeal organ growth is impaired, second heart field differentiation is normal but cardiac outflow tract cushion organization is distorted, neural crest cell migration is normal, and palatal mesenchyme proliferation is impaired with no change in apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that impairment of VEGF-dependent endothelial pathways leads to a spectrum of DiGeorge syndrome-type malformations, through processes that are distinguishable from those controlled by Tbx1. PMID:22396765

  13. Refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with DiGeorge syndrome treated successfully with plasma exchange: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Damlaj, Moussab; Séguin, Chantal

    2014-11-01

    Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) results from targeted antibodies towards the red blood cells (RBCs) and can be either idiopathic or secondary to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders or malignancy, drugs, or infection. Patients with DiGeorge syndrome are particularly vulnerable to autoimmune conditions secondary to thymic hypoplasia and dysfunction of the immune system. First-line therapy for AIHA consists of corticosteroids, with most patients showing signs of response. Relapses are not uncommon and are treated with splenectomy or rituximab. There is a paucity of reports in the literature regarding treatment options beyond this stage. Herein, we describe an unusual case of a 20-year-old female affected by DiGeorge syndrome with a history of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), who presented with life-threatening AIHA. Standard first- and second-line therapeutic modalities were ineffective in controlling her disease and she ultimately underwent plasma exchange therapy with successful resolution of hemolysis. At her last follow-up, one year after her initial presentation, she remains clinically well without signs of hemolysis. We conclude that in refractory cases of warm AIHA, plasma exchange therapy can be a valuable tool in the therapeutic armamentarium.

  14. Endothelial neuropilin disruption in mice causes DiGeorge syndrome-like malformations via mechanisms distinct to those caused by loss of Tbx1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingjing; Pashmforoush, Mohammad; Sucov, Henry M

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of human congenital malformations known as DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is replicated in mice by mutation of Tbx1. Vegfa has been proposed as a modifier of DGS, based in part on the occurrence of comparable phenotypes in Tbx1 and Vegfa mutant mice. Many additional genes have been shown to cause DGS-like phenotypes in mice when mutated; these generally intersect in some manner with Tbx1, and therefore impact the same developmental processes in which Tbx1 itself is involved. In this study, using Tie2Cre, we show that endothelial-specific mutation of the gene encoding the VEGFA coreceptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) also replicates the most prominent terminal phenotypes that typify DGS. However, the developmental etiologies of these defects are fundamentally different from those caused by absence of TBX1. In Tie2Cre/Nrp1 mutants, initial pharyngeal organization is normal but subsequent pharyngeal organ growth is impaired, second heart field differentiation is normal but cardiac outflow tract cushion organization is distorted, neural crest cell migration is normal, and palatal mesenchyme proliferation is impaired with no change in apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that impairment of VEGF-dependent endothelial pathways leads to a spectrum of DiGeorge syndrome-type malformations, through processes that are distinguishable from those controlled by Tbx1.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoma cells having chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: an autopsy report of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Shigemi; Ohno, Tadayuki; Kakizaki, Shuhei; Ichinohasama, Ryo

    2011-12-01

    Reported herein was the first autopsy case of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoma in a 25-year-old man with DiGeorge syndrome. Systemic lymph nodes demonstrated diffuse encasement by large lymphoma cells positive for CD45, CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD8, TIA1, and granzyme B, accompanied with marked hemophagocytosis. Almost 100% of lymphoma cells were both EBER- and LMP-1-positive, and EBNA2-negative. The rearrangement of T-cell receptor β gene was proved by polymerase chain reaction. Clinical and pathologic features coincided with Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder preceded by chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. A fluorescence in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissues demonstrated a mosaic chromosome 22q11.2 deletion with both host cardiac myocytes and lymphoma cells, suggesting that Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoma was associated with and derived from the cells carrying the chromosomal abnormality. Furthermore, the lymphomagenesis of our case correlated with defect of cellular immunity in DiGeorge syndrome.

  16. The DiGeorge syndrome minimal critical region contains a goosecoid-like (GSCL) homeobox gene that is expressed early in human development.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, S; Emanuel, B S; Driscoll, D A; Sellinger, B; Wang, Z; Roe, B; Budarf, M L

    1997-05-01

    The majority of patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) have deletions of chromosomal region 22q11.2. The abnormalities observed in these patients include conotruncal cardiac defects, thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, hypocalcemia, and characteristic facial features. To understand the genetic basis of these disorders, we have characterized genes within the region that is most consistently deleted in patients with DGS/VCFS, the minimal DiGeorge critical region (MDGCR). In this report, we present the identification and characterization of a novel gene, GSCL, in the MDGCR, with homology to the homeodomain family of transcription factors. Further, we provide evidence that this gene is expressed in a limited number of adult tissues as well as in early human development. The identification of GSCL required a genomic sequence-based approach because of its restricted expression and high GC content. The early expression, together with the known role of homeobox-containing proteins in development, make GSCL an outstanding candidate for some of the abnormalities seen in DGS/VCFS.

  17. A transcription map of the DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndrome minimal critical region on 22q11.

    PubMed

    Gong, W; Emanuel, B S; Collins, J; Kim, D H; Wang, Z; Chen, F; Zhang, G; Roe, B; Budarf, M L

    1996-06-01

    The majority of patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) have a microdeletion of 22q11. Using translocation breakpoints and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH), the minimal DiGeorge critical region (MDGCR) has been narrowed to 250 kb in the vicinity of D22S75 (N25). The construction of a detailed transcription map covering the MDGCR is an essential first step toward the identification of genes important to the etiology of DGS/VCFS, two complex disorders. We have identified a minimum of 11 transcription units encoded in the MDGCR using a combination of methods including cDNA selection, RT-PCR, RACE and genomic sequencing. This approach is somewhat unique and may serve as a model for gene identification. Of the 11 transcripts, one is the previously reported DGCR2/IDD/LAN gene, and three revealed a high level of similarity to mammalian genes: a Mus musculus serine/threonine kinase, a rat tricarboxylate transport protein and a bovine clathrin heavy chain. The remaining transcripts do not demonstrate any significant homology to genes of known function. The identification of these transcription units in the MDGCR will facilitate their further characterization and help elucidate their role in the etiology of DGS/VCFS.

  18. The human mitochondrial citrate transporter gene (SLC20A3) maps to chromosome band 22q11 within a region implicated in DiGeorge syndrome, velo-cardio-facial syndrome and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M; Karayiorgou, M; Espinosa, R; Beau, M M

    1996-07-01

    The gene encoding the human mitochondrial citrate transporter designated SLC20A3 was mapped to chromosome 22 by analyzing its segregation in a panel of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. This assignment was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, and the gene was further localized to band 22q11.21. The gene is located in a critical region associated with allelic losses in a variety of clinical syndromes, including DiGeorge syndrome, velo-cardio-facial syndrome and a subtype of schizophrenia.

  19. Normalization of the peripheral blood T cell receptor V beta repertoire after cultured postnatal human thymic transplantation in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davis, C M; McLaughlin, T M; Watson, T J; Buckley, R H; Schiff, S E; Hale, L P; Haynes, B F; Markert, M L

    1997-03-01

    Complete DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficiency disease characterized by thymic aplasia and the absence of functioning peripheral T cells. A patient with this syndrome was transplanted with cultured postnatal human thymic tissue. Within 5 weeks of transplantation, flow cytometry, T cell receptor V beta sequence analysis, and cell function studies showed the presence of oligoclonal populations of nonfunctional clonally expanded peripheral T cells that were derived from pretransplantation T cells present in the skin. However, at 3 months posttransplantation, a biopsy of the transplanted thymus showed normal intrathymic T cell maturation of host T cells with normal TCR V beta expression on thymocytes. By 9 months postransplantation, peripheral T cell function was restored and the TCR V beta repertoire became polyclonal, coincident with the appearance of normal T cell function. These data suggest that the transplanted thymus was responsible for the establishment of a new T cell repertoire via thymopoiesis in the chimeric thymic graft.

  20. Secondary Immunologic Consequences in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome/Velocardiofacial Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Zemble, R.; Prak, E. Luning; McDonald, K.; McDonald-McGinn, D.; Zackai, E.; Sullivan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that patients with Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (Ch22q11.2D) have an increased prevalence of atopic and autoimmune disease and this has been without explanation. We hypothesized that the increase in atopy was due to homeostatic proliferation of T cells leading to a Th2 skew. We performed intracellular cytokine staining to define Th1/Th2 phenotypes in toddlers (early homeostatic proliferation) and adults (post homeostatic proliferation) with this syndrome. To attempt to understand the predisposition to autoimmunity we performed immunophenotyping analyses to define Th17 cells and B cell subsets. Adult Ch22q11.2D patients had a higher percentage of IL-4+CD4+ T cells than controls. Th17 cells were no different in patients and controls. In addition, adult Ch22q11.2D syndrome patients had significantly lower switched memory B cells, suggesting a dysregulated B cell compartment. These studies demonstrate that the decrement in T cell production has secondary consequences in the immune system, which could mold the patients’ clinical picture. PMID:20472505

  1. Secondary immunologic consequences in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome).

    PubMed

    Zemble, R; Luning Prak, E; McDonald, K; McDonald-McGinn, D; Zackai, E; Sullivan, K

    2010-09-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that patients with Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (Ch22q11.2D) have an increased prevalence of atopic and autoimmune disease and this has been without explanation. We hypothesized that the increase in atopy was due to homeostatic proliferation of T cells leading to a Th2 skew. We performed intracellular cytokine staining to define Th1/Th2 phenotypes in toddlers (early homeostatic proliferation) and adults (post homeostatic proliferation) with this syndrome. To attempt to understand the predisposition to autoimmunity we performed immunophenotyping analyses to define Th17 cells and B cell subsets. Adult Ch22q11.2D patients had a higher percentage of IL-4+CD4+ T cells than controls. Th17 cells were no different in patients and controls. In addition, adult Ch22q11.2D syndrome patients had significantly lower switched memory B cells, suggesting a dysregulated B cell compartment. These studies demonstrate that the decrement in T cell production has secondary consequences in the immune system, which could mold the patients' clinical picture.

  2. GNB1L, a gene deleted in the critical region for DiGeorge syndrome on 22q11, encodes a G-protein beta-subunit-like polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Liu, M; Jen, J; Yeh, E T

    2000-11-15

    CATCH 22 syndromes, which include DiGeorge syndrome and Velocardiofacial syndrome, are the most common cause of congenital heart disease which involve microdeletion of 22q11. Using a strategy including EST searching, PCR amplification and 5'-RACE, we have cloned a 1487 bp cDNA fragment from human heart cDNA library. The cloned GNB1L cDNA encodes a G-protein beta-subunit-like polypeptide, and the GNB1L gene is located in the critical region for DiGeorge syndrome. A comparison of GNB1L cDNA sequence with corresponding genomic DNA sequence revealed that this gene consists of seven exons and spans an approximately 60 kb genomic region. Northern blot analysis revealed GNB1L is highly expressed in the heart.

  3. VEGF: a modifier of the del22q11 (DiGeorge) syndrome?

    PubMed

    Stalmans, Ingeborg; Lambrechts, Diether; De Smet, Frederik; Jansen, Sandra; Wang, Jian; Maity, Sunit; Kneer, Paige; von der Ohe, Maren; Swillen, Ann; Maes, Christa; Gewillig, Marc; Molin, Daniel G M; Hellings, Peter; Boetel, Thurid; Haardt, Maartin; Compernolle, Veerle; Dewerchin, Mieke; Plaisance, Stephane; Vlietinck, Robert; Emanuel, Beverly; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Scambler, Peter; Morrow, Bernice; Driscol, Deborah A; Moons, Lieve; Esguerra, Camila V; Carmeliet, Geert; Behn-Krappa, Annett; Devriendt, Koen; Collen, Désiré; Conway, Simon J; Carmeliet, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11 (del22q11) causes thymic, parathyroid, craniofacial and life-threatening cardiovascular birth defects in 1 in 4,000 infants. The del22q11 syndrome is likely caused by haploinsufficiency of TBX1, but its variable expressivity indicates the involvement of additional modifiers. Here, we report that absence of the Vegf164 isoform caused birth defects in mice, reminiscent of those found in del22q11 patients. The close correlation of birth and vascular defects indicated that vascular dysgenesis may pathogenetically contribute to the birth defects. Vegf interacted with Tbx1, as Tbx1 expression was reduced in Vegf164-deficient embryos and knocked-down vegf levels enhanced the pharyngeal arch artery defects induced by tbx1 knockdown in zebrafish. Moreover, initial evidence suggested that a VEGF promoter haplotype was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular birth defects in del22q11 individuals. These genetic data in mouse, fish and human indicate that VEGF is a modifier of cardiovascular birth defects in the del22q11 syndrome.

  4. DiGeorge syndrome phenotype in mice mutant for the T-box gene, Tbx1.

    PubMed

    Jerome, L A; Papaioannou, V E

    2001-03-01

    The DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS) is a relatively common human disorder, usually associated with deletions of chromosome 22q11. The genetic basis for the wide range of developmental anomalies in the heart, glands and facial structures has been elusive. We have investigated the potential role of one candidate gene, Tbx1, which encodes a transcription factor of the T-box family, by producing a null mutation in mice. We found that mice heterozygous for the mutation had a high incidence of cardiac outflow tract anomalies, thus modeling one of the major abnormalities of the human syndrome. Moreover, Tbx1-/- mice displayed a wide range of developmental anomalies encompassing almost all of the common DGS/VCFS features, including hypoplasia of the thymus and parathyroid glands, cardiac outflow tract abnormalities, abnormal facial structures, abnormal vertebrae and cleft palate. On the basis of this phenotype in mice, we propose that TBX1 in humans is a key gene in the etiology of DGS/VCFS.

  5. Seizures and EEG findings in an adult patient with DiGeorge syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González, Walter; Bautista, Ramon Edmundo D

    2009-11-01

    This is the first case report to describe the EEG findings in a patient with DiGeorge syndrome who survived into adulthood. The patient developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures when she was 9 years old and these were associated with hypocalcemia. Despite treatment with calcium, seizures persisted and the patient required antiepileptic medications. She was eventually controlled with oxcarbazepine. An MRI of the head was normal. An EEG showed independent spike and wave discharges emanating from the left temporal and right frontal region. The presence of focal findings on EEG, the lack of complete response to calcium therapy, and the need for antiepileptic drug therapy indicate that some of these patients may be inherently predisposed to developing epilepsy.

  6. [Application of Ponseti method in case of neglected talipes equinovarus in 4 years and 9 months old boy with DiGeorge syndrome--case report].

    PubMed

    Golański, Grzegorz; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Case report of application of Ponseti method in treatment of neglected congenital talipes equinovarus in boy with DiGeorge syndrome who was 4 years and 9 months of age at the beginning of the treatment. Foot was classified as very severe, scored 4.5 points according to Pirani and 15 points according to DiMeglio classification. After 9 casts set according to Ponseti protocol good correction of all components was achieved accept for the equinus deformity. Achilles lengthening procedure was done, but there was necessity to perform posterior release to achieve good dorsiflexion. Finally, goals of treatment were achieved: the foot is flexible, well shaped, pain free, ready for weight-bearing and use of commercial shoes. At current stage of treatment the foot scores 0.5 points according Pirani and 4 points according to DiMeglio classifications.

  7. Loss of Wnt5a disrupts second heart field cell deployment and may contribute to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Tanvi; Li, Ding; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Hutson, Mary R.; Kelly, Robert G.; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Outflow tract (OFT) malformation accounts for ∼30% of human congenital heart defects and manifests frequently in TBX1 haplo-insufficiency associated DiGeorge (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome. OFT myocardium originates from second heart field (SHF) progenitors in the pharyngeal and splanchnic mesoderm (SpM), but how these progenitors are deployed to the OFT is unclear. We find that SHF progenitors in the SpM gradually gain epithelial character and are deployed to the OFT as a cohesive sheet. Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt, is expressed specifically in the caudal SpM and may regulate oriented cell intercalation to incorporate SHF progenitors into an epithelial-like sheet, thereby generating the pushing force to deploy SHF cells rostrally into the OFT. Using enhancer trap and Cre transgenes, our lineage tracing experiments show that in Wnt5a null mice, SHF progenitors are trapped in the SpM and fail to be deployed to the OFT efficiently, resulting in a reduction in the inferior OFT myocardial wall and its derivative, subpulmonary myocardium. Concomitantly, the superior OFT and subaortic myocardium are expanded. Finally, in chick embryos, blocking the Wnt5a function in the caudal SpM perturbs polarized elongation of SHF progenitors, and compromises their deployment to the OFT. Collectively, our results highlight a critical role for Wnt5a in deploying SHF progenitors from the SpM to the OFT. Given that Wnt5a is a putative transcriptional target of Tbx1, and the similar reduction of subpulmonary myocardium in Tbx1 mutant mice, our results suggest that perturbing Wnt5a-mediated SHF deployment may be an important pathogenic mechanism contributing to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. PMID:25410658

  8. Comparison of facial features of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) due to deletion 10p13-10pter with DGS due to 22q11 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodship, J.; Lynch, S.; Brown, J.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital anomaly consisting of cardiac defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathroid glands, and dysmorphic facial features. The majority of DGS cases have a submicroscopic deletion within chromosome 22q11. However there have been a number of reports of DGS in association with other chromosomal abnormalities including four cases with chromosome 10p deletions. We describe a further 10p deletion case and suggest that the facial features in children with DGS due to deletions of 10p are different from those associated with chromosome 22 deletions. The propositus was born at 39 weeks gestation to unrelated caucasian parents, birth weight 2580g (10th centile) and was noted to be dysmorphic and cyanosed shortly after birth. The main dysmorphic facial features were a broad nasal bridge with very short palpebral fissures. Echocardiography revealed a large subsortic VSD and overriding aorta. She had a low ionised calcium and low parathroid hormone level. T cell subsets and PHA response were normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed duplex kidneys and on further investigation she was found to have reflux and raised plasma creatinine. She had an anteriorly placed anus. Her karyotype was 46,XX,-10,+der(10)t(3;10)(p23;p13)mat. The dysmorphic facial features in this baby are strikingly similar to those noted by Bridgeman and Butler in child with DGS as the result of a 10p deletion and distinct from the face seen in children with DiGeorge syndrome resulting from interstitial chromosome 22 deletions.

  9. Loss of Wnt5a disrupts second heart field cell deployment and may contribute to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanvi; Li, Ding; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Hutson, Mary R; Kelly, Robert G; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-03-15

    Outflow tract (OFT) malformation accounts for ∼30% of human congenital heart defects and manifests frequently in TBX1 haplo-insufficiency associated DiGeorge (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome. OFT myocardium originates from second heart field (SHF) progenitors in the pharyngeal and splanchnic mesoderm (SpM), but how these progenitors are deployed to the OFT is unclear. We find that SHF progenitors in the SpM gradually gain epithelial character and are deployed to the OFT as a cohesive sheet. Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt, is expressed specifically in the caudal SpM and may regulate oriented cell intercalation to incorporate SHF progenitors into an epithelial-like sheet, thereby generating the pushing force to deploy SHF cells rostrally into the OFT. Using enhancer trap and Cre transgenes, our lineage tracing experiments show that in Wnt5a null mice, SHF progenitors are trapped in the SpM and fail to be deployed to the OFT efficiently, resulting in a reduction in the inferior OFT myocardial wall and its derivative, subpulmonary myocardium. Concomitantly, the superior OFT and subaortic myocardium are expanded. Finally, in chick embryos, blocking the Wnt5a function in the caudal SpM perturbs polarized elongation of SHF progenitors, and compromises their deployment to the OFT. Collectively, our results highlight a critical role for Wnt5a in deploying SHF progenitors from the SpM to the OFT. Given that Wnt5a is a putative transcriptional target of Tbx1, and the similar reduction of subpulmonary myocardium in Tbx1 mutant mice, our results suggest that perturbing Wnt5a-mediated SHF deployment may be an important pathogenic mechanism contributing to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome.

  10. Identification of a novel nuclear localization signal in Tbx1 that is deleted in DiGeorge syndrome patients harboring the 1223delC mutation.

    PubMed

    Stoller, Jason Z; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2005-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is the most common human chromosomal deletion syndrome and is frequently associated with deletions on chromosome 22q11. Approximately 17% of patients with the phenotypic features of this syndrome have no detectable genomic deletion. Animal studies using mouse models have implicated Tbx1 as a critical gene within the commonly deleted region, and several mutations in TBX1 have been identified recently in non-deleted patients, including missense and frameshift mutations. The mechanisms by which these mutations cause disease have remained unclear. We have identified a previously unrecognized and novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the C-terminus of Tbx1 that is deleted by the 1223delC mutation, thus explaining the mechanism of disease in these patients. This NLS is conserved across species, among a subfamily of T-box proteins including Brachyury and Tbx10, and among additional nuclear proteins. By providing functional data to indicate loss-of-function produced by the 1223delC TBX1 mutation, our results provide strong support for the conclusion that TBX1 mutations can cause DGS in humans.

  11. Clinical Phenotype of DiGeorge Syndrome with Negative Genetic Tests: A Case of DiGeorge-Like Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Laccetta, Gianluigi; Toschi, Benedetta; Fogli, Antonella; Bertini, Veronica; Valetto, Angelo; Consolini, Rita

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of DiGeorge-like syndrome in which immunodeficiency coexisting with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, congenital heart disease, delay in emergence of language and in motor milestones, feeding and growing problems, enamel hypoplasia, mild skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms are associated with no abnormalities found on genetic tests.

  12. Clinical Phenotype of DiGeorge Syndrome with Negative Genetic Tests: A Case of DiGeorge-Like Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Laccetta, Gianluigi; Toschi, Benedetta; Fogli, Antonella; Bertini, Veronica; Valetto, Angelo; Consolini, Rita

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of DiGeorge-like syndrome in which immunodeficiency coexisting with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, congenital heart disease, delay in emergence of language and in motor milestones, feeding and growing problems, enamel hypoplasia, mild skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms are associated with no abnormalities found on genetic tests. PMID:26793401

  13. The diverse clinical features of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome).

    PubMed

    Maggadottir, Solrun Melkorka; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome was referred for recurrent sinopulmonary infections. He was diagnosed shortly after birth by a fluorescence in situ hybridization test that was performed due to interrupted aortic arch type B. He had no hypocalcemia, and his recovery from cardiac repair was uneventful. He had difficulty feeding and gained weight slowly, but, otherwise, there were no concerns during his first year of life. At 15 months of age, he began to develop significant otitis media and bronchitis. He was hospitalized once for pneumonia at 18 months of age and has never been off antibiotics for more than 1 week since then. He has not had any previous immunologic evaluation. Recurrent sinopulmonary infections in a child with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome can have the same etiologies as in any other child. Atopy, anatomic issues, cystic fibrosis, and new environmental exposures could be considered in this setting. Early childhood can be problematic for patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome due to unfavorable drainage of the middle ear and sinuses. Atopy occurs at a higher frequency in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and these children also have a higher rate of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration than the general population. As would be appropriate for any child who presents with recurrent infections at 2 years of age, an immunologic evaluation should be performed. In this review, we will highlight recent findings and new data on the management of children and adults with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

  14. Isolation of a transcription factor expressed in neural crest from the region of 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wadey, R.; Roberts, C.; Daw, S.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions within chromosome 22q11 cause a wide variety of birth defects including DiGeorge syndrome and Shprintzen syndrome. We have defined a commonly deleted region of over 2 Mb, and a critical region of 300 kb. A gene, TUPLE1, has been isolated from this critical region encoding a transcriptional regulator similar to the yeast HIR1 histone regulator gene. Since it has been suggested that DGS results from a defective neural crest, the expression of Tuple1 was examined in whole mouse and chick embryos, tissue sections and neural tube explants: Tuple1 is expressed in a dynamic pattern with high levels in regions containing migrating crest. Prior to crest migration Tuple1 is expressed in a rhombomere-specific expression pattern. Later Tuple1 is expressed in discrete domains within the developing neural tube. A remarkable feature of the experiments was the detection of a similar dynamic pattern with sense probe; i.e., there is an antisense Tuple1 transcript. This was confirmed using RPA. Tuple1 is being screened for mutations in non-deletion patients and constructs assembled for homologous recombination in ES cells. Tuple1 maps to MMU16 extending the homology of linkage with human chromosome 22. From these data we predict that the human homologue of the murine scid mutation maps to 22q11.

  15. A human homolog of the S. cerevisiae HIR1 and HIR2 transcriptional repressors cloned from the DiGeorge syndrome critical region.

    PubMed

    Lamour, V; Lécluse, Y; Desmaze, C; Spector, M; Bodescot, M; Aurias, A; Osley, M A; Lipinski, M

    1995-05-01

    The DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental disorder affecting derivatives of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches. DGS patients present an interstitial deletion in one of their two chromosomes 22. Cosmid DAC30 was mapped to the DGS smallest critical region. Iterative cDNA library screening initiated with a DAC30 gene fragment candidate yielded a cDNA contig whose assembled nucleotide sequence is consistent with the widely transcribed, 4.2-4.4 kb long, messengers detected by northern analysis. The deduced protein sequence, 1017 amino acids in length, entirely encompasses the 766 amino acids previously designated as TUPLE1. The completed protein has been renamed HIRA because it contains various features matching those found in HIR1 and HIR2, two repressors of histone gene transcription characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strikingly alike in their N-terminal third, HIRA and HIR1 contain seven copies of the WD repeat, a motif implicated in protein-protein interactions, suggesting that they might define a new subfamily of functionally homologous proteins. The remainder of the human polypeptide highly resembles a corresponding fragment in HIR2. We propose that HIRA, alone, could have a part in mechanisms of transcriptional regulation similar to that played by HIR1 and HIR2 together. The presence of a single copy of the HIRA gene in DGS patients possibly accounts for some of the abnormalities associated with this syndrome.

  16. Isolation of anonymous DNA markers for human chromosome 22q11 from a flow-sorted library, and mapping using hybrids from patients with DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, A M; McLaren, L; Carroll, M; Fantes, J; Green, D; Wilson, D; Scambler, P J; Evans, H J

    1992-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a human developmental defect of the structures derived from the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches. It apparently arises due to deletion of 22q11. We describe a strategy for the isolation of DNA probes for this region. A deleted chromosome 22, which includes 22q11, was flow-sorted from a lymphoblastoid cell line of a patient with cat eye syndrome and used as the source of DNA. A DNA library was constructed from this chromosome by cloning into the EcoR1 site of the vector Lambda gt10. Inserts were amplified by PCR and mapped using a somatic cell hybrid panel of this region. Out of 32 probes, 14 were mapped to 22q11. These probes were further sublocalised within the region by dosage analysis of DGS patients, and by the use of two new hybrid cell lines which we have produced from DGS patients. One of these lines (7939B662) contains the altered human chromosome segregated from its normal homologue. This chromosome 22 contains an interstitial deletion in 22q11, and will be useful for localising further probes to the DGS region.

  17. Comparative mapping of the DiGeorge syndrome region in mouse shows inconsistent gene order and differential degree of gene conservation.

    PubMed

    Botta, A; Lindsay, E A; Jurecic, V; Baldini, A

    1997-12-01

    We have constructed a comparative map in mouse of the critical region of human 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge (DGS) and Velocardiofacial (VCFS) syndromes. The map includes 11 genes potentially haploinsufficient in these deletion syndromes. We have localized all the conserved genes to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 16, bands B1-B3. The determination of gene order shows the presence of two regions (distal and proximal), containing two groups of conserved genes. The gene order in the two regions is not completely conserved; only in the proximal group is the gene order identical to human. In the distal group the gene order is inverted. These two regions are separated by a DNA segment containing at least one gene which, in the human DGS region, is the most proximal of the known deleted genes. In addition, the gene order within the distal group of genes is inverted relative to the human gene order. Furthermore, a clathrin heavy chain-like gene was not found in the mouse genome by DNA hybridization, indicating that there is an inconsistent level of gene conservation in the region. These and other independent data obtained in our laboratory clearly show a complex evolutionary history of the DGS-VCFS region. Our data provide a framework for the development of a mouse model for the 22q11 deletion with chromosome engineering technologies.

  18. Three phases of DiGeorge/22q11 deletion syndrome pathogenesis during brain development: patterning, proliferation, and mitochondrial functions of 22q11 genes.

    PubMed

    Meechan, D W; Maynard, T M; Tucker, E S; LaMantia, A-S

    2011-05-01

    DiGeorge, or 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common survivable human genetic deletion disorder, is caused by deletion of a minimum of 32 contiguous genes on human chromosome 22, and presumably results from diminished dosage of one, some, or all of these genes--particularly during development. Nevertheless, the normal functions of 22q11 genes in the embryo or neonate, and their contribution to developmental pathogenesis that must underlie 22q11DS are not well understood. Our data suggests that a substantial number of 22q11 genes act specifically and in concert to mediate early morphogenetic interactions and subsequent cellular differentiation at phenotypically compromised sites--the limbs, heart, face and forebrain. When dosage of a broad set of these genes is diminished, early morphogenesis is altered, and initial 22q11DS phenotypes are established. Thereafter, functionally similar subsets of 22q11 genes--especially those that influence the cell cycle or mitochondrial function--remain expressed, particularly in the developing cerebral cortex, to regulate neurogenesis and synaptic development. When dosage of these genes is diminished, numbers, placement and connectivity of neurons and circuits essential for normal behavior may be disrupted. Such disruptions likely contribute to vulnerability for schizophrenia, autism, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder seen in most 22q11DS patients.

  19. ZNF74, a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, is expressed in human neural crest-derived tissues and foregut endoderm epithelia.

    PubMed

    Ravassard, P; Côté, F; Grondin, B; Bazinet, M; Mallet, J; Aubry, M

    1999-11-15

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental disorder associated with large hemizygous deletions on chromosome 22q11.2. ZNF74 zinc finger gene is a candidate from the commonly deleted region. To address the potential involvement of ZNF74 in DGS, its human developmental expression pattern has been assessed. In situ hybridization on Carnegie Stage 18 embryos revealed that ZNF74 expression is limited to specific neural crest-derived tissues and neuroepithelium of the spinal cord as well as to foregut endoderm epithelia (esophagus and respiratory tract). Interestingly, ZNF74 expression was detected in the wall of the pulmonary artery and aorta and in the aortic valve, which are populated by neural crest-derived cells. This finding is significant, considering that DGS is believed to result from defective neural crest contributions and that outflow tract and aorticopulmonary septation defects are typical features of the DGS phenotype. Thus, the restricted expression of ZNF74 in structures affected in DGS suggests a role for this putative regulator of gene expression in aspects of the DGS phenotype.

  20. Structural Organization of the WD repeat protein-encoding gene HIRA in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region of human chromosome 22.

    PubMed

    Lorain, S; Demczuk, S; Lamour, V; Toth, S; Aurias, A; Roe, B A; Lipinski, M

    1996-01-01

    The human gene HIRA lies within the smallest critical region for the DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), a haploinsufficiency developmental disorder associated with instertitial deletions in most patients in a juxtacentromeric region of chromosome 22. The HIRA protein sequence can be aligned over its entire length with Hir1 and Hir2, two yeast proteins with a regulatory function in chromatin assembly. The HIRA transcription unit was found to spread over approximately 100 kb of the DGS critical region. The human transcript is encoded from 25 exons between 59 and 861 bp in size. Domains of highest conservation with Hir1 and Hir2 are encoded from exons 1-11 and 13-25, respectively. The amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of homology are separated from each other by a domain unique to HIRA that is encoded from a single exon. Seven WD repeats are conserved between yeast and man in the amino-terminal region of the HIR proteins. Individual repeats were found to be encoded from one, two, or three exons of the HIRA gene. End sequences have been obtained for all 24 introns, opening the way to PCR amplification of the entire coding sequence starting from genomic DNA. Point mutations can also be sought in 16 of the 24 introns that are readily PCR-amplifiable.

  1. Representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis (ROMA) and comparison of binning and change-point methods of analysis: application to detection of del22q11.2 (DiGeorge) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stanczak, Christopher M; Chen, Zugen; Nelson, Stanley F; Suchard, Marc; McCabe, Edward R B; McGhee, Sean

    2008-01-01

    DiGeorge (del22q11.2) syndrome is estimated to occur in 1:4,000 births, is the most common contiguous-gene deletion syndrome in humans, and is caused by autosomal dominant deletions in the 22q11.2 DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGCR). Multiple microarray methods have been developed recently for analyzing such copy number changes, but data analysis and accurate deletion detection remains challenging. Clinical use of these microarray methods would have many advantages, particularly when the possibility of a chromosomal disorder cannot be determined simply on the basis of history and physical examination data alone. We investigated the use of the microarray technique, representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis (ROMA), in the detection of del22q11.2 syndrome. Genomic DNA was isolated from three well-characterized cell lines with 22q11.2 DGCR deletions and from the blood of a patient suspected of having del22q11.2 syndrome, and analyzed using both the binning and change-point model algorithms. Though the 22q11.2 deletion was easily identified with either method, change-point models provide clearer identification of deleted regions, with the potential for fewer false-positive results. For circumstances in which a clear, a priori, copy-number change hypothesis is not present, such as in many clinical samples, change-point methods of analysis may be easier to interpret.

  2. Partial tetrasomy of chromosome 22q11.1 resulting from a supernumerary isodicentric marker chromosome in a boy with cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jung Min; Kim, Jun Bum; Pai, Ki Soo; Yun, Jun-No; Park, Sang-Jin

    2010-12-01

    The 22q11 region has been implicated in chromosomal rearrangements that result in altered gene dosage, leading to three different congenital malformation syndromes: DiGeorge syndrome, cat-eye syndrome (CES), and der(22) syndrome. Although DiGeorge syndrome is a common genomic disorder on 22q11, CES is quite rare, and there has been no report of Korean CES cases with molecular cytogenetic confirmation. In this study, we present the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of a 3-month-old boy with CES. Clinical findings included micropthalmia, multiple colobomata, and renal and genital anomalies. Cytogenetic analyses showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome, which was identified as a bisatellited and isodicentric chromosome derived from an acrocentric chromosome. The results of array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies confirmed the karyotype as 47,XY,+mar.ish idic(22)(q11.1) (D22S43+).arr 22q11.1(15,500,000-15,900,000)x4, resulting in a partial tetrasomy of 22q11.1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Korea of CES confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses.

  3. A chicken model for DGCR6 as a modifier gene in the DiGeorge critical region.

    PubMed

    Hierck, Beerend P; Molin, Danil G M; Boot, Marit J; Poelmann, Robert E; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C

    2004-09-01

    DGCR6 is the most centromeric gene in the human DiGeorge critical region and is the only gene in the region with a second functional copy on a repeat localized more distally on chromosome 22. We isolated the chicken ortholog of DGCR6 and showed an embryonic expression pattern that is initially broad but becomes gradually restricted to neural crest cell derivatives of the cardiovasculature. Retrovirus based gene transduction was used to deliver sense and antisense messages to premigrating neural crest cells in vivo. Embryos in which DGCR6 expression was attenuated revealed cardiovascular anomalies reminiscent of those found in DiGeorge syndrome. Moreover, the expression profiles of three other genes from the DiGeorge critical region, TBX-1, UFD1L, and HIRA, were shown to be altered in this model. TBX-1 and UFD1L levels were increased, whereas HIRA was decreased in the hearts and pharyngeal arches of embryos treated with antisense or partial sense constructs, but not with sense constructs for DGCR6. The expression changes were transient and followed the normal DGCR6 expression profile. These data show that neural crest cells might have a role in the distribution of modulator signals to the heart and pharyngeal arches. Moreover, it shows a repressor function for DGCR6 on the expression of TBX-1 and UFD1L. For the first time, DiGeorge syndrome is shown to be a contiguous gene syndrome in which not only several genes from the critical region, but also different cell types within the embryo, interact in the development of the phenotype.

  4. Partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome: two cases.

    PubMed

    Carroll, B T; Goforth, H W; Raimonde, L A

    2001-04-01

    Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder that may be characterized by visual agnosia, placidity, altered sexual activity, hypermetamorphosis, and hyperorality. Patients with KBS present with a complex behavioral syndrome. KBS is usually associated with lesions of the amygdala or amygdaloid pathways. However, partial KBS may occur in the absence of the classic bilateral temporal lesions. Pharmacologic treatment options have been developed from the results of case reports, which suggest that carbamazepine and antipsychotics may be helpful. We present the cases of two patients with partial KBS who responded favorably to antipsychotic medication.

  5. Autosomal Trisomies and Partial Trisomy Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, W. A.

    1963-01-01

    The establishing of 46 chromosomes as the normal complement in man and the report of the sex chromatin bodies in buccal smears were followed by reports of trisomies and other abnormal patterns of the X and Y chromosomes in Klinefelter's and Turner's syndromes. Abnormal autosomal complements were described in mongolism, in the E-trisomy syndrome, the D-trisomy syndrome, in the Sturge-Weber syndrome, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, benign congenital hypotonia, atrial septal defect and in the schizoid personality. Certain of these conditions, as well as the “oral-facial-digital” syndrome, were also found to exist as partial trisomies. The mechanism of a trisomy is one of non-disjunction and of partial trisomy translocation or insertion. Two cases of the partial trisomy in the E group are described; these are of especial interest because of the familial incidence, longer survival and male sex occurrence, features which are rarely seen in the full E-trisomy syndrome. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:20327419

  6. A mouse gene (Dgcr6) related to the Drosophila gonadal gene is expressed in early embryogenesis and is the homolog of a human gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, E A; Baldini, A

    1997-01-01

    We report the identification of a mouse gene, Dgcr6, which shows high sequence similarity to gonadal (gdl), a Drosophila gene of unknown function. Dgcr6 is the mouse homolog of human DGCR6, previously shown to be deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, a developmental field defect affecting the derivatives of the pharyngeal arches which is associated with 22q11.2 deletions. The Dgcr6 transcript has a 594 nucleotide open reading frame (ORF) encoding 198 amino acids. We previously mapped Dgcr6 to mouse chromosome 16B1-B3, a region known to contain other mouse homologs of genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome. Expression studies were performed by Northern blotting analysis on mouse embryo and adult tissues and by RNA in situ hybridization on mouse embryo sections. Results show that Dgcr6 transcripts are abundant during mouse embryogenesis, from at least 7 days post coitum. In particular, high expression was detected in the brain, spinal cord and pharyngeal arches. On adult tissues high expression was detected in testis. The function of Dgcr6 is to be determined, but its developmental expression suggests that this gene may play a role in the developmental defects associated with 22q11.2 deletions.

  7. Placental lesions in a case of DiGeorge sequence.

    PubMed

    Fulcheri, E; Gualco, M; Delfino, F; Pantarotto, M F

    2006-01-01

    This work describes some placental alterations found in a partial form of DiGeorge sequence, namely, hypoplasia of a cord artery with internal calcification of an extensive endoluminal thrombosis, and widespread calcification of microthrombi in the arteries of the second and third order villous branches. Hypoplasia of a cord artery is a relatively rare event, and is also associated with malformations of the gastroenteric and cardiovascular system, as sometimes described in the DiGeorge sequence. Interesting placental alterations are reported and their likely physiopathologic basis and pathogenic correlation discussed in order to give a better and more comprehensive picture of the DiGeorge sequence in which the correlated placental alterations are not sufficiently known.

  8. Partial trisomy of chromosome 22 resulting from a supernumerary marker chromosome 22 in a child with features of cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bélien, Valérie; Gérard-Blanluet, Marion; Serero, Stéphane; Le Dû, Nathalie; Baumann, Clarisse; Jacquemont, Marie-Line; Dupont, Céline; Krabchi, Kada; Drunat, Séverine; Elbez, Annie; Janaud, Jean-Claude; Benzacken, Brigitte; Verloes, Alain; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Aboura, Azzedine

    2008-07-15

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes are present in about 0.05% of the human population. In approximately 28% of persons with these markers (excluding the approximately 60% derived from one of the acrocentric chromosomes), an abnormal phenotype is observed. We report on a 3-month-old girl with intrauterine growth retardation, craniofacial features, hypotonia, partial coloboma of iris and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome, identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization as part of chromosome 22, and conferring a proximal partial trisomy 22q22.21, not encompassing the DiGeorge critical region (RP11-154H4 + , TBX1-). This observation adds new information relevant to cat eye syndrome and partial trisomy of 22q.

  9. Embryonic expression of Tbx1, a DiGeorge syndrome candidate gene, in the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Le Mentec, Chantal; Lepage, Mario; Mazan, Sylvie

    2002-11-01

    We report the embryonic expression in the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis of Tbx1, the main candidate gene involved in DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial syndrome (DGS/VCFS). From the end of neurulation to stage 26, Tbx1 becomes progressively expressed in all developing pharyngeal arches, as they form. Transcripts are mainly restricted to the mesodermal core and to the posterior pharyngeal endoderm, excluding ingressing neural crest cells. They are also present in the otic vesicle, in a ventral and posterior location. From a later stage (stage 27) onwards, additional expression domains in the head mesenchyme, later contributing to labial muscle precursors, and in the cloacal region, become visible. The comparison of these data with those reported in the chick and the mouse indicates a high conservation of Tbx1 expression in the pharyngeal arches among vertebrates.

  10. A region of mouse chromosome 16 is syntenic to the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial syndrome minimal critical region.

    PubMed

    Galili, N; Baldwin, H S; Lund, J; Reeves, R; Gong, W; Wang, Z; Roe, B A; Emanuel, B S; Nayak, S; Mickanin, C; Budarf, M L; Buck, C A

    1997-01-01

    DGS and VCFS, haploinsufficiencies characterized by multiple craniofacial and cardiac abnormalities, are associated with a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. Here we document synteny between a 150-kb region on mouse chromosome 16 and the most commonly deleted portion of 22q11.2. Seven genes, all of which are transcribed in the early mouse embryo, have been identified. Of particular interest are two serine/threonine kinase genes and a novel goosecoid-like homeobox gene (Gscl). Comparative sequence analysis of a 38-kb segment reveals similarities in gene content, order, exon composition, and transcriptional direction. Therefore, if deletion of these genes results in DGS/VCFS in humans, then haploinsufficiencies involving this region of chromosome 16 should recapitulate the developmental field defects characteristic of this syndrome.

  11. Left Ventricle Diverticulum with Partial Cantrell's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El Kouache, Mustapha; Labib, S.; El Madi, A.; Babakhoya, A.; Atmani, S.; Abouabdilah, Y.; Harandou, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cantrell syndrome is a very rare congenital disease associating five features: a midline, upper abdominal wall disorder, lower sternal abnormality, anterior diaphragmatic defect, diaphragmatic pericardial abnormality, and congenital abnormalities of the heart. In this paper, we report a case of partial Cantrell's syndrome with left ventricular diverticulum, triatrial situs solitus, ventricular septal defect, dextrorotation of the heart, an anterior pericardial diaphragmatic defect, and a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect with umbilical hernia. The 5-month-old patient underwent a successful cardiac surgical procedure. A PTFE membrane was placed on the apex of the heart to facilitate reopening of the patient's chest. Postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged with good clinical condition and with a normal cardiac function. PMID:24826242

  12. Tbx1, a DiGeorge syndrome candidate gene, is regulated by sonic hedgehog during pharyngeal arch development.

    PubMed

    Garg, V; Yamagishi, C; Hu, T; Kathiriya, I S; Yamagishi, H; Srivastava, D

    2001-07-01

    Appropriate interactions between the epithelium and adjacent neural crest-derived mesenchyme are necessary for normal pharyngeal arch development. Disruption of pharyngeal arch development in humans underlies many of the craniofacial defects observed in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (del22q11), but the genes responsible remain unknown. Tbx1 is a T-box transcription factor that lies in the 22q11.2 locus. Tbx1 transcripts were found to be localized to the pharyngeal endoderm and the mesodermal core of the pharyngeal arches, but were not present in the neural crest-derived mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is also expressed in the pharyngeal arches and is necessary for normal craniofacial development. We found that Tbx1 expression was dependent upon Shh signaling in mouse embryos, consistent with their overlapping expression in the pharyngeal arches. Furthermore, Shh was sufficient to induce Tbx1 expression when misexpressed in selected regions of chick embryos. These studies reveal a Shh-mediated pathway that regulates Tbx1 during pharyngeal arch development.

  13. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Presenting with Gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Won; Kwak, Dong Shin; Jung, In Sub; Kwak, Joo Hee; Park, Jung Hwan; Hong, Sang Mo; Lee, Chang Bum; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Dong Sun; Choi, Woong Hwan; Ahn, You Hern

    2015-06-01

    Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast caused by the proliferation of glandular breast tissue. Determining the various causes of gynecomastia such as physiological causes, drugs, systemic diseases, and endocrine disorders is important. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare endocrine disorder presenting with gynecomastia and is a disorder of male sexual differentiation caused by mutations within the androgen receptor gene. All individuals with AIS have the 46 XY karyotype, although AIS phenotypes can be classified as mild, partial or complete and can differ among both males and females including ambiguous genitalia or infertility in males. We experienced a case of partial AIS presenting with gynecomastia and identified the androgen receptor gene mutation.

  14. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karpinski, Beverly A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fralish, Matthew S.; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E.; Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

  15. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Beverly A; Maynard, Thomas M; Fralish, Matthew S; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E; Moody, Sally A; LaMantia, Anthony-S

    2014-02-01

    We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia--debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward--within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS.

  16. Thymus transplantation in complete DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Markert, M Louise; Devlin, Blythe H; Chinn, Ivan K; McCarthy, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Complete DiGeorge anomaly is characterized by athymia, congenital heart disease, and hypoparathyroidism. This congenital disease is fatal by age 2 years unless immune reconstitution is successful. There are multiple underlying syndromes associated with complete DiGeorge anomaly including 22q11 hemizygosity in approximately 50%, CHARGE association in approximately 25%, and diabetic embryopathy in approximately 15%. Approximately one-third of patients present with rash and lymphadenopathy associated with oligoclonal "host" T cells. This condition resembles Omenn syndrome. Immunosuppression is necessary to control the oligoclonal T cells. The results of thymus transplantation are reported for a series of 50 patients, of whom 36 survive. The survivors develop naïve T cells and a diverse T cell repertoire.

  17. DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lifelong condition that is typically diagnosed in infancy or early childhood. Children with DGS differ in ... DGS is often diagnosed at birth or in infancy based on clinical observation of multiple symptoms with ...

  18. ES2, a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, encodes a nuclear protein and is expressed during early mouse development, where it shares an expression domain with a Goosecoid-like gene.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, E A; Harvey, E L; Scambler, P J; Baldini, A

    1998-04-01

    ES2 is a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) which has homologs in species as distant as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila . The function of ES2 is unknown, and the predicted protein sequence does not contain motifs which suggest a particular role in the developmental defects present in DGS and VCFS. Here we show that the mouse homolog, Es2 , is transcribed in two forms resulting from the use of alternative polyadenylation signals. Structural analysis programs predict that the Es2 -encoded peptide has a coiled-coil domain, and transfection experiments with an Es2 -green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct show that the peptide is recruited into the nucleus. Es2 is highly expressed during mouse embryogenesis from E7 onwards. In situ hybridization with an RNA probe revealed that the gene is widely expressed; however, relatively higher expression was detected in the nervous system, with a particularly high area of expression in a sub-region of the pons. The Es2 expression domain in the pons is shared with a Goosecoid-like gene ( Gscl) which is located upstream of Es2 , and raises the possibility that the two genes share regulatory elements and/or interact in this region of the developing brain. This finding suggests that different genes in the deleted region may be functionally related and might explain the occurrence of the characteristic phenotype in patients with non-overlapping genetic lesions.

  19. Velo-cardio-facial and partial DiGeorge phenotype in a child with interstitial deletion at 10p13 - implications for cytogenetics and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, A.; Sholler, G.; Issacs, D.

    1996-11-11

    We report on a female with a interstitial deletion of 10p13 and a phenotype similar to that seen with the 22q deletion syndromes (DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial). She had a posterior cleft palate, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, dyscoordinate swallowing, T-cell subset abnormalities, small ears, maxillary and mandibular hypoplasia, broad nasal bridge, deficient alae nasi, contractures of fingers and developmental delay. This could indicate homology of some developmental genes at 22q and 10p so that patients with the velocardiofacial phenotype who do not prove to be deleted on 22q are candidates for a 10p deletion. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  20. High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map in the 96-kb region containing the entire human DiGeorge syndrome critical region 2 (DGCR2) gene at 22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Iida, A; Ohnishi, Y; Ozaki, K; Ariji, Y; Nakamura, Y; Tanaka, T

    2001-01-01

    We constructed a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map in the 96-kb region containing the DiGeorge syndrome critical region 2 (DGCR2) gene at chromosome 22q11.2, a human counterpart of mouse seizure-related gene SEZ-12. A total of 102 SNPs were isolated from the region by systematic screening among 48 Japanese individuals: 9 SNPs in the 5' flanking region, 3 in the 5' untranslated region, 2 in the coding regions, 77 in introns, 7 in the 3' untranslated region, and 4 in the 3' flanking region. By a comparison of our data with SNPs deposited in the dbSNP database in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, 80 SNPs (78.4%) were considered to be novel. The ratio of transition to transversion was 3.08:1. In addition, eight other types of genetic variations (one GA dinucleotide polymorphism and seven insertion/deletion polymorphisms) were discovered. The high-resolution map that we constructed will be a useful resource for analyzing gene scans of complex diseases mapped to this local segment on chromosome 22.

  1. Fraser syndrome with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rajoo; Bhattacharya, Arunaloke

    2008-06-01

    Fraser syndrome is characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, malformations of the larynx and genitourinary tract, craniofacial dysmorphism, orofacial clefting, mental retardation, and musculoskeletal anomalies. We report a case of a two day old neonate who presented with features suggestive of the diagnosis of Fraser syndrome. This child also had partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection and congenital hypo-thyroidism.

  2. Transient Kluver-Bucy syndrome following complex partial status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Varon, Daniel; Pritchard, Paul B; Wagner, Mark T; Topping, Kris

    2003-06-01

    The characteristic features of Kluver-Bucy syndrome include hypersexuality, hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis, visual agnosia, changes in dietary habits, and memory impairment. Human cases have been reported with herpes simplex encephalitis, head injury, Pick's disease, transtentorial herniation, adrenoleukodystrophy, and Reye's syndrome, all involving bilateral temporal lobe pathology. We present the case of a patient with no evidence of a structural lesion in the temporal lobes and behavioral changes consistent with Kluver-Bucy syndrome following complex partial status epilepticus.

  3. Goosecoid-like, a gene deleted in DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes, recognizes DNA with a bicoid-like specificity and is expressed in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, S; Hanes, S D; Golden, J A; Oakey, R J; Budarf, M L

    1998-09-01

    The vast majority of patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) have deletions of chromosomal region 22q11.2. These patients exhibit broad and variable phenotypes that include conotruncal cardiac defects, hypocalcemia, palatal and facial anomalies and developmental delay. Most of these abnormalities are thought to be due to defects in neural crest cell migration or differentiation. We have identified a homeobox-containing gene, Goosecoid-like (GSCL), that is in the region within 22q11 that is deleted most consistently in patients with DGS/VCFS. The GSCL gene is expressed in a limited number of adult tissues as well as in early human development, and is a member of a family of homeobox genes in vertebrates that includes Goosecoid and GSX. In this report, we present functional studies of the GSCL protein and determine the expression pattern of the GSCL gene in mouse embryos. We demonstrate that GSCL exhibits DNA sequence-specific recognition of sites bound by the Drosophila anterior morphogen, Bicoid. Several of these sites (TAATCCC) were found in the 5' upstream region of the GSCL gene itself, and we present evidence suggesting that GSCL might regulate its own transcription. In situ hybridization revealed that the mouse ortholog of GSCL, Gscl, is expressed in the brain starting as early as embryonic day 9.5, and expression continues in adults. This expression pattern is consistent with GSCL having either an indirect role in the development of neural crest-derived structures or a direct role in a subset of the phenotype observed in DGS/VCFS, such as learning disorders or psychiatric disease.

  4. Partial improvement of Olmsted syndrome with etretinate.

    PubMed

    Ueda, M; Nakagawa, K; Hayashi, K; Shimizu, R; Ichihashi, M

    1993-12-01

    An 11-year-old Japanese boy with Olmsted syndrome was seen at our clinic. He had a sharply marginated, painful keratoderma with a red border on his palms and soles. Flexion contractures of the fingers were also observed. Hyperkeratotic plaques were present below the lower lip, on the elbows and knees, and in the sacral area. Localized alopecia, leukokeratosis on the tongue, shortness of stature, and laxity of the large joints corresponded to the clinical features of Olmsted syndrome. Treatment with etretinate was effective for the palms and fingers, but resulted in no improvement of the keratoderma of the soles. Because of periosteal thickening of the tibia, presumably caused by etretinate, therapy was terminated one year after it began.

  5. Ranbp1, Deleted in DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, is a Microcephaly Gene That Selectively Disrupts Layer 2/3 Cortical Projection Neuron Generation.

    PubMed

    Paronett, Elizabeth M; Meechan, Daniel W; Karpinski, Beverly A; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Maynard, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    Ranbp1, a Ran GTPase-binding protein implicated in nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking, is included within the DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) critical region associated with behavioral impairments including autism and schizophrenia. Ranbp1 is highly expressed in the developing forebrain ventricular/subventricular zone but has no known obligate function during brain development. We assessed the role of Ranbp1 in a targeted mouse mutant. Ranbp1(-/-) mice are not recovered live at birth, and over 60% of Ranbp1(-/-) embryos are exencephalic. Non-exencephalic Ranbp1(-/-) embryos are microcephalic, and proliferation of cortical progenitors is altered. At E10.5, radial progenitors divide more slowly in the Ranpb1(-/-) dorsal pallium. At E14.5, basal, but not apical/radial glial progenitors, are compromised in the cortex. In both E10.5 apical and E14.5 basal progenitors, M phase of the cell cycle appears selectively retarded by loss of Ranpb1 function. Ranbp1(-/-)-dependent proliferative deficits substantially diminish the frequency of layer 2/3, but not layer 5/6 cortical projection neurons. Ranbp1(-/-) cortical phenotypes parallel less severe alterations in LgDel mice that carry a deletion parallel to many (but not all) 22q11.2 DS patients. Thus, Ranbp1 emerges as a microcephaly gene within the 22q11.2 deleted region that may contribute to altered cortical precursor proliferation and neurogenesis associated with broader 22q11.2 deletion.

  6. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with thermolability in the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kenji; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ohe, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroki; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2006-01-01

    We report case of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome in a 12-year-old boy referred to our clinic complaining of bilateral gynecomastia and left undescended testicle. Laparoscopy for undescended testicle and bilateral mastectomy were performed, and the left testicle was absent. When skin fibroblasts of the scrotum obtained during surgery were cultured to analyse the androgen receptors, a slight thermolability was observed. Genomic examination of the androgen receptor gene could not detect any mutations.

  7. [Familial partial lipodystrophy type 1. A rare or underdiagnosed syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Soutelo, Jimena; Grüneisen, Mariana; Fritz, Clara; Sordo, Laura; Powazniak, Yanina; Lutfi, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL) type 1 is a syndrome characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat in arms and legs and an excess of body fat in face, neck, and torso. This rare syndrome is usually diagnosed when patients present cardiovascular complications or pancreatitis due to the severe metabolic abnormalities. Here we present the case of a 45 year old diabetic female without any pathological family history, a poor glycemic control (HbA1c 11.7%), hypertriglideridemia (3000 mg/dl), a body mass index (BMI) of 38, thin limbs, subcutaneous fat loss in gluteal area and ledge of fat above them, prominent veins in lower extremities, moon face, and acanthosis nigricans; as well as hypertension (150/100 mmHg) and subcutaneous folds measuring less than average were observed. Hypercortisolism was discarded and leptin levels were measured (16.8 mg/ml, VR: BMI > 30: 50 mg/ml). Due to these clinical and biochemical manifestations, and low leptin levels (16.8 mg/ml), Kobberling syndrome was suspected; however, LMNA mutation analysis was negative. Changes in lifestyle and treatment with fenofibrate, biphasic insulin 50/50, and enalapril were initiated showing a a significant metabolic improvement: HbA1c (7.8%) and TG (243 mg/dl). FPL type 1 is a familial disease, although there are spontaneous cases. No specific mutation is responsible for this syndrome. Due to its clinical manifestations, Cushing syndrome must be discarded.

  8. Cloning and comparative mapping of a gene from the commonly deleted region of DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes conserved in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Rizzu, P; Lindsay, E A; Taylor, C; O'Donnell, H; Levy, A; Scambler, P; Baldini, A

    1996-09-01

    We have identified and cloned a gene, ES2, encoding a putative 476 amino acid protein with a predicted Mr of 52,568. The gene is localized within the DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial syndrome locus on 22q11.2 and is deleted in all the patients in which a deletion within 22q11 could be demonstrated, with the exception of one patient. ES2 is expressed in all the tissues studied. Sequence comparison showed identity with five ESTs and at the amino acid level the sequence was highly similar to, and collinear with, a hypothetical C. elegans protein of unknown function. Mutation analysis was performed in 16 patients without deletion, but no mutation has been found. The cDNA sequence is conserved in mouse and is localized on MMU16B1-B3, known to contain a syntenic group in common with HSA 22q11.2.

  9. Rehabilitation of a patient with non-syndromic partial oligodontia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oligodontia is defined as a congenital tooth agenesis with the absence of six or more permanent teeth. This clinical report describes a patient with non-syndromic partial oligodontia, with retained deciduous teeth and the absence of 16 permanent teeth. Anterior esthetic problems were caused by interarch tooth size discrepancy, interdental space, aberrant tooth dimensions, and the absence of centric contacts of the anterior teeth. Prosthetic restoration after orthodontic and implant treatment was performed with a multi-disciplinary team approach. Favorable functional and esthetic results were obtained using a definitive prosthesis. PMID:27350861

  10. Partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome secondary to tubercular meningitis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kunal Kishor; Singh, Satyajeet Kumar; Kumar, Prem; Arora, Charu Dutt

    2016-08-16

    Tubercular meningitis (TBM) is a devastating extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis and demonstrates a high neurological morbidity. A rare complication of this condition is Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS), which is a neurobehavioral disorder characterised by hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, bulimia, placidity, hyperorality and memory deficits caused by lesions to the amygdala. The amygdala lesions can be due to many causes, including traumatic brain injury, systemic conditions and infections such as tuberculosis. Here, we present a case of partial KBS in a patient undergoing treatment for TBM.

  11. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  12. A prospective study of influenza vaccination and a comparison of immunologic parameters in children and adults with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (digeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome).

    PubMed

    Jawad, Abbas F; Prak, Eline Luning; Boyer, Jean; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; McDonald, Kenyetta; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2011-12-01

    Prior to the advent of cardiac bypass, most children with congenital cardiac anomalies and chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome died. With improved technology, there is now a wave of young adults with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome requiring clinical care. Fifteen young children and 20 adults with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion had flow cytometry, functional T cell analyses, and functional B cell analyses to characterize their immune system. Subjects were vaccinated with the annual inactivated influenza vaccine, and responses were evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition titer assessment. The pattern of T cell subset abnormalities was markedly different between pediatric and adult patients. In spite of the cellular deficits observed in adults, titers produced after influenza vaccine administration were largely intact. We conclude that disruption to T cell production appears to have secondary consequences for T cell differentiation and B cell function although the clinical impact remains to be determined.

  13. Tetralogy of Fallot associated with deletion in the DiGeorge region of chromosome 22 (22q11)

    SciTech Connect

    D`Angelo, J.A.; Pillers, D.M.; Jett, P.L.

    1994-09-01

    Cardiac conotruncal defects, such as Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), are associated with DiGeorge syndrome which has been mapped to the q11 region of chromosome 22 and includes abnormalities of neural crest and branchial arch development. Patients with conotruncal defects and velo-cardio-facial syndrome may have defects in the 22q11 region but not show the complete DiGeorge phenotype consisting of cardiac, thymus, and parathyroid abnormalities. We report two neonates with TOF and small deletions in the DiGeorge region of chromosome 22 (46,XX,del(22)(q11.21q11.23) and 46,XY,del(22)(q11.2q11.2)) using both high-resolution cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The first patient is a female with TOF and a family history of congenital heart disease. The mother has pulmonic stenosis and a right-sided aortic arch, one brother has TOF, and a second brother has a large VSD. The patient had intrauterine growth retardation and had thrombocytopenia due to maternal IgG platelet-directed autoantibody. Lymphocyte populations, both T and B cells, were reduced in number but responded normally to stimulation. The findings were not attributed to a DiGeorge phenotype. Although she had transient neonatal hypocalcemia, her parathyroid hormone level was normal. The patient was not dysmorphic in the newborn period but her mother had features consistent with velo-cardio-facial syndrome. The second patient was a male with TOF who was not dysmorphic and had no other significant clinical findings and no family history of heart disease. Lymphocyte testing did not reveal a specific immunodeficiency. No significant postnatal hypocalcemia was noted. These cases illustrate that there is a wide spectrum of clinical features associated with defects of the 22q11 region. We recommend karyotype analysis, including FISH probes specific to the DiGeorge region, in any patient with conotruncal cardiac defects.

  14. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (including scimitar syndrome).

    PubMed

    van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Verberkmoes, Niels; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2013-01-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) is defined to exist when some but not all venous drainage enters the left atrium, while the remaining veins connect to the right-sided circulation. Scimitar syndrome is a specialized example, in which an anomalous pulmonary vein descends from the right lung and drains into the inferior caval vein. PAPVC is associated with sinus venosus-type atrial septal defect (ASD). Diagnosis was, in the past, based on echocardiographic imaging and could be difficult. Multislice spiral computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging improved the imaging quality. The surgical correction is dependent on the type of anomalous connection and the presence of an ASD. Outcome is good but obstructed venous return is an important issue.

  15. Bilateral Anterior Opercular Syndrome With Partial Kluver–Bucy Syndrome in a Stroke Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral anterior opercular syndrome and partial Kluver–Bucy syndrome are associated with bilateral middle cerebral artery lesions. The combination of these two syndromes has only been reported in a child with limbic encephalitis. In this case, a 44-year-old woman with bilateral middle cerebral artery infarction, which occurred 2 years prior, could walk independently. However, she showed automatic-voluntary dissociation and anarthria with preserved writing skills. She also presented hypersexuality, hypermetamorphosis, and memory disturbances. Here, we report a case of an adult stroke patient who suffered from bilateral anterior opercular syndrome accompanied by partial Kluver–Bucy syndrome. PMID:27446793

  16. Bilateral Anterior Opercular Syndrome With Partial Kluver-Bucy Syndrome in a Stroke Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ah-Ra; Lim, Young-Ho; Chung, Sae-Hoon; Choi, Eun-Hi; Lim, Jong Youb

    2016-06-01

    Bilateral anterior opercular syndrome and partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome are associated with bilateral middle cerebral artery lesions. The combination of these two syndromes has only been reported in a child with limbic encephalitis. In this case, a 44-year-old woman with bilateral middle cerebral artery infarction, which occurred 2 years prior, could walk independently. However, she showed automatic-voluntary dissociation and anarthria with preserved writing skills. She also presented hypersexuality, hypermetamorphosis, and memory disturbances. Here, we report a case of an adult stroke patient who suffered from bilateral anterior opercular syndrome accompanied by partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome.

  17. Pulmonary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue associated with granulomatous inflammation in a child with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome).

    PubMed

    Pongpruttipan, Tawatchai; Cook, James R; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Spahr, Jonathan E; Swerdlow, Steven H

    2012-11-01

    Patients with immunodeficiency disorders have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders; however, only 4 such patients with DiGeorge/chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have been reported. We report a case of a pulmonary Epstein-Barr virus-negative extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in a child with this syndrome.

  18. Clinical and molecular study of DiGeorge sequence.

    PubMed

    Levy-Mozziconacci, A; Wernert, F; Scambler, P; Rouault, F; Metras, D; Kreitman, B; Depetris, D; Mattei, M G; Philip, N

    1994-11-01

    DiGeorge sequence (DGS) is a developmental field defect of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches. The cardinal features of the syndrome are hypo- or aplasia of the thymus and parathyroids, congenital heart defect of the conotruncal type and characteristic facial dysmorphism. Such a pattern of malformations has been associated with various conditions but it is now well established that most cases of DGS are due to haplo-insufficiency of the chromosome 22q11 region. We report here a series of 16 patients, including a familial case. Minimal criteria for inclusion in this series were two or more of the following features: conotruncal heart defect, hypocalcaemia, hypoplastic/absent thymus and typical facial dysmorphism. Molecular analysis with specific probes of the 22q11 region was conducted in all patients according to two methods, fluorescent in situ hybridization and DNA dosage analysis. A deletion was found at the molecular level in all patients. We emphasize the fact that clinical analysis remains an important step of the diagnosis. The implication of these molecular techniques on diagnosis, prognosis and genetic counselling of DGS are discussed.

  19. [Morris syndrome: description of a case characterized by partial androgen insensitivity].

    PubMed

    Creta, Massimiliano; Smelzo, Salvatore; Di Vito, Concetta; De Stefano, Giacomo; Forchia, Francesco; Chiancone, Francesco; Imbimbo, Ciro

    2010-01-01

    The Morris syndrome is a X-linked recessive condition due to a complete or partial insensitivity to androgens, resulting in a failure of normal masculinization of the external genitalia in chromosomally male individuals. This failure of virilization can be either complete or partial depending on the amount of residual androgen receptor function. The phenotype of individuals with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome may range from mildly virilized female external genitalia to mildly undervirilized male external genitalia. We describe a case of Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in a 21-year-old patient with a 46, XY karyotype, bilateral inguinal masses, clitoral enlargement and partial posterior labial fusion. Surgical care consisted of bilateral orchiectomy and plastic surgery of external genitalia. The patient underwent estrogen replacement therapy.

  20. Laterality preference and cognition: cross-syndrome comparison of patients with trisomy 21 (Down), del7q11.23 (Williams-Beuren) and del22q11.2 (DiGeorge or Velo-Cardio-Facial) syndromes.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Michèle; Desplanches, Aude Gérard; Philip, Nicole; Stefanini, Silvia; Vicari, Stefano; Volterra, Virginia; Deruelle, Christine; Fisch, Gene; Doyen, Anne Lise; Swillen, Anne

    2011-05-01

    We report on a cross-syndrome comparison of hand, foot, eye and ear laterality in three groups of individuals with different genetic disorders (trisomy 21, del7q11.23, and del22q11.2) to test the relationship between atypical laterality and intellectual disability. These groups were compared to a group of typically developing persons. Hand, foot, eye and ear laterality was assessed using item tasks, conducted twice, and Bishop's card-reaching test. Ordering of the mean IQ score for each of the three groups was as follows: trisomy 21 < del7q11.23 < del22q11.2. We observed the same ordering as for IQ, particularly in mixed handedness, degree of laterality, hand and foot consistency. The existence of a cognitive threshold, below which lateral preference is atypical, advocates for a causal link between cognition and laterality in those with low IQ although unknown other factors underlying both could determine this association.

  1. t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) In acute myeloid leukemia of infant twins fuses MLL with hCDCrel, a cell division cycle gene in the genomic region of deletion in DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes.

    PubMed

    Megonigal, M D; Rappaport, E F; Jones, D H; Williams, T M; Lovett, B D; Kelly, K M; Lerou, P H; Moulton, T; Budarf, M L; Felix, C A

    1998-05-26

    We examined the MLL genomic translocation breakpoint in acute myeloid leukemia of infant twins. Southern blot analysis in both cases showed two identical MLL gene rearrangements indicating chromosomal translocation. The rearrangements were detectable in the second twin before signs of clinical disease and the intensity relative to the normal fragment indicated that the translocation was not constitutional. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with an MLL-specific probe and karyotype analyses suggested t(11;22)(q23;q11. 2) disrupting MLL. Known 5' sequence from MLL but unknown 3' sequence from chromosome band 22q11.2 formed the breakpoint junction on the der(11) chromosome. We used panhandle variant PCR to clone the translocation breakpoint. By ligating a single-stranded oligonucleotide that was homologous to known 5' MLL genomic sequence to the 5' ends of BamHI-digested DNA through a bridging oligonucleotide, we formed the stem-loop template for panhandle variant PCR which yielded products of 3.9 kb. The MLL genomic breakpoint was in intron 7. The sequence of the partner DNA from band 22q11.2 was identical to the hCDCrel (human cell division cycle related) gene that maps to the region commonly deleted in DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes. Both MLL and hCDCrel contained homologous CT, TTTGTG, and GAA sequences within a few base pairs of their respective breakpoints, which may have been important in uniting these two genes by translocation. Reverse transcriptase-PCR amplified an in-frame fusion of MLL exon 7 to hCDCrel exon 3, indicating that an MLL-hCDCrel chimeric mRNA had been transcribed. Panhandle variant PCR is a powerful strategy for cloning translocation breakpoints where the partner gene is undetermined. This application of the method identified a region of chromosome band 22q11.2 involved in both leukemia and a constitutional disorder.

  2. Laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Kiyosuke; Suda, Takako; Ito, Norimasa; Suzuki, Yoshimasa; Taniguchi, Yuji; Ohgi, Shigetsugu

    2006-01-01

    Laparoscopic total adrenalectomy has become a standard technique for small adrenal tumors; however, bilateral adrenalectomy results in postoperative adrenal insufficiency, necessitating lifelong steroid replacement. To preserve adrenocortical function in a 41-year-old woman with bilateral adrenocortical adenoma (BAA) causing Cushing's syndrome, we performed laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy. We based our preoperative diagnosis of bilateral adrenocortical tumors causing Cushing's syndrome on the results of endocrinological investigations and imaging findings. Thus, we performed lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy, preserving the adrenal glands, which were normal. Pathological examination of both tumors confirmed the diagnosis of adrenocortical adenoma. The patient had no postoperative complications, and her adrenocortical function was normal without steroid replacement at her 10-month follow-up. This report shows that Cushing's syndrome resulting from bilateral adenomas can be effectively treated by laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy as a minimally invasive, adrenocortical-preserving operation.

  3. Induction of tolerance to parental parathyroid grafts using allogeneic thymus tissue in patients with DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Ivan K; Markert, M Louise

    2011-06-01

    DiGeorge anomaly can affect both thymic and parathyroid function. Although athymia is corrected by allogeneic thymus transplantation, treatment options for hypoparathyroidism have been unsatisfactory. Parathyroid transplantation offers the potential for definitive cure but remains challenging because of graft rejection. Some allogeneic parathyroid grafts have functioned in adult recipients in the context of immunosuppression for renal transplantation. Other efforts have attempted to reduce the allogenicity of the parathyroid grafts through manipulation of the parathyroid tissues before transplantation (by using encapsulation or special culture techniques). Recently, we demonstrated the efficacy of parental parathyroid transplantation when combined with allogeneic thymus transplantation in an infant with complete DiGeorge anomaly. The recipient developed tolerance toward the parathyroid donor. The parathyroid graft has functioned for 5 years after transplantation without the need for continued immunosuppression or calcium supplementation. We observed that matching of the allogeneic thymus graft to the parathyroid donor HLA class II alleles that are unshared with the recipient appears to be associated with the induction of tolerance toward the parathyroid graft. Further work is needed to determine the optimal means for using combined allogeneic thymus and parental parathyroid transplantation to correct hypoparathyroidism in patients with both complete and partial DiGeorge anomaly.

  4. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

  5. DiGeorge sequence with hypogammaglobulinemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chu, Shau-Yin; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2002-09-01

    The most common immunodeficiency in DiGeorge sequence patients is defects in T-cell production due to insufficient thymic tissue. However, because T-lymphocytes are important in regulating antibody responses, DiGeorge sequence is no longer regarded as a pure deficiency of cellular immunity but also a form of variable-combined immunodeficiency. Here we presented a 4-month-old male infant with characteristic facial dysmorphism, thymus dysplasia, tetralogy of Fallot, and documented deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 who had decrease B-lymphocyte numbers and hypogammaglobulinemia. The mitogen responses of T-lymphocytes function were normal with adequate number of CD4+ lymphocytes. This case report highlights the importance of evaluating not only the cellular but also the humoral immune function in patients with DiGeorge sequence.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a gene from the DiGeorge chromosomal region homologous to the mouse Tbx1 gene.

    PubMed

    Chieffo, C; Garvey, N; Gong, W; Roe, B; Zhang, G; Silver, L; Emanuel, B S; Budarf, M L

    1997-08-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, and isolated and familial forms of conotruncal cardiac defects have been associated with deletions of chromosomal region 22q11.2. This report describes the identification, cloning, and characterization of the human TBX1 gene, which maps to the center of the DiGeorge chromosomal region. Further, we have extended the mouse cDNA sequence to permit comparisons between human and mouse Tbx1. TBX1 is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain, the T-box. T-box genes are transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. There is 98% amino acid identity between human and mouse TBX1 proteins overall, and within the T-box domain, the proteins are identical except for two amino acids. Expression of human TBX1 in adult and fetal tissues, as determined by Northern blot analysis, is similar to that found in the mouse. Additionally, using 3 'RACE, we obtained a differentially spliced message in adult skeletal muscle. Mouse Tbx1 has been previously shown to be expressed during early embryogenesis in the pharyngeal arches, pouches, and otic vesicle. Later in development, expression is seen in the vertebral column and tooth bud. Thus, human TBX1 is a candidate for some of the features seen in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  7. Partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome as a delayed manifestation of head injury.

    PubMed

    Bhat, P S; Pardal, P K; Das, R C

    2009-07-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI), the most disabling problems are generally related to neuropsychiatric sequelae, including personality change and cognitive impairment, rather than neurophysical sequelae. Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is a rare neurobehavioral condition, first described in 1937 as an experimental neurobehavioral syndrome in monkeys with bitemporal brain lesions. The syndrome in man was subsequently observed to be transient or permanent in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders and after traumatic, nontraumatic and infectious brain injury. However, partial KBS may occur in the absence of the classic bilateral temporal lesion, though rare. Pharmacological treatment of post-TBI neuropsychiatric sequelae consists of symptomatic, functional and hypothetical approaches. Specific pharmacological treatment consists of antipsychotics, anti-kindling anticonvulsants or a combination thereof. A case of partial KBS presenting as delayed manifestation of traumatic brain injury that improved with carbamazapine and antipsychotics is presented.

  8. Physical mapping by FISH of the DiGeorge critical region (DGCR): Involvement of the region in familial cases

    SciTech Connect

    Desmaze, C.; Aikem, M.; Demczuk, S.; Zucman, J.; Plougastel, B.; Delattre, O.; Aurias, A. ); Prieur, M. ); Amblard, F. ); LeDeist, F. ); Croquette, M.F. ); Breviere, G.M. ); Huon, C. ); Le Merrer, M. ); Mathieu, M. ); Sidi, D. ); Stephan, J.L. )

    1993-12-01

    The authors describe the relative ordering, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, of cosmid loci and translocation breakpoints in the DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) critical region of chromosome 22. This physical map enables us to define a large region, commonly deleted in a majority of affected patients, and the smallest deleted region which, when lost, is sufficient to produce DGS. In four instances, a similar large deleted region is observed in a familial context. In these pedigrees, the deletion is encountered in one parent with mild features of the disease. 42 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Clearance of acanthosis nigricans associated with the HAIR-AN syndrome after partial pancreatectomy: an 11-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, S; Wilson, R; Gawkrodger, D

    1999-01-01

    We describe a woman with the syndrome characterised by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans (the HAIR-AN syndrome), and an associated insulinoma (islet B-cell tumour), whose signs and symptoms cleared after partial pancreatectomy.


Keywords: acanthosis nigricans; insulinoma; HAIR-AN syndrome; hyperinsulinaemia PMID:10474728

  10. Complete DiGeorge anomaly in the absence of neonatal hypocalcemia and velofacial and cardiac defects.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamemi, Salem; Mazer, Bruce; Mitchell, David; Albuquerque, Pedro; Duncan, Alessandra M V; McCusker, Christine; Jabado, Nada

    2005-09-01

    We report an atypical case of complete DiGeorge (DG) anomaly that presented initially exclusively as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The child had severe infections at diagnosis, in keeping with the SCID phenotype; however, normal lymphocyte counts and immunoglobulin levels were noted at admission, which delayed diagnosis. Importantly, the child presented without neonatal hypocalcemia or velofacial or cardiac abnormalities at the time of diagnosis, which masked underlying DG. This case outlines the difficulties in making the diagnosis of SCID in a timely manner and illustrates the variation in presentation of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. There should be a high index of suspicion for primary immunodeficiency among children with severe infections and, because management may vary, DG anomaly should be considered in the differential diagnosis of T- B+ natural killer+ SCID.

  11. Absence of PAX6 gene mutations in Gillespie syndrome (partial aniridia, cerebellar ataxia, and mental retardation)

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, T.; Maas, R.L. ); Ton, C.C.T.; Housman, D.E. ); Mueller, R.; Oliver, C. ); Petzl-Erler, M.L. ); Nevin, N.C. )

    1994-01-01

    The PAX6 gene is expressed at high levels in the developing eye and cerebellum and is mutated in patients with autosomal dominant aniridia. The authors have tested the role of PAX6 mutations in three families with Gillespie syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive condition consisting of partial aniridia, cerebellar ataxia, and mental retardation. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of affected individuals revealed no alteration of PAX6 sequences. In two families, the disease trait segregates independently from chromosome 11p markers flanking PAX6. The authors conclude that Gillespie syndrome is genetically distinct from autosomal dominant aniridia. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Clinical, hormonal and radiological features of partial Sheehan's syndrome: an Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir; Misgar, Raiz; Mir, Shahnaz; Wani, Arshad

    2016-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe clinical presentation, hormonal profile and imaging characteristics of 21 patients with partial Sheehan's syndrome. Subjects and methods This prospective study was carried out over a period of six years (2008-2013). The evaluation of patients included clinical assessment, hormone estimations and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary. Results We documented preservation of gonadotroph, corticotroph and lactotroph function in 71.4, 61.9, and 9.5% of patients respectively. Conclusion To conclude some of the pituitary functions can be preserved in Sheehan's syndrome and this has important implications from the treatment and long term morbidity point of view.

  13. Partial Oculocutaneous Albinism: Two Siblings with Features of both Hermansky Pudlak and Waardenburg's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Mazhar; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Khan, Muhammad Saim; Nadeem, Yasser

    2015-04-01

    Albinism is an inherited abnormality of melanin synthesis with incidence of one per 20,000 births. Its clinical manifestations are related to the reduction or absence of pigmentation in the visual system and/or the skin and teguments. The clinical spectrum of Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA) has four types ranging from OCA 1 - 4, of which OCA 1, A-1 is the most severe form. Partial cutaneous albinism which is a subtype of OCA is associated with systemic immunodeficiency disorders like Chediak Higashi (CHS), Griscelli (GS) and Hermansky-Pudlak (HPS) syndromes. A7 years boy was labeled initially as a case of Hermansky Pudlak syndrome at the age of 01 year. He as well as his 4 years old younger brother when examined in detail along with audiological investigations were diagnosed as a rare presentation of both Hermansky Pudlak and Waardenburg's syndrome.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene from the DiGeorge chromosomal region that encodes for a mediator subunit.

    PubMed

    Berti, L; Mittler, G; Przemeck, G K; Stelzer, G; Günzler, B; Amati, F; Conti, E; Dallapiccola, B; Hrabé de Angelis, M; Novelli, G; Meisterernst, M

    2001-06-15

    Hemizygous deletions on chromosome 22q11.2 result in developmental disorders referred to as DiGeorge syndrome (DGS)/velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). We report the isolation of a novel gene, PCQAP (PC2 glutamine/Q-rich-associated protein), that maps to the DiGeorge typically deleted region and encodes a protein identified as a subunit of the large multiprotein complex PC2. PC2 belongs to the family of the human Mediator complexes, which exhibit coactivator function in RNA polymerase II transcription. Furthermore, we cloned the homologous mouse Pcqap cDNA. There is 83% amino acid identity between the human and the mouse predicted protein sequences, with 96% similarity at the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends. To assess the potential involvement of PCQAP in DGS/VCFS, its developmental expression pattern was analyzed. In situ hybridization of mouse embryos at different developmental stages revealed that Pcqap is ubiquitously expressed. However, higher expression was detected in the frontonasal region, pharyngeal arches, and limb buds. Moreover, analysis of subjects carrying a typical 22q11 deletion revealed that the human PCQAP gene was deleted in all patients. Many of the structures affected in DGS/VCFS evolve from Pcqap-expressing cells. Together with the observed haploinsufficiency of PCQAP in DGS/VCFS patients, this finding is consistent with a possible role for this novel Mediator subunit in the development of some of the structures affected in DGS/VCFS.

  15. A hepatic cancer patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the perioperative period of partial hepatectomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Su-Dan; Ye, Bin; Liang, Zhi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    We reported a case of hepatic cancer patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the perioperative period of partial hepatectomy in the present study. We analyzed the clinical data and described the characteristics of this patient. PMID:26550403

  16. [Partial abnormal pulmonary venous return. An underestimated and unknown association in Turner-Ullrich syndrome. Presentation of an original case].

    PubMed

    Neel, G; Fournie, J M; Maillard, L; Rioux, P; Desveaux, B; Quilliet, L; Raynaud, P

    1991-11-01

    The authors report the case of a 59-year-old woman with a complex cardiac lesion consisting of degenerative major mitral insufficiency masking partial abnormal pulmonary venous return. These cardiac abnormalities fell within a context of genetic disease since the patient had Turner's syndrome, confirmed at the age of 58 by a 45 x 0 karyotype. They detail the originality of the clinical manifestations of partial abnormal pulmonary venous return and review the literature concerning cardiac malformations in Turner's syndrome.

  17. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with R840H mutation in androgen receptor: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jui-Lung; Chang, Kuang-Huey; Sheu, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Tsai, Li-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the major cause of male pseudohermaphroditism. The severity of the disorders varies widely, ranging from the phenotypic women with female external genitalia in cases of complete AIS to the phenotype of ambiguous genitalia in partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) and a rare group of phenotypic normal males with azoospermia. Here, we report an infant of PAIS with a missense mutation at position 2881 (G-->A) in exon 7, encoding substitution of histidine for arginine at codon 840 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Both the biochemical and molecular studies are presented. Establishing the diagnosis of PAIS is very important for gender assignment to an infant of ambiguous genitalia. The molecular analysis will facilitate genetic counselling to the maternal side relatives for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Multiorgan autoimmunity in a Turner syndrome patient with partial monosomy 2q and trisomy 10p.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Armando; Palma, Alessia; Zanni, Ginevra; Novelli, Antonio; Loddo, Sara; Cappa, Marco; Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2013-02-25

    Turner syndrome is a condition caused by numeric and structural abnormalities of the X chromosome, and is characterized by a series of clinical features, the most common being short stature and gonadal dysgenesis. An increased frequency of autoimmune diseases as well as an elevated incidence of autoantibodies has been observed in Turner patients. We present a unique case of mosaic Turner syndrome with a complex rearrangement consisting of a partial deletion of chromosome 2q and duplication of chromosome 10p {[46],XX,der(2)t(2;10)(2pter→2q37::10p13→10pter)[127]/45,X,der(2)t(2;10)(2pter→2q37::10p13→10pter)[23]}. The patient is affected by partial empty sella, in association with a group of multiorgan autoimmunity-related manifestations including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, celiac disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes, T1D), possible autoimmune inner ear disease with sensorineural deficit, preclinical Addison disease and alopecia universalis. The patient was previously described at the age of 2.4 years and now re-evaluated at the age of 14 years after she developed autoimmune conditions. AIRE gene screening revealed heterozygous c.834 C>G polymorphism (p.Ser278Arg) and IVS9+6G>A variation, thus likely excluding autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Type 1 (APECED). Heterozygous R620W polymorphism of the protein tyrosine phosphatase non receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene was detected in patient's DNA. SNP-array analysis revealed that autoimmunity-related genes could be affected by the partial monosomy 2q and trisomy 10p. These data suggest that early genetic analysis in TS patients with complex associations of multiorgan autoimmune manifestations would permit a precise diagnostic classification and also be an indicator for undiscovered pathogenetic mechanisms.

  19. Partial trisomy 16p in an adolescent with autistic disorder and Tourette`s syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hebebrand, J.; Martin, M.; Remschmidt, H.

    1994-09-15

    A partial trisomy 16p was identified in a 14-year-old male adolescent with autistic disorder. He additionally showed complex motor and vocal phenomena, including some simple tics which had first appeared in childhood. Whereas these simple tics were of subclinical significance, an additional diagnosis of Tourette`s syndrome (TS) appears justified. The case report illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing psychiatric symptomatology associated with both disorders, especially complex motor and vocal phenomena. The cytogenetic finding is discussed critically in the light of other chromosome abnormalities reported in both TS and autistic disorder. Chromosome 16p should be considered as a candidate region especially for autistic disorder. 21 refs.

  20. Successful treatment of dopamine dysregulation syndrome with dopamine D2 partial agonist antipsychotic drug.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Jin; Takahata, Keisuke; Kawashima, Noriko; Kato, Motoichiro

    2012-07-07

    Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) consists of a series of complications such as compulsive use of dopaminergic medications, aggressive or hypomanic behaviors during excessive use, and withdrawal states characterized by dysphoria and anxiety, caused by long-term dopaminergic treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several ways to manage DDS have been suggested, there has been no established treatment that can manage DDS without deterioration of motor symptoms. In this article, we present a case of PD in whom the administration of the dopamine D2 partial agonistic antipsychotic drug aripiprazole improved DDS symptoms such as craving and compulsive behavior without worsening of motor symptoms. Considering the profile of this drug as a partial agonist at D2 receptors, it is possible that it exerts its therapeutic effect on DDS by modulating the dysfunctional dopamine system.

  1. Possible induction of West syndrome by oxcarbazepine therapy in a patient with complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Veerapandiyan, Aravindhan; Singh, Piyush; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2012-03-01

    Oxcarbazepine has been reported to precipitate myoclonic, generalised tonic-clonic, absence, and complex partial seizures, and carbamazepine to precipitate absences, myoclonic seizures and spasms. Here, we report a one-year, six-month-old girl with complex partial seizures who developed infantile spasms, developmental regression, and hypsarrhythmia during the two weeks directly following initiation of oxcarbazepine (14 mg/kg/day). All of these resolved within a few days after discontinuation of this medication. Although we cannot rule out that the above association may have been coincidental, or that the improvement may have been due to concurrent therapy, this case raises the possibility that oxcarbazepine, like carbamazepine, may precipitate infantile spasms and West syndrome.

  2. DGCR6 at the proximal part of the DiGeorge critical region is involved in conotruncal heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenming; Higaki, Takashi; Eguchi-Ishimae, Minenori; Iwabuki, Hidehiko; Wu, Zhouying; Yamamoto, Eiichi; Takata, Hidemi; Ohta, Masaaki; Imoto, Issei; Ishii, Eiichi; Eguchi, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac anomaly is one of the hallmarks of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), observed in approximately 80% of patients. It often shows a characteristic morphology, termed as conotruncal heart defects. In many cases showing only the conotruncal heart defect, deletion of 22q11.2 region cannot be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which is used to detect deletion in DGS. We investigated the presence of genomic aberrations in six patients with congenital conotruncal heart defects, who show no deletion at 22q11.2 in an initial screening by FISH. In these patients, no abnormalities were identified in the coding region of the TBX1 gene, one of the key genes responsible for the phenotype of DGS. However, when copy number alteration was analyzed by high-resolution array analysis, a small deletion or duplication in the proximal end of DiGeorge critical region was detected in two patients. The affected region contains the DGCR6 and PRODH genes. DGCR6 has been reported to affect the expression of the TBX1 gene. Our results suggest that altered dosage of gene(s) other than TBX1, possibly DGCR6, may also be responsible for the development of conotruncal heart defects observed in patients with DGS and, in particular, in those with stand-alone conotruncal heart defects. PMID:27081520

  3. DGCR6 at the proximal part of the DiGeorge critical region is involved in conotruncal heart defects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenming; Higaki, Takashi; Eguchi-Ishimae, Minenori; Iwabuki, Hidehiko; Wu, Zhouying; Yamamoto, Eiichi; Takata, Hidemi; Ohta, Masaaki; Imoto, Issei; Ishii, Eiichi; Eguchi, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac anomaly is one of the hallmarks of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), observed in approximately 80% of patients. It often shows a characteristic morphology, termed as conotruncal heart defects. In many cases showing only the conotruncal heart defect, deletion of 22q11.2 region cannot be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which is used to detect deletion in DGS. We investigated the presence of genomic aberrations in six patients with congenital conotruncal heart defects, who show no deletion at 22q11.2 in an initial screening by FISH. In these patients, no abnormalities were identified in the coding region of the TBX1 gene, one of the key genes responsible for the phenotype of DGS. However, when copy number alteration was analyzed by high-resolution array analysis, a small deletion or duplication in the proximal end of DiGeorge critical region was detected in two patients. The affected region contains the DGCR6 and PRODH genes. DGCR6 has been reported to affect the expression of the TBX1 gene. Our results suggest that altered dosage of gene(s) other than TBX1, possibly DGCR6, may also be responsible for the development of conotruncal heart defects observed in patients with DGS and, in particular, in those with stand-alone conotruncal heart defects.

  4. Partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation: A disguised familial Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome as a sporadic adrenocortical tumor

    PubMed Central

    H'mida Ben-Brahim, Dorra; Hammami, Sabeur; Haddaji Mastouri, Marwa; Trabelsi, Saoussen; Chourabi, Maroua; Sassi, Sihem; Mougou, Soumaya; Gribaa, Moez; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Guédiche, Mohamed Neji; Saad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome has a wide spectrum of complications such as embryonal tumors, namely adrenocortical tumor. Tumor predisposition is one of the most challenging manifestations of this syndrome. A 45-day old female with a family history of adrenocortical tumor presented with adrenocortical tumor. The case raised suspicion of a hereditary Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome, therefore molecular analysis was undertaken. The results revealed partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation in the infant's blood DNA which was associated with a complete loss of methylation in the infant's adrenocortical tumor tissue. It is unique for familial Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome caused by KCNQ1OT1 partial hypomethylation to manifest solely through adrenocortical tumor. Incomplete penetrance and specific tissue mosaicism could provide explanations to this novel hereditary Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome presentation. PMID:26937341

  5. Cloning, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of human citrate transport protein to the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome minimal critical region.

    PubMed

    Goldmuntz, E; Wang, Z; Roe, B A; Budarf, M L

    1996-04-15

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome have been shown to be associated with microdeletions of chromosomal regions 22q11. More recently, patients with conotruncal anomaly face syndrome and some nonsyndromic patients with isolated forms of conotruncal cardiac defects have been found to have 22q11 microdeletions as well. The commonly deleted region, called the DiGeorge chromosomal region (DGCR), spans approximately 1.2 Mb and is estimated to contain at least 30 genes. We report a computational approach for gene identification that makes use of large-scale sequencing of cosmids from a contig spanning the DGCR. Using this methodology, we have mapped the human homolog of a rodent citrate transport protein to the DGCR. We have isolated a partial cDNA containing the complete open reading frame and have determined the genomic structure by comparing the genomic sequence from the cosmid to the sequence of the cDNA clone. Whether the citrate transport protein can be implicated in the biological etiology of DGS or other 22q11 microdeletion syndromes remains to be defined.

  6. Cloning, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of human citrate transport protein to the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome minimal critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmuntz, E.; Budarf, M.L.; Wang, Zhili; Roe, B.A.

    1996-04-15

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome have been shown to be associated with microdeletions of chromosomal region 22q11. More recently, patients with conotruncal anomaly face syndrome and some nonsyndromic patients with isolated forms of conotruncal cardiac defects have been found to have 22q11 microdeletions as well. The commonly deleted region, called the DiGeorge chromosomal region (DGCR), spans approximately 1.2 mb and is estimated to contain at least 30 genes. We report a computational approach for gene identification that makes use of large-scale sequencing of cosmids from a contig spanning the DGCR. Using this methodology, we have mapped the human homolog of a rodent citrate transport protein to the DGCR. We have isolated a partial cDNA containing the complete open reading frame and have determined the genomic structure by comparing the genomic sequence from the cosmid to the sequence of the cDNA clone. Whether the citrate transport protein can be implicated in the biological etiology of DGS or other 22q11 microdeletion syndromes remains to be defined. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Idiopathic thromobocytopenic purpura in two mothers of children with DiGeorge sequence: A new component manifestation of deletion 22q11?

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.; Philip, N.; Michel, G.

    1997-04-14

    The phenotypic spectrum caused by the microdeletion of chromosome 22q11 region is known to be variable. Nearly all patients with DiGeorge sequence (DGS) and approximately 60% of patients with velocardiofacial syndrome exhibit the deletion. Recent papers have reported various congenital defects in patients with 22q11 deletions. Conversely, some patients have minimal clinical expression. Ten to 25% of parents of patients with DGS exhibit the deletion and are nearly asymptomatic. Two female patients carrying a 22q11 microdeletion and presenting with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura are reported. Both had children with typical manifestations of DGS. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Psychosexual outcomes in three siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: impact of nature versus nurture.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Shabir, Iram; Marumadi, Eunice; Dada, Reema; Ammini, Ariachery C; Mehta, Manju

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports of adults with disorders of sexual development (DSD). Here we describe the clinical profile and results of psychological assessment of three siblings with 46, XY DSD caused by partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS). The elder sibling (aged 22 years) was reared as female, while the middle and youngest siblings (17 and 18 years of age), were reared as males. The gender identity was concordant with the sex of rearing. There was no gender dysphoria. The psychological distress that our patients experienced was due to the limitations placed on them by their medical condition. It did not permit them to experience various facets of being either male or female completely. The younger siblings reared as males had additional problems of gynecomastia and lack of male secondary sexual development.

  9. Kennedy's disease and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. Report of 4 cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Valera Yepes, Rocío; Virgili Casas, Maria; Povedano Panades, Monica; Guerrero Gual, Mireia; Villabona Artero, Carles

    2015-05-01

    Kennedy's disease, also known as bulbospinal muscular atrophy, is a rare, X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder affecting adult males. It is caused by expansion of an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine tandem-repeat in exon 1 of the androgen-receptor gene on chromosome Xq11-12, and is characterized by spinal motor neuron progressive degeneration. Endocrinologically, these patients often have the features of hypogonadism associated to the androgen insensitivity syndrome, particularly its partial forms. We report 4 cases with the typical neurological presentation, consisting of slowly progressing generalized muscle weakness with atrophy and bulbar muscle involvement; these patients also had several endocrine manifestations; the most common non-neurological manifestation was gynecomastia. In all cases reported, molecular analysis showed an abnormal cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene.

  10. A Case of Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in a Spastic Partial Quadriplegic Male

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salman; Dave, Atman; Morrison, Amelia Jane A; Jain, Swapna; Hermanns, David

    2016-01-01

    Purple bag urine syndrome (PUBS) is a benign and unique phenomenon of the urine turning a deep violet color within the urinary catheter tubing and bag. This phenomenon is commonly encountered in patients indicated with long-term catheter placement or, in certain conditions like chronic constipation, alkaline urine, limited ambulation, and, in terms of gender distribution, the female sex, predominates. PUBS gets its name from a unique phenomenon that takes places inside the gut where tryptophan (an amino acid) is metabolized, producing blue and red hues which together emanate a deep violet color. Here, the case of a middle-aged male patient with a suprapubic catheter in situ, following trauma causing spastic partial quadriplegia, is being presented with PUBS due to UTI secondary to Proteus vulgaris. The risk factors, in this case, include chronic constipation and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).​ PMID:27182466

  11. Successful treatment of migrating partial seizures in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with bromide.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Ayako; Saito, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Yoko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ohno, Koyo; Sejima, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    A girl with mild psychomotor developmental delay developed right or left hemiclonic convulsion at 10months of age. One month later, clusters of hemiclonic or bilateral tonic seizures with eyelid twitching emerged, resulting in status epilepticus. Treatment with phenobarbital and potassium bromide completely terminated the seizures within 10days. Ictal electroencephalography revealed a migrating focus of rhythmic 3-4Hz waves from the right temporal to right frontal regions and then to the left frontal regions. Genetic analysis was conducted based on the characteristic facial appearance of the patient, which identified a 2.1-Mb terminal deletion on chromosome 4p. This is the first case of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome complicated by epilepsy with migrating partial seizures.

  12. Direct selection of conserved cDNAs from the DiGeorge critical region: isolation of a novel CDC45-like gene.

    PubMed

    McKie, J M; Wadey, R B; Sutherland, H F; Taylor, C L; Scambler, P J

    1998-08-01

    We have used a modified direct selection technique to detect transcripts that are both evolutionary conserved and developmentally expressed. The enrichment for homologous mouse cDNAs by use of human genomic DNA as template is shown to be an efficient and rapid approach for generating transcript maps. Deletions of human 22q11 are associated with several clinical syndromes, with overlapping phenotypes, for example, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). A large number of transcriptional units exist within the defined critical region, many of which have been identified previously by direct selection. However, no single obvious candidate gene for the VCFS/DGS phenotype has yet been found. Our technique has been applied to the DiGeorge critical region and has resulted in the isolation of a novel candidate gene, Cdc45l2, similar to yeast Cdc45p. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ0223728 and AF0223729.

  13. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Indian families with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, M R; Rastogi, Amit; Raman, Rajiva; Gupta, Dinesh K; Singh, S K

    2009-12-01

    Mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is known to cause androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). In an X-linked recessive manner, an AR mutation gets transmitted to the offspring through carrier mothers in 70% of cases, the other 30% arising de novo. However, reports on AR mutations amongst Indian patients with AIS are scarce in the literature. This study reports mutations in AR from two Indian families, each having a proband with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) phenotype. Clinical, endocrine and cytogenetic evaluation of these affected children was performed. Mutational analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis followed by sequencing. The two point mutations were in exon 5: p.M742I, familial in patient 1 and p.V746M de novo in patient 2. These are hitherto unrecognized mutations in our population. Similar mutational studies are suggested in patients with AIS, in order to identify their frequency and clinical severity in our population.

  14. Differential Brain, Cognitive and Motor Profiles Associated with Partial Trisomy. Modeling Down Syndrome in Mice.

    PubMed

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Baril, Nathalie; Cau, Pierre; Scajola, Christophe; Ghata, Adeline; Bartoli, Catherine; Bourgeois, Patrice; Christofaro, Julie di; Tordjman, Sylvie; Carlier, Michèle

    2017-02-15

    We hypothesize that the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is the additive and interactive outcome of the triple copy of different regions of HSA21. Because of the small number of patients with partial trisomy 21, we addressed the question in the Mouse in which three chromosomal regions located on MMU10, MMU17 and MMU16 carries almost all the HSA21 homologs. Male mice from four segmental trisomic strains covering the D21S17-ETS2 (syntenic to MMU16) were examined with an exhaustive battery of cognitive tests, motor tasks and MRI and compared with TS65Dn that encompasses D21S17-ETS2. None of the four strains gather all the impairments (measured by the effect size) of TS65Dn strain. The 152F7 strain was close to TS65Dn for motor behavior and reference memory and the three other strains 230E8, 141G6 and 285E6 for working memory. Episodic memory was impaired only in strain 285E6. The hippocampus and cerebellum reduced sizes that were seen in all the strains indicate that trisomy 21 is not only a hippocampus syndrome but that it results from abnormal interactions between the two structures.

  15. Genetic contributions to visuospatial cognition in Williams syndrome: insights from two contrasting partial deletion patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder arising from a hemizygotic deletion of approximately 27 genes on chromosome 7, at locus 7q11.23. WS is characterised by an uneven cognitive profile, with serious deficits in visuospatial tasks in comparison to relatively proficient performance in some other cognitive domains such as language and face processing. Individuals with partial genetic deletions within the WS critical region (WSCR) have provided insights into the contribution of specific genes to this complex phenotype. However, the combinatorial effects of different genes remain elusive. Methods We report on visuospatial cognition in two individuals with contrasting partial deletions in the WSCR: one female (HR), aged 11 years 9 months, with haploinsufficiency for 24 of the WS genes (up to GTF2IRD1), and one male (JB), aged 14 years 2 months, with the three most telomeric genes within the WSCR deleted, or partially deleted. Results Our in-depth phenotyping of the visuospatial domain from table-top psychometric, and small- and large-scale experimental tasks reveal a profile in HR in line with typically developing controls, albeit with some atypical features. These data are contrasted with patient JB’s atypical profile of strengths and weaknesses across the visuospatial domain, as well as with more substantial visuospatial deficits in individuals with the full WS deletion. Conclusions Our findings point to the contribution of specific genes to spatial processing difficulties associated with WS, highlighting the multifaceted nature of spatial cognition and the divergent effects of genetic deletions within the WSCR on different components of visuospatial ability. The importance of general transcription factors at the telomeric end of the WSCR, and their combinatorial effects on the WS visuospatial phenotype are also discussed. PMID:25057328

  16. A novel point mutation (R840S) in the androgen receptor in a Brazilian family with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melo, K F; Latronico, A C; Costa, E M; Billerbeck, A E; Mendonca, B B; Arnhold, I J

    1999-10-01

    Mutations of the androgen receptor gene causing androgen insensitivity syndrome in 46, XY individuals, result in phenotypes ranging from complete female to ambiguous genitalia to males with minor degrees of undervirilization. We studied two Brazilian brothers with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. They were born with perineal hypospadias, bifid scrotum, small penis and cryptorchidism, and developed gynecomastia at puberty. Genomic DNA was extracted and denaturinggradient gel electrophoresis of exon 7 of the androgen receptor gene followed by sequence analysis revealed a new mutation, a C A transversion, altering codon 840 from arginine (CGT) to serine (AGT). R840 is located in the androgen binding domain, in a "hot spot" region, important for the formation and function of the hormone receptor-complex and within the region that is involved in androgen receptor dimerization. Replacement of arginine (basic) by serine (neutral and polar) is a nonconservative substitution. Three mutations in this residue (R840C, R840G nonconservative and R840H, conservative) were previously reported in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and when expressed "in vitro" lead to a subnormal transactivation of a reporter gene. We conclude that the novel R840 mutation in the androgen receptor is the cause of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome in this Brazilian family.

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in a Rocky Mountain Region City

    PubMed Central

    Keaster, Carol; Bozeman, Rosemary; Goodover, Joelene; Blankenship, Jason; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Brooks, Marita; Hasken, Julie; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie; Hoyme, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) in the United States (US) are not well known. Methods This active case ascertainment study in a Rocky Mountain Region City assessed the prevalence and traits of children with FAS and PFAS and linked them to maternal risk factors. Diagnoses made by expert clinical dysmorphologists in multidisciplinary case conferences utilized all components of the study: dysmorphology and physical growth; neurobehavior; and maternal risk interviews. Results Direct parental (active) consent was obtained for 1,278 children. Averages for key physical diagnostic traits and several other minor anomalies were significantly different among FAS, PFAS, and randomly-selected, normal controls. Cognitive tests and behavioral checklists discriminated the diagnostic groups from controls on 12 of 14 instruments. Mothers of children with FAS and PFAS were significantly lower in educational attainment, shorter, later in pregnancy recognition, and suffered more depression, and used marijuana and methamphetamine during their pregnancy. Most pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking measures were worse for mothers of FAS and PFAS. Excluding a significant difference in simply admitting drinking during the index pregnancy (FAS and PFAS = 75% vs. 39.4% for controls), most quantitative intergroup differences merely approached significance. This community’s prevalence of FAS is 2.9 to 7.5 per 1,000, PFAS is 7.9 to 17.7 per 1,000, and combined prevalence is 10.9 to 25.2 per 1,000 or 1.1% to 2.5%. Conclusions Comprehensive, active case ascertainment methods produced rates of FAS and PFAS higher than predicted by long-standing, popular estimates. PMID:26321671

  18. Down Syndrome, Partial Trisomy 21, and Absence of Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of APP.

    PubMed

    Doran, Eric; Keator, David; Head, Elizabeth; Phelan, Michael J; Kim, Ron; Totoiu, Minodora; Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W; Potkin, Steven G; Lott, Ira T

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21 in Down syndrome (DS) has been linked to increased brain amyloid levels and early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). An elderly man with phenotypic DS and partial trisomy of chromosome 21 (PT21) lacked triplication of APP affording an opportunity to study the role of this gene in the pathogenesis of dementia. Multidisciplinary studies between ages 66-72 years comprised neuropsychological testing, independent neurological exams, amyloid PET imaging with 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB), plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) measurements, and a brain autopsy examination. The clinical phenotype was typical for DS and his intellectual disability was mild in severity. His serial neuropsychological test scores showed less than a 3% decline as compared to high functioning individuals with DS who developed dementia wherein the scores declined 17-28% per year. No dementia was detected on neurological examinations. On PiB-PET scans, the patient with PT21 had lower PiB standard uptake values than controls with typical DS or sporadic AD. Plasma Aβ42 was lower than values for demented or non-demented adults with DS. Neuropathological findings showed only a single neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary degeneration consistent with normal aging but not AD. Taken together the findings in this rare patient with PT21 confirm the obligatory role of APP in the clinical, biochemical, and neuropathological findings of AD in DS.

  19. A novel somatic mutation achieves partial rescue in a child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Daniel Z; Arlt, Martin F; Brazier, Joan F; Norris, Wendy E; Campbell, Susan E; Chines, Peter; Larrieu, Delphine; Jackson, Stephen P; Collins, Francis S; Glover, Thomas W; Gordon, Leslie B

    2017-01-01

    Background Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a fatal sporadic autosomal dominant premature ageing disease caused by single base mutations that optimise a cryptic splice site within exon 11 of the LMNA gene. The resultant disease-causing protein, progerin, acts as a dominant negative. Disease severity relies partly on progerin levels. Methods and results We report a novel form of somatic mosaicism, where a child possessed two cell populations with different HGPS disease-producing mutations of the same nucleotide—one producing severe HGPS and one mild HGPS. The proband possessed an intermediate phenotype. The mosaicism was initially discovered when Sanger sequencing showed a c.1968+2T>A mutation in blood DNA and a c.1968+2T>C in DNA from cultured fibroblasts. Deep sequencing of DNA from the proband's blood revealed 4.7% c.1968+2T>C mutation, and 41.3% c.1968+2T>A mutation. Conclusions We hypothesise that the germline mutation was c.1968+2T>A, but a rescue event occurred during early development, where the somatic mutation from A to C at 1968+2 provided a selective advantage. This type of mosaicism where a partial phenotypic rescue event results from a second but milder disease-causing mutation in the same nucleotide has not been previously characterised for any disease. PMID:27920058

  20. Unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy followed by contralateral retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mugiya, S; Suzuki, K; Saisu, K; Fujita, K

    1999-03-01

    We report the first patient who had bilateral pheochromocytoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a syndrome (MEN 2a) and underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy followed by contralateral retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy 2 years later. The postoperative course was uneventful both times, and the patient was cured of hypertension without any need for steroid replacement. Endoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a minimally invasive procedure for pheochromocytoma with mild symptoms. We believe that this procedure has considerable potential for treating bilateral pheochromocytoma, which is frequently observed in patients with MEN 2a.

  1. Isolated micropenis reveals partial androgen insensitivity syndrome confirmed by molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhangoo, Amrit; Paris, Francoise; Philibert, Pascal; Audran, Francoise; Ten, Svetlana; Sultan, Charles

    2010-07-01

    Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is the milder variant of androgen receptor (AR) defects. The subtle effects of AR mutations present in a patient with micropenis, peno-scrotal hypospadias, infertility, clitoromegaly and posterior labial fusion. We studied the association of isolated micropenis with the genetic defects resulting in androgen resistance, that is, AR gene defects and 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) deficiency. We describe two cases of isolated micropenis: one in a 14-year-old boy and the other in a 3-year-old boy who was followed until he was 10 years old. There were no findings of hypospadias, cryptorchidism or gynecomastia in either of these patients. Serum gonadotrophin and androgen levels were obtained and karyotyping was done. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation testing assessed the functional capacity of the testes. DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes, and all exons of the SRD5A2 and AR genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. In both patients, baseline testosterone (T) level was low and the values were elevated after hCG testing. The sequence of the SRD5A2 gene was normal in patient 1, and a heterozygous polymorphism, V89L, was found in patient 2. Two known mutations, P390S and A870V, were identified in patients 1 and 2, respectively. Mutations in the AR gene can be associated with isolated micropenis without other features of PAIS, such as hypospadias or gynecomastia. This underlines the importance of including AR gene analysis in the evaluation of isolated micropenis with normal plasma T to ensure proper management of the patient and appropriate genetic counseling for the family.

  2. Absence of genomic imprinting at the DiGeorge locus

    SciTech Connect

    Theophile, D.; Berube, D.; Auge, J.; Vekemans, M.

    1994-09-01

    In situ hybridization with fluorescence probes (FISH) on interphase nuclei allows evaluation of the stage of DNA replication. For example, in a diploid cell in G1, unreplicated DNA gives two single dots of hybridization whereas in a diploid cell in G2, for loci which have already replicated, the hybridization signal is seen as two pairs of doublets. In contrast, sequences which have an asynchronous replication are characterized by one double hybridization signal and one single hybridization signal. It has been shown recently that sequences subject to genomic imprinting have an asynchronous replication, i.e., the two homologous alleles have a different pattern of replication. We have tested the replication pattern of different sequences of the DiGeorge critical region using FISH. The results obtained with probes 48F8, C350, C237 and COS40 show no evidence of asynchronous replication. This suggests that these loci are not subject to imprinting. These results are in agreement with recent observation of cases of uniparental disomy of chromosome 22 without phenotypic features. Further studies are necessary to exclude other regions of chromosome 22 which might be subject to genomic imprinting.

  3. L-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2015-03-15

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite α-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS.

  4. l-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E.; Gerton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite α-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. PMID:25378554

  5. Partial Klüver-Bucy syndrome in a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Sanjeev; Ansari, M K

    2010-11-01

    The symptoms of Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) include hyperorality, hypersexuality, visual agnosia, hypermetamorphosis and decreased motor or vocal reaction to fear- or anger-provoking stimuli. This syndrome has been associated with a wide variety of neurodegenerative disorders, as well as traumatic, non-traumatic and infectious brain injuries. We report an 11-year-old boy who developed a fairly classical presentation of KBS, presumably in the setting of post-infectious acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). This patient's presentation is a reminder of this rare syndrome and extends the clinical manifestations of ADEM, which is a relatively more common condition.

  6. Neurodevelopmental profile of a new dysmorphic syndrome associated with submicroscopic partial deletion of 1p36.3.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, E; Knight, S; Heussler, H; Regan, R; Flint, J; Martin, K

    2000-03-01

    We describe four children with dysmorphic syndrome with severe learning disability (SLD). Their chromosomes had been normal on conventional cytogenetic examination. However, screening using a multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique for subtelomeric abnormalities revealed a deletion of the p arm of chromosome 1. The physical features include body asymmetry, microcephaly, distinctive facies with deep-set eyes, sharply defined eye sockets, and mid-face hypoplasia; the neurodevelopmental profile was characterised by SLD, motor delay with hypotonia, markedly delayed visual maturation, and postural asymmetry together with epilepsy. This phenotype is consistent with that described for partial monosomy for 1p36.3.

  7. West syndrome associated with a novel chromosomal anomaly; partial trisomy 8P together with partial monosomy 9P, resulting from a familial unbalanced reciprocal translocation

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Ilknur; Saygı, Semra; Demir, Şenay; Alehan, Fusun; Sahin, Feride Iffet

    2015-01-01

    West syndrome is classified according to the underlying etiology into an acquired West syndrome, a congenital/developmental West syndrome, and West syndrome of unknown etiology. Causes of a congenital/developmental West syndrome are extensive and include chromosomal anomalies. We report on a patient carrying a derivative chromosome originating from the reciprocal unbalanced translocation t (8;9) (p11.2;p22) and presenting with macrocephaly, West syndrome, severe mental motor retardation and hypotonia. As far as we know, this is a new chromosomal anomaly associated with West syndrome. PMID:25878738

  8. Two cases of partial trisomy 10q syndrome due to a familial 10;20 translocation.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, B; Hacihanefioglu, S; Silahtaroglu, A; Yilmaz, S; Deviren, A; Cenani, A

    2000-01-01

    We describe an eleven day-old boy and his first degree double cousin who both have distal trisomy 10q syndrome. Their cytogenetic analysis using GTG-banding showed an unbalanced translocation 46, XY, -20, +der(20), t(10;20)(q22.3, p11) mat and 46, XX, -20, +der(20), t(10;20)(q22.3, p11) mat. The translocation was confirmed by FISH. We have found balanced translocation t(10;20)(q22.3; p11) with cytogenetic and FISH studies in the mothers and maternal grandfather of these children. Our cases had typical craniofacial and visceral anomalies of this syndrome. However case 1 had an agenesia of corpus callosum which was not previously described and case 2 had hypertrophied cardiomyopathy and cliteromegaly which were previously described as rare anomalies for this syndrome.

  9. Is the autosomal dominant Opitz GBBB syndrome part of the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2?

    SciTech Connect

    Wulfsberg, E.A.

    1996-08-23

    The classification of Opitz GBBB syndrome has been associated with the deletion of the DiGeorge chromosome region on human chromosome 22q11.2. The broad phenotype involved in this deletion syndrome is usually referred to as the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome. The clinical description of the patient will influence the diagnosis of the syndrome. More exact descriptions are necessary in order to locate the gene(s) for these disorders. 13 refs.

  10. Isolation of novel cDNA encompassing the ADU balanced translocation break point in the DiGeorge critical region.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Hur, H; Park, J; Kim, Y J

    2001-03-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental field defect of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches that are associated with congenital heart defects, hypoparathyroidism, cell-mediated immunodeficiency, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and craniofacial anomalities. Approximately 90% of patients exhibit monosomy in the 22q11 region. In order to isolate the critical gene responsible for DGS, the cDNA libraries were screened with a probe containing the ADU balanced translocation break point, that is a locus reported in one patient (ADU) caused by a balanced translocation between chromosomes 22 and 2. Out of 10(6) clones, three independent overlapping clones were isolated, which were assumed to have originated from a single transcript, DGCR7. This transcript contained a 175-aa long open reading frame (ORF), encoding an acidic (pI = 5.81) and a proline-rich peptide, which are often found in the activation domain of several transcription factors. Also, it was predicted to be a nuclear protein. Northern hybridization detected an approx 1.9 kb transcript in all fetal and adult tissues tested, with strong expression in the fetal liver and kidney. In the case of adult tissues, strong expression was also detected in areas such as the heart, skeletal muscle, liver, and kidney.

  11. Diagnosis of partial complex regional pain syndrome type 1 of the hand: retrospective study of 16 cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The partial form of the complex regional pain syndrome of the hand type 1 (CRPS 1), involving only 1 to 3 fingers, is a rare condition first described in 1972. The aim of the study is to define more precisely the diagnosis workup and the prognosis of this clinical entity. Methods Retrospective study of CRPS1 partial form observed during five years in a rehabilitation ward. Application of The Budapest criteria, evaluation of radiological exams, therapeutic results and vocational outcomes. Comparison with cases from literature review. Results 132 patients were hospitalized with the diagnosis of CRPS type 1 of the hand. 16 partial forms were isolated: 11 men, 5 women with a mean age of 43 years. Among these patients, 14 (88%) met The Budapest criteria and the two remaining cases were diagnosed by using the three phase bone scintigraphy. Only moderate improvement was obtained in the majority of the patients. At the maximal time of follow-up (4 to 9 years), 50% of the patients hadn’t returned to work. From the literature review, 19 cases were eligible for clinical comparisons. The main differences between our series and the literature were: more men involved, later diagnosis and worst prognosis in term of return to work. Conclusions This is the largest series of consecutive partial form of CRPS. The Budapest criteria are sufficient for the diagnosis in 88% of cases. As in complete form of CRPS1 of the hand, three phase bone scintigraphy should only be used in doubtful cases in the first six months of the illness. Partial form of CRPS1 of the hand is rare and its prevalence remains unknown. Long term prognosis (4 to 9 years) is poor in our series, 50% of patients didn’t returned to work. PMID:23506090

  12. Biochemical characterisation of the proteins encoded by the DiGeorge critical region 6 (DGCR6) genes.

    PubMed

    Pfuhl, Thorsten; Dürr, Matthias; Spurk, Andreas; Schwalbert, Björn; Nord, Ruth; Mysliwietz, Josef; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Grässer, Friedrich A

    2005-06-01

    The DiGeorge critical region 6 (DGCR6) gene exists in two highly homologous copies (DGCR6 and DGCR6L) on chromosome 22q11 and is deleted in patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS). The DGCR6 mRNA levels are increased in metastatic mammary tumour cells and regulate the expression of neighbouring genes at the 22q11 region. Newly developed monoclonal antibodies detected predominantly nuclear phosphoproteins of approximately 25 kDa, with low expression levels in the cytoplasm. Both proteins have half-lives of about 2.5 h. Exogenously expressed DGCR6 and DGCR6L migrated with slightly different mobility in SDS-gels in accordance with two immunoreactive bands observed for the endogenous proteins. DGCR6 is found at low levels in primary human fibroblasts or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while tumour cells, B-cells transformed by EBV as well as activated normal human T cells, contain elevated levels of the proteins. The proteins are differentially expressed in mammalian tissues, with high protein levels in heart, liver and skeletal muscle. These observations are important as some patients with DGCR6 syndrome exhibit a T-cell deficiency and/or cardiac malformations. As the DGCR6 protein(s) influence gene expression in trans, we analysed the influence of DGCR6/DGCR6L on the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded oncoproteins EBNA2 and EBNA3c in the activation of the viral LMP1 promoter, as well as LMP1-mediated activation of NFkB, but found no effect in either setting.

  13. Narrowing the DiGeorge Region (DGCR) using DGS-VCFS associated translocation breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Budarf, M.L.; Sellinger, B.

    1994-09-01

    The initial evidence linking 22q11 with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) came from identification of DGS patients with unbalanced translocations resulting in loss of 22pter{r_arrow}q11. Molecular detection of 22q11.2 deletions in over 85% of our DGS and VCFS patient population confirms the role of 22q11 haploinsufficiency in the etiology of these two disorders. In the present study, DGS/VCFS-associated translocations are used to further refine the DGS minimal critical region. We obtained previously described cell lines: GM5878 [t(10;22)], GM5401 [t(4;22)], GM0980 [t(11;22)], and LGL6012 [t(20;22)]. Lymphoblastoid cell lines were established from two new unbalanced translocations, [t(15;22)(p11;q11)] and [t(12;22)(p13.31;q11.2)] and from a family with balanced and unbalanced forms of a t(X;22)(p22.31;q11). All probands are missing 22pter{r_arrow}q11 and have mild dysmorphia, short stature, frequent infections and developmental delay. Cleft palate was also seen in the two sibs resulting from malsegregation of the t(X;22)mat. These seven breakpoints were positioned by FISH utilizing cosmids from 22q11.2. The cosmids include the loci D22S75 (N25), D22S66 (160b), and D22S259 (R32) which we have previously used to define the DGS/VCFS commonly deleted region. The t(12;22) and t(20;22) breakpoints map distal to R32. Four translocation breakpoints map between N25 and R32: CEN - N25 - t(15;22) - t(11;22) - t(10;22) - 160b - t(4;22) - R32 - TEL. The t(X;22) breakpoint lies between the proximal flanking locus D22S36 (pH11) and N25, suggesting that genes critical to the phenotype may lie between these markers. However, the der(X) is inactivated in both sibs, raising the possibility that spreading of inactivation to the translocated, 22-derived segment may silence gene(s) distal to the breakpoint. Thus, the DGCR has been narrowed to a region between D22S36 and the t(15;22) breakpoint. This enables us to narrow the search for the critical gene(s) deleted in patients with DGS and VCFS.

  14. Partial inhibition of the abstinence syndrome in morphine tolerant-dependent mice following pharmacological denervation.

    PubMed

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L; Quijada, L

    1978-09-01

    Mice were chronically treated with either atropine, methysergide or pentobarbital in order to induce sensitivity changes resulting from adaptative adjustments in the central nervous system (CNS), and to examine the degree of tolerance to and physical dependence on morphine several days after the discontinuation of pretreatments. Subsequently to the chronic blockade of muscarinic or serotonergic receptors, the intensity of tolerance was unaffected, but some manifestations of the abstinence behavior induced by naloxone were reduced in part. This attenuation of the abstinence syndrome in the pretreated mice was reverted by an additional dose of either atropine or methysergide administered a few min before naloxone. Additional experiments with physostigmine or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in morphine-dependent mice yielded results compatible with the hypothesis that morphine physical dependence may be the manifestation of compensatory changes of sensitivity to serotonin and acetylcholine in the CNS. These results do not exclude the participation of other neurotransmitters or neurohormones in morphine dependence.

  15. Epilepsy phenotype associated with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A: Migrating partial seizures of infancy or atypical Dravet syndrome?

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Hunmin; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    The deletion of a sodium channel gene cluster located on chromosome 2q24.3 is associated with variable epilepsy phenotypes, including Dravet syndrome and migrating partial seizures of infancy. Although SCN1A is considered as the major contributor to the epilepsy phenotype, the role of other sodium channel genes that map within this cluster has not been delineated. We presented five new cases with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A and investigated their epilepsy phenotype in relation to the extent of the deletion. Three cases with deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster (SCN3A, SCN2A, SCN1A, SCN9A, and SCN7A) exhibited a complex epilepsy phenotype that was atypical for Dravet syndrome and suggestive of migrating partial seizures of infancy: early seizure onset (before 2 months of age), severe developmental delay from seizure onset, multifocal interictal spikes, polymorphous focal seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Two cases with partial deletion of SCN1A and SCN9A and whole SCN1A deletion had an epilepsy phenotype of Dravet syndrome. A literature review of cases with chromosome 2q24.3 deletion revealed that, in most Dravet syndrome cases, it does not involve SCN2A and SCN3A, whereas a complex epilepsy phenotype that is shared with migrating partial seizures of infancy was associated with cases of deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster.

  16. Autosomal dominant {open_quotes}Opitz{close_quotes} GBBB syndrome due to a 22q11.2 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald-McGinn, D.M.; Emanuel, B.S.; Zackai, E.H.

    1996-08-23

    The classification of Opitz GBBB syndrome has been associated with the deletion of the DiGeorge chromosome region on human chromosome 22q11.2. The broad phenotype involved in this deletion syndrome has been referred to as the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome. The clinical description of the patient will influence the diagnosis of the syndrome. More cooperation between the clinicians and the molecular researchers is necessary in order to locate the gene(s) for these disorders. 11 refs.

  17. Diagnostics of common microdeletion syndromes using fluorescence in situ hybridization: Single center experience in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina; Mehinovic, Lejla; Stomornjak-Vukadin, Meliha; Kurtovic-Basic, Ilvana; Catibusic, Feriha; Kozaric, Mirza; Dinarevic, Senka Mesihovic; Hasanhodzic, Mensuda; Sumanovic-Glamuzina, Darinka

    2016-01-01

    Microdeletion syndromes are caused by chromosomal deletions of less than 5 megabases which can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We evaluated the most commonly detected microdeletions for the period from June 01, 2008 to June 01, 2015 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including DiGeorge, Prader-Willi/Angelman, Wolf-Hirschhorn, and Williams syndromes. We report 4 patients with DiGeorge syndromes, 4 patients with Prader-Willi/Angelman, 4 patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, and 3 patients with Williams syndrome in the analyzed 7 year period. Based on the positive FISH results for each syndrome, the incidence was calculated for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These are the first reported frequencies of the microdeletion syndromes in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:26937776

  18. Jacobsen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes in a child with mosaicism for partial 11pter trisomy and partial 11qter monosomy.

    PubMed

    Putoux, Audrey; Labalme, Audrey; André, Jean-Marie; Till, Marianne; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Berard, Jérôme; Bertrand, Yves; Edery, Patrick; Putet, Guy; Sanlaville, Damien

    2013-02-01

    We report on a child with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS, OMIM 147791) and abnormalities consistent with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS, OMIM 130650). The constitutional karyotype was apparently normal, but FISH analysis with probes specific for the short and long arms of chromosome 11 found 11qter deletion with 11pter trisomy in 80% of the cells studied. Array-CGH identified breakpoints in the 11p15.3 and 11q24.1 regions consistent with Jacobsen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes. We suggest that this chromosome imbalance results from a pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 inherited from the father, with mosaicism resulting from meiotic recombination of a paternal inversion followed by mitotic recombination during the first embryonic divisions. This hypothesis is supported by the results of microsatellite marker analysis. Three previous cases of pericentric inversion and recombination of chromosome 11 have been reported. Our case is unusual in that it combines the Jacobsen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes with mosaicism.

  19. Pure partial trisomy 4q syndrome in a child with der(9)ins(9;4)(q34.3;q26q35.2)mat.

    PubMed

    Topcu, V; Ilgin-Ruhi, H; Yurur-Kutlay, N; Ekici, C; Vicdan, A; Tukun, F A

    2014-01-01

    Pure partial trisomy 4q syndrome in a child with der(9)ins(9;4)(q34.3;q26q35.2)mat: Partial trisomy 4q is a rare chromosomal abnormality and mostly results from unbalanced inheritance of balanced parental chromosomal translocations. Here, we present a 5-year-old boy with partial trisomy 4q who exhibited distinctive features of 'pure' partial trisomy 4q syndrome including moderate mental and growth retardation, microcephaly, peculiar face appearance, tooth anomaly, cleft palate, language handicap, preaxial polydactyly, and urogenital anomaly. Karyotype analysis of the child revealed der(9)ins(9;4)(q34.3;q26q35.2) inherited from mother carrying ins(9;4)(q34.3;q26q35.2) resulting in trisomy of the 4q26qter segment. Whole chromosome painting, locus specific, and subtelomeric FISH analysis in mother proved that q26qter of the chromosome 4 segment was directly inserted into the telomeric sequence in chromosome 9, and depending on nature of the rearrangement in mother, karyotype of the child was determined to be pure partial 4q trisomy. This is the first report of this kind of rearrangement causing pure partial trisomy 4q with accompanying white matter change demonstrated by MRI and bilateral preaxial polydactyly of both hands.

  20. A new mutation of the androgen receptor, P817A, causing partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: in vitro and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, S; Wagschal, A; Bourguet, W; Georget, V; Mazen, I; Servant, N; Audran, F; Sultan, C; Auzou, G

    2004-06-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) resulting in various degrees of defective masculinization in 46,XY individuals. In the present study, we describe a novel mutation in exon 7 of the AR gene in an Egyptian patient with partial AIS (PAIS). Sequencing analysis of the AR gene revealed a novel missense mutation, P817A, within the ligand-binding domain (LBD). This is the first report of a mutation within the short amino acid motif (codons 815-817) of the beta-strand lying between helices H8 and H9 of the AR LBD. The functional defects of the mutated protein were characterized by in vitro study and included significantly decreased ligand-binding affinity and impaired transactivation potential. Limited proteolysis assays performed with the wild-type and mutant AR receptors incubated with the synthetic agonist R1881 revealed that the P817A mutation resulted in a reduced stabilization of the AR active conformation. Structural analyses showed that this mutation is likely to perturb the beta-sheet interaction between residues 815-817 and 911-913. This structural alteration destabilizes the position of the C-terminal extension, which contains residues critical for androgen function.

  1. Concomitant partial exon skipping by a unique missense mutation of RPS6KA3 causes Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Labonne, Jonathan D J; Chung, Min Ji; Jones, Julie R; Anand, Priya; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Iacoboni, Daniela; Layman, Lawrence C; Kim, Hyung-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is an X-linked semi-dominant disorder characterized by diverse phenotypes including intellectual disability, facial and digital anomalies. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase Polypeptide 3 (RPS6KA3) gene have been shown to be responsible for CLS. Among the large number of mutations, however, no exonic mutation causing exon skipping has been described. Here, we report a male patient with CLS having a novel mutation at the 3' end of an exon at a splice donor junction. Interestingly, this nucleotide change causes both a novel missense mutation and partial exon skipping leading to a truncated transcript. These two transcripts were identified by cDNA sequencing of RT-PCR products. In the carrier mother, we found only wildtype transcripts suggesting skewed X-inactivation. Methylation studies confirmed X-inactivation was skewed moderately, but not completely, which is consistent with her mild phenotype. Western blot showed that the mutant RSK2 protein in the patient is expressed at similar levels relative to his mother. Protein modeling demonstrated that the missense mutation is damaging and may alter binding to ATP molecules. This is the first report of exon skipping from an exonic mutation of RPS6KA3, demonstrating that a missense mutation and concomitant disruption of normal splicing contribute to the manifestation of CLS.

  2. Partial benefit of anastrozole in the long-term treatment of precocious puberty in McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cresio; Silva, Sheila Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    We report a long-term follow-up on the use of anastrozole in the treatment of peripheral precocious puberty (PP) in McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). A girl, age 3 years and 9 months, was diagnosed with MAS due to PP, café-au-lait spots, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Serum estradiol was elevated, and gonadotropins were suppressed. Pelvic ultrasound showed an enlarged uterus and a follicle cyst (13 mm) in the left ovary. Bone scintigraphy showed osteogenic lesions on the skull, humerus, tibia, and acetabulum. Bone age was 3 years and 5 months at the chronological age of 3 years. After 36 months of treatment with anastrozole (1 mg/day), there was suppression of breast growth, normalization of growth velocity and serum estradiol, and disappearance of ovarian cysts. However, there was increase in uterine volume, advancement of bone age, and two episodes of vaginal bleeding (18th and 24th months). This report shows the partial benefit of anastrozole in the treatment of peripheral PP of girls with MAS.

  3. Impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its partial reversal by chronic treatment of fluoxetine in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Godavarthi, Swetha K; Dey, Parthanarayan; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-04

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe cognitive and motor deficits, caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited Ube3a. Ube3a-maternal deficient mice (AS model mice) recapitulate many essential features of AS, but how the deficiency of Ube3a lead to such behavioural abnormalities is poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated significant impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice brain. Although, the number of BrdU and Ki67-positive cell in the hippocampal DG region was nearly equal at early postnatal days among wild type and AS mice, they were significantly reduced in adult AS mice compared to wild type controls. Reduced number of doublecortin-positive immature neurons in this region of AS mice further indicated impaired neurogenesis. Unaltered BrdU and Ki67-positive cells number in the sub ventricular zone of adult AS mice brain along with the absence of imprinted expression of Ube3a in the neural progenitor cell suggesting that Ube3a may not be directly linked with altered neurogenesis. Finally, we show that the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in these mice can be partially rescued by the chronic treatment of antidepressant fluoxetine. These results suggest that the chronic stress may lead to reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice and that impaired neurogenesis could contribute to cognitive disturbances observed in these mice.

  4. Successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure in an infant with DiGeorge anomaly, following thymus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Christoph P; Hartman, Mary E; Markert, M Louise; Lodge, Andrew J; Cheifetz, Ira M; Turner, David A

    2011-06-01

    We report the first successful use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for refractory respiratory failure in an infant with DiGeorge anomaly, following thymus transplantation. A 23-month-old female with complete immune-incompetent DiGeorge anomaly 65 days after allogenic thymus transplantation was treated in our pediatric intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure secondary to bacterial sepsis. She subsequently developed acute hypercarbic respiratory failure unresponsive to conventional medical therapy. She was successfully managed with venovenous ECMO for 4 days, with complete resolution of her respiratory symptoms. This case demonstrates the complex decision making process regarding initiation of ECMO in patients with severe immunodeficiency.

  5. Surface rendering of external genitalia of a fetus at the 32nd week of gestation affected by partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Vincenzo; Bertucci, Emma; Latella, Silvia; Cani, Carlotta; Ceccarelli, Pierluca; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Baldinotti, Fulvia; Percesepe, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To demonstrate the feasibility of the prenatal diagnosis of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome by 3D-4D ultrasound. Methods. To report prenatal diagnosis of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome at 32nd week of gestation by 3D-4D ultrasound in a fetus with a 46XY karyotype, testing negative to the mutation analysis of SRY gene and the 5 α -reductase 2 gene (SRD5A2). Results. 3D-4D surface rendering allows the detection of external and internal genital malformations and can address the prenatal diagnosis of PAIS and can exclude associated complications. Conclusions. Prenatal diagnosis of PAIS allows an adequate parental counseling and an early optimal management of the condition, not only for the psychological and social reflections but also for the avoidance of complications and postnatal morbidity due to misdiagnosis or delays in the treatment of the genital ambiguity.

  6. Extra Yq and partial monosomy 12p due to a Y;12 translocation in a boy with features of the 12p deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orye, E; Craen, M; Laureys, G; van Coster, R; van Mele, B

    1985-06-01

    A Y;12 translocation, resulting in extra Yq material and partial monosomy 12p, was found in a 7 1/2 year old boy. He showed growth and mental retardation and several of the congenital anomalies seen in the 12p deletion syndrome. LDHB activity, the gene for which is located at 12p12, was normal in serum, in accordance with the suspected 12p13 deletion in the patient.

  7. Partial trisomy due to a de novo duplication 22q11.1-22q13.1: a cat-eye syndrome variant with brain anomalies.

    PubMed

    Karcaaltincaba, D; Ceylaner, S; Ceylaner, G; Dalkilic, S; Karli-Oguz, K; Kandemir, O

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of partial trisomy 22q with de novo duplication of chromosomal region 22q11.1-22q13.1, also confirmed by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (Array-CGH) analysis. The fetus had interhemispheric cyst and corpus callosum agenesis diagnosed by MRI which has not been reported in the literature. This novel phenotype differs from the reported cat eye syndromes by the absence of heart defects and the presence of brain anomalies.

  8. Partial duplication of 18q including a distal critical region for Edwards Syndrome in a patient with normal phenotype and oligoasthenospermia: case report.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, R; Monfort, S; Oltra, S; Ferrer-Bolufer, I; Roselló, M; Mayo, S; Martinez, F; Orellana, C

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have attempted to construct a phenotype map for duplications of different portions of chromosome 18 to identify a possible critical region (CR) for Edwards Syndrome. Partial duplications of 18q have been reported in the literature involving the distal CR in patients with some clinical features of Edwards Syndrome. Here, we describe a phenotypically normal male with a large duplication on chromosome 18 that involves the proposed distal CR. The lack of clinical features is remarkable, except for pathological semen analysis, which suggests that terminal 17.4 Mb of 18q do not contain the Edwards Syndrome CR. Alternatively, unknown modifier factors or undetected somatic mosaicism might cause incomplete penetrance of this duplication.

  9. The Long-Term Outcome of Boys With Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and a Mutation in the Androgen Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Herald, A.; Bertelloni, S.; Juul, A.; Bryce, J.; Jiang, J.; Rodie, M.; Sinnott, R.; Boroujerdi, M.; Lindhardt Johansen, M.; Hiort, O.; Holterhus, P. M.; Cools, M.; Guaragna-Filho, G.; Guerra-Junior, G.; Weintrob, N.; Hannema, S.; Drop, S.; Guran, T.; Darendeliler, F.; Nordenstrom, A.; Hughes, I. A.; Acerini, C.; Tadokoro-Cuccaro, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In boys with suspected partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), systematic evidence that supports the long-term prognostic value of identifying a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is lacking. Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes in young men with suspected PAIS in relation to the results of AR analysis. Methods: Through the International Disorders of Sex Development Registry, clinical information was gathered on young men suspected of having PAIS (n = 52) who presented before the age of 16 years and had genetic analysis of AR. Results: The median ages at presentation and at the time of the study were 1 month (range, 1 day to 16 years) and 22 years (range, 16 to 52 years), respectively. Of the cohort, 29 men (56%) had 20 different AR mutations reported. At diagnosis, the median external masculinization scores were 7 and 6 in cases with and without AR mutation, respectively (P = .9), and median current external masculinization scores were 9 and 10, respectively (P = .28). Thirty-five men (67%) required at least one surgical procedure, and those with a mutation were more likely to require multiple surgeries for hypospadias (P = .004). All cases with an AR mutation had gynecomastia, compared to 9% of those without an AR mutation. Of the six men who had a mastectomy, five (83%) had an AR mutation. Conclusions: Boys with genetically confirmed PAIS are likely to have a poorer clinical outcome than those with XY DSD, with normal T synthesis, and without an identifiable AR mutation. Routine genetic analysis of AR to confirm PAIS informs long-term prognosis and management. PMID:27403927

  10. Positional mapping of loci in the DiGeorge critical region at chromosome 22q11 using a new marker (D22S183).

    PubMed

    Mulder, M P; Wilke, M; Langeveld, A; Wilming, L G; Hagemeijer, A; van Drunen, E; Zwarthoff, E C; Riegman, P H; Deelen, W H; van den Ouweland, A M

    1995-08-01

    The majority of patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and a minority of patients with non-syndromic conotruncal heart defects are hemizygous for a region of chromosome 22q11. The chromosomal region that is commonly deleted is larger than 2 Mb. It has not been possible to narrow the smallest region of overlap (SRO) of the deletions to less than ca 500 kb, which suggests that DGS/VCFS might be a contiguous gene syndrome. The saturation cloning of the SRO is being carried out, and one gene (TUPLE1) has been identified. By using a cosmid probe (M51) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show here that the anonymous DNA marker locus D22S183 is within the SRO, between TUPLE1 and D22S75 (probe N25). A second locus with weak homology to D22S183, recognized by cosmid M56, lies immediately outside the common SRO of the DGS and VCFS deletions, but inside the SRO of the DGS deletions. D22S183 sequences are strongly conserved in primates and weaker hybridizing signals are found in DNA of other mammalian species; no transcripts are however detected in polyA+ RNA from various adult human organs. Probe M51 allows fast reliable screening for 22q11 deletions using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A deletion was found in 11 out of 12 DGS patients and in 3 out of 7 VCFS patients. Two patients inherited the deletion from a parent with mild (atypical) symptoms.

  11. An unusual concurrence of graft versus host disease caused by engraftment of maternal lymphocytes with DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ocejo-Vinyals, J G; Lozano, M J; Sánchez-Velasco, P; Escribano de Diego, J; Paz-Miguel, J E; Leyva-Cobián, F

    2000-08-01

    We describe a girl with DiGeorge anomaly and normal cytogenetic and molecular studies, whose clinical course was complicated by graft versus host disease caused by intrauterine materno-fetal transfusion, and several immunohematological alterations including a monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (first IgG, which subsequently changed to IgM). The main clinical features and pathological findings are discussed.

  12. Partial deletion of ANKRD11 results in the KBG phenotype distinct from the 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Stein, Jennifer; Grau, Lance; Nelson, Valery; Meck, Jeanne; Aradhya, Swaroop; Duby, John

    2013-04-01

    KBG syndrome (OMIM 148050) is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by macrodontia, distinctive craniofacial abnormalities, short stature, intellectual disability, skeletal, and neurologic involvement. Approximately 60 patients have been reported since it was first described in 1975. Recently mutations in ANKRD11 have been documented in patients with KBG syndrome, and it has been proposed that haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11 is the cause of this syndrome. In addition, copy number variation in the 16q24.3 region that includes ANKRD11 results in a variable phenotype that overlaps with KBG syndrome and also includes autism spectrum disorders and other dysmorphic facial features. In this report we present a 2½-year-old African American male with features highly suggestive of KBG syndrome. Genomic microarray identified an intragenic 154 kb deletion at 16q24.3 within ANKRD11. This child's mother was mosaic for the same deletion (present in approximately 38% of cells) and exhibited a milder phenotype including macrodontia, short stature and brachydactyly. This family provides additional evidence that ANKRD11 causes KBG syndrome, and the mild phenotype in the mosaic form suggests that KBG phenotypes might be dose dependent, differentiating it from the more variable 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome. This family has additional features that might expand the phenotype of KBG syndrome.

  13. Phenotypic variation in a family with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome explained by differences in 5alpha dihydrotestosterone availability.

    PubMed

    Boehmer, A L; Brinkmann, A O; Nijman, R M; Verleun-Mooijman, M C; de Ruiter, P; Niermeijer, M F; Drop, S L

    2001-03-01

    Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene result in a wide range of phenotypes of the androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Inter- and intrafamilial differences in the phenotypic expression of identical AR mutations are known, suggesting modifying factors in establishing the phenotype. Two 46,XY siblings with partial AIS sharing the same AR gene mutation, R846H, but showing very different phenotypes are studied. Their parents are first cousins. One sibling with grade 5 AIS was raised as a girl; the other sibling with grade 3 AIS was raised as a boy. In both siblings serum levels of hormones were measured; a sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) suppression test was completed; and mutation analysis of the AR gene, Scatchard, and SDS-PAGE analysis of the AR protein was performed. Furthermore, 5alpha-reductase 2 expression and activity in genital skin fibroblasts were investigated, and the 5alpha-reductase 2 gene was sequenced. The decrease in SHBG serum levels in a SHBG suppression test did not suggest differences in androgen sensitivity as the cause of the phenotypic variation. Also, androgen binding characteristics of the AR, AR expression levels, and the phosphorylation pattern of the AR on hormone binding were identical in both siblings. However, 5alpha-reductase 2 activity was normal in genital skin fibroblasts from the phenotypic male patient but undetectable in genital skin fibroblasts from the phenotypic female patient. The lack of 5alpha-reductase 2 activity was due to absent or reduced expression of 5alpha-reductase 2 in genital skin fibroblasts from the phenotypic female patient. Exon and flanking intron sequences of the 5alpha-reductase 2 gene showed no mutations in either sibling. Additional intragenic polymorphic marker analysis gave no evidence for different inherited alleles for the 5alpha-reductase 2 gene in the two siblings. Therefore, the absent or reduced expression of 5alpha-reductase 2 is likely to be additional to the AIS. Distinct phenotypic

  14. A rare form of persistent right aorta arch in linkage disequilibrium with the DiGeorge critical region on CFA26 in German Pinschers.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Ute; Menzel, Julia; Distl, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Persistent right aortic arch (PRAA) is a congenital vascular ring anomaly common in several dog breeds. In German Pinscher, the disorder is characterized by a left retroesophageal subclavian artery in combination with a ligamentum arteriosum originating at the aberrant left subclavian artery (PRAA-SA-LA). In this study, we genotyped 38 microsatellite markers on canine chromosome 26 (CFA26) in German Pinschers and tested them for linkage and association. We found a chromosome-wide significantly linked genomic region on CFA26, which corresponds to the human DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGCR). Therefore, we analyzed sequences from 13 genes of DGCR and the canine t-box gene TBX1. We identified a total of 26 polymorphisms in German Pinschers. Three of these SNPs located within TBX1 and one in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein L40 gene (MRPL40) were associated with the PRAA-SA-LA phenotype in German Pinscher. Despite linkage and association between PRAA-SA-LA and the canine DGCR, none of these mutations appeared responsible for PRAA-SA-LA. As the orthologue human region on HSA22q11.2 is known for high susceptibility to genomic rearrangements, we suspect that in German Pinschers, chromosomal aberrations might cause PRAA-SA-LA.

  15. Trafficking of androgen receptor mutants fused to green fluorescent protein: a new investigation of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Georget, V; Térouanne, B; Lumbroso, S; Nicolas, J C; Sultan, C

    1998-10-01

    The naturally occurring mutations of the androgen receptor (AR), detected in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), are currently analyzed by in vitro assays. Unfortunately, these assays do not always permit the demonstration of a direct relationship between the in vitro activity of the receptor and the severity of the phenotype (in particular, for mutations detected in patients with partial AIS). We recently studied the trafficking of wild-type AR, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in living cells. In the present study, we applied this method for the analysis of AR mutants to find out whether it could be a complementary method of investigation of AIS. After construction of the GFP-AR mutant fusion proteins, the androgen-binding characteristics, nuclear transfer capacities, and transcriptional activities were evaluated. The nuclear transfer was quantified in the presence of various concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We studied two mutants associated with partial AIS: G743V and R840C. The androgen-binding characteristics of both mutants were affected, in comparison with normal AR. Although the affinities were similar, the dissociation rate of GFP-AR-G743V was twice that of GFP-AR-R840C. In transcriptional assay, both mutants were active only at high concentrations of androgen. The nuclear trafficking of the mutants was evaluated by two parameters: 1) the rate of nuclear transfer; and 2) the maximal amount of receptors imported into the nucleus. At 10(-6) mol/L DHT, the GFP-AR mutants entered into the nucleus in a fashion similar to that of GFP-AR-wt. At 10(-7) mol/L DHT, the rate and maximal degree of nuclear import were both reduced, even more, for GFP-AR-G743V. The difference between mutants was more pronounced at 10(-9) mol/L DHT, because GFP-AR-G743V entered into the nucleus with even slower kinetics. Though the androgen-binding affinity and transcriptional activity assays did not reveal major differences between mutants, the

  16. Study of two patients with craniosynostosis and deletions of 11q: One with features of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and the other with concomitant partial trisomy 4q

    SciTech Connect

    Morsey, S. |; Lewanda, A.F. |; Reid, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    Partial monosomy 11q is associated with metopic craniosynostosis and trigonocephaly. Prominant features in the over 30 reported cases include downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, ptosis, wide/depressed nasal bridge, low set malformed ears, downturned mouth, micro/retrognathia, digital and cardiac anomalies and psychomotor retardation. We evaluated two patients referred for abnormal head shape. The first carried a diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome due to brachycephaly, facial asymmetry, ptosis, cupped ears, sundactyly of 2nd and 3rd digits, developmental delay, and VSD. Karyotype revealed 46,XY,del(11)(q24.1{yields}qter). No abnormality was noted of chromosome 7p, where the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome locus has been mapped. This suggests genetic heterogeneity for this condition. The second patient had no prior diagnosis. He had trigonocephaly, bilateral cryptorchidism and inguinal hernias. He also had hypotelorism, epicanthal folds, synophrys, posteriorly rotated ears, horizontal crease below his lower lip, unilateral single palmar crease, mild soft tissue syndactyly and a shawl scrotum. His karyotype of 46,XY,-11,+der(11)t(4;11)(q31.3;q25) revealed both partial 11q monosomy and partial 4q trisomy (the latter associated with cryptorchidism, horizontal chin crease and single palmar crease). Deletions of 11q appear to produce a wide spectrum of defects, which may even mimic other known craniosynostotic conditions. Study of these patients may lead to the identification of new genes involved in craniofacial morphogenesis.

  17. Thinking dimensional: prevalence of DSM-5 early adolescent full syndrome, partial and subthreshold eating disorders in a cross-sectional survey in German schools

    PubMed Central

    Hammerle, Florian; Huss, Michael; Ernst, Verena; Bürger, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigating for the first time in Germany Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fifth Edition (DSM-5) prevalences of adolescent full syndrome, Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED), partial and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Method A national school-based cross-sectional survey with nine schools in Germany was undertaken that was aimed at students from grades 7 and 8. Of the 1775 students who were contacted to participate in the study, 1654 participated (participation rate: 93.2%). The sample consisted of 873 female and 781 male adolescents (mean age=13.4 years). Prevalence rates were established using direct symptom criteria with a structured inventory (SIAB-S) and an additional self-report questionnaire (Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2)). Results Prevalences for full syndrome were 0.3% for AN, 0.4% for BN, 0.5% for BED and 3.6% for OSFED-atypical AN, 0% for BN (low frequency/limited duration), 0% for BED (low frequency/limited duration) and 1.9% for purging disorder (PD). Prevalences of partial syndrome were 10.9% for AN (7.1% established with cognitive symptoms only, excluding weight criteria), 0.2% for BN and 2.1% for BED, and of subthreshold syndrome were 0.8% for AN, 0.3% for BN and 0.2% for BED. Cases on EDI-2 scales were much more pronounced with 12.6–21.1% of the participants with significant sex differences. Conclusions The findings were in accordance with corresponding international studies but were in contrast to other German studies showing much higher prevalence rates. The study provides, for the first time, estimates for DSM-5 prevalences of eating disorders in adolescents for Germany, and evidence in favour of using valid measures for improving prevalence estimates. Trial registration number DRKS00005050; Results. PMID:27150185

  18. Genetic disorders of cardiac morphogenesis. The DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes.

    PubMed

    Goldmuntz, E; Emanuel, B S

    1997-04-01

    The phenotype associated with a 22q11 deletion is highly variable and still under investigation. Of particular interest to cardiologists and cardiac developmental biologists is the finding that many patients with a 22q11 deletion have conotruncal cardiac defects and aortic arch anomalies. Despite the phenotypic variability, the vast majority of patients have a similar large deletion spanning approximately 2 megabases. The low-frequency repeated sequences at either end of the commonly deleted region may be responsible for the size of the deletion and account for the instability of this chromosomal region. Molecular studies of patients with the DGS/VCFS phenotype and unique chromosomal rearrangements have allowed a minimal critical region for the disease to be defined. Multiple genes have been identified in the minimal critical and larger deleted region. These genes are being investigated for their potential role in the disease pathophysiology by screening for mutations in nondeleted patients with the phenotype and by analysis of the pattern of expression in the developing mouse embryo. Further experimentation in the mouse mammalian model system will be of great utility to help determine whether haploinsufficiency of one critical gene or several genes within the DGCR results in the disease phenotype. Modifying factors, both genetic and environmental, must also be considered. Further investigation into the disease mechanism leading to the DGS/VCFS phenotype will hopefully further our understanding of cardiac development and disease.

  19. Partial BACE1 reduction in a Down syndrome mouse model blocks Alzheimer-related endosomal anomalies and cholinergic neurodegeneration: role of APP-CTF.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Rigoglioso, Andrew; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Pawlik, Monika; Sato, Yutaka; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Stavrides, Philip; Smiley, John F; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Nixon, Ralph A

    2016-03-01

    β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) are strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, although recent evidence has linked APP-βCTF generated by BACE1 (β-APP cleaving enzyme 1) to the development of endocytic abnormalities and cholinergic neurodegeneration in early AD. We show that partial BACE1 genetic reduction prevents these AD-related pathological features in the Ts2 mouse model of Down syndrome. Partially reducing BACE1 by deleting one BACE1 allele blocked development of age-related endosome enlargement in the medial septal nucleus, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus and loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive medial septal nucleus neurons. BACE1 reduction normalized APP-βCTF elevation but did not alter Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptide levels in brain, supporting a critical role in vivo for APP-βCTF in the development of these abnormalities. Although ameliorative effects of BACE1 inhibition on β-amyloidosis and synaptic proteins levels have been previously noted in AD mouse models, our results highlight the additional potential value of BACE1 modulation in therapeutic targeting of endocytic dysfunction and cholinergic neurodegeneration in Down syndrome and AD.

  20. The mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors to peripheral blood is predictive of the hematopoietic syndrome after total or partial body irradiation of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Grande, Teresa; Bueren, Juan A. . E-mail: juan.bueren@ciemat.es

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: In previous studies we showed that administration of mobilizing growth factors (MGFs) to mice previously exposed to total body irradiation mobilizes to peripheral blood (PB) a number of progenitors that correlates with the total reserve of progenitors surviving the exposure. Now we have tested whether this finding is independent of the radiosensitivity of the mice and of the homogeneity of the radiation exposure. Also we have investigated whether numbers of mobilized progenitors predict the hematopoietic syndrome after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Mice were subjected to partial or total body irradiation and treated with MGFs. Thereafter, the number of colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in PB was correlated with the total reserve of surviving progenitors and with the nadir of leukocytes after the irradiation. Results: The number of progenitors mobilized to PB after irradiation of normal and radiosensitive mice showed the same correlation with respect to the reserve of bone marrow progenitors surviving the exposure. Additionally, the number of mobilized progenitors correlated with the leukocytes' nadir after the irradiation, regardless of homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposures. Conclusions: In a mouse experimental model, the number of hematopoietic progenitors mobilized to PB by MGFs is a good predictor of the hematopoietic syndrome occurring after total or partial body irradiation.

  1. An unusual concurrence of graft versus host disease caused by engraftment of maternal lymphocytes with DiGeorge anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Ocejo-Vinyals, J.; Lozano, M.; Sanchez-Velasco, P.; de Diego, J. E.; Paz-Miguel, J.; Leyva-Cobian, F.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a girl with DiGeorge anomaly and normal cytogenetic and molecular studies, whose clinical course was complicated by graft versus host disease caused by intrauterine materno-fetal transfusion, and several immunohaematological alterations including a monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (first IgG, which subsequently changed to IgM). The main clinical features and pathological findings are discussed.

 PMID:10906029

  2. The prolonged gastrointestinal syndrome in rhesus macaques: the relationship between gastrointestinal, hematopoietic, and delayed multi-organ sequelae following acute, potentially lethal, partial-body irradiation.

    PubMed

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Bennett, Alexander; Booth, Catherine; Garofalo, Michael; Tudor, Gregory; Ward, Amanda; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Gelfond, Daniel; McFarland, Emylee; Jackson, William; Lu, Wei; Farese, Ann M

    2012-10-01

    The dose response relationship for the acute gastrointestinal syndrome following total-body irradiation prevents analysis of the full recovery and damage to the gastrointestinal system, since all animals succumb to the subsequent 100% lethal hematopoietic syndrome. A partial-body irradiation model with 5% bone marrow sparing was established to investigate the prolonged effects of high-dose radiation on the gastrointestinal system, as well as the concomitant hematopoietic syndrome and other multi-organ injury including the lung. Herein, cellular and clinical parameters link acute and delayed coincident sequelae to radiation dose and time course post-exposure. Male rhesus Macaca mulatta were exposed to partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow (tibiae, ankles, feet) sparing using 6 MV linear accelerator photons at a dose rate of 0.80 Gy min(-1) to midline tissue (thorax) doses in the exposure range of 9.0 to 12.5 Gy. Following irradiation, all animals were monitored for multiple organ-specific parameters for 180 d. Animals were administered medical management including administration of intravenous fluids, antiemetics, prophylactic antibiotics, blood transfusions, antidiarrheals, supplemental nutrition, and analgesics. The primary endpoint was survival at 15, 60, or 180 d post-exposure. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of dehydration, diarrhea, hematologic parameters, respiratory distress, histology of small and large intestine, lung radiographs, and mean survival time of decedents. Dose- and time-dependent mortality defined several organ-specific sequelae, with LD50/15 of 11.95 Gy, LD50/60 of 11.01 Gy, and LD50/180 of 9.73 Gy for respective acute gastrointestinal, combined hematopoietic and gastrointestinal, and multi-organ delayed injury to include the lung. This model allows analysis of concomitant multi-organ sequelae, thus providing a link between acute and delayed radiation effects. Specific and multi-organ medical countermeasures can be assessed for

  3. A prenatally sonographically diagnosed conotruncal anomaly with mosaic type trisomy 21 and 22q11.2 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balci, S; Altugan, F S; Alehan, D; Aypar, E; Baltaci, V

    2009-01-01

    A prenatally sonographically diagnosed conotruncal anomaly with mosaic type trisomy 21 and 22q11.2 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome: We report a prenatally sonographically diagnosed conotruncal and urogenital anomaly. Postnatally, the patient presented with seizures, hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism and thymic aplasia and diagnosed as DiGeorge syndrome. Echocardiography showed malalignment VSD, supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and overriding aorta. Chromosome and FISH studies showed the association of mosaic type trisomy 21 and 22q11.2 microdeletion. The present patient is the second case of mosaic type of Down syndrome associated with 22q11.2 microdeletion. In addition the patient also had clinical and laboratory features of DiGeorge syndrome.

  4. Thrombocytopenia and Postpartum Hemorrhage in a Woman with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kathy; Nanda, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome, is associated with a wide spectrum of phenotypic features. It is known to be associated with severe macrothrombocytopenia. Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is rare cause of thrombocytopenia that can be a significant risk factor for life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage. We report a case of postpartum hemorrhage in a woman with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome causing severe macrothrombocytopenia. PMID:27366335

  5. Ts1Cje, a partial trisomy 16 mouse model for Down syndrome, exhibits learning and behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sago, Haruhiko; Carlson, Elaine J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Kilbridge, Joshua; Rubin, Edward M.; Mobley, William C.; Epstein, Charles J.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    1998-01-01

    A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called “Down syndrome region” of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity reveal distinct learning and behavioral abnormalities, some of which are indicative of hippocampal dysfunction. The triplicated region in Ts1Cje, from Sod1 to Mx1, is smaller than that in Ts65Dn, another segmental trisomy 16 mouse, and the learning deficits in Ts1Cje are less severe than those in Ts65Dn. In addition, degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, which was observed in Ts65Dn, was absent in Ts1Cje. PMID:9600952

  6. 11p15 ICR1 Partial Deletions Associated with IGF2/H19 DMR Hypomethylation and Silver-Russell Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abi Habib, Walid; Brioude, Frederic; Azzi, Salah; Salem, Jennifer; Das Neves, Cristina; Personnier, Claire; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Keren, Boris; Le Bouc, Yves; Harbison, Madeleine D; Netchine, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The 11p15 region harbors the IGF2/H19 imprinted domain, implicated in fetal and postnatal growth. Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by fetal and postnatal growth failure, and is caused principally by hypomethylation of the 11p15 imprinting control region 1 (ICR1). However, the mechanisms leading to ICR1 hypomethylation remain unknown. Maternally inherited genetic defects affecting the ICR1 domain have been associated with ICR1 hypermethylation and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (an overgrowth syndrome, the clinical and molecular mirror of SRS), and paternal deletions of IGF2 enhancers have been detected in four SRS patients. However, no paternal deletions of ICR1 have ever been associated with hypomethylation of the IGF2/H19 domain in SRS. We screened for new genetic defects within the ICR1 in a cohort of 234 SRS patients with hypomethylated IGF2/H19 domain. We report deletions close to the boundaries of ICR1 on the paternal allele in one familial and two sporadic cases of SRS with ICR1 hypomethylation. These deletions are associated with hypomethylation of the remaining CBS, and decreased IGF2 expression. These results suggest that these regions are most likely required to maintain methylation after fertilization. We estimate these anomalies to occur in about 1% of SRS cases with ICR1 hypomethylation.

  7. A novel point mutation in the hormone binding domain of the androgen receptor associated with partial and minimal androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Hiort, Olaf; Schuster, Tobias; Messer, Gerald; Kuhnle, Ursula

    2003-02-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of the androgen receptor (AR) gene result in a wide range of androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS). We report an extended family in which at least five male individuals in different generations suffer from partial AIS. The index patient presented at birth with ambiguous genitalia; the karyotype was 46,XY and subsequent sex assignment male. Elevated stimulated testosterone (T) and normal baseline gonadotropins were found. Family history revealed four additional adult males affected with various abnormalities of their external genitalia. Molecular analysis of the coding sequence of the AR gene revealed in all a novel point mutation in exon 6, changing threonine to isoleucine at codon position 800 in the hormone-binding domain. We conclude that phenotypic variations in mild AR defects are striking and can remain undetected even until late in life.

  8. Severe intellectual disability, West syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation, and syndactyly in a patient with partial tetrasomy 17q25.3.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, Karl; Stadler, Anja; Schallner, Jens; Franke, Kathlen; Gerlach, Eva-Maria; Schrock, Evelin; Rump, Andreas; Fauth, Christine; Tinschert, Sigrid; Oexle, Konrad

    2013-12-01

    We report on a de novo 0.5 Mb triplication (partial tetrasomy) of chromosome 17q25.3 in a 10-year-old girl with severe intellectual disability, infantile seizures (West syndrome), moderate hearing loss, Dandy-Walker malformation, microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, striking cutaneous syndactyly (hands 3-4, feet 2-3), joint laxity, and short stature. The triplication resulted from the unusual combination of a terminal duplication at 17qter and a cryptic translocation of an extra copy of the same segment onto chromosome 10qter. The breakpoint at 17q25.3 was located within the FOXK2 gene. SNP chip analysis suggested that the rearrangement occurred during paternal meiosis involving both paternal chromosomes 17.

  9. Mosaic partial trisomy 19p12-q13.11 due to a small supernumerary marker chromosome: a locus associated with Asperger syndrome?

    PubMed

    Faucz, Fabio Rueda; Souza, Josiane; Bonalumi Filho, Aguinaldo; Sotomaior, Vanessa Santos; Frantz, Egon; Antoniuk, Sergio; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Raskin, Salmo

    2011-09-01

    In the neurodevelopmentally impaired population the frequency of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) is about 0.3%. To find the origin of a sSMC in a 4-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome (AS) a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), using a 135K-feature whole-genome microarray, and Metaphase FISH analysis, was performed. The sSMC was characterized as being composed of 18.4 Mb from 19p12q13.11. Based on the size and genic content, it is expected that the partial trisomy detected is responsible for the characteristics observed in the patient. In that case it could be an indication of a novel locus associated with AS.

  10. Novel point mutation in the splice donor site of exon-intron junction 6 of the androgen receptor gene in a patient with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, I; Grimaldi, P; Rossi, P; Cappa, M; Moretti, C; Frajese, G; Geremia, R

    2000-09-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations have been shown to cause androgen insensitivity syndrome with altered sexual differentiation in XY individuals, ranging from a partial insensitivity with male phenotype and azoospermia to a complete insensitivity with female phenotype and the absence of pubic and axillary sexual hair after puberty. In this study we present an 11-yr-old XY girl, with clinical manifestations peculiar for impaired androgen biological action, including female phenotype, blind-ending vagina, small degree of posterior labial fusion, and absence of uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. At the time of the diagnosis the patient had a FSH/LH ratio according to the puberal stage, undetectable 17beta-estradiol, and high levels of testosterone (80.1 ng/mL). After bilateral gonadectomy, performed at the age of 11 yr, histological examination showed small embryonic seminiferous tubules containing prevalently Sertoli cells and occasional spermatogonia together with abundant fibrous tissue. Molecular study of the patient showed a guanine to thymine transversion in position +5 of the donor splice site in the junction between exon 6 and intron 6 of the AR gene. The result of RT-PCR amplification of the AR messenger ribonucleic acid from cultured genital skin fibroblasts of the patient suggests that splicing is defective, and intron 6 is retained in most of the receptor messenger ribonucleic acid molecules. We show by immunoblotting that most of the expressed protein lacks part of the C-terminal hormone-binding domain, and a small amount of normal receptor is observed. This is probably responsible for the reduced binding capacity in genital skin fibroblasts of the patient. The molecular basis of the alteration in this case is a novel, uncommon mutation, leading to a phenotype indicative of a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, Quigley's grade 5.

  11. Systematic reanalysis of partial trisomy 21 cases with or without Down syndrome suggests a small region on 21q22.13 as critical to the phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Cicchini, Elena; Locatelli, Chiara; Vitale, Lorenza; Caracausi, Maria; Piovesan, Allison; Rocca, Alessandro; Poletti, Giulia; Seri, Marco; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Cocchi, Guido

    2016-01-01

    A ‘Down Syndrome critical region’ (DSCR) sufficient to induce the most constant phenotypes of Down syndrome (DS) had been identified by studying partial (segmental) trisomy 21 (PT21) as an interval of 0.6–8.3 Mb within human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), although its existence was later questioned. We propose an innovative, systematic reanalysis of all described PT21 cases (from 1973 to 2015). In particular, we built an integrated, comparative map from 125 cases with or without DS fulfilling stringent cytogenetic and clinical criteria. The map allowed to define or exclude as candidates for DS fine Hsa21 sequence intervals, also integrating duplication copy number variants (CNVs) data. A highly restricted DSCR (HR-DSCR) of only 34 kb on distal 21q22.13 has been identified as the minimal region whose duplication is shared by all DS subjects and is absent in all non-DS subjects. Also being spared by any duplication CNV in healthy subjects, HR-DSCR is proposed as a candidate for the typical DS features, the intellectual disability and some facial phenotypes. HR-DSCR contains no known gene and has relevant homology only to the chimpanzee genome. Searching for HR-DSCR functional loci might become a priority for understanding the fundamental genotype-phenotype relationships in DS. PMID:27106104

  12. A partial loss of function allele of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 predicts a human neurodevelopmental syndrome.

    PubMed

    Samaco, Rodney C; Fryer, John D; Ren, Jun; Fyffe, Sharyl; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Sun, Yaling; Greer, John J; Zoghbi, Huda Y; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2008-06-15

    Rett Syndrome, an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by regression of language and hand use, is primarily caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Loss of function mutations in MECP2 are also found in other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, Angelman-like syndrome and non-specific mental retardation. Furthermore, duplication of the MECP2 genomic region results in mental retardation with speech and social problems. The common features of human neurodevelopmental disorders caused by the loss or increase of MeCP2 function suggest that even modest alterations of MeCP2 protein levels result in neurodevelopmental problems. To determine whether a small reduction in MeCP2 level has phenotypic consequences, we characterized a conditional mouse allele of Mecp2 that expresses 50% of the wild-type level of MeCP2. Upon careful behavioral analysis, mice that harbor this allele display a spectrum of abnormalities such as learning and motor deficits, decreased anxiety, altered social behavior and nest building, decreased pain recognition and disrupted breathing patterns. These results indicate that precise control of MeCP2 is critical for normal behavior and predict that human neurodevelopmental disorders will result from a subtle reduction in MeCP2 expression.

  13. Structure of the dimerization domain of DiGeorge critical region 8

    SciTech Connect

    Senturia, R.; Faller, M.; Yin, S.; Loo, J.A.; Cascio, D.; Sawaya, M.R.; Hwang, D.; Clubb, R.T.; Guo, F.

    2010-09-27

    Maturation of microRNAs (miRNAs, {approx}22nt) from long primary transcripts [primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs)] is regulated during development and is altered in diseases such as cancer. The first processing step is a cleavage mediated by the Microprocessor complex containing the Drosha nuclease and the RNA-binding protein DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8). We previously reported that dimeric DGCR8 binds heme and that the heme-bound DGCR8 is more active than the heme-free form. Here, we identified a conserved dimerization domain in DGCR8. Our crystal structure of this domain (residues 298-352) at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution demonstrates a previously unknown use of a WW motif as a platform for extensive dimerization interactions. The dimerization domain of DGCR8 is embedded in an independently folded heme-binding domain and directly contributes to association with heme. Heme-binding-deficient DGCR8 mutants have reduced pri-miRNA processing activity in vitro. Our study provides structural and biochemical bases for understanding how dimerization and heme binding of DGCR8 may contribute to regulation of miRNA biogenesis.

  14. DiGeorge anomaly in a patient with isochromosome 18p born to a diabetic mother.

    PubMed

    DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Medne, Livija; Spinner, Nancy B; Zackai, Elaine H

    2005-10-01

    The DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) is an etiologically heterogeneous developmental field defect in which cardiovascular malformations, hypocalcemia, thymic hypoplasia, and characteristic dysmorphisms are major clinical features. The 22q11.2 deletion is the most common single etiology of DGA, although a number of other chromosomal abnormalities and teratogens, including maternal diabetes, have been implicated as well. We present a patient, born to a diabetic mother, with interrupted aortic arch type B (IAA-B), neonatal hypocalcemia, thymic hypoplasia, and dysmorphic features including microcephaly, thick, overfolded helices, and anteriorly-placed anus. Cytogenetic studies showed the presence of a marker chromosome, identified by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) as an isochromosome 18p [i(18p)]. We did not detect a 22q11.2 deletion by FISH using a cosmid probe corresponding to locus D22S75. The patient is the first example of either DGA or IAA-B in a patient with i(18p). We review the genetic abnormalities associated with DGA, and discuss the potential contributions of maternal diabetes and i(18p) in our patient.

  15. Structure of the dimerization domain of DiGeorge critical region 8.

    PubMed

    Senturia, Rachel; Faller, Michael; Yin, Sheng; Loo, Joseph A; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Hwang, Daniel; Clubb, Robert T; Guo, Feng

    2010-07-01

    Maturation of microRNAs (miRNAs, approximately 22nt) from long primary transcripts [primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs)] is regulated during development and is altered in diseases such as cancer. The first processing step is a cleavage mediated by the Microprocessor complex containing the Drosha nuclease and the RNA-binding protein DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8). We previously reported that dimeric DGCR8 binds heme and that the heme-bound DGCR8 is more active than the heme-free form. Here, we identified a conserved dimerization domain in DGCR8. Our crystal structure of this domain (residues 298-352) at 1.7 A resolution demonstrates a previously unknown use of a WW motif as a platform for extensive dimerization interactions. The dimerization domain of DGCR8 is embedded in an independently folded heme-binding domain and directly contributes to association with heme. Heme-binding-deficient DGCR8 mutants have reduced pri-miRNA processing activity in vitro. Our study provides structural and biochemical bases for understanding how dimerization and heme binding of DGCR8 may contribute to regulation of miRNA biogenesis.

  16. Caspases cleave and inhibit the microRNA processing protein DiGeorge Critical Region 8.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ming; Chen, Yanqiu; Senturia, Rachel; Ulgherait, Matthew; Faller, Michael; Guo, Feng

    2012-06-01

    DGCR8 (DiGeorge Critical Region 8) is an essential microRNA (miRNA) processing protein that recognizes primary transcripts of miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) and triggers their cleavage by the Drosha nuclease. We previously found that Fe(III) heme binds and activates DGCR8. Here we report that in HeLa cells, DGCR8 undergoes two proteolytic events that produce two C-terminal fragments called DGCR8(C1) and DGCR8(C2) , respectively. DGCR8(C2) accumulates during apoptosis and is generated through cleavage by a caspase. The caspase cleavage site is located in the central loop of the heme-binding domain. Cleavage of DGCR8 by caspase-3 in vitro results in loss of the otherwise tightly bound Fe(III) heme cofactor, dissociation of the N- and C-terminal proteolytic fragments, and inhibition of the pri-miRNA processing activity. These results reveal an intrinsic mechanism in the DGCR8 protein that seems to have evolved for regulating miRNA processing via association with Fe(III) heme and proteolytic cleavage by caspases. Decreased expression of miRNAs has been observed in apoptotic cells, and this change was attributed to caspase-mediated cleavage of a down-stream miRNA processing nuclease Dicer. We suggest that both the Drosha and Dicer cleavage steps of the miRNA maturation pathway may be inhibited in apoptosis and other biological processes where caspases are activated.

  17. Partial BACE1 Reduction in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model blocks Alzheimer-related Endosomal Anomalies and Cholinergic Neurodegeneration: Role of APP-CTF

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ying; Rigoglioso, Andrew; Peterhoff, Corrinne M.; Pawlik, Monika; Sato, Yutaka; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Stavrides, Philip; Smiley, John F.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mathews, Paul M.; Levy, Efrat; Nixon, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) are strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, although recent evidence has linked APP-βCTF generated by BACE1 (β-APP cleaving enzyme 1) to the development of endocytic abnormalities and cholinergic neurodegeneration in early AD. We show that partial BACE1 genetic reduction prevents these AD-related pathological features in the Ts2 mouse model of Down syndrome (DS). Partially reducing BACE1 by deleting one BACE1 allele blocked development of age-related endosome enlargement in the medial septal nucleus (MSN), cerebral cortex, and hippocampus and loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive MSN neurons. BACE1 reduction normalized APP-βCTF elevation but did not alter Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptide levels in brain, supporting a critical role in vivo for APP-βCTF in the development of these abnormalities. While ameliorative effects of BACE1 inhibition on β-amyloidosis and synaptic proteins levels have been previously noted in AD mouse models, our results highlight the additional potential value of BACE1 modulation in therapeutic targeting of endocytic dysfunction and cholinergic neurodegeneration in DS and AD. PMID:26923405

  18. Partial tetrasomy 12pter-12p12.3 in a girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome: extraordinary finding of an analphoid, inverted duplicated marker.

    PubMed

    Dufke, A; Walczak, C; Liehr, T; Starke, H; Trifonov, V; Rubtsov, N; Schöning, M; Enders, H; Eggermann, T

    2001-08-01

    Cytogenetic analysis in a girl with multiple congenital anomalies indicating Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) showed a supernumerary marker chromosome in 1/76 lymphocytes and 34/75 fibroblast metaphases. GTG-banding pattern was consistent with the chromosomal region 12pter-12q11. While fluorescence-in-situ hybridisation (FISH) with a whole chromosome 12 painting probe confirmed the origin of the marker, a chromosome 12 specific alpha-satellite probe did not hybridise to it. FISH analysis with a specific subtelomeric probe 12p showed hybridisation to both ends of the marker chromosome. High-resolution multicolour-banding (MCB) studies revealed the marker to be a der(12)(pter-->p12.3::p12.3-->pter). Summarising the FISH information, we defined the marker as an inverted duplication of 12pter-12p12.3 leading to partial tetrasomy of chromosome 12p. In skin fibroblasts, cultured at the patient's age of 1 year and 9 years, the marker chromosome was found in similar frequencies, even after several culture passages. Therefore, we consider the marker to have a functional centromere although it lacks detectable centromeric alpha-satellite sequences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proven analphoid marker of chromosome 12. Molecular genetic studies indicated that this marker is of paternal origin. The finding of partial tetrasomy 12pter-12p12.3 in our PKS patient allows to narrow down the critical region for PKS.

  19. Toll-like receptor agonists partially restore the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon in Sézary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Manfrere, Kelly C. G.; Torrealba, Marina P.; Miyashiro, Denis R.; Oliveira, Luanda M. S.; de Carvalho, Gabriel C.; Lima, Josenilson F.; Branco, Anna Claudia C. C.; Pereira, Nátalli Z.; Pereira, Juliana; Sanches, José A.; Sato, Maria N.

    2016-01-01

    Sézary syndrome (SS) carries a poor prognosis, and infections represent the most frequent cause of death in SS patients. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors that induce protective immune responses against infections. We sought to evaluate the ability of TLR agonists to induce inflammatory cytokine, Th2 cytokine, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of untreated SS patients. We detected impaired IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 secretion by PBMC induced by the agonists for TLR5, TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 in SS patients, while it was partially recovered by TLR2/TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists TNF secretion was restored following stimulation with TLR2/TLR4 agonists. IFN-γ was scarcely produced upon TLR activation in SS cells, albeit TLR 7/8 (CL097) enhanced their secretion at lower levels than the control group. TLR9 agonist efficiently induced IFN-I in SS patients, although this positive regulation was not observed for other cytokines, in direct contrast to the broad activity of CL097. Among the TLR agonists, TLR4 was able to induce pro-inflammatory, IL-10 and Th2 secretion, while TLR7-8 agonist induced the inflammatory cytokines, IFN-I and IFN-γ. These findings reveal a dysfunctional cytokine response upon both extracellular and intracellular TLR activation in SS patients, which was partially restored by TLRs agonists. PMID:27780938

  20. THE PROLONGED GASTROINTESTINAL SYNDROME IN RHESUS MACAQUES: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GASTROINTESTINAL, HEMATOPOIETIC, AND DELAYED MULTI-ORGAN SEQUELAE FOLLOWING ACUTE, POTENTIALLY LETHAL, PARTIAL-BODY IRRADIATION

    PubMed Central

    MacVittie, Thomas J.; Bennett, Alexander; Booth, Catherine; Garofalo, Michael; Tudor, Gregory; Ward, Amanda; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Gelfond, Daniel; McFarland, Emylee; Jackson, William; Lu, Wei; Farese, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The dose response relationship for the acute gastrointestinal syndrome following total-body irradiation prevents analysis of the full recovery and damage to the gastrointestinal system, since all animals succumb to the subsequent 100% lethal hematopoietic syndrome. A partial-body irradiation model with 5% bone marrow sparing was established to investigate the prolonged effects of high-dose radiation on the gastrointestinal system, as well as the concomitant hematopoietic syndrome and other multi-organ injury including the lung. Herein, cellular and clinical parameters link acute and delayed coincident sequelae to radiation dose and time course post-exposure. Male rhesus Macaca mulatta were exposed to partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow (tibiae, ankles, feet) sparing using 6 MV linear accelerator photons at a dose rate of 0.80 Gy min−1 to midline tissue (thorax) doses in the exposure range of 9.0 to 12.5 Gy. Following irradiation, all animals were monitored for multiple organ-specific parameters for 180 d. Animals were administered medical management including administration of intravenous fluids, antiemetics, prophylactic antibiotics, blood transfusions, antidiarrheals, supplemental nutrition, and analgesics. The primary endpoint was survival at 15, 60, or 180 d post-exposure. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of dehydration, diarrhea, hematologic parameters, respiratory distress, histology of small and large intestine, lung radiographs, and mean survival time of decedents. Dose- and time-dependent mortality defined several organ-specific sequelae, with LD50/15 of 11.95 Gy, LD50/60 of 11.01 Gy, and LD50/180 of 9.73 Gy for respective acute gastrointestinal, combined hematopoietic and gastrointestinal, and multi-organ delayed injury to include the lung. This model allows analysis of concomitant multi-organ sequelae, thus providing a link between acute and delayed radiation effects. Specific and multi-organ medical countermeasures can be assessed for

  1. aCGH detects partial tetrasomy of 12p in blood from Pallister-Killian syndrome cases without invasive skin biopsy.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Aaron; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Farrell, Sandra A; Harris, Catharine J; Wetzel, Heather H; Torchia, Beth A; Bejjani, Bassem A; Ballif, Blake C; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2009-05-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, seizures, streaks of hypo- or hyperpigmentation and dysmorphic features. PKS is associated with tissue-limited mosaic partial tetrasomy of 12p, usually caused by an isochromosome 12p. The mosaicism is usually detected in cultured skin fibroblasts or amniotic cells and rarely in phytohemagluttinin-stimulated lymphocytes, which suggests stimulation of T-lymphocytes may distort the percentage of abnormal cells. We recently reported on the identification by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of a previously unsuspected case of partial tetrasomy of 12p caused by an isochromosome 12p. Here we report on seven additional individuals with partial tetrasomy of 12p characterized by our laboratory. All individuals were referred for mental retardation/developmental delay and/or dysmorphic features. In each case, aCGH using genomic DNA extracted from whole peripheral blood detected copy-number gain for all clones for the short arm of chromosome 12. In all but one case, FISH on metaphases from cultured lymphocytes did not detect the copy-number gain; in the remaining case, metaphase FISH on cultured lymphocytes showed an isochromosome in 10% of cells. However, interphase FISH using probes to 12p on peripheral blood smears showed additional hybridization signals in 18-70% of cells. Microarray and FISH analysis on cultured skin biopsies from four individuals confirmed the presence of an isochromosome 12p. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of aCGH with genomic DNA from whole peripheral blood to detect chromosome abnormalities that are not present in stimulated blood cultures and would otherwise require invasive skin biopsies for identification.

  2. Tetrasomy 12pter-12p13.31 in a girl with partial Pallister-Killian syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Melotte, Cindy; Salden, Ivo; Riegel, Mariluce; Trifnov, Vladimir; Polityko, Anna; Rumyantseva, Natalia; Naumchik, Irina; Starke, Heike; Matthijs, Gert; Schinzel, Albert; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Liehr, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A dysmorphic patient was shown to carry a small supernumerary marker chromosome. Multicolor, centromere-multicolor and regular FISH experiments proved the marker to be an analphoid 12pter derived isochromosome. Microdissection of the marker followed by reverse painting and array CGH analysis showed that the isochromosome contains approximately 6 Mb of 12pter-12p13.31 derived sequence. This is only the second report of a marker with a neocentromere 12pter and the molecular fine mapping of the duplicated region further refines the 12p region defining the Pallister-Killian syndrome phenotype. In addition, we show the feasibility of using microdissected chromosomes or chromosomal fragments to molecularly map the chromosomal breakpoints on array CGH. This technology may aid in the identification of chromosomal translocation breakpoints.

  3. Time-dependency of improvements in arterial oxygenation during partial liquid ventilation in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Max, Martin; Kuhlen, Ralf; Dembinski, Rolf; Rossaint, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms by which partial liquid ventilation (PLV) can improve gas exchange in acute lung injury are still unclear. Therefore, we examined the time- and dose-dependency of the improvements in arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) due to PLV in eight pigs with experimental lung injury, in order to discriminate increases due to oxygen dissolved in perfluorocarbon before its intrapulmonary instillation from a persistent diffusion of the respiratory gas through the liquid column. Results: Application of four sequential doses of perfluorocarbon resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PaO2. Comparison of measurements 5 and 30 min after instillation of each dose revealed a time-dependent decrease in PaO2 for doses that approximated the functional residual capacity of the animals. Conclusion: Although oxygen dissolved in perfluorocarbon at the onset of PLV can cause a short-term improvement in arterial oxygenation, diffusion of oxygen through the liquid may not be sufficient to maintain the initially observed increase in PaO2. PMID:11056747

  4. Cholecystokinin (CCK) functional cholescintigraphic findings in patients with a partial cystic duct obstruction - the cystic duct syndrome (CDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; DeRidder, P.; Kolozsi, W.; Gordon, R.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen patients (pts.) with a CDS underwent CCK functional cholescintigraphy (FC). All pts. presented with persistent post-prandial right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic. None had an abnormal OCG, gallbladder (GB) ultrasound exam or upper G.I. series. All had macro- or microscopically abnormal cystic ducts (5 fibrotic, 7 elongated and narrow, 2 kinked) with (12) or without (2) concomitant chronic cholecystitis. Each pt. (NPO after 12 A.M.) received 5 mCi of technetium (TC)-99m Hepatolite. When the GB max. filled, .02 ug/kg CCK was administered (3 min.) I.V. Background corrected GBEFs were determined q.5 min. x 4 by ratioing the pre-CCK GB cts. minus post-CCK GB cts. to pre-CCK GB cts. GB EFRs were: 3 (12%), 2 (17%), and 1 each 0%, 1.3%, 3%, 4%, 6%, 11%, 14%, 18.5% and 22%. No pt. with a partially occluded cystic duct with or without concomitant chronic cholecystitis had an ejection fraction that exceeded 22%. In an appropriate clinical setting, a low ejection fraction response to CCK should alert the physician to the presence of either chronic acalculous cholecystitis, CDS, or the combination of both.

  5. Negative Allosteric Modulation of mGluR5 Partially Corrects Pathophysiology in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jifang; Wu, Hao; Coronado, Amanda A; de Laittre, Elizabeth; Osterweil, Emily K; Zhang, Yi; Bear, Mark F

    2016-11-23

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), an epigenetic regulator of mRNA transcription. Here, we report a test of the hypothesis of shared pathophysiology of RTT and fragile X, another monogenic cause of autism and intellectual disability. In fragile X, the loss of the mRNA translational repressor FMRP leads to exaggerated protein synthesis downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that mGluR5- and protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity were similarly altered in area CA1 of Mecp2 KO mice. CA1 pyramidal cell-type-specific, genome-wide profiling of ribosome-bound mRNAs was performed in wild-type and Mecp2 KO hippocampal CA1 neurons to reveal the MeCP2-regulated "translatome." We found significant overlap between ribosome-bound transcripts overexpressed in the Mecp2 KO and FMRP mRNA targets. These tended to encode long genes that were functionally related to either cytoskeleton organization or the development of neuronal connectivity. In the Fmr1 KO mouse, chronic treatment with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been shown to ameliorate many mutant phenotypes by correcting excessive protein synthesis. In Mecp2 KO mice, we found that mGluR5 NAM treatment significantly reduced the level of overexpressed ribosome-associated transcripts, particularly those that were also FMRP targets. Some Rett phenotypes were also ameliorated by treatment, most notably hippocampal cell size and lifespan. Together, these results suggest a potential mechanistic link between MeCP2-mediated transcription regulation and mGluR5/FMRP-mediated protein translation regulation through coregulation of a subset of genes relevant to synaptic functions.

  6. A G577R mutation in the human AR P box results in selective decreases in DNA binding and in partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D; Steinberg, S V; Rouault, E; Chagnon, S; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M; Mader, S

    2001-10-01

    We have characterized a novel mutation of the human AR, G577R, associated with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. G577 is the first amino acid of the P box, a region crucial for the selectivity of receptor/DNA interaction. Although the equivalent amino acid in the GR (also Gly) is not involved in DNA interaction, the residue at the same position in the ER (Glu) interacts with the two central base pairs in the PuGGTCA motif. Using a panel of 16 palindromic probes that differ in these base pairs (PuGNNCA) in gel shift experiments with either the AR DNA-binding domain or the full length receptor, we observed that the G577R mutation does not induce binding to probes that are not recognized by the wild-type AR. However, binding to the four PuGNACA elements recognized by the wild-type AR was affected to different degrees, resulting in an altered selectivity of DNA response element recognition. In particular, AR-G577R did not interact with PuGGACA palindromes. Modeling of the complex between mutant AR and PuGNACA motifs indicates that the destabilizing effect of the mutation is attributable to a steric clash between the C beta of Arg at position 1 of the P box and the methyl group of the second thymine residue in the TGTTCPy arm of the palindrome. In addition, the Arg side chain can interact with G or T at the next position (PuGCACA and PuGAACA elements, respectively). The presence of C is not favorable, however, because of incompatible charges, abrogating binding to the PuGGACA element. Transactivation of several natural or synthetic promoters containing PuGGACA motifs was drastically reduced by the G577R mutation. These data suggest that androgen target genes may be differentially affected by the G577R mutation, the first natural mutation characterized that alters the selectivity of the AR/DNA interaction. This type of mutation may thus contribute to the diversity of phenotypes associated with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

  7. Review of 54 patients with complete DiGeorge anomaly enrolled in protocols for thymus transplantation: outcome of 44 consecutive transplants.

    PubMed

    Markert, M Louise; Devlin, Blythe H; Alexieff, Marilyn J; Li, Jie; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Gupton, Stephanie E; Chinn, Ivan K; Hale, Laura P; Kepler, Thomas B; He, Min; Sarzotti, Marcella; Skinner, Michael A; Rice, Henry E; Hoehner, Jeffrey C

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize a large group of infants with complete DiGeorge anomaly and to evaluate the ability of thymus transplantation to reconstitute immune function in these infants. DiGeorge anomaly is characterized by varying defects of the heart, thymus, and parathyroid glands. Complete DiGeorge anomaly refers to the subgroup that is athymic (< 1%). The characteristics of 54 subjects at presentation and results from 44 consecutive thymus transplantations are reported. Remarkably, only 52% had 22q11 hemizygosity and only 57% had congenital heart disease requiring surgery. Thirty-one percent developed an atypical phenotype with rash and lymphadenopathy. To date, 33 of 44 subjects who received a transplant survive (75%) with post-transplantation follow-up as long as 13 years. All deaths occurred within 12 months of transplantation. All 25 subjects who were tested 1 year after transplantation had developed polyclonal T-cell repertoires and proliferative responses to mitogens. Adverse events developing after transplantation included hypothyroidism in 5 subjects and enteritis in 1 subject. In summary, diagnosis of complete DiGeorge anomaly is challenging because of the variability of presentation. Thymus transplantation was well tolerated and resulted in stable immunoreconstitution in these infants.

  8. Phenotype, hormonal profile and genotype of subjects with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: report of a family with four adult males and one child with disorder of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, B; Philibert, P; Eunice, M; Audran, F; Paris, F; Khurana, M L; Ammini, A C; Charles, S

    2009-08-01

    There is little information on the molecular basis of intrafamilial and inter-familial phenotypic heterogeneity with the same androgen receptor (AR) mutation in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. A genetic analysis was performed in a large kindred with ambiguous genitalia and the genotype-phenotype correlations were analysed. The index case was brought for sex assignment. Family history revealed four other affected members who had hypospadias and varying degrees of virilisation. All the affected males had hemizygous mutations in the third exon of the AR gene (A596T). One was also found to have a heterozygous mutation in the fourth exon of the 5 alpha reductase type 2 gene (G196S). This affected male with double mutations was better virilised compared with the other affected members with a single mutation. The degree of virilisation correlated with serum testosterone levels. Gynaecomastia was not present in any of these subjects. It is concluded that the subject with dual gene defects also had higher levels of testosterone and pubertal virilsation. Testosterone levels possibly govern the degree of pubertal virilisation in subjects with A596T gene defects. It is not clear whether the better pubertal virilsation and higher testosterone are in any way causally related to the SRD5A2 gene defect.

  9. A Novel Mutation in Human Androgen Receptor Gene Causing Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in a Patient Presenting with Gynecomastia at Puberty.

    PubMed

    Koçyiğit, Cemil; Sarıtaş, Serdar; Çatlı, Gönül; Onay, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2016-06-05

    Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) typically presents with micropenis, perineoscrotal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum with descending or undescending testes and gynecomastia at puberty. It is an X-linked recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. However, AR gene mutations are found in less than a third of PAIS cases. A 16-year-old boy was admitted with complaints of gynecomastia and sparse facial hair. Family history revealed male relatives from maternal side with similar clinical phenotype. His external genitalia were phenotypically male with pubic hair Tanner stage IV, penoscrotal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum with bilateral atrophic testes. He had elevated gonadotropins with a normal testosterone level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Due to the family history suggesting a disorder of X-linked trait, PAIS was considered and molecular analysis of AR gene was performed. DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel hemizygous mutation p.T576I (c.1727C>T) in the AR gene. The diagnosis of PAIS is based upon clinical phenotype and laboratory findings and can be confirmed by detection of a defect in the AR gene. An accurate approach including a detailed family history suggesting an X-linked trait is an important clue for a quick diagnosis.

  10. Recovery of viable porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from an infectious clone containing a partial deletion within the Nsp2-encoding region.

    PubMed

    Ran, Z G; Chen, X Y; Guo, X; Ge, X N; Yoon, K J; Yang, H C

    2008-01-01

    Non-structural protein 2 (Nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most variable region and postulated to play an important role in cell and tissue tropism of PRRSV. To investigate the role of Nsp2 in the viability and growth of PRRSV in cells in vitro, two cDNA clones were constructed containing a deletion of 63 consecutive nucleotides (pWSK-DCBAd63) or 117 nucleotides (pWSK-DCBAd117) within the Nsp2-encoding region of PRRSV (BJ-4). The clone pWSK-DCBAd63 was infectious and produced viable recombinant virus, whereas clone pWSK-DCBAd117 could not be rescued. The rescued virus was able to induce CPE typical of PRRSV on MARC-145 cells and was stably propagated during sequential in vitro cell passages, like the virus recovered from the full-length cDNA clone of PRRSV BJ-4. In comparison to the parental virus (BJ-4) and the virus recovered from the full-length cDNA clone of the BJ-4 strain, the rescued virus from pWSK-DCBAd63 exhibited enhanced growth kinetics, reaching the peak progeny virus titer by 48 h postinfection. These observations suggest that the Nsp2-encoding region is necessary for productive virus infection, and partial deletion does not influence the viability and propagation of PRRSV in cell culture, which may provide a way to insert a foreign gene into the viral genome as a marker for differentiation.

  11. Methylation and expression analyses of Pallister-Killian syndrome reveal partial dosage compensation of tetrasomy 12p and hypomethylation of gene-poor regions on 12p

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Josef; Johansson, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To ascertain the epigenomic features, i.e., the methylation, non-coding RNA, and gene expression patterns, associated with gain of i(12p) in Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS), we investigated single cell clones, harboring either disomy 12 or tetrasomy 12p, from a patient with PKS. The i(12p)-positive cells displayed a characteristic expression and methylation signature. Of all the genes on 12p, 13% were overexpressed, including the ATN1, COPS7A, and NECAP1 genes in 12p13.31, a region previously implicated in PKS. However, the median expression fold change (1.3) on 12p was lower than expected by tetrasomy 12p. Thus, partial dosage compensation occurs in cells with i(12p). The majority (89%) of the significantly deregulated genes were not situated on 12p, indicating that global perturbation of gene expression is a key pathogenetic event in PKS. Three genes—ATP6V1G1 in 9q32, GMPS in 3q25.31, and TBX5 in 12q24.21—exhibited concomitant hypermethylation and decreased expression. The i(12p)-positive cells displayed global hypomethylation of gene-poor regions on 12p, a footprint previously associated with constitutional and acquired gains of whole chromosomes as well as with X-chromosome inactivation in females. We hypothesize that this non-genic hypomethylation is associated with chromatin processing that facilitates cellular adaptation to excess genetic material. PMID:26890086

  12. Methylation and expression analyses of Pallister-Killian syndrome reveal partial dosage compensation of tetrasomy 12p and hypomethylation of gene-poor regions on 12p.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Josef; Johansson, Bertil

    2016-03-03

    To ascertain the epigenomic features, i.e., the methylation, non-coding RNA, and gene expression patterns, associated with gain of i(12p) in Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS), we investigated single cell clones, harboring either disomy 12 or tetrasomy 12p, from a patient with PKS. The i(12p)-positive cells displayed a characteristic expression and methylation signature. Of all the genes on 12p, 13% were overexpressed, including the ATN1, COPS7A, and NECAP1 genes in 12p13.31, a region previously implicated in PKS. However, the median expression fold change (1.3) on 12p was lower than expected by tetrasomy 12p. Thus, partial dosage compensation occurs in cells with i(12p). The majority (89%) of the significantly deregulated genes were not situated on 12p, indicating that global perturbation of gene expression is a key pathogenetic event in PKS. Three genes-ATP6V1G1 in 9q32, GMPS in 3q25.31, and TBX5 in 12q24.21-exhibited concomitant hypermethylation and decreased expression. The i(12p)-positive cells displayed global hypomethylation of gene-poor regions on 12p, a footprint previously associated with constitutional and acquired gains of whole chromosomes as well as with X-chromosome inactivation in females. We hypothesize that this non-genic hypomethylation is associated with chromatin processing that facilitates cellular adaptation to excess genetic material.

  13. A Novel Mutation in Human Androgen Receptor Gene Causing Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in a Patient Presenting with Gynecomastia at Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Koçyiğit, Cemil; Sarıtaş, Serdar; Çatlı, Gönül; Onay, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) typically presents with micropenis, perineoscrotal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum with descending or undescending testes and gynecomastia at puberty. It is an X-linked recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. However, AR gene mutations are found in less than a third of PAIS cases. A 16-year-old boy was admitted with complaints of gynecomastia and sparse facial hair. Family history revealed male relatives from maternal side with similar clinical phenotype. His external genitalia were phenotypically male with pubic hair Tanner stage IV, penoscrotal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum with bilateral atrophic testes. He had elevated gonadotropins with a normal testosterone level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Due to the family history suggesting a disorder of X-linked trait, PAIS was considered and molecular analysis of AR gene was performed. DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel hemizygous mutation p.T576I (c.1727C>T) in the AR gene. The diagnosis of PAIS is based upon clinical phenotype and laboratory findings and can be confirmed by detection of a defect in the AR gene. An accurate approach including a detailed family history suggesting an X-linked trait is an important clue for a quick diagnosis. PMID:27087292

  14. A deletion and a duplication in distal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome region. Clinical implications and review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; Nevado, Julián; Santos, Fernando; Heine-Suñer, Damià; Martinez-Glez, Victor; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Palomo, Rebeca; Delicado, Alicia; Pajares, Isidora López; Palomares, María; García-Guereta, Luis; Valverde, Eva; Hawkins, Federico; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals affected with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes present with both phenotypic diversity and variable expressivity. The most frequent clinical features include conotruncal congenital heart defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency, hypocalcemia and a characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. The etiology in most patients is a 3 Mb recurrent deletion in region 22q11.2. However, cases of infrequent deletions and duplications with different sizes and locations have also been reported, generally with a milder, slightly different phenotype for duplications but with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation to date. Methods We present a 7 month-old male patient with surgically corrected ASD and multiple VSDs, and dysmorphic facial features not clearly suggestive of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and a newborn male infant with cleft lip and palate and upslanting palpebral fissures. Karyotype, FISH, MLPA, microsatellite markers segregation studies and SNP genotyping by array-CGH were performed in both patients and parents. Results Karyotype and FISH with probe N25 were normal for both patients. MLPA analysis detected a partial de novo 1.1 Mb deletion in one patient and a novel partial familial 0.4 Mb duplication in the other. Both of these alterations were located at a distal position within the commonly deleted region in 22q11.2. These rearrangements were confirmed and accurately characterized by microsatellite marker segregation studies and SNP array genotyping. Conclusion The phenotypic diversity found for deletions and duplications supports a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in the vicinity of the LCRC-LCRD interval of the 22q11.2 chromosomal region, whereas the high presence of duplications in normal individuals supports their role as polymorphisms. We suggest that any hypothetical correlation between the clinical phenotype and the size and location of these alterations may be masked by other genetic and/or epigenetic modifying factors. PMID

  15. Combined microdeletions and CHD7 mutation causing severe CHARGE/DiGeorge syndrome: clinical presentation and molecular investigation by array-CGH.

    PubMed

    Kaliakatsos, Marios; Giannakopoulos, Aristeidis; Fryssira, Helena; Kanariou, Maria; Skiathitou, Anna-Venetia; Siahanidou, Tania; Giannikou, Krinio; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Tzetis, Maria

    2010-11-01

    Phenotypic variation in CHARGE syndrome remains unexplained. A subcategory of CHARGE patients show overlapping phenotypic characteristics with DiGeorge syndrome (thymic hypo/aplasia, hypocalcemia, T-cell immunodeficiency). Very few have been tested or reported to carry a mutation of the CHD7 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding domain) gene detected in two-thirds of CHARGE patients. In an attempt to explore the genetic background of a severe CHARGE/DiGeorge phenotype, we performed comparative genomic array hybridization in an infant carrier of a CHD7 mutation. The high-resolution comparative genomic array hybridization revealed interesting findings, including a deletion distal to the DiGeorge region and disruptions in other chromosomal regions of genes implicated in immunological and other functions possibly contributing to the patient's severe phenotype and early death.

  16. 22q11 deletion syndrome and forensic research: can we go there?

    PubMed

    Harris, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) encompasses velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). The disorder may represent the interface between genetics and brain-behavior relationships. As there is a strong relationship between the genetic syndrome and schizophrenia, individuals with the disorder are likely to be disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system. The purpose of this article is to review the 22q11DS in the context of forensic research. The existing literature regarding the syndrome and its relationship to schizophrenia is reviewed. A study design is presented to determine the prevalence of the syndrome in correctional facilities compared with expected community prevalence rates. Finally, a brief history of genetic research in correctional facilities is reviewed as a potential model to determine the feasibility of research involving 22q11DS.

  17. Early onset intellectual disability in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco; Muzio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia. There are differing opinions about the cognitive development, and commonly a cognitive decline rather than an early onset intellectual disability has been observed. We report a case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with both early assessment of mild intellectual disabilities and tetralogy of Fallot as the only physic manifestation.

  18. The dynamics of T-cell receptor repertoire diversity following thymus transplantation for DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ciupe, Stanca M; Devlin, Blythe H; Markert, M Louise; Kepler, Thomas B

    2009-06-01

    T cell populations are regulated both by signals specific to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and by signals and resources, such as cytokines and space, that act independently of TCR specificity. Although it has been demonstrated that disruption of either of these pathways has a profound effect on T-cell development, we do not yet have an understanding of the dynamical interactions of these pathways in their joint shaping of the T cell repertoire. Complete DiGeorge Anomaly is a developmental abnormality that results in the failure of the thymus to develop, absence of T cells, and profound immune deficiency. After receiving thymic tissue grafts, patients suffering from DiGeorge anomaly develop T cells derived from their own precursors but matured in the donor tissue. We followed three DiGeorge patients after thymus transplantation to utilize the remarkable opportunity these subjects provide to elucidate human T-cell developmental regulation. Our goal is the determination of the respective roles of TCR-specific vs. TCR-nonspecific regulatory signals in the growth of these emerging T-cell populations. During the course of the study, we measured peripheral blood T-cell concentrations, TCRbeta V gene-segment usage and CDR3-length spectratypes over two years or more for each of the subjects. We find, through statistical analysis based on a novel stochastic population-dynamic T-cell model, that the carrying capacity corresponding to TCR-specific resources is approximately 1000-fold larger than that of TCR-nonspecific resources, implying that the size of the peripheral T-cell pool at steady state is determined almost entirely by TCR-nonspecific mechanisms. Nevertheless, the diversity of the TCR repertoire depends crucially on TCR-specific regulation. The estimated strength of this TCR-specific regulation is sufficient to ensure rapid establishment of TCR repertoire diversity in the early phase of T cell population growth, and to maintain TCR repertoire diversity in the face of

  19. Acute stress masking the biochemical phenotype of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome in a patient with a novel mutation in the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Pitteloud, Nelly; Villegas, Jacob; Dwyer, Andrew A; Crowley, William F; McPhaul, Michael J; Hayes, Frances J

    2004-03-01

    Hypogonadism has traditionally been classified as either hypogonadotropic or hypergonadotropic based on serum gonadotropin levels. However, when hypothalamic suppression of GnRH secretion occurs, it can mask an underlying hypergonadotropic state. In this report we document the unusual case of a 61-yr-old man with androgen insensitivity and coincidental functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Although functional HH is not a well-recognized entity in the male, major stress has been reported to cause transient suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men. The patient in question was noted to have undervirilization, minimal pubertal development, hypogonadal testosterone, and low gonadotropin levels consistent with congenital HH during a hospital admission for myocardial infarction. However, the patient had also had surgery for hypospadias, a clinical feature not typically part of the phenotypic spectrum of congenital HH. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of acute stress and chronic glucocorticoid administration for temporal arteritis induced transient HH in a patient with a disorder of sexual differentiation in whom gonadotropin levels would have otherwise been elevated. Using clinical, molecular, and genetic studies, the patient was found to have partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) caused by a novel mutation (Ser(740)Cys) in the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor. Subsequent studies of the patient confirmed the characteristic gonadotropin and sex steroid abnormalities of PAIS. We describe for the first time a patient with PAIS presenting with a reversible hypogonadotropic biochemical profile triggered by an acute illness and corticosteroid therapy. This case highlights the necessity for caution when interpreting gonadotropin levels during acute stress.

  20. Abnormal thymic maturation and lymphoproliferation in MRL-Faslpr/lpr mice can be partially reversed by synthetic oligonucleotides: implications for systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ashman, R F; Singh, N; Lenert, P S

    2016-11-10

    MRL-Fas (lpr/lpr) mice represent an excellent animal model for studying non-malignant lymphoproliferation, regeneration and systemic autoimmunity. Retro-transposon insertion into the second intron of the pro-apoptotic Fas gene appears to be responsible for both lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity, while other genes are more likely to contribute to the regenerative healing characteristic of this mouse strain. Previous studies have shown that neonatal thymectomy can halt the development of abnormal lymphoproliferation. Whereas at four weeks of age primary and secondary lymphoid organs appear to be grossly intact, vigorous lymphoproliferation and autoantibody production subsequently ensues. This is first noticeable at six weeks of age, at which time lymph nodes, spleens and thymuses, but not the bone marrow, become infiltrated with abnormal B220(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells. Around the same time, thymuses show a significant drop in CD4(+)CD8(+)double-positive T cells generating an abnormal ratio between double-positive and single-positive thymocytes. The objective of current study was to evaluate the effect of synthetic oligonucleotides-toll-like receptor antagonists on early lymphoid development in this strain of mice. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of synthetic oligonucleotides made with the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate backbone to partially reverse abnormal lymphoproliferation and thymic involution in pre-diseased MRL-Fas (lpr/lpr) mice when administered intraperitoneally starting from week four of age. This curative effect of oligonucleotides was primary sequence/secondary oligonucleotide structure-independent, suggesting an effect through the toll-like receptor 7. A similar approach may potentially benefit patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome who, like MRL-Fas (lpr/lpr) mice, carry a mutation in the Fas gene.

  1. Further delineation of the phenotype maps for partial trisomy 16q24 and Jacobsen syndrome by a subtle familial translocation t(11;16)(q24.2;q24.1).

    PubMed

    Zahn, Susanne; Ehrbrecht, Antje; Bosse, Kristin; Kalscheuer, Vera; Propping, Peter; Schwanitz, Gesa; Albrecht, Beate; Engels, Hartmut

    2005-11-15

    We report on two cases of distal monosomy 11q and partial trisomy 16q due to a familial subtle translocation detected by FISH subtelomere screening. Exact breakpoint analyses by FISH with panels of BAC probes demonstrated a 9.3-9.5 megabase partial monosomy of 11q24.2-qter and a 4.9-5.4 megabase partial trisomy of 16q24.1-qter. The index patient displayed craniofacial dysmorphisms, mild mental retardation and postnatal growth retardation, muscular hypotonia, mild periventricular leukodystrophy, patent ductus arteriosus, thrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, inguinal hernia, cryptorchidism, pes equinovarus, and hearing deficiencies. In his mother's cousin who bears the identical unbalanced translocation, mild mental retardation, patent ductus arteriosus, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, unilateral kidney hypoplasia, pes equinovarus, and hearing deficiencies were reported. Since only four descriptions of cryptic or subtle partial trisomies 16q have been published to date, our patients contribute greatly to the delineation of the phenotype of this genomic imbalance. In contrast to this, terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 11 cause a haploinsufficiency disorder (Jacobsen syndrome) in which karyotype-phenotype correlations are already being established. Here, our findings contribute to the refinement of a phenotype map for several Jacobsen syndrome features including abnormal brain imaging, renal malformations, thrombocytopenia/pancytopenia, inguinal hernia, testicular ectopy, pes equinovarus, and hearing deficiency.

  2. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Marino, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Scambler, Peter J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of findings now known to be due to this chromosomal difference was made in the 1960s in children with DiGeorge syndrome, who presented with the clinical triad of immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is now known to have a heterogeneous presentation that includes multiple additional congenital anomalies and later-onset conditions, such as palatal, gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities, autoimmune disease, variable cognitive delays, behavioural phenotypes and psychiatric illness — all far extending the original description of DiGeorge syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving paediatrics, general medicine, surgery, psychiatry, psychology, interventional therapies (physical, occupational, speech, language and behavioural) and genetic counselling. Although common, lack of recognition of the condition and/or lack of familiarity with genetic testing methods, together with the wide variability of clinical presentation, delays diagnosis. Early diagnosis, preferably prenatally or neonatally, could improve outcomes, thus stressing the importance of universal screening. Equally important, 22q11.2DS has become a model for understanding rare and frequent congenital anomalies, medical conditions, psychiatric and developmental disorders, and may provide a platform to better understand these disorders while affording opportunities for translational strategies across the lifespan for both patients with 22q11.2DS and those with these associated features in the general population. PMID:27189754

  3. Alagille Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Dysmorphic Facies, Chronic Illness, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Winthrop, Zachary A.; Salman, Rabia; Majeed, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Alagille syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder affecting the liver, heart, vertebrae, eyes, and face. Alagille syndrome shares multiple phenotypic variants of other congenital or chronic childhood illnesses such as DiGeorge syndrome, Down syndrome, spina bifida, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis. All of these chronic illnesses have well-established links to psychiatric conditions. There are few community resources for Alagille patients, as it is an extremely rare condition. Despite the overlap with other chronic childhood illnesses, the psychiatric manifestations of Alagille syndrome have not been previously discussed in literature. The current study is a case report of a twelve-year-old female hospitalized in our pediatric psychiatric hospital for suicidal ideation with intent and plan. The patient had major depressive disorder, anxiety, other specified feeding and eating disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder. PMID:28018696

  4. [Scoliosis in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome].

    PubMed

    Colo, Dino; Kruyt, Mayo C; Timmers-Raaijmaakers, Brigitte C M S; Castelein, René M

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a term used to describe a syndrome that consists of several clinical phenotypes, for example the DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome. These phenotypes share a common cause, i.e. deletion of a part of chromosome 22. An important clinical manifestation of this condition is scoliosis, which is estimated to occur in 15-50% of patients. We present three cases of children with scoliosis detected in early childhood. Two children were treated surgically because of progression of the deformity; in the third child surgery is being postponed as long as possible to allow further growth. We advise that every patient with 22q11DS should be screened for scoliosis. Furthermore, genetic counselling is required in all cases of scoliosis combined with distinct phenotypical characteristics.

  5. Amelioration of the typical cognitive phenotype in a patient with the 5pter deletion associated with Cri-du-chat syndrome in addition to a partial duplication of CTNND2.

    PubMed

    Sardina, Jennifer M; Walters, Allyson R; Singh, Kathryn E; Owen, Renius X; Kimonis, Virginia E

    2014-07-01

    Cri-du-chat is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, severe speech/developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and additional syndromic findings. The etiology of this disorder is well known, and is attributed to a large deletion on chromosome 5 that typically ranges from band 5p15.2 to the short arm terminus. This region contains CTNND2, a gene encoding a neuronal-specific protein, delta-catenin, which plays a critical role in cellular motility and brain function. The exact involvement of CTNND2 in the cognitive functionality of individuals with Cri-du-chat has not been fully deciphered, but it is thought to be significant. This report describes an 8-year-old African-American female with a complex chromosome 5 abnormality and a relatively mild case of cri-du-chat syndrome. Because of the surprisingly mild cognitive phenotype, although a karyotype had confirmed the 5p deletion at birth, an oligo-SNP microarray was obtained to further characterize her deletion. The array revealed a complex rearrangement, including a breakpoint in the middle of CTNND2, which resulted in a partial deletion and partial duplication of that gene. The array also verified the expected 5p terminal deletion. Although the patient has a significant deletion in CTNND2, half of the gene (including the promoter region) is not only preserved, but is duplicated. The patient's milder cognitive and behavioral presentation, in conjunction with her atypical 5p alteration, provides additional evidence for the role of CTNND2 in the cognitive phenotype of individuals with Cri-du-chat.

  6. Classical Noonan syndrome is not associated with deletions of 22q11

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, N.H.; Sellinger, B.; McDonald-McGinn, D.

    1995-03-13

    Deletions of 22q11 cause DiGeorge sequence (DGS), velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, and some isolated conotruncal heart anomalies. Demonstration of a 22q11 deletion in a patient with manifestations of DGS and Noonan syndrome (NS) has raised the question of whether NS is another of the chromosome 22 microdeletion syndromes. This prompted us to evaluate a cohort of patients with NS for evidence of 22q11 deletions. Five of 6 NS propositi studied in our laboratory with marker N25 (D22S75) did not have a 22q11 deletion. A 2-month-old infant with several findings suggestive of NS did have a 22q11 deletion, suggesting that a small number of 22q11 deletion propositi may present with a NS-like picture. However, most cases of NS must have another cause. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Facio-auriculo-vertebral sequence in association with DiGeorge sequence, Rokitansky sequence, and Dandy-Walker malformation: case report.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Komala; Matthews, Louise S; Wainwright, Helen C

    2003-01-01

    Extreme variability of expression is characteristic of the facio-auriculo-vertebral sequence. Sporadic and familial cases have been reported with obvious etiologic heterogeneity. Most reports in the literature are of clinical cases. The purpose of this paper is to present a fetal autopsy case report of the facio-auriculo-vertebral sequence in association with DiGeorge sequence, Rokitansky sequence, and Dandy-Walker malformation. A standard neonatal autopsy was performed on a macerated female fetus, gestational age 29 wk. External examination of the fetus revealed hypoplastic right face, low-set microtic right ear, and macrostomia. Internal examination showed hypoplastic thymus and lungs, a type I truncus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect. Both kidneys showed evidence of pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction. The ovaries and fallopian tubes were present with an absent uterus and vagina (Rokitansky sequence). In addition, Dandy-Walker malformation was identified. Microscopically, a single hypoplastic parathyroid gland was noted and there was cystic renal dysplasia. We report the sixth case of the facio-auriculo-vertebral sequence in association with Rokitansky sequence and the first case of this sequence in association with Dandy-Walker malformation. In addition, features of DiGeorge sequence were present.

  8. Kousseff syndrome: A fifth case?

    SciTech Connect

    Laux, R.A.; Hamilton, W.; Pinette, M.

    1994-09-01

    Kousseff originally described three siblings with an open sacral myelomeningocele, conotruncal cardiac malformations, low-set, posteriorly rotated ears, retrognathia, a short neck with a low posterior hairline, and renal agenesis as a new autosomal recessive condition. Open neural tube lesions and complex conotruncal cardiac defects are relatively common malformations, both as isolated defects and individually as components of syndromes, but they have been found together only rarely, as part of chromosomal syndromes or following maternal exposures. Toriello et al. reported a fourth case and suggested the eponym Kousseff syndrome for myelomeningcocele, conotruncal defects and minor facial abnormalies. We report a fifth probable case. This male infant was born by spontaneous vaginal delivery at 38 weeks gestation to a 23-year-old G{sub 2}P{sub 1001} mother. Pregnancy was complicated by an elevated alpha-fetoprotein at 16 weeks gestation, followed by an ultrasound diagnosis of an open disease. After birth, physical examination also revealed dysmorphic facies, with a bulbous nose and low-set, posteriorly rotated ears, bilateral 5th finger clinodactyly and hypotonia. Echocardiogram demonstrated complex conotruncal malformations. The patient underwent closure of the myelomeningocele but died at one month of age. Chromosomal analysis was normal (46,XY). Because conotruncal heart defects have been associated with deletions on chromosome 22, FISH analysis using a probe for the DiGeorge syndrome on the long arm of chromosome 22 was performed. It indicated no detectable deletion within this critical region on 22q11. Nonetheless there remains the possibility of a gene (or genes) located on 22q that could produce findings of this rare multiple congenital anomaly syndrome when disrupted. Therefore, further investigation on this chromosome is warranted.

  9. X inactivation in Rett syndrome: A preliminary study showing partial preferential inactivation of paternal X with the M27{beta} probe

    SciTech Connect

    Camus, P.; Abbadi, N.; Gilgenkrantz, S.

    1994-04-15

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe progressive neurological disorder occurring exclusively in females. Most cases are sporadic. The few familial cases (less than 1%) cannot be explained by a simple mode of inheritance. Several hypotheses have been proposed: X-linked male lethal mutation, maternal uniparental disomy, fresh mutation on the X chromosome, involvement of mitochondrial DNA and differential inactivation with metabolic interference of X-borne alleles. The authors have examined the pattern of X inactivation in 10 affected girls who were selected according to the clinical criteria previously described and accepted by the French Rett Scientific Committee. The X inactivation pattern was studied by analysis of methylation at the hypervariable locus DXS255 with the M27{beta} probe. The results show a more-or-less skewed inactivation of paternal X in 8 Rett females, and 2 cases of symmetrical inactivation. In control girls, inactivation was symmetrical cases and the maternal X has been preferentially inactivated in the other 2 cases. In no case was a total skewed inactivation observed. Though there was clear evidence for a preferential paternal X inactivation that was statistically significant further studies are necessary to establish a relationship between X inactivation pattern and Rett syndrome.

  10. 47,XX,+der(18),t(9;18)(p24;q21) mat: a distinct partial trisomy 18q--syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Bass, H N; Weber-Parisi, F; Sparkes, R S

    1978-01-01

    A moderately retarded girl had a 47,XX,+der(18),t(9;18)(p24;q21)mat abnormality that was inherited from her mother, who had a 46,XX,t(9;18)(p24;q21) karyotype in most cells, and a minor cell line of 47,XX,+der(18),-t(9;18)(p24;q21). Her dysmorphic features--bilateral epicanthic folds, low-set, abnormal ears, low posterior hairline, clinodactyly of the 5th fingers, and broad great toes--were similar to those of other patients with an additional number 18 chromosome in which all or most of the long arm was missing, thus raising the possibility of a distinct syndrome. Images PMID:739531

  11. Clinical and molecular-cytogenetic evaluation of a family with partial Jacobsen syndrome without thrombocytopenia caused by an approximately 5 Mb deletion del(11)(q24.3).

    PubMed

    Bernaciak, Joanna; Szczałuba, Krzysztof; Derwińska, Katarzyna; Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Bocian, Ewa; Sasiadek, Maria Małgorzata; Makowska, Izabela; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Smigiel, Robert

    2008-10-01

    Clinical manifestations of Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) depend on the size of the 11qter deletion, which usually varies between approximately 7 and 20 Mb. Typical JBS features include developmental delay/mental retardation, short stature, congenital heart defects, thrombocytopenia, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. We report on a family in which a 4-year-old girl as well as her mother and maternal uncle present with subtle features of JBS. Notably, neither thrombocytopenia nor congenital anomalies were detected in this family. Cytogenetic analyses revealed normal karyotypes. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and whole-genome oligonucleotide array CGH analyses, we identified an approximately 5 Mb deletion of the terminal part of chromosome 11q in all the three affected family members. The deletion breakpoint was mapped between 129,511,419 and 129,519,794 bp. This is the smallest deletion reported in a JBS patient. Interestingly, the FLI1 (friend leukemia virus integration 1) hematopoiesis factor gene located approximately 6.5 Mb from 11qter and usually deleted in patients with JBS, is intact. Our data support previous hypotheses that FLI1 haploinsufficiency is responsible for thrombocytopenia in patients with JBS.

  12. Combined Hamartoma of the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium in a Patient with Gorlin Syndrome: Spontaneous Partial Resolution of Traction Caused by Epiretinal Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vicente, José L.; Rueda, Trinidad; Rodríguez de la Rúa-Franch, Enrique; Molina-Socola, Fredy E.; Vital-Berral, Cristina; Alfaro-Juárez, Asunción; López-Herrero, Fernando; Muñoz-Morales, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the case of spontaneous resolution of epiretinal membrane in a patient with Combined Hamartoma of the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium (CHR-RPE), in the clinical context of Gorlin Syndrome (GS). Methods. Observational case report of a 12-year-old female patient is presented. The diagnosis of CHRRPE was made by OCT and fundus examination, which showed a mound of disorganized tissue originating from retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Epiretinal membrane (EM) was also detected. Genetic study was performed to confirm the diagnosis of GS. Results. The patient was observed for 39 months, showing spontaneous resolution of the traction caused by the EM and improvement in visual acuity (VA), which was 20/80 at initial presentation, rising to 20/40 after follow-up period. Conclusions. The presence of EM in CHR-REP is a cause of reduction of visual acuity. Management of this condition is controversial; however, we would like to highlight that spontaneous resolution of the traction caused by EM is possible, resulting in recovery of VA. PMID:27595027

  13. Newly recognized hantaviruses associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern Brazil: partial genetic characterization of viruses and serologic implication of likely reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Mills, James N; Padula, Paula J; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Mendes, Wellington S; Santos, Elizabeth D; Araújo, Gisele C B; Martinez, Valeria P; Rosa, Jorge F S T; Edelstein, Alexis; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2005-01-01

    Following the occurrence of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Maranhao State, Brazil, rodents were trapped and rodent materials screened by ELISA for antibodies to Sin Nombre and Andes hantaviruses. Antibody-positive samples were tested by RT-PCR, amplified products were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparison with known hantaviruses. From 104 rodent blood samples collected (40 Bolomys lasiurus, 52 Holochilus sciureus, 12 Oligoryzomys fornesi, and one Proechimys guyannensis), 21 (20.2%) were antibody-positive (one B. lasiurus, five O. fornesi, and 15 H. sciureus). Hantavirus RNA was amplified by PCR from two O. fornesi and four H. sciureus. Viral sequencing identified two hantavirus genotypes. The genotype recovered from O. fornesi, is designated herein as Anajatuba (ANAJ) and the genotype recovered from H. sciureus is designated Rio Mearim (RIME). Phylogenetic analysis of a 643-nucleotide region of the N segment showed both viruses to be most closely related (94-96% nucleotide homology) to Río Mamoré virus, a virus associated with Oligoryzomys microtis in Bolivia and Peru, but not found in northern Brazil. O. fornesi was frequently captured in and around human dwellings. H. sciureus, is a semi-aquatic rodent captured only in remote areas rarely frequented by humans.

  14. A TrkB Small Molecule Partial Agonist Rescues TrkB Phosphorylation Deficits and Improves Respiratory Function in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Danielle; Yang, Tao; Ogier, Michael; Adams, Ian; Mirakhur, Yatin; Wang, Qifang; Massa, Stephen M.; Longo, Frank M.; Katz, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and is characterized by abnormal motor, respiratory and autonomic control, cognitive impairment, autistic-like behaviors and increased risk of seizures. RTT patients and Mecp2 null mice exhibit reduced expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), which has been linked in mice to increased respiratory frequency, a hallmark of RTT. The present study was undertaken to test the hypotheses that BDNF deficits in Mecp2 mutants are associated with reduced activation of the BDNF receptor, TrkB, and that pharmacologic activation of TrkB would improve respiratory function. We characterized BDNF protein expression, TrkB activation and respiration in heterozygous female Mecp2 mutant mice (Het), a model that recapitulates the somatic mosaicism for mutant Mecp2 found in typical RTT patients, and evaluated the ability of a small molecule TrkB agonist, LM22A-4, to ameliorate biochemical and functional abnormalities in these animals. We found that Het mice exhibit 1) reduced BDNF expression and TrkB activation in the medulla and pons and 2) breathing dysfunction, characterized by increased frequency due to periods of tachypnea, and increased apneas, as in RTT patients. Treatment of Het mice with LM22A-4 for 4 weeks rescued wildtype levels of TrkB phosphorylation in the medulla and pons and restored wildtype breathing frequency. These data provide new insight into the role of BDNF signaling deficits in the pathophysiology of RTT and highlight TrkB as a possible therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:22302819

  15. A TrkB small molecule partial agonist rescues TrkB phosphorylation deficits and improves respiratory function in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Danielle A; Yang, Tao; Ogier, Michael; Adams, Ian; Mirakhur, Yatin; Wang, Qifang; Massa, Stephen M; Longo, Frank M; Katz, David M

    2012-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and is characterized by abnormal motor, respiratory and autonomic control, cognitive impairment, autistic-like behaviors and increased risk of seizures. RTT patients and Mecp2-null mice exhibit reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been linked in mice to increased respiratory frequency, a hallmark of RTT. The present study was undertaken to test the hypotheses that BDNF deficits in Mecp2 mutants are associated with reduced activation of the BDNF receptor, TrkB, and that pharmacologic activation of TrkB would improve respiratory function. We characterized BDNF protein expression, TrkB activation and respiration in heterozygous female Mecp2 mutant mice (Het), a model that recapitulates the somatic mosaicism for mutant MECP2 found in typical RTT patients, and evaluated the ability of a small molecule TrkB agonist, LM22A-4, to ameliorate biochemical and functional abnormalities in these animals. We found that Het mice exhibit (1) reduced BDNF expression and TrkB activation in the medulla and pons and (2) breathing dysfunction, characterized by increased frequency due to periods of tachypnea, and increased apneas, as in RTT patients. Treatment of Het mice with LM22A-4 for 4 weeks rescued wild-type levels of TrkB phosphorylation in the medulla and pons and restored wild-type breathing frequency. These data provide new insight into the role of BDNF signaling deficits in the pathophysiology of RTT and highlight TrkB as a possible therapeutic target in this disease.

  16. Genomic characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus in European bats and classification of coronaviruses based on partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Glende, Jörg; Corman, Victor Max; Muth, Doreen; Goettsche, Matthias; Seebens, Antje; Niedrig, Matthias; Pfefferle, Susanne; Yordanov, Stoian; Zhelyazkov, Lyubomir; Hermanns, Uwe; Vallo, Peter; Lukashev, Alexander; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Deng, Hongkui; Herrler, Georg; Drosten, Christian

    2010-11-01

    Bats may host emerging viruses, including coronaviruses (CoV). We conducted an evaluation of CoV in rhinolophid and vespertilionid bat species common in Europe. Rhinolophids carried severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related CoV at high frequencies and concentrations (26% of animals are positive; up to 2.4×10(8) copies per gram of feces), as well as two Alphacoronavirus clades, one novel and one related to the HKU2 clade. All three clades present in Miniopterus bats in China (HKU7, HKU8, and 1A related) were also present in European Miniopterus bats. An additional novel Alphacoronavirus clade (bat CoV [BtCoV]/BNM98-30) was detected in Nyctalus leisleri. A CoV grouping criterion was developed by comparing amino acid identities across an 816-bp fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) of all accepted mammalian CoV species (RdRp-based grouping units [RGU]). Criteria for defining separate RGU in mammalian CoV were a >4.8% amino acid distance for alphacoronaviruses and a >6.3% distance for betacoronaviruses. All the above-mentioned novel clades represented independent RGU. Strict associations between CoV RGU and host bat genera were confirmed for six independent RGU represented simultaneously in China and Europe. A SARS-related virus (BtCoV/BM48-31/Bulgaria/2008) from a Rhinolophus blasii (Rhi bla) bat was fully sequenced. It is predicted that proteins 3b and 6 were highly divergent from those proteins in all known SARS-related CoV. Open reading frame 8 (ORF8) was surprisingly absent. Surface expression of spike and staining with sera of SARS survivors suggested low antigenic overlap with SARS CoV. However, the receptor binding domain of SARS CoV showed higher similarity with that of BtCoV/BM48-31/Bulgaria/2008 than with that of any Chinese bat-borne CoV. Critical spike domains 472 and 487 were identical and similar, respectively. This study underlines the importance of assessments of the zoonotic potential of widely distributed bat-borne CoV.

  17. Mutation of the androgen receptor (R840S) in an Egyptian patient with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: review of the literature on the clinical expression of different R840 substitutions.

    PubMed

    Mazen, I; Lumbroso, S; Abdel Ghaffar, S; Salah, N; Sultan, C

    2004-01-01

    The X-linked androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of defects in the androgen receptor (AR) that result in varying degrees of undermasculinization. In the current study, we characterize the R840S mutation on exon 7 of the AR ligand-binding domain. The Egyptian patient, who had been reared as female, presented ambiguous genitalia at 6.5 yr. Diagnosis of partial AIS (PAIS) was based on clinical phenotype and laboratory evidence of good testosterone response and normal testosterone/dihydrotestosterone (T/DHT) ratio. The therapeutic response to testosterone depot injections justified reassignment to male sex. To our knowledge, this mutation has been reported only once in two Brazilian brothers with PAIS. Three other mutations of this residue (R840C; R840G, nonconservative; and R840H, conservative) have been reported in patients with PAIS and, when expressed in vitro, they led to subnormal transactivation of a reporter gene. Each of these mutations was associated with a very diverse spectrum of phenotypes. These data highlight the role of the AR ligand-binding pocket (LBP) in the expression of transcriptional activity during prenatal sex differentiation.

  18. Discontinuation of Hypomethylating Agent Therapy in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in Complete Remission or Partial Response: Retrospective Analysis of Survival after Long-term Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Cabrero, Monica; Jabbour, Elias; Ravandi, Farhad; Bohannan, Zach; Pierce, Sherry; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Hypomethylating agents (HMA), such as 5-azacitidine or decitabine, are currently used to treat patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) until treatment failure. However, the outcomes for patients who discontinue therapy after achieving partial response (PR) or complete remission (CR) but before treatment failure have not been reported. We present a series of 16 patients with higher-risk MDS (n=5; 31%) or AML (n=11; 69%) who achieved PR (n=1) or CR (n=15) and stopped HMA therapy while in response in the context of clinical trials. They received a median of 12 courses (range 1–24) and achieved response after a median of 1 course of therapy (1–4). Loss of response after discontinuation of therapy was rapid, with a median progression-free survival of 4 months (95% CI: 2–6). Median overall survival (OS) from the time of therapy discontinuation was 15 months (95% CI: 6–24). Patients who received 12 cycles of therapy or more had significantly better OS (median: 20 months [95% CI: 12–27]) than those who received fewer than 12 cycles (median: 4 months [95% CI: 1–8]) (p= 0.043). Poor-risk cytogenetics were also associated with lower 1-year OS (33% versus 69%; p= 0.046). According to these results and considering the poor prognosis after HMA failure, HMA interruption should be avoided once a sustained response has been achieved. PMID:25828745

  19. The Aarskog syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fryns, J P; Macken, J; Vinken, L; Igodt-Ameye, L; van den Berghe, H

    1978-06-09

    In this report a description is given of the Aarskog syndrome in six males belonging to three different families. Partial expression of the syndrome was confirmed in two of the three examined obligate female heterozygotes, who had short stature, small hands and feet, short neck, and a round face with widow's peak and, in one of them, ptosis of the eyelids.

  20. Exclusion of 22q11 deletion in Noonan syndrome with Tetralogy of Fallot

    SciTech Connect

    Digilio, M.C.; Marino, B.; Giannotti, A.; Dallapiccola, B. |

    1996-04-24

    We read with interest the report of Robin et al. [1995] published in recent issue of the Journal. The authors described 6 patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) who underwent molecular evaluation for submicroscopic deletion of chromosome band 22q11. None of those patients presented with conotruncal heart defects. Evidence for 22q11 hemizygosity was demonstrated in only one patient. This patient had NS-like manifestations without clinical manifestations of DiGeorge (DG) or velo-cardio-facial (VCF) syndromes. The molecular results obtained in the other 5 patients led the authors to conclude that classical NS is not due to del(22)(q11), even if some patients with del(22)(q11) may present NS-like manifestations. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Language and Literacy in Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Language problems can be associated with specific genetic syndromes, such as Klinefelter syndrome and fragile X syndrome, even in the absence of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Turner syndrome, a relatively common genetic disorder, is caused by the complete or partial absence of 1 of the 2 X chromosomes typically present in women. The…

  2. Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vogels, Annick; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  3. Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keleştimur, Fahrettin

    2003-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage. It may be rarely seen without massive bleeding or after normal delivery. Improvement in obstetric care and availability of rapid blood transfusion coincided with a remarkable reduction in the frequency of Sheehan's syndrome particularly in western society. But it has recently been reported more often from well-developed countries. It is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism in underdeveloped or developing countries. Enlargement of pituitary gland, small sella size, disseminated intravascular coagulation and autoimmunity have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Sheehan's syndrome in women who suffer from severe postpartum hemorrhage. The patients may seek medical advice because of various presentations ranging from non-specific symptoms to coma and the clinical manifestation may change from one patient to another. Failure of postpartum lactation and failure to resume menses after delivery are the most common presenting symptoms. Although a small percentage of patients with Sheehan's syndrome may cause abrupt onset severe hypopituitarism immediately after delivery, most patients have a mild disease and go undiagnosed and untreated for a long time. It may result in partial or panhypopituitarism and GH is one of the hormones lost earliest. The great majority of the patients has empty sella on CT or MRI. Lymphocytic hypophysitis should be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. In this review, the old and recent data regarding Sheehan's syndrome are presented.

  4. Birth of a child with Down syndrome in a family transmitting an unusual chromosome 22 arising from a translocation between chromosomes 21 and an inverted chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Aviv, H.A.; Desposito, F.; Lieber, C.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosomal analysis of a child with Down syndrome resulted in the identification of a family with an unusual translocation and in the definition of the translocation breakpoints. Studies were performed on the child, his siblings, mother, mother`s sister, and grandmother. All of the family members were carriers of the translocation. We performed G-banding, silver stain, C-banding, and hybridization with the following FISH probes (Oncor): {alpha}-satellite 13/21; {beta}-satellite, coatasome 21 and 22, and the probes for chromosome 22 at 22q11 (DiGeorge region) and 22q13.3 (control region). Using the banding techniques and probes, we characterized the karyotype as: 45,XX,-21,-22,+der(22),t(21;22)(22qter{r_arrow}22q11.2::22p13{r_arrow}22q11.2::21q11.2{r_arrow}21qter). The effect of deletion of 21q11.2 and the break of chromosome 22 in the DiGeorge region in this family is not clear. However, the presence of the translocation increases the risk of family members of conceiving children with Down syndrome.

  5. Multicenter survey on the outcome of transplantation of hematopoietic cells in patients with the complete form of DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Janda, Ales; Sedlacek, Petr; Hönig, Manfred; Friedrich, Wilhelm; Champagne, Martin; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Fischer, Alain; Neven, Benedicte; Contet, Audrey; Bensoussan, Danielle; Bordigoni, Pierre; Loeb, David; Savage, William; Jabado, Nada; Bonilla, Francisco A; Slatter, Mary A; Davies, E Graham; Gennery, Andrew R

    2010-09-30

    Seventeen patients transplanted with hematopoietic cells to correct severe T lymphocyte immunodeficiency resulting from complete DiGeorge anomaly were identified worldwide, and retrospective data were obtained using a questionnaire-based survey. Patients were treated at a median age of 5 months (range, 2-53 months) between 1995 and 2006. Bone marrow was used in 11 procedures in 9 cases: 6 from matched unrelated donors, 4 from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings, and one haploidentical parent with T-cell depletion. Unmobilized peripheral blood was used in 8 cases: 5 from HLA-identical siblings, one from a matched unrelated donor, one from an HLA-identical parent, and one unrelated matched cord blood. Conditioning was used in 5 patients and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in 11 patients. Significant graft-versus-host disease occurred in 9 patients, becoming chronic in 3. Median length of follow-up was 13 months, with transplantation from HLA-matched sibling showing the best results. Median survival among deceased patients (10 patients) was 7 months after transplantation (range, 2-18 months). The overall survival rate was 41%, with a median follow-up of 5.8 years (range, 4-11.5 years). Among survivors, median CD3 and CD4 counts were 806 (range, 644-1224) and 348 (range, 225-782) cells/mm(3), respectively, CD4(+)/CD45RA(+) cells remained very low, whereas mitogen responses were normalized.

  6. Activated partial thromboplastin time measurement is not associated with clinical outcomes in patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with unfractionated heparin.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael P; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Chiswell, Karen; Cohen, Marc; Kontos, Michael C; Antman, Elliott M; Ferguson, James J; Califf, Robert M; Goodman, Shaun G; Becker, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to determine the association of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with recurrent ischemic events and non-coronary artery bypass surgery-related thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding. We studied 4,985 patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) participating in SYNERGY, a prospective, randomized, international trial designed to emulate contemporary practice wherein unfractionated heparin (UFH) is given intravenously and titrated according to a weight-adjusted dosing nomogram to a target aPTT of 1.5-2 times the upper limit of normal (approximately 50-70 s). Aspirin was administered to 95% of patients, clopidogrel to 63%, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors to 58%. More than 90% of patients underwent early coronary angiography, and 69% were revascularized. Used as a time-dependent covariate, aPTT was evaluated as a predictor of time to ischemic or major hemorrhagic events in proportional hazards regression models. Using discrete variable analysis, aPTT was categorized as persistently below a lower threshold of anticoagulation (<50 vs. ≥50 s) for recurrent ischemic events and above an upper threshold (>70 vs. ≤70 s) for major hemorrhagic events. UFH treatment lasted a median of 42 (30, 78) h. At >6-12 (n = 3,021), >12-24 (n = 3,406), and >24-48 (n = 2,497) h, 34, 41, and 46% of patients achieved the target aPTT range, respectively. Both before and after adjusting for baseline predictors of anticoagulant response and risk score (age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, ST depression, and renal function), no significant relationship between aPTT values and recurrent ischemic events or major bleeding was found. No relationship was observed between clinical outcomes and aPTT values persistently above or below the designated thresholds. Measurements of aPTT were not associated with clinical outcomes among patients with NSTE ACS treated with UFH. The required intensity of

  7. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Frequency and textent of 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Goldberg, R.; Jurecic, V.

    1995-07-03

    Velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome is associated with deletions in a region of chromosome 22q11.2 also deleted in DiGeorge anomaly and some forms of congenital heart disease. Due to the variability of phenotype, the evaluation of the incidence of deletions has been hampered by uncertainty of diagnosis. In this study, 54 patients were diagnosed with VCFS by a single group of clinicians using homogeneous clinical criteria independent of the deletion status. Cell lines of these patients were established and the deletion status evaluated for three loci within the commonly deleted region at 22q11.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 81% of the patients all three loci were hemizygous. In one patient we observed a smaller interstitial deletion than that defined by the three loci. The phenotype of this patient was not different from that observed in patients with larger deletions. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Microprocessor complex subunit DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (Dgcr8) is required for schwann cell myelination and myelin maintenance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Pin; Oksuz, Idil; Hurley, Edward; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Awatramani, Rajeshwar

    2015-10-02

    We investigated the role of a key component of the Microprocessor complex, DGCR8, in the regulation of myelin formation and maintenance. We found that conditionally ablating Dgcr8 in Schwann cells (SCs) during development results in an arrest of SC differentiation. Dgcr8 conditional knock-out (cKO) SCs fail to form 1:1 relationships with axons or, having achieved this, fail to form myelin sheaths. The expression of genes normally found in immature SCs, such as sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2), is increased in Dgcr8 cKO SCs, whereas the expression of myelin-related genes, including the master regulatory transcription factor early growth response 2 (Egr2), is decreased. Additionally, expression of a novel gene expression program involving sonic hedgehog (Shh), activated de novo in injured nerves, is elevated in Dgcr8 cKOs but not in Egr2 null mice, a model of SC differentiation arrest, suggesting that the injury-related gene expression program in Dgcr8 cKOs cannot be attributed to differentiation arrest. Inducible ablation of Dgcr8 in adult SCs results in gene expression changes similar to those found in cKOs, including an increase in the expression of Sox2 and Shh. Analyses of these nerves mainly reveal normal myelin thickness and axon size distribution but some dedifferentiated SCs and increased macrophage infiltration. Together our data suggest that Dgcr8 is responsible for modulation of gene expression programs underlying myelin formation and maintenance as well as suppression of an injury-related gene expression program.

  9. Hominoid lineage specific amplification of low-copy repeats on 22q11.2 (LCR22s) associated with velo-cardio-facial/digeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Melanie; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Hopkins, Janet; Brenton, Matthew; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lupski, James R; Sikela, James M; Morrow, Bernice E

    2007-11-01

    Segmental duplications or low-copy repeats (LCRs) constitute approximately 5% of the sequenced portion of the human genome and are associated with many human congenital anomaly disorders. The low-copy repeats on chromosome 22q11.2 (LCR22s) mediate chromosomal rearrangements resulting in deletions, duplications and translocations. The evolutionary mechanisms leading to LCR22 formation is unknown. Four genes, USP18, BCR, GGTLA and GGT, map adjacent to the LCR22s and pseudogene copies are located within them. It has been hypothesized that gene duplication occurred during primate evolution, followed by recombination events, forming pseudogene copies. We investigated whether gene duplication could be detected in non-human hominoid species. FISH mapping was performed using probes to the four functional gene loci. There was evidence for a single copy in humans but additional copies in hominoid species. We then compared LCR22 copy number using LCR22 FISH probes. Lineage specific LCR22 variation was detected in the hominoid species supporting the hypothesis. To independently validate initial findings, real time PCR, and screening of gorilla BAC library filters were performed. This was compared to array comparative genome hybridization data available. The most striking finding was a dramatic amplification of LCR22s in the gorilla. The LCR22s localized to the telomeric or subtelomeric bands of gorilla chromosomes. The most parsimonious explanation is that the LCR22s became amplified by inter-chromosomal recombination between telomeric bands. In summary, our results are consistent with a lineage specific coupling between gene and LCR22 duplication events. The LCR22s thus serve as an important model for evolution of genome variation.

  10. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    PubMed Central

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlačková syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an expansive phenotype with more than 180 clinical features described that involve essentially every organ and system. The syndrome has drawn considerable attention because a number of common psychiatric illnesses are phenotypic features including attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. The expression is highly variable with some individuals being essentially normal at the mildest end of the spectrum, and the most severe cases having life-threatening and life-impairing problems. The syndrome is caused by a microdeletion from chromosome 22 at the q11.2 band. Although the large majority of affected individuals have identical 3 megabase deletions, less than 10% of cases have smaller deletions of 1.5 or 2.0 megabases. The 3 megabase deletion encompasses a region containing 40 genes. The syndrome has a population prevalence of approximately 1:2,000 in the U.S., although incidence is higher. Although initially a clinical diagnosis, today velo-cardio-facial syndrome can be diagnosed with extremely high accuracy by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and several other laboratory techniques. Clinical management is age dependent with acute medical problems such as congenital heart disease, immune disorders, feeding problems, cleft palate, and developmental disorders occupying management in infancy and preschool years. Management shifts to cognitive, behavioral, and learning disorders during school years, and then to the potential for psychiatric disorders including psychosis in late adolescence and adult years. Although the majority of people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome do not develop psychosis, the risk

  11. Thymus transplantation restores the repertoires of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ and FoxP3- T cells in complete DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Chinn, I K; Milner, J D; Scheinberg, P; Douek, D C; Markert, M L

    2013-07-01

    The development of T cells with a regulatory phenotype after thymus transplantation has not been examined previously in complete DiGeorge anomaly (cDGA). Seven athymic infants with cDGA and non-maternal pretransplantation T cell clones were assessed. Pretransplantation forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)(+) T cells were detected in five of the subjects. Two subjects were studied in greater depth. T cell receptor variable β chain (TCR-Vβ) expression was assessed by flow cytometry. In both subjects, pretransplantation FoxP3(+) and total CD4(+) T cells showed restricted TCR-Vβ expression. The development of naive T cells and diverse CD4(+) TCR-Vβ repertoires following thymic transplantation indicated successful thymopoiesis from the thymic tissue grafts. Infants with atypical cDGA develop rashes and autoimmune phenomena before transplantation, requiring treatment with immunosuppression, which was discontinued successfully subsequent to the observed thymopoiesis. Post-transplantation, diverse TCR-Vβ family expression was also observed in FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, the percentages of each of the TCR-Vβ families expressed on FoxP3(+) and total CD4(+) T cells differed significantly between these T lymphocyte subpopulations before transplantation. By 16 months post-transplantation, however, the percentages of expression of each TCR-Vβ family became significantly similar between FoxP3(+) and total CD4(+) T cells. Sequencing of TCRBV DNA confirmed the presence of clonally amplified pretransplantation FoxP3(+) and FoxP3(-) T cells. After thymus transplantation, increased polyclonality was observed for both FoxP3(+) and FoxP3(-) cells, and pretransplantation FoxP3(+) and FoxP3(-) clonotypes essentially disappeared. Thus, post-transplantation thymic function was associated with the development of a diverse repertoire of FoxP3(+) T cells in cDGA, corresponding with immunological and clinical recovery.

  12. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  13. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  14. Post vaccine acute disseminated encephalomyelitis as the first manifestation of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a 15-month old baby: a case report.

    PubMed

    Valenzise, Mariella; Cascio, Antonio; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Zirilli, Giuseppina; Catena, Maria Ausilia; Arasi, Stefania

    2014-09-29

    We describe a case of a 15-month-old female child admitted to our hospital because of fever, rash, neurological signs (oscillation between states of irritability and drowsiness), palpebral edema and drooping eyelid, appeared 10 days after the vaccination for measles, mumps and rubella. Brain MRI images showed multiple bilateral hyperintense lesions in the white matter typical of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an autoimmune demyelinating disorder with inflammatory lesions of the central nervous system, due to viral antigens or vaccines. In the mean time, because of patient's vague phenotypic manifestations, suggestive of a genetic defect, array comparative genomic hybridization was carried out which showed the presence of a microdeletion 22q11.21, linked to the DiGeorge syndrome. Our case suggests that pediatric cases of post-vaccination ADEM, in which neurological signs persist, should be investigated for genetic phenotypical features, in order to exclude the presence of a genetic syndrome or disease.

  15. DiGeorge subtypes of nonsyndromic conotruncal defects: evidence against a major role of TBX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Conti, Emanuela; Grifone, Nicoletta; Sarkozy, Anna; Tandoi, Caterina; Marino, Bruno; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Mingarelli, Rita; Pizzuti, Antonio; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2003-04-01

    The role of the 22q11 region genes, and among them TBX1, in nonsyndromic conotruncal defects (CTDs) is still unclear. Mice hemizygous at the Tbx1 locus show a remarkable incidence of heart outflow tract anomalies, of the same type commonly found in DiGeorge/Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (DGS/VCFS). Mutation analysis of the TBX1 gene in isolated, nonsyndromic CTDs has not demonstrated any functional pathogenetic variation so far. We screened the TBX1 gene in 41 patients affected by nonsyndromic CTDs of the DGS/VCFS subtype, principally "atypical" tetralogy of Fallot. Besides a few polymorphisms, we did not find any pathogenetic variation. These results do not support a major role of the TBX1 gene as responsible for human nonsyndromic CTDs.

  16. [Syndromes 2. Pfeiffer syndrome].

    PubMed

    Freihofer, H P

    1998-07-01

    Acrocephalosyndactylias are syndromes characterized by abnormalities of the head (craniosynostosis), the face (hypertelorism, retromaxillism), hands and feet (cutaneous or bony syndactyly). Inheritance is autosomal dominant, but spontaneous cases are described also. The group is divided into several syndromes with varying penetrance and expressivity. As an example of an acrocephalosyndactylia is the Pfeiffer syndrome presented.

  17. Moebius Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... children with Moebius syndrome have some degree of autism. There are four recognized categories of Moebius syndrome: ... children with Moebius syndrome have some degree of autism. There are four recognized categories of Moebius syndrome: ...

  18. Microdeletion syndromes, balanced translocations, and gene mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Schinzel, A

    1988-01-01

    High resolution prometaphase chromosome banding has allowed the detection of discrete chromosome aberrations which escaped earlier metaphase examinations. Consistent tiny deletions have been detected in some well established malformation syndromes: an interstitial deletion in 15q11/12 in the majority of patients with the Prader-Willi syndrome and in a minority of patients with the Angelman (happy puppet) syndrome; a terminal deletion of 17p13.3 in most patients examined with the Miller-Dieker syndrome; an interstitial deletion of 8q23.3/24.1 in a large majority of patients with the Giedion-Langer syndrome; an interstitial deletion of 11p13 in virtually all patients with the WAGR (Wilms' tumour-aniridia-gonadoblastoma-retardation) syndrome; and an interstitial deletion in 22q11 in about one third of patients with the DiGeorge sequence. In addition, a combination of chromosome prometaphase banding and DNA marker studies has allowed the localisation of the genes for retinoblastoma and for Wilms' tumour and the clarification of both the autosomal recessive nature of the mutation and the possible somatic mutations by which the normal allele can be lost in retina and kidney cells. After a number of X linked genes had been mapped, discrete deletions in the X chromosome were detected by prometaphase banding with specific attention paid to the sites of the gene(s) in males who had from one to up to four different X linked disorders plus mental retardation. Furthermore, the detection of balanced translocations in probands with disorders caused by autosomal dominant or X linked genes has allowed a better insight into the localisation of these genes. In some females with X linked disorders, balanced X; autosomal translocations have allowed the localisation of X linked genes at the breakpoint on the X chromosome. Balanced autosome; autosome translocations segregating with autosomal dominant conditions have provided some clues to the gene location of these conditions. In two

  19. Deletion of 150 kb in the minimal DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome critical region in mouse.

    PubMed

    Kimber, W L; Hsieh, P; Hirotsune, S; Yuva-Paylor, L; Sutherland, H F; Chen, A; Ruiz-Lozano, P; Hoogstraten-Miller, S L; Chien, K R; Paylor, R; Scambler, P J; Wynshaw-Boris, A

    1999-11-01

    Deletions or rearrangements of human chromosome 22q11 lead to a variety of related clinical syndromes such as DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velo--cardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). In addition, patients with 22q11 deletions have an increased incidence of schizophrenia and several studies have mapped susceptibility loci for schizophrenia to this region. Human molecular genetic studies have so far failed to identify the crucial genes or disruption mechanisms that result in these disorders. We have used gene targeting in the mouse to delete a defined region within the conserved DGS critical region (DGCR) on mouse chromosome 16 to prospectively investigate the role of the mouse DGCR in 22q11 syndromes. The deletion spans a conserved portion ( approximately 150 kb) of the proximal region of the DGCR, containing at least seven genes ( Znf74l, Idd, Tsk1, Tsk2, Es2, Gscl and Ctp ). Mice heterozygous for this deletion display no findings of DGS/VCFS in either inbred or mixed backgrounds. However, heterozygous mice display an increase in prepulse inhibition of the startle response, a manifestation of sensorimotor gating that is reduced in humans with schizophrenia. Homozygous deleted mice die soon after implantation, demonstrating that the deleted region contains genes essential for early post-implantation embryonic development. These results suggest that heterozygous deletion of this portion of the DGCR is sufficient for sensorimotor gating abnormalities, but not sufficient to produce the common features of DGS/VCFS in the mouse.

  20. CO and NO bind to Fe(II) DiGeorge critical region 8 heme but do not restore primary microRNA processing activity.

    PubMed

    Hines, Judy P; Smith, Aaron T; Jacob, Jose P; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Barr, Ian; Rodgers, Kenton R; Guo, Feng; Burstyn, Judith N

    2016-12-01

    The RNA-binding heme protein DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) and its ribonuclease partner Drosha cleave primary transcripts of microRNA (pri-miRNA) as part of the canonical microRNA (miRNA) processing pathway. Previous studies show that bis-cysteine thiolate-coordinated Fe(III) DGCR8 supports pri-miRNA processing activity, while Fe(II) DGCR8 does not. In this study, we further characterized Fe(II) DGCR8 and tested whether CO or NO might bind and restore pri-miRNA processing activity to the reduced protein. Fe(II) DGCR8 RNA-binding heme domain (Rhed) undergoes a pH-dependent transition from 6-coordinate to 5-coordinate, due to protonation and loss of a lysine ligand; the ligand bound throughout the pH change is a histidine. Fe(II) Rhed binds CO and NO from 6- and 5-coordinate states, forming common CO and NO adducts at all pHs. Fe(II)-CO Rhed is 6-coordinate, low-spin, and pH insensitive with the histidine ligand retained, suggesting that the protonatable lysine ligand has been replaced by CO. Fe(II)-NO Rhed is 5-coordinate and pH insensitive. Fe(II)-NO also forms slowly upon reaction of Fe(III) Rhed with excess NO via a stepwise process. Heme reduction by NO is rate-limiting, and the rate would be negligible at physiological NO concentrations. Importantly, in vitro pri-miRNA processing assays show that both CO- and NO-bound DGCR8 species are inactive. Fe(II), Fe(II)-CO, and Fe(II)-NO Rhed do not bear either of the cysteine ligands found in the Fe(III) state. These data support a model in which the bis-cysteine thiolate ligand environment of Fe(III) DGCR8 is necessary for establishing proper pri-miRNA binding and enabling processing activity.

  1. Pisa Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Michel, Sáenz Farret; Arias Carrión, Oscar; Correa, Thalia Estefania Sánchez; Alejandro, Pellene Luis; Micheli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Lateral trunk flexion is often seen in patients with Parkinson disease, sometimes coming on as a subacute phenomenon associated with medication adjustments, and in others with gradual onset that seems related to a neurodegenerative process related to the evolution of the disease.Either acute or subacute presentations seem to be pure abnormalities in the coronal plane and are usually reversible. However, a chronic form occurs often in a combined fashion with anteroposterior flexion (camptocormia), improves only partially, remains stable, or even worsens over time.The acute/subacute phenotype is the condition originally named as Pisa syndrome (PS).The pathophysiology of PS remains poorly understood, and a cholinergic-dopaminergic imbalance has been suggested as being involved in the cause of this disorder. The role of other neurotransmitters and how they become dysfunctional in PS remains to be elucidated.Specific treatments, other than discontinuing the medications responsible for the disorder, whenever possible, are undeveloped because of the unknown etiology.

  2. Identification, characterization, and precise mapping of a human gene encoding a novel membrane-spanning protein from the 22q11 region deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, H; Morrow, B; Saint-Jore, B; Puech, A; Das Gupta, R; Patanjali, S R; Skoultchi, A; Weissman, S M; Kucherlapati, R

    1997-06-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) are characterized by a wide spectrum of phenotypes including cleft palate, conotruncal heart defects, and facial dysmorphology. Hemizygosity for a portion of chromosome 22q11 has been detected in 80-85% of VCFS/DGS patients. Using a cDNA selection protocol, we have identified a new gene, TMVCF (transmembrane protein deleted in VCFS), which maps to the deleted interval. The genomic locus is positioned between polymorphic markers D22S944 and D22S941. TMVCF encodes a small protein of 219 amino acids that is predicted to contain two membrane-spanning domains. TMVCF is expressed abundantly in human adult lung, heart, and skeletal muscle, and transcripts can be detected at least as early as Day 9 of mouse development.

  3. Partial Torus Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang, J.

    2010-05-01

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its instability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, the partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches one, the critical index goes to a maximum value that depends on the distribution of the external magnetic field. We demonstrate that the partial torus instability helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux rope CME.

  4. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy for bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas.

    PubMed

    Domino, Jeffrey P; Chionh, Siok Bee; Lomanto, Davide; Katara, Avinash N; Rauff, Abu; Cheah, Wei-Keat

    2007-04-01

    Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol. She underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; total right and partial left adrenalectomies. At 2-year follow-up, she is maintained on low-dose fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone, and without recurrence of hypercorticolism. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a feasible option for this rare condition; however, long-term follow-up is needed to determine her total independence from steroid usage.

  5. Dressler's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome may also be called postpericardiotomy syndrome, post-myocardial infarction syndrome and post-cardiac injury syndrome. With recent ... Dressler's syndrome. References LeWinter MM. Pericardial complications of myocardial infarction. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 27, ...

  6. Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: report of five families with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leana-Cox, J; Pangkanon, S; Eanet, K R; Curtin, M S; Wulfsberg, E A

    1996-11-11

    The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (68%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22) (q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term "DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DG/VCF) syndrome" in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names.

  7. Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: Report of five families with a review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Leana-Cox, J.; Pangkanon, Suthipong; Eanet, K.R.

    1996-11-11

    The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (681%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22)(q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term {open_quotes}DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DGNCF) syndrome{close_quotes} in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  9. Twisted partially pure spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Rafael; Tellez, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the relationship between orthogonal complex structures and pure spinors, we define twisted partially pure spinors in order to characterize spinorially subspaces of Euclidean space endowed with a complex structure.

  10. Partially coherent nonparaxial beams.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kailiang; Lü, Baida

    2004-04-15

    The concept of a partially coherent nonparaxial beam is proposed. A closed-form expression for the propagation of nonparaxial Gaussian Schell model (GSM) beams in free space is derived and applied to study the propagation properties of nonparaxial GSM beams. It is shown that for partially coherent nonparaxial beams a new parameter f(sigma) has to be introduced, which together with the parameter f, determines the beam nonparaxiality.

  11. PARTIAL TORUS INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie

    2010-07-20

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  12. Partial Torus Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang, Jie

    2010-07-01

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  13. Jacobsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mattina, Teresa; Perrotta, Concetta Simona; Grossfeld, Paul

    2009-03-07

    Jacobsen syndrome is a MCA/MR contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. To date, over 200 cases have been reported. The prevalence has been estimated at 1/100,000 births, with a female/male ratio 2:1. The most common clinical features include pre- and postnatal physical growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (skull deformities, hypertelorism, ptosis, coloboma, downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, short nose, v-shaped mouth, small ears, low set posteriorly rotated ears). Abnormal platelet function, thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia are usually present at birth. Patients commonly have malformations of the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, central nervous system and skeleton. Ocular, hearing, immunological and hormonal problems may be also present. The deletion size ranges from approximately 7 to 20 Mb, with the proximal breakpoint within or telomeric to subband 11q23.3 and the deletion extending usually to the telomere. The deletion is de novo in 85% of reported cases, and in 15% of cases it results from an unbalanced segregation of a familial balanced translocation or from other chromosome rearrangements. In a minority of cases the breakpoint is at the FRA11B fragile site. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings (intellectual deficit, facial dysmorphic features and thrombocytopenia) and confirmed by cytogenetics analysis. Differential diagnoses include Turner and Noonan syndromes, and acquired thrombocytopenia due to sepsis. Prenatal diagnosis of 11q deletion is possible by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and cytogenetic analysis. Management is multi-disciplinary and requires evaluation by general pediatrician, pediatric cardiologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist. Auditory tests, blood tests, endocrine and immunological assessment and follow-up should be offered to all patients. Cardiac malformations can be very severe

  14. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E. ); Duncan, A.M.V. ); Budarf, M.L.; Emanuel, B.S.; Sellinger, B. ); Siegel-Bartelt, J. ); Greenberg, C.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study the authors have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A new case of a severe clinical phenotype of the cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Denavit, T Martin; Malan, V; Grillon, C; Sanlaville, D; Ardalan, A; Jacquemont, M L; Burglen, L; Taillemite, J L; Portnoi, M F

    2004-01-01

    A new case of severe clinical phenotype of the cat-eye syndrome: We report on a female infant with severe clinical phenotype of Cat-Eye Syndrome (CES). At birth, she had respiratory distress and marked hypotonia. Physical examination showed major craniofacial anomalies including microcephaly, bilateral total absence of the external ears, hypertelorism, bilateral ocular coloboma of iris and micrognathia. In addition, she had anal stenosis, a patent ductus arteriosus and intra- and extra- hepatic biliary atresia. She deteriorated with the development of bradycardia. She died at age one month of cardiac failure. Cytogenetic analysis of the proband showed an extra de novo small bisatelllited marker chromosome in all cells examined. Molecular cytogenetic analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified the marker as a CES chromosome. Thus, the patient's karyotype was: 47, XX, +idic(22)(pter-->q11.2 ::q11.2-->pter). The duplication breakpoints giving rise to the CES chromosome were distal to the DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) locus 22q11.2. The marker could be classed as a type 11 symmetrical (10). According to a recent review of CES literature (1) only 41 % of the CES patients have the combination of iris coloboma, anal anomalies and preauricular anomalies. Almost 60% are hard to recognize by their phenotype alone. Only twelve patients showed a severe clinical phenotype leading to the death of the child. This phenotypic variability increases the difficulties of genetic counseling.

  16. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mears, A J; Duncan, A M; Budarf, M L; Emanuel, B S; Sellinger, B; Siegel-Bartelt, J; Greenberg, C R; McDermid, H E

    1994-07-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study we have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2.

  17. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Mears, A. J.; Duncan, A. M.; Budarf, M. L.; Emanuel, B. S.; Sellinger, B.; Siegel-Bartelt, J.; Greenberg, C. R.; McDermid, H. E.

    1994-01-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study we have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7912885

  18. Analysis of 22q11.2 deletions by FISH in a series of velocardiofacial syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnan, J.B.; Golabi, M.; Lebo, R.V.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions in chromosome 22 band q11.2 have been associated with velocardiofacial (VCF or Shprintzen) syndrome and the DiGeorge anomaly. A study of VCF patients evaluated at the UCSF Medical Center was undertaken to correlate disease phenotype with presence or absence of a deletion. Patients referred for this study had at least two of the following: dysmorphic facial features, frequent ear infections or hearing loss, palate abnormalities, thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcemia, congenital heart defect, hypotonia, and growth or language delay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the DiGeorge critical region probe N25 was used to classify patients according to the presence or absence of a deletion in 22q11.2, and the results were compared to clinical characteristics. We have completed studies on 58 patients with features of VCF. Twenty-one patients (36%) were found to have a deletion in 22q11.2 by FISH. A retrospective study of archived slides from 14 patients originally studied only by prometaphase GTG banding found six patients had a deletion detected by FISH; of these, only two had a microscopically visible chromosome deletion. Our study of 11 sets of parents of children with the deletion found two clinically affected mothers with the deletion, including one with three of three children clinically affected. A few patients who did not fit the classical VCF description had a 22q11.2 deletion detected by FISH. These included one patient with both cleft lip and palate, and another with developmental delay and typical facial features but no cardiac or palate abnormalities. Both patients with the DiGeorge anomaly as part of VCF had the deletion. On the other hand, a number of patients diagnosed clinically with classical VCF did not have a detectable deletion. This raises the question whether they represent a subset of patients with a defect of 22q11.2 not detected by the N25 probe, or whether they represent a phenocopy of VCF.

  19. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... example, polycystic ovary syndrome can cause menstrual disturbances, weight gain beginning in adolescence, excess hair growth, and impaired insulin action and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome-a combination of ...

  20. Confirmation that the velo-cardio-facial syndrome is associated with haplo-insufficiency of genes at chromosome 22q11.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D; Goldberg, R; Wilson, D; Lindsay, E; Carey, A; Goodship, J; Burn, J; Cross, I; Shprintzen, R J; Scambler, P J

    1993-02-01

    The velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and DiGeorge sequence (DGS) have many similar phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that in some cases they share a common cause. DGS is known to be associated with monosomy for a region of chromosome 22q11, and DNA probes have been shown to detect these deletions even in patients with apparently normal chromosomes. Twelve patients with VCFS were examined and monosomy for a region of 22q11 was found in all patients. The DNA probes used in this study could not distinguish the VCFS locus and the DGS locus, indicating that the genes involved in these haploinsufficiencies are closely linked, and may be identical. The phenotypic variation of expression in VCFS and DGS may indicate that patients without the full spectrum of VCFS abnormalities but with some manifestations of the disorder may also have 22q11 deletions.

  1. Targeted treatment of migrating partial seizures of infancy with quinidine.

    PubMed

    Bearden, David; Strong, Alanna; Ehnot, Jessica; DiGiovine, Marissa; Dlugos, Dennis; Goldberg, Ethan M

    2014-09-01

    Migrating partial seizures of infancy is an early onset epileptic encephalopathy syndrome that is typically resistant to treatment. The most common cause is a gain of function mutation in the potassium channel KCNT1. The antiarrhythmic drug quinidine is a partial antagonist of KCNT1 and hence may be a candidate drug for treatment of this condition. We report the case of a child with migrating partial seizures of infancy secondary to an activating mutation in KCNT1 treated with quinidine. Treatment with quinidine was correlated with a marked reduction in seizure frequency and improved psychomotor development.

  2. Concurrent Van der Woude syndrome and Turner syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Los, Evan; Baines, Hayley; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of Van der Woude syndrome are caused by a mutation to interferon regulatory factor 6 on chromosome 1. Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome in girls. We describe a unique case of the two syndromes occurring concurrently though apparently independently in a girl with Van der Woude syndrome diagnosed at birth and Turner syndrome at 14 years 9 months. Short stature was initially misattributed to Van der Woude syndrome and pituitary insufficiency associated with clefts before correctly diagnosing Turner syndrome. We discuss the prevalence of delayed diagnosis of Turner syndrome, the rarity of reports of concurrent autosomal chromosome mutation and sex chromosome deletion, as well as the need to consider the diagnosis of Turner syndrome in all girls with short stature regardless of prior medical history.

  3. Concurrent Van der Woude syndrome and Turner syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Los, Evan; Baines, Hayley; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of Van der Woude syndrome are caused by a mutation to interferon regulatory factor 6 on chromosome 1. Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome in girls. We describe a unique case of the two syndromes occurring concurrently though apparently independently in a girl with Van der Woude syndrome diagnosed at birth and Turner syndrome at 14 years 9 months. Short stature was initially misattributed to Van der Woude syndrome and pituitary insufficiency associated with clefts before correctly diagnosing Turner syndrome. We discuss the prevalence of delayed diagnosis of Turner syndrome, the rarity of reports of concurrent autosomal chromosome mutation and sex chromosome deletion, as well as the need to consider the diagnosis of Turner syndrome in all girls with short stature regardless of prior medical history. PMID:28228961

  4. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  8. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  9. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  10. Partial fasciectomy for Dupuytren's contractures.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Spyridonos, Sarantis G; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A; Antonopoulos, Dimitrios; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2009-01-01

    One hundred ninety-six patients with Dupuytren's contractures were treated by partial fasciectomy and adequate postoperative rehabilitation. All patients had flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint of >20 degrees ; 93 patients had flexion contracture of the associated metacarpophalangeal joint of >30 degrees ; 143 patients had risk factors for Dupuytren's disease. Primary skin closure and splinting were done in all patients. Range of motion was begun by the 1st week. Splinting was discontinued by the 2nd week, followed by night-time splinting until the 8th week. The mean follow-up was 6.6 years (range, 2-9 years). At the latest examination, 72.5% of the patients had complete range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints; 20.2% had 5 degrees -10 degrees of extension deficit and 7.3% had recurrent contractures of >20 degrees at the proximal interphalangeal joint and were subjected to reoperation. Complications included digital neurovascular injury in 5%, complex regional pain syndrome in 10.1%, and wound-healing problems and superficial infections in 15.1%.

  11. Partially strong WW scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung Kingman; Chiang Chengwei; Yuan Tzuchiang

    2008-09-01

    What if only a light Higgs boson is discovered at the CERN LHC? Conventional wisdom tells us that the scattering of longitudinal weak gauge bosons would not grow strong at high energies. However, this is generally not true. In some composite models or general two-Higgs-doublet models, the presence of a light Higgs boson does not guarantee complete unitarization of the WW scattering. After partial unitarization by the light Higgs boson, the WW scattering becomes strongly interacting until it hits one or more heavier Higgs bosons or other strong dynamics. We analyze how LHC experiments can reveal this interesting possibility of partially strong WW scattering.

  12. Investigation of TBX1 gene deletion in Iranian children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: correlation with conotruncal heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Hamid; Salehi, Mansoor; Sedghi, Maryam; Abdali, Hossein; Nouri, Nayereh; Sadri, Leyli; Hosseinzadeh, Majid; Vakili, Bahareh; Lotfi, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is the result of a microdeletion in chromosome 22q11.2 in over 90% of cases. DGS is the second most frequent syndrome after Down syndrome and has an incidence of 1/4000 births. Unequal crossover between low-copy repeats, on the proximal part of the long arm of chromosome 22, usually results in a 3 Mb deletion in one of the chromosome 22 and a reciprocal and similarly sized duplication on the other one. Several studies have indicated that TBX1 (T-box 1) haploinsufficiency is responsible for many of the phenotypic traits of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Conotruncal heart defects (CTDs) are present in 75–85% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in Western countries. Methods Among 78 patients fulfilling the criteria for DGS diagnosed by the fluorescence in situ hybridisation test, 24 had 22q11.2 deletion. Screening for TBX1 gene deletion was performed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Results Our results revealed that of 24 patients with TBX1 gene deletion, 12 had CTDs while 12 did not show any heart defects. Conclusions Our findings indicate that other genes or gene interactions may play a role in penetrance or the severity of heart disease among patients with DGS. PMID:27326128

  13. Kabuki syndrome is not caused by a microdeletion in the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial chromosomal region within 22q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Zackai, E.H.; Kaplan, P.; Driscoll, D.A.; Niikawa, Norio

    1996-10-16

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) or Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome is a sporadic disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, developmental delay, mild to moderate retardation, and a characteristic facial appearance. Cardiovascular defects, clefts of the lip, palate, or both, and musculoskeletal abnormalities occur in about 50% of patients with KS. The cause of this multiple congenital anomaly syndrome is unknown, and investigators have speculated that KS is a contiguous gene-deletion syndrome. Based on the presence of congenital heart defects in patients with KS, it was suggested that this disorder might share a common cause with the 22q11 deletion syndromes. A preliminary study of 2 patients with KS failed to detect a deletion within 22q11. We report the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization with cosmid probes for loci D22S75 (N25) and D22S259 (1132) within the DiGeorge chromosomal region (DGCR) on metaphase spreads from an additional 5 patients, 2 non-Japanese and 3 Japanese, with KS. None of the 5 had deletions at either locus. It is unlikely that KS is caused by a deletion within 22q11. 16 refs.

  14. Maternal homocystinuria and Moebius syndrome? Vascular aetiology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Anthony, M Y

    2011-02-14

    A case of Moebius syndrome is reported in an infant of a mother known to have pyridoxine-unresponsive homocystinuria. The authors suggest that Moebius syndrome could result from early vascular insufficiency or disruption occurring early in development related to maternal homocystinuria. Moebius syndrome consists of congenital complete or partial facial nerve palsy with or without paralysis of other cranial nerves and often in association with other malformations of the limbs and orofacial structures, but usually without gross structural brain abnormalities.

  15. [Scimitar syndrome--case report].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, Liliana; Radomyski, Adam; Burakowska, Barbara; Mojkowski, Włodzimierz; Torbicki, Adam

    2004-04-01

    Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly. This syndrome is characterized by partial or complete anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior vena cava. There is a characteristic abnormal radiographic shadow which descends along the right cardiac border (scimitar sign). We examined 71-year old woman with severe pulmonary hypertension due to a large shunt between pulmonary veins and right atrium. Other cause of pulmonary hypertension is atrial septum defect. Our patient required permanent pacemaker implantation for tachy-brady syndrome.

  16. SNP-based Microdeletion and Aneuploidy RegisTry (SMART)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    22q11 Deletion Syndrome; DiGeorge Syndrome; Trisomy 21; Trisomy 18; Trisomy 13; Monosomy X; Sex Chromosome Abnormalities; Cri-du-Chat Syndrome; Angelman Syndrome; Prader-Willi Syndrome; 1p36 Deletion Syndrome

  17. [A case of partial 1p36.1 deletion and partial trisomy 6p diagnosed by karyotype].

    PubMed

    Fernández Pineda, Monica; Ramírez-Cheyne, Julián; Isaza, Carolina; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    The deletion of chromosomal region 1p36 is one of the most common sub-telomeric microdeletion syndromes and has distinctive dysmorphic features. On the other hand, partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 6 is a rare chromosomal abnormality with a variable phenotype.

  18. Partial polarizer filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A birefringent filter module comprises, in seriatum. (1) an entrance polarizer, (2) a first birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the entrance polarizer, (3) a partial polarizer responsive to optical energy exiting the first polarizer, (4) a second birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the partial polarizer, and (5) an exit polarizer. The first and second birefringent crystals have fast axes disposed + or -45 deg from the high transmitivity direction of the partial polarizer. Preferably, the second crystal has a length 1/2 that of the first crystal and the high transmitivity direction of the partial polarizer is nine times as great as the low transmitivity direction. To provide tuning, the polarizations of the energy entering the first crystal and leaving the second crystal are varied by either rotating the entrance and exit polarizers, or by sandwiching the entrance and exit polarizers between pairs of half wave plates that are rotated relative to the polarizers. A plurality of the filter modules may be cascaded.

  19. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  20. Partial annular pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Gunjan; Mittal, Amit; Singal, Rikki; Singal, Samita

    2016-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a developmental anomaly that can be associated with other conditions such as Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and Hirschsprung disease. A band of pancreatic tissue, in continuity with the pancreatic head, completely or incompletely encircles the descending duodenum, sometimes assuming a “crocodile jaw” configuration. We present the case of an adult who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting and was found to have annular pancreas. PMID:27695176

  1. A novel mutation F826L in the human androgen receptor in partial androgen insensitivity syndrome; increased NH2-/COOH-terminal domain interaction and TIF2 co-activation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hao Yun; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W; Pang, Kar Lok; van Leeuwen, Marije; van Royen, Martin E; Molier, Michel; Berrevoets, Cor A; Dooijes, Dennis; Dubbink, Hendrikus Jan; van de Wijngaart, Dennis J; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Trapman, Jan; Kleijer, Wim J; Drop, Stenvert L S; Grootegoed, J Anton; Brinkmann, Albert O

    2008-09-24

    A novel mutation F826L located within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR) was investigated. This mutation was found in a boy with severe penoscrotal hypospadias (classified as 46,XY DSD). The AR mutant F826L appeared to be indistinguishable from the wild-type AR, with respect to ligand binding affinity, transcriptional activation of MMTV-luciferase and ARE2-TATA-luciferase reporter genes, protein level in genital skin fibroblasts (GSFs), and sub-cellular distribution in transfected cells. However, an at least two-fold higher NH2-/COOH-terminal domain interaction was found in luciferase and GST pull-down assays. A two-fold increase was also observed for TIF2 (transcription intermediary factor 2) co-activation of the AR F826L COOH-terminal domain. This increase could not be explained by a higher stability of the mutant protein, which was within wild-type range. Repression of transactivation by the nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) was not affected by the AR F826L mutation. The observed properties of AR F826L would be in agreement with an increased activity rather than with a partial defective AR transcriptional activation. It is concluded that the penoscrotal hypospadias in the present case is caused by an as yet unknown mechanism, which still may involve the mutant AR.

  2. Moebius syndrome. Case report was a 30-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Morello, D C; Converse, J M

    1977-09-01

    Moebius syndrome is uncommon, as reported in the literature. A patient with Moebius syndrome is reported, showing a 30-year follow-up after initial surgical treatment by bilateral partial transfers of the Masseter muscles.

  3. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    PubMed Central

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter. PMID:25744080

  4. Laparoscopic partial splenic resection.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Pfeifer, J; Schauer, C; Kronberger, L; Rabl, H; Ranftl, G; Hauser, H; Bahadori, K

    1995-04-01

    Twenty domestic pigs with an average weight of 30 kg were subjected to laparoscopic partial splenic resection with the aim of determining the feasibility, reliability, and safety of this procedure. Unlike the human spleen, the pig spleen is perpendicular to the body's long axis, and it is long and slender. The parenchyma was severed through the middle third, where the organ is thickest. An 18-mm trocar with a 60-mm Endopath linear cutter was used for the resection. The tissue was removed with a 33-mm trocar. The operation was successfully concluded in all animals. No capsule tears occurred as a result of applying the stapler. Optimal hemostasis was achieved on the resected edges in all animals. Although these findings cannot be extended to human surgery without reservations, we suggest that diagnostic partial resection and minor cyst resections are ideal initial indications for this minimally invasive approach.

  5. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  6. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-03-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  7. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  8. Activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a commonly used coagulation assay that is easy to perform, is affordable, and is therefore performed in most coagulation laboratories, both clinical and research, worldwide. The APTT is based on the principle that in citrated plasma, the addition of a platelet substitute, factor XII activator, and CaCl2 allows for formation of a stable clot. The time required for the formation of a stable clot is recorded in seconds and represents the actual APTT result.

  9. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Takami, H; Tajima, G; Sasaki, Y; Takayama, J; Kurihara, H; Niimi, M

    2002-01-01

    Since corticosteroids are indispensable hormones, partial or cortical-sparing adrenalectomies may be adopted for the surgical treatment of adrenal diseases. In this article, we describe the technique and results of these procedures. Laparoscopic partial or cortical-sparing adrenalectomy has been performed in 10 patients. Seven cases had an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and three had a pheochromocytoma. Three cases with an APA and a case with a pheochromocytoma had tumors located far from the adrenal central vein, and the vein could be preserved. Four cases with an APA and two with a pheochromocytoma had tumors located close to the adrenal central vein, and it was necessary to section the central vein to resect them. All endoscopic procedures were performed successfully. There were no postoperative complications. At follow-up, adrenal 131I-adosterol scintigrams showed the preservation of remnant adrenal function in all patients. Laparoscopic partial or cortical-sparing adrenal surgery was safely performed, and adrenal function was preserved irrespective of whether the adrenal central vein could be preserved or not. We consider this to be a useful operative technique for selected cases.

  10. Failure to detect the 22q11.2 duplication syndrome rearrangement among patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Anna; Armengol, Lluís; Pelaez, Trini; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Gabau, Elisabeth; Estivill, Xavier; Guitart, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations have long been studied in an effort to identify susceptibility genes for schizophrenia. Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion is associated with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes (DG/VCF) and provides the most convincing evidence of an association between molecular cytogenetic abnormality and schizophrenia. In addition, this region is one of the best replicated linkage findings for schizophrenia. Recently, the reciprocal microduplication on 22q11.2 has been reported as a new syndrome. Preliminary data indicates that individuals with these duplications also suffer from neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we have investigated the appropriateness of testing schizophrenia patients for the 22q11.2 microduplication. We used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to measure copy number changes on the 22q11.2 region in a sample of 190 patients with schizophrenia. Our results corroborate the prevalence of the 22q11.2 microdeletion in patients with schizophrenia and clinical features of DG/VCFS and do not suggest an association between 22q11.2 microduplication and schizophrenia. PMID:18284679

  11. VEGFA polymorphisms and cardiovascular anomalies in 22q11 microdeletion syndrome: a case-control and family-based study.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan Francisco; Puga, Alonso R; Guzmán, M Luisa; Astete, Carmen Paz; Arriaza, Marta; Aracena, Mariana; Aravena, Teresa; Sanz, Patricia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2009-01-01

    Microdeletion 22q11 in humans causes velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes. Most patients share a common 3Mb deletion, but the clinical manifestations are very heterogeneous. Congenital heart disease is present in 50-80% of patients and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The phenotypic variability suggests the presence of modifiers. Polymorphisms in the VEGFA gene, coding for the vascular endothelial growth factor A, have been associated with non-syndromic congenital heart disease, as well as with the presence of cardiovascular anomalies in patients with microdeletion 22q11. We evaluated the association of VEGFA polymorphisms c.-2578C>A (rs699947), c.-1154G>A (rs1570360) and c.-634C>G (rs2010963) with congenital heart disease in Chilean patients with microdeletion 22q11. The study was performed using case-control and family-based association designs. We evaluated 122 patients with microdeletion 22q11 and known anatomy of the heart and great vessels, and their parents. Half the patients had congenital heart disease. We obtained no evidence of association by either method of analysis. Our results provide further evidence of the incomplete penetrance of the cardiovascular phenotype of microdeletion 22ql 1, but do not support association between VEGFA promoter polymorphisms and the presence of congenital heart disease in Chilean patients with this syndrome.

  12. Confirmation that the conotruncal anomaly face syndrome is associated with a deletion within 22q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Rumiko; Takao, Atsuyoshi; Kimura, Misa; Kondo, Chisato; Ando, Masahiko; Momma, Kazuo; Imamura, Shin-ichiro; Joh-o, Kunitaka; Ikeda, Kazuo; Nishibatake, Makoto

    1994-11-15

    The so-called {open_quotes}conotruncal anomaly face syndrome{close_quotes} (CTAFS) is characterized by a peculiar facial appearance associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), especially cardiac outflow tract defects such as tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), double outlet ring ventricle (DORV), and truncus arteriosus (TAC). CTAFS and the DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) have many similar phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that they share a common cause. In many cases DGA is known to be associated with monosomy for a region of chromosome 22q11.2. Fifty CTAFS patients and 10 DGA patients, 11 parents couples and 10 mothers of CTAFS patients, and 3 parents couples and 2 mothers of DGA patients were examined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the N25 (D22S75) DGCR probe (Oncor). Monosomy for a region of 22q11.2 was found in 42 CTAFS, 9 DGA, 4 mothers, and 1 father who had CTAF without CHD. The remaining 8 CTAFS patients, 1 DGA patient and 1 mother who had questionable CTAF without CHD, showed no such chromosome abnormality. For the control, 60 patients who had CHD without CTAF or other know malformation syndromes were examined and had no deletion of 22q11.2. Therefore, we conclude that CTAFS is a part of the CATCH 22 syndrome; cardiac defects, abnormal faces, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia (CATCH) resulting from 22q11.2 deletions. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Identification of a new human catenin gene family member (ARVCF) from the region deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, H; O'Donnell, H; DasGupta, R; Halford, S; St Jore, B; Puech, A; Parimoo, S; Morrow, B; Skoultchi, A; Weissman, S M; Scambler, P; Kucherlapati, R

    1997-04-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) are characterized by a wide spectrum of phenotypes, including conotruncal heart defects, cleft palate, and facial dysmorphology. Hemizygosity for a portion of chromosome 22q11 has been detected in 80-85% of VCFS/DGS patients. Both syndromes are thought to be the result of a developmental field defect. Using two independent gene-isolation procedures, we isolated a new catenin family member termed ARVCF (armadillo repeat gene deleted in VCFS) from the interval deleted in VCFS. ARVCF encodes a protein of 962 amino acids that contains a coiled coil domain and 10 tandem armadillo repeats. The primary structure of the protein is most closely related to the murine catenin p120CAS, which suggests a role for ARVCF in protein-protein interactions at adherens junctions. ARVCF is expressed ubiquitously in all fetal and adult tissues examined. This gene is hemizygous in all VCFS patients with interstitial deletions. Based on the physical location and potential functions of ARVCF, we suggest that hemizygosity at this locus may play a role in the etiology of some of the phenotypes associated with VCFS.

  14. Cognitive Profile of Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, David; Kent, Jamie Scaletta; Kesler, Shelli

    2009-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a relatively common neurogenetic disorder characterized by complete or partial monosomy-X in a phenotypic female. TS is associated with a cognitive profile that typically includes intact intellectual function and verbal abilities with relative weaknesses in visual-spatial, executive, and social cognitive domains. In this…

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Nager syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to the partial or complete absence of a bone called the radius. People with Nager syndrome sometimes have difficulty fully extending their elbows. This condition can also cause bone abnormalities in the legs and feet. Less commonly, ... What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What ...

  16. CATCH 22 syndrome: report of 7 infants with follow-up data and review of the recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11.

    PubMed

    Sergi, C; Serpi, M; Müller-Navia, J; Schnabel, P A; Hagl, S; Otto, H F; Ulmer, H E

    1999-06-01

    CATCH 22 is a medical acronym for Cardiac defects, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, Cleft palate, and Hypocalcemia, and a variable deletion on chromosome 22. The deletion within the chromosome region of 22q11 may occur in patients with three well-described dysmorphologic+ cardiological syndromes: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). We report in detail seven infants with a deletion of the locus 22q11 showing overlapping clinical features of DGS and CTAFS with complex congenital heart defects (double outlet right ventricle, atresia or stenosis of the pulmonary valve, atrial and ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, arcus aortae dexter, and persistence of the left superior vena cava). A homograft was implanted between the right ventricle and the main stem of the pulmonary artery in 2 patients, while a balloon valvuloplastic of the pulmonary valve was performed in one patient only. Pulmonary hemorrhage, acute hypoxia, and Aspergillus pneumonia were the complications. Death occurred in three out of seven patients. Recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11 are described. Since the locus 22q11 is highly heterogeneous, the CATCH 22 acronym should be used and temporarily the old eponyms should be abandoned waiting for the identification of the different genes.

  17. Partial Southwest Elevation Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (with Section of Courtyard) (Parts 1 & 2) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  18. Laparoscopic gonedectomy in a case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhaskararao, G; Himabindu, Y; Nayak, Samir Rajan; Sriharibabu, M

    2014-07-01

    Complete Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a disorder of hormone resistance characterized by a female phenotype in an individual with an XY karyotype. The pathogenesis of CAIS involves a defective androgen receptor gene located on X-chromosome at Xq11-12and end organ insensitivity to androgens, although androgen concentrations are appropriate for the age of the patient. There are three major types of androgen insensitivity syndrome: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, minimal androgen insensitivity syndrome, and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. Management of androgen insensitivity syndrome includes multidisciplinary approach and involves gonedectomy to avoid gonadal tumors in later life. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and psychological support are required in long-term basis.

  19. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  20. Alport syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS) -- This is the rarest type. Males and females have equally severe disease. Symptoms KIDNEYS With all types of Alport syndrome the kidneys are affected. The tiny blood vessels in the glomeruli of the kidneys are ...

  1. Reye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome has occurred in children who were given aspirin when they had chickenpox or the flu. Reye syndrome has become very rare. This is because aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in ...

  2. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  3. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... will order several other tests like blood tests, EEG, and brain scans. How Is Tourette Syndrome Treated? ... connected to Tourette syndrome, like ADHD and anxiety. Stress or being upset can make the tics worse, ...

  4. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    LEOPARD syndrome is a very rare inherited disorder in which there are problems with the skin, face, ... LEOPARD syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. This means the person only needs the abnormal ...

  5. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... help with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy ... can lead to infection, anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are ...

  6. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Like for Kids With Marfan Syndrome? en español Síndrome de Marfan Evan couldn't wait for school ... for Marfan syndrome runs in families, getting passed down to children from parents who have the disease. ...

  7. Edwards' syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Doreen; Dearmun, Annette

    2016-12-08

    Edwards' syndrome is a serious genetic condition that affects fetal cellular functions, tissue development and organogenesis. Most infants with the syndrome are female, but there is no race predominance.

  8. Proteus Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Cash Donation Life Insurance Gift Matching Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome ... approved by the Proteus Syndrome Foundation Assessment and management of the orthopedic and other complications of Proteus ...

  9. Apert Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Datta, Saikat; Saha, Sandip; Kar, Arnab; Mondal, Souvonik; Basu, Syamantak

    2014-09-01

    Apert syndrome is one of the craniosynostosis syndromes which, due to its association with other skeletal anomalies, is also known as acrocephalosyndactyly. It is a rare congenital anomaly which stands out from other craniosynostosis due to its characteristic skeletal presentations.

  10. Paternalism and partial autonomy.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, O

    1984-01-01

    A contrast is often drawn between standard adult capacities for autonomy, which allow informed consent to be given or withheld, and patients' reduced capacities, which demand paternalistic treatment. But patients may not be radically different from the rest of us, in that all human capacities for autonomous action are limited. An adequate account of paternalism and the role that consent and respect for persons can play in medical and other practice has to be developed within an ethical theory that does not impose an idealised picture of unlimited autonomy but allows for the variable and partial character of actual human autonomy. PMID:6520849

  11. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  12. Fraser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalpana Kumari, M K; Kamath, Sulata; Mysorekar, Vijaya V; Nandini, G

    2008-01-01

    Fraser syndrome or cryptophthalmos is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by major features such as cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be made on clinical examination and perinatal autopsy. We present the autopsy findings of a rare case of Fraser syndrome in a male infant.

  13. Acute renal injury after partial hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Luis Alberto Batista; Bredt, Luis Cesar; Cipriani, Raphael Flavio Fachini

    2016-01-01

    Currently, partial hepatectomy is the treatment of choice for a wide variety of liver and biliary conditions. Among the possible complications of partial hepatectomy, acute kidney injury (AKI) should be considered as an important cause of increased morbidity and postoperative mortality. Difficulties in the data analysis related to postoperative AKI after liver resections are mainly due to the multiplicity of factors to be considered in the surgical patients, moreover, there is no consensus of the exact definition of AKI after liver resection in the literature, which hampers comparison and analysis of the scarce data published on the subject. Despite this multiplicity of risk factors for postoperative AKI after partial hepatectomy, there are main factors that clearly contribute to its occurrence. First factor relates to large blood losses with renal hypoperfusion during the operation, second factor relates to the occurrence of post-hepatectomy liver failure with consequent distributive circulatory changes and hepatorenal syndrome. Eventually, patients can have more than one factor contributing to post-operative AKI, and frequently these combinations of acute insults can be aggravated by sepsis or exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. PMID:27478539

  14. Is Titan Partially Differentiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, G.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The recent measurement of the gravity coefficients from the Radio Doppler data of the Cassini spacecraft has improved our knowledge of the interior structure of Titan (Rappaport et al. 2008 AGU, P21A-1343). The measured gravity field of Titan is dominated by near hydrostatic quadrupole components. We have used the measured gravitational coefficients, thermal models and the hydrostatic equilibrium theory to derive Titan's interior structure. The axial moment of inertia gives us an indication of the degree of the interior differentiation. The inferred axial moment of inertia, calculated using the quadrupole gravitational coefficients and the Radau-Darwin approximation, indicates that Titan is partially differentiated. If Titan is partially differentiated then the interior must avoid melting of the ice during its evolution. This suggests a relatively late formation of Titan to avoid the presence of short-lived radioisotopes (Al-26). This also suggests the onset of convection after accretion to efficiently remove the heat from the interior. The outer layer is likely composed mainly of water in solid phase. Thermal modeling indicates that water could be present also in liquid phase forming a subsurface ocean between an outer ice I shell and a high pressure ice layer. Acknowledgments: This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  16. [Autoinflammatory syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroaki; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2009-03-01

    The autoinflammatory syndromes include a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by 1) seemingly unprovoked episodes of systemic inflammations, 2) absence of high titer of autoantibody or auto-reactive T cell, and 3) inborn error of innate immunity. In this article, we will focus on the clinical features, the pathogenesis related the genetic defects, and the therapeutic strategies in the representative disorders including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), hyper-IgD with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), syndrome of pyogenic arthritis with pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA), and Blau syndrome. Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology have proceeded our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes.

  17. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and del(22q11) syndrome: a non-random association.

    PubMed Central

    Verloes, A; Curry, C; Jamar, M; Herens, C; O'Lague, P; Marks, J; Sarda, P; Blanchet, P

    1998-01-01

    Del(22q11) is a common microdeletion syndrome with an extremely variable phenotype. Besides classical manifestations, such as velocardiofacial (Shprintzen) or DiGeorge syndromes, del(22q11) syndrome may be associated with unusual but probably causally related anomalies that expand its phenotype and complicate its recognition. We report here three children with the deletion and a chronic, erosive polyarthritis resembling idiopathic cases of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Patient 1, born in 1983, initially presented with developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and severe gastro-oesophageal reflux requiring G tube feeding. From the age of 3 years, he developed JRA, which resulted in severe restrictive joint disease, osteopenia, and platyspondyly. Patient 2, born in 1976, had tetralogy of Fallot and peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. She developed slowly, had mild dysmorphic facial features, an abnormal voice, and borderline intelligence. JRA was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. The disorder followed a subacute course, with relatively mild inflammatory phenomena, but an extremely severe skeletal involvement with major osteopenia, restrictive joint disease (bilateral hip replacement), and almost complete osteolysis of the carpal and tarsal bones with phalangeal synostoses, leading to major motor impairment and confinement to a wheelchair. Patient 3, born in 1990, has VSD, right embryo-toxon, bifid uvula, and facial dysmorphism. She developed JRA at the age of 1 year. She is not mentally retarded but has major speech delay secondary to congenital deafness inherited from her mother. In the three patients, a del(22q11) was shown by FISH analysis. These observations, and five other recently published cases, indicate that a JRA-like syndrome is a component of the del(22q11) spectrum. The deletion may be overlooked in those children with severe, chronic inflammatory disorder. Images PMID:9832043

  18. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  19. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  20. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  1. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Superiority over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shiroki, Ryoichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Fukaya, Kosuke; Kusaka, Mamoru; Natsume, Takahiro; Ichihara, Takashi; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has been proven to positively impact the postoperative quality of life for the treatment of small renal tumors, possibly leading to functional improvements. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still one of the most demanding procedures in urological surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy sometimes results in extended warm ischemic time and severe complications, such as open conversion, postoperative hemorrhage and urine leakage. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy exploits the advantages offered by the da Vinci Surgical System to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, equipped with 3-D vision and a better degree in the freedom of surgical instruments. The introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System made nephron-sparing surgery, specifically robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, safe with promising results, leading to the shortening of warm ischemic time and a reduction in perioperative complications. Even for complex and challenging tumors, robotic assistance is expected to provide the benefit of minimally-invasive surgery with safe and satisfactory renal function. Warm ischemic time is the modifiable factor during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to affect postoperative kidney function. We analyzed the predictive factors for extended warm ischemic time from our robot-assisted partial nephrectomy series. The surface area of the tumor attached to the kidney parenchyma was shown to significantly affect the extended warm ischemic time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. In cases with tumor-attached surface area more than 15 cm(2) , we should consider switching robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia if it is imperative. In Japan, a nationwide prospective study has been carried out to show the superiority of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in improving warm ischemic time and complications. By facilitating robotic technology, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

  2. The ketogenic diet in Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laux, Linda; Blackford, Robyn

    2013-08-01

    Dravet syndrome is an infantile epilepsy syndrome with intractable pleomorphic seizures, cognitive impairment, and a number of comorbidities including ataxia/gait abnormalities and behavioral issues. Antiseizure medications are only partially effective in controlling seizures. Secondary to the intractable epilepsy, patients are often on multiple antiseizure medications with significant accumulative neurotoxic side effects. Specifically for Dravet syndrome, the medical literature includes both laboratory and clinical research that supports the use of the ketogenic diet. In addition, a review of the children with Dravet syndrome who were treated with the ketogenic diet at our center was undertaken. Thirteen of the 20 children (65%) with Dravet syndrome treated with the ketogenic diet experienced a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency. The ketogenic diet is a good alternative to medication for seizure management in children with Dravet syndrome.

  3. [CENTRAL ANTICHOLINERGIC... SYNDROME?].

    PubMed

    Danilov, M S; Lebedinskii, K M

    2015-01-01

    While reading special literature in diferent languages the authors noted surprising fact: the term and concept of "central anticholinergic syndrome" is well-known as common anaesthesia complication in German (abbr: ZAS) and partially Spanish sources, but in Russian, English or French literature is used only in toxicological context. Describing etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the complication manifesting with comatose, agitated or shivering forms, the authors analyzing the reasons for such a noticeably diferent approaches to the situation reaching 10% of all the general anaesthesia cases. Probably, ZAS isn't nosologically clearly defined syndrome, but just adverse appearance of one of the fundamental general anaesthesia mechanisms? Anyway, the problem of central cholinergic activity suppression, excessive by its amplitude and/or duration, exists all over the world. German concept of ZAS allows the anaesthesiologist to resolve it on pathogenically generalized basis, while in other professional communities various symptomatic approaches seem to be more common.

  4. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  5. Comparison between true and partial hemifacial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed N; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Ojha, Junu; Bober, Karen; Cohen, Donald M; Green, James G

    2007-10-01

    Hemifacial hypertrophy (HFH) is rare and characterized by unilateral enlargement of the head and teeth. Hemifacial hypertrophy is classified as true HFH (THFH) with unilateral enlargement of the viscerocranium, and partial HFH (PHFH) in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a case of THFH and compare and contrast it with a case of PHFH. Hemifacial hypertrophy may cover a wide spectrum of defects or may involve only muscle or bone. Myohyperplasia, reported previously as a separate syndrome, may actually represent a forme fruste of PHFH or THFH. The PHFH patient lead a healthy, normal life without significant psychosocial problems and was reluctant to accept his deformity. Contrastingly, the THFH patient had significant social stigma and compromised health together with major aesthetic morbidity. Treatment planning in THFH is arduous and involves multiple modalities. Therefore, it is imperative to differentiate THFH and PHFH for better understanding and management of the condition.

  6. Partial trisomy D: a diagnostic and cytogenetic dilemma.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, M M; Rosenmann, A; Dagan, J; Legum, C

    1976-01-01

    An 18-month-old proposita with psychomotor retardation and other congenital abnormalities is presented. Chromosomal analysis of both parents proved normal. However, the karyotype of the proposita contained 47 chromosomes in both lymphocytes and cultured fibroblasts. The marker chromosome proved to be a deleted No. 14 or 15. Comparison of the reported cases of partial trisomy D indicates that a definitive clinical syndrome is not apparent in either case. Images PMID:1018316

  7. Severe epilepsy in an adult with partial trisomy 18q.

    PubMed

    del Gaudio, Luigi; Striano, Salvatore; Coppola, Antonietta

    2014-12-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common presentations associated with chromosome aberrations. Detailed descriptions of some aberration-specific epileptic and electroencephalographic (EEG) phenotypes have been reported (i.e., Angelman syndrome, ring 20 etc.). However there is limited and mixed information about the characteristics of epilepsy related to trisomy 18. Thus a common seizure phenotype has not been characterized yet. Here we describe in detail a patient with refractory epilepsy and partial 18q trisomy.

  8. Androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ieuan Arwel; Werner, Ralf; Bunch, Trevor; Hiort, Olaf

    2012-10-01

    The androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) fall within the generic category of 46,XY DSD (disorder of sex development) and present as phenotypes associated with complete or partial resistance to the action of androgens. Three categories are recognized: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS). The androgen receptor (AR) is encoded by an 8 exon gene on the X chromosome long arm. More than 800 mutations in the AR gene have been reported in AIS patients (www.androgendb.mcgill.ca/). They are distributed throughout the gene with a preponderance located in the ligand binding domain. The most severe mutations are generally associated with a CAIS phenotype, but the correlation is less defined in PAIS. CAIS presents typically as primary amenorrhoea in an adolescent female and less commonly in infancy with bilateral inguinal/labial swellings due to testes. The differential diagnosis in CAIS is limited, whereas in PAIS, numerous other causes of DSD can also produce the typical phenotype of micropenis, severe hypospadias and bifid scrotum. Management issues in CAIS involve timing of gonadectomy, appropriate hormone replacement therapy and assessment of the need for vaginal dilation or rarely, vaginal surgery. The risk of gonadal germ cell tumor is low during childhood and adolescence but increases in later adulthood. Expert psychological counseling is mandatory to manage the disconnect between chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex and to choreograph the evolving process of disclosure from late childhood through to maturity. It is implicit that management in AIS requires a multidisciplinary team and engagement with patient advocacy groups.

  9. [Autoinflammatory syndromes].

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, P; Gross, W L

    2009-06-01

    In its strict sense, the term "autoinflammatory syndromes" comprises the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPF), which are caused by mutations of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) and perturbations of the cytokine balance. These include the crypyrinopathies, familial Mediterranean fever, TNF-receptor associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), hyper-IgD and periodic syndrome (HIDS), pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, NALP12-HPF, and the Blau syndrome. The diseases are characterized by spontaneous activation of cells of the innate immunity in the absence of ligands. Autoantibodies are usually not found. HPF clinically present with recurrent fever episodes and inflammation, especially of serosal and synovial interfaces and the skin. Intriguingly, PRR-mediated autoinflammtory mechanisms also play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  10. Removable partial denture occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ivanhoe, John R; Plummer, Kevin D

    2004-07-01

    No single occlusal morphology, scheme, or material will successfully treat all patients. Many patients have been treated, both successfully and unsuccessfully, using widely varying theories of occlusion, choices of posterior tooth form, and restorative materials. Therefore, experience has demonstrated that there is no one righ r way to restore the occlusion of all patients. Partially edentulous patients have many and varied needs. Clinicians must understand the healthy physiologic gnathostomatic system and properly diagnose what is or may become pathologic. Henderson [3] stated that the occlusion of the successfully treated patient allows the masticating mechanism to carry out its physiologic functions while the temporomandibular joints, the neuromuscular mechanism, the teeth and their supporting structures remain in a good state of health. Skills in diagnosis and treatment planning are of utmost importance in treating these patients, for whom the clinician's goals are not only an esthetic and functional restoration but also a lasting harmonious state. Perhaps this was best state by DeVan [55] more than 60 years ago in his often-quoted objective. "The patient's fundamental need is the continued meticulous restoration of what is missing, since what is lost is in a sense irretrievably lost." Because it is clear that there is no one method, no one occlusal scheme, or one material that guarantees success for all patients, recommendations for consideration when establishing or reestablishing occlusal schemes have been presented. These recommendations must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic and technical skills.

  11. Partially solidified systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The evolution of magmas is a topic of considerable importance in geology and geophysics because it affects volcanology, igneous petrology, geothermal energy sources, mantle convection, and the thermaland chemical evolution of the earth. The dynamics and evolution of magmas are strongly affected by the presence of solid crystals that occur either in suspension in liquid or as a rigid porous matrix through which liquid magma can percolate. Such systems are physically complex and difficult to model mathematically. Similar physical situations are encountered by metallurgists who study the solidification of molten alloys, and applied mathematicians have long been interested in such moving boundary problems. Clearly, it would be of mutual benefit to bring together scientists, engineers, and mathematicians with a common interest in such systems. Such a meeting is being organized as a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Advanced Research Workshop on the Structure and Dynamics of Partially Solidified Systems, to be held at Stanford University's Fallen Leaf Lodge at Tahoe, Calif., May 12-16, 1986 The invited speakers and their topics are

  12. Partial disassembly of peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Rat liver peroxisomes were subjected to a variety of procedures intended to partially disassemble or damage them; the effects were analyzed by recentrifugation into sucrose gradients, enzyme analyses, electron microscopy, and SDS PAGE. Freezing and thawing or mild sonication released some matrix proteins and produced apparently intact peroxisomal "ghosts" with crystalloid cores and some fuzzy fibrillar content. Vigorous sonication broke open the peroxisomes but the membranes remained associated with cores and fibrillar and amorphous matrix material. The density of both ghosts and more severely damaged peroxisomes was approximately 1.23. Pyrophosphate (pH 9) treatment solubilized the fibrillar content, yielding ghosts that were empty except for cores. Some matrix proteins such as catalase and thiolase readily leak from peroxisomes. Other proteins were identified that remain in mechanically damaged peroxisomes but are neither core nor membrane proteins because they can be released by pyrophosphate treatment. These constitute a class of poorly soluble matrix proteins that appear to correspond to the fibrillar material observed morphologically. All of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes are located in the matrix, but they vary greatly in how easily they leak out. Palmitoyl coenzyme A synthetase is in the membrane, based on its co-distribution with the 22-kilodalton integral membrane polypeptide. PMID:2989301

  13. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  14. Overgrowth Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Andrew C.; Kalish, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous multiple malformation syndromes associated with pathologic overgrowth have been described and, for many, their molecular bases elucidated. This review describes the characteristic features of these overgrowth syndromes, as well as the current understanding of their molecular bases, intellectual outcomes, and cancer predispositions. We review syndromes such as Sotos, Malan, Marshall–Smith, Weaver, Simpson–Golabi–Behmel, Perlman, Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba, PI3K-related, Proteus, Beckwith–Wiedemann, fibrous dysplasia, Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber, and Maffucci. PMID:27617124

  15. Unmasking of a Recessive SCARF2 Mutation by a 22q11.12 de novo Deletion in a Patient with Van den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bedeschi, M.F.; Colombo, L.; Mari, F.; Hofmann, K.; Rauch, A.; Gentilin, B.; Renieri, A.; Clerici, D.

    2011-01-01

    Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is a congenital condition characterized by craniofacial and skeletal manifestations, specifically blepharophimosis, malar and maxillary hypoplasia, distinctive nose, arachnocamptodactyly, and long slender bones of the hands and feet. To date, only 24 patients have been described. It is generally thought that the syndrome is transmitted by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, although evidence for genetic heterogeneity has recently been presented. We report on a girl followed from birth up to 3 years of life with a set of peculiar minor anomalies, arachnocamptodactyly of hands and feet, characteristic of VDEGS in association with a 22q11.12 deletion. Recently, the VDEGS gene was mapped to the DiGeorge syndrome region on 22q11.2, and homozygous mutations in the SCARF2 gene were identified. We now report the first patient with VDEGS due to compound heterozygosity for the common 22q11.2 microdeletion and a hemizygous SCARF2 splice site mutation. PMID:22140376

  16. Pfeiffer syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Moore, M H; Cantrell, S B; Trott, J A; David, D J

    1995-01-01

    The combination of bicoronal craniosynostosis, broad thumbs and great toes, and partial variable soft tissue syndactyly of the hands and feet (i.e., Pfeiffer syndrome) classically followed a benign clinical course. A review of the clinical features of those Pfeiffer syndrome patients presenting to our unit confirm another subgroup in whom the craniofacial and associated manifestations are more extreme, with a significant risk of early demise. The early aggressive surgical management of craniostenosis, hydrocephalus, exorbitism, faciostenosis, and upper airway obstruction has provided the potential for prolonged useful survival in these cases.

  17. [The Johanson-Blizzard syndrome].

    PubMed

    Dumić, M; Ille, J; Bobonj, G; Kordić, R; Batinica, S

    1998-05-01

    A 17 year and 10 month old boy with Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is presented as a case report for the first time. Diagnosis has been established on the basis of craniofacial abnormalities: microcephalia, parietal skin and bone defects, sparse hair with frontal up sweep, alae nasi hypoplasia, irregular dentition and nasolacrimal fistula, with mental insufficiency, partial exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and low birth-weight and length, hypotonia and failure to thrive in infancy. Congenital cataract and hiatus sacralis apertus are additional signs that have never been described in the literature concerning Johanson-Blizzard syndrome.

  18. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a 501c3 ... 1 Trial with ARQ 092 in Proteus Syndrome Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...

  19. Silvery hair syndrome in two cousins: Chediak-Higashi syndrome vs Griscelli syndrome, with rare associations.

    PubMed

    Reddy, R Raghunatha; Babu, Balaji M; Venkateshwaramma, B; Hymavathi, Ch

    2011-07-01

    Silvery hair is a rare clinical manifestation which is a common presentation in a group of rare syndromes which usually present in the pediatric age group together termed as "silvery hair syndrome," consisting of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome (GS), and Elejalde disease. CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by mild pigment dilution (partial oculocutaneous albinism), silvery blond hair, severe phagocytic immunodeficiency, bleeding tendencies, recurrent pyogenic infections, progressive sensory or motor neurological defects. GS is also a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by reduced skin pigmentation, often regarded as partial albinism and silvery grey hair combined with immunodeficiency. To make correct diagnosis and to differentiate between CHS and GS, it requires light microscopic examination of skin and hair shafts, immunological and peripheral blood smear evaluation. They have been reported to be associated with some common clinical association as a part of the syndrome due to pigmentary delusion, neurological dysfunction, and severe life-threatening infections due to neutrophil phagocytosis dysfunction. There are reports of few rare associations and varied presentations and variable mean survival age. We report two cases with common presentation of silvery hair but varied systemic and clinical manifestations and survival in two cousin brothers from the same family.

  20. Trigonometric Integrals via Partial Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, H.; Fulford, M.

    2005-01-01

    Parametric differentiation is used to derive the partial fractions decompositions of certain rational functions. Those decompositions enable us to integrate some new combinations of trigonometric functions.

  1. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  2. Cri du Chat syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina Paes; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Lessa, Fernanda Campos Rosetti; Orsi, Iara Agusta

    2005-01-01

    Cri du Chat Syndrome occurs as a result of a partial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5. Among the consequent abnormalities are low birth weight, a striking catlike cry in infancy, mental retardation, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism and dental malocclusions. This paper presents a case report on the dental treatment of a 23-year-old patient who received multidisciplinary treatment, including special education and precocious stimulation for carriers of this syndrome.

  3. UFD1L, a developmentally expressed ubiquitination gene, is deleted in CATCH 22 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pizzuti, A; Novelli, G; Ratti, A; Amati, F; Mari, A; Calabrese, G; Nicolis, S; Silani, V; Marino, B; Scarlato, G; Ottolenghi, S; Dallapiccola, B

    1997-02-01

    The CATCH 22 acronym outlines the main clinical features of 22q11.2 deletions (cardiac defects, abnormal facies, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate and hypocalcemia), usually found in DiGeorge (DGS) and velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) syndromes. Hemizygosity of this region may also be the cause of over 100 different clinical signs. The CATCH 22 locus maps within a 1.5 Mb region, which encompasses several genes. However, no single defect in 22q11.2 hemizygous patients can be ascribed to any gene so far isolated from the critical region of deletion. We have identified a gene in the CATCH 22 critical region, whose functional features and tissue-specific expression suggest a distinct role in embryogenesis. This gene, UFD1L, encodes the human homolog of the yeast ubiquitin fusion degradation 1 protein (UFD1p), involved in the degradation of ubiquitin fusion proteins. Cloning and characterization of the murine homolog (Ufd1l) showed it to be expressed during embryogenesis in the eyes and in the linear ear primordia. These data suggest that the proteolytic pathway that recognizes ubiquitin fusion proteins for degradation is conserved in vertebrates and that the UFD1L gene hemizygosity is the cause of some of the CATCH 22-associated developmental defects.

  4. Short philtrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by: Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome Cohen syndrome DiGeorge syndrome Oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) Home Care ... short philtrum, you may want to note that diagnosis in your personal medical record. Images The face ...

  5. Tourette Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Look, Kathy

    Tourette Syndrome has a history of being misdiagnosed or undiagnosed due to its unusual and complex symptoms. This paper describes: the symptoms of Tourette Syndrome; its etiology; age of onset; therapeutic methods, such as drug therapy, psychotherapy, diet control, and hypnosis; educational implications; and employment prospects. Several…

  6. Cardiorenal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction in patients with heart failure and cardiovascular disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease are common. A recently proposed consensus definition of cardiorenal syndrome stresses the bidirectional nature of these heart-kidney interactions. The treatment of cardiorenal syndrome is challenging, however, promising new therapeutic options are currently being investigated in recent and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:20948701

  7. Down syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents and caregivers should learn to help a person with Down syndrome deal with frustration. At the same time, it is important to encourage independence. Teen girls and women with Down syndrome are usually able to get pregnant. There is an increased risk of sexual abuse ...

  8. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... opportunity to exchange ideas, develop coping strategies and locate resources. Peer groups for girls with Turner syndrome can help reinforce your daughter's self-esteem and provide her with a social network of people who understand her experience with Turner syndrome. References ...

  9. Turner syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at birth is often smaller than average. A child with Turner syndrome is much shorter than children who are the ... Growth hormone may help a child with Turner syndrome grow taller. ... started when the girl is 12 or 13 years old. These help trigger ...

  10. Syndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Christopher; Seaward, James

    2012-05-01

    Although most cases of craniosynostosis are nonsyndromic, craniosynostosis is known to occur in conjunction with other anomalies in well-defined patterns that make up clinically recognized syndromes. Patients with syndromic craniosynostoses are much more complicated to care for, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to address all of their needs effectively. This review describes the most common craniosynostosis syndromes, their characteristic features and syndrome-specific functional issues, and new modalities utilized in their management. General principles including skull development, the risk of developing increased intracranial pressure in craniosynostosis syndromes, and techniques to measure intracranial pressure are discussed. Evolving techniques of the established operative management of craniosynostosis are discussed together with more recent techniques including spring cranioplasty and posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis.

  11. Linburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, William R.J.; Muller, Hellmuth

    1998-01-01

    Objective To review the causes and demographics of Linburg syndrome. Design An illustrative case report and a demographic study. Setting Adult and pediatric orthopedic clinics at the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg. Patients One patient with Linburg syndrome and 200 patients and relatives presenting to adult and pediatric orthopedic clinics with conditions not involving their hands, wrists or forearms. Outcome measures The presence of the intertendinous anomaly and of carpal tunnel syndrome. Results Tendinous connection(s) between flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus muscles were found in 20% of the study population. The anomaly was found in all age groups. No association was found between Linburg syndrome and the presence of carpal tunnel syndrome or previous injury to the hand or forearm. Conclusion Tendinous connection between flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus muscles is a common anomaly that rarely causes clinical symptoms. PMID:9711164

  12. Autoinflammatory syndromes behind the scenes of recurrent fevers in children.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Donato

    2009-08-01

    Many children experience recurrent fevers with no easily identifiable source and only a careful follow-up helps in the early identification of other presenting symptoms of other defined conditions which require medical intervention. Autoinflammatory syndromes are rare childhood-onset disorders of the innate immunity in which recurrent flares of fever and inflammation affecting skin, joints, the gastrointestinal tube, or serous membranes are the most striking signs, without any evidence of autoantibody production or underlying infections. Among the pediatric conditions belonging to this group we can consider hereditary recurrent fevers (familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency syndrome, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes), pyogenic disorders (PAPA syndrome, CRMO syndrome, Majeed syndrome), immune-mediated granulomatous diseases (Blau syndrome, Crohn's disease), and idiopathic febrile syndromes (systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, PFAPA syndrome, Behçet syndrome). Their genetic background has only been partially elucidated and advances in their molecular pathogenesis are shedding new light on the innate immune system, whilst more and more diseases are being reconsidered at a pathogenetic level and included in this new chapter of postgenomic medicine. The diagnosis of most autoinflammatory syndromes relies on clinical history, demonstration of an increased acute-phase response during inflammatory attacks, and, possibly, genetic confirmation, which is still elusive especially for idiopathic febrile syndromes. This astonishing progress in the awareness and knowledge of autoinflammatory syndromes has anticipated the actual possibilities of medical intervention and rationalized treatment with targeted biologic agents.

  13. Escobar syndrome mimicing congenital patellar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ezirmik, Naci; Yildiz, Kadri; Can, Cahit Emre

    2012-08-01

    Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS) is a syndrome that is characterized abnormal face, short length and skin pterygiums on some body legions (servical, antecubital, popliteal, interdigital and on neck). It is also called as Pterygium Colli syndrome, Escobar syndrome or Pterygium syndrome. Escobar (multyple pterygium) syndrome is a rare syndrome. Intrauterin growth reterdation, abnormal face, wide-spead pterygiums that resulted in joint contractures, ptosis, chryptoorchidism, patellar dysplasia and foot deformities are seen on this syndrome. Primarly autosomal resesive crossing are observed; also autosomal dominant and X-linked crossing. This case were presented as it has components of Escobar syndrome and Isolated Patellar Aplasia syndrome in same time.

  14. Androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mongan, Nigel P; Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Bunch, Trevor; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2015-08-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) results from androgen receptor dysfunction and is a common cause of disorder of sex development. The AIS phenotype largely depends on the degree of residual androgen receptor (AR) activity. This review describes the molecular action of androgens and the range of androgen receptor gene mutations, essential knowledge to understand the pathogenesis of the complete and partial forms of this syndrome. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for clinical management from infancy through to adulthood. Hormone replacement therapy is needed following gonadectomy. Patients who choose to retain the gonads are at risk of developing germ cell tumors for which sensitive circulating tumor markers may soon become available. Whilst the contribution of AR dysfunction to complete AIS is well understood, the involvement of the AR and associated proteins as contributors to partial AIS is an area of active research. Disorders of sex development such as AIS which are related to AR dysfunction offer a breadth of manifestations for the clinician to manage and opportunities for further research on the mechanism of androgen action.

  15. Testicular cancer in androgen insensitivity syndrome in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Ponce, José; Chilaca Rosas, Fátima; Molina Calzada, Carlos; Granados García, Martín; Jiménez Ríos, Miguel Angel; De la Garza Salazar, Jaime

    2008-12-01

    Male pseudohermaphroditism and androgen insensitivity syndrome cases have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer due to many factors such as mutations, hormonal disturbances involving gonadotropins and cryptorchidism. We describe the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of two cases with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and testicular cancer development, which were handled at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico.

  16. Moebius syndrome with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Suvarna, Jyoti; Bagnawar, Mahananda; Deshmukh, C T

    2006-05-01

    Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital complete or partial facial nerve palsy with or without paralysis of cranial nerves and often associated with other malformations. Cardiac anomalies though known are very rare and till date only 4 cases have been reported. We present a case of Moebius syndrome with supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection which has not yet been reported in literature.

  17. Renal abscess in Papillion-Lefèvre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert David; Hannon, Edward; Lakhoo, Kokila

    2011-12-01

    A 5-year-old female with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome presented with renal mass. A radiological diagnosis of malignancy was made; however, partial nephrectomy revealed granulomatous disease indicative of chronic infection. Although liver abscess is an emerging complication in patient with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, this case represents the first renal abscess described in such patients.

  18. The association between Cri du chat syndrome and dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charmaine; Hallett, Kerrod; Manton, David

    2014-01-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CdcS), also known as 5p deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the partial deletion of chromatin from the short arm of chromosome 5. There is a paucity of literature on the dental manifestations in CdcS. The purposes of this report are to present the case of a nine-year-old girl with the syndrome, CdcS and to review its dental and clinical manifestations and their management in children.

  19. Androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Nicolás; Motos, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a disorder caused by a mutation of the gene encoding the androgen receptor (AR; Xq11-q12). The prevalence of AIS has been estimated to be one case in every 20,000 to 64,000 newborn males for the complete syndrome (CAIS), and the prevalence is unknown for the partial syndrome (PAIS). The symptoms range from phenotypically normal males with impaired spermatogenesis to phenotypically normal women with primary amenorrhea. Various forms of ambiguous genitalia have been observed at birth. The diagnosis is confirmed by determining the exact mutation in the AR gene. PAIS individuals require precise diagnosis as early as possible so that the sex can be assigned, treatment can be recommended, and they can receive proper genetic counseling. After birth, differential diagnosis should be performed using other forms of abnormal sexual differentiation of primary amenorrhea. The treatment of AIS is based on reinforcement sexual identity, gonadectomy planning, and hormone replacement therapy. The prognosis for CAIS is good if the testicular tissue is removed at the appropriate time. For PAIS, the prognosis depends on the ambiguity of the genitalia and physical and psychosocial adjustment to the assigned sex.

  20. [HELLP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vigil-De Gracia, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the most common complications of pregnancy, but one of the most serious expressions of this pathology is HELLP syndrome. The HELLP syndrome is characterized by the presence of hypertension disorder more a triad: microangiopathic hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. Patient with HELLP syndrome is associated with increased maternal risk complications such as: cerebral hemorrhage, retinal detachment, hematoma/ hepatic rupture, acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, placental abruption and therefore a maternal death. For all these reasons it is recommended to search for findings of HELLP syndrome in patients with hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The main clinical confusion of HELLP syndrome is acute fatty liver of pregnancy, however there are parameters that help correct identification. The presence of HELLP syndrome involves a rapid termination of pregnancy and the administration of corticosteroids does not improve maternal morbidity and mortality but may help raise the platelet count, thus decreasing the need for transfusion and shorten hospital stay. Much of the decline in maternal morbidity and mortality associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is in proper diagnosis and effective management of HELLP syndrome.

  1. Decreased DGCR8 Expression and miRNA Dysregulation in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sellier, Chantal; Hwang, Vicki J.; Dandekar, Ravi; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Ander, Bradley P.; Sharp, Frank R.; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J.; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of the 1.5–3 Mb region of chromosome 22 at locus 11.2 gives rise to the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial Syndromes. It is the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans and one of the most common multiple malformation syndromes. The syndrome is characterized by a broad phenotype, whose characterization has expanded considerably within the last decade and includes many associated findings such as craniofacial anomalies (40%), conotruncal defects of the heart (CHD; 70–80%), hypocalcemia (20–60%), and a range of neurocognitive anomalies with high risk of schizophrenia, all with a broad phenotypic variability. These phenotypic features are believed to be the result of a change in the copy number or dosage of the genes located in the deleted region. Despite this relatively clear genetic etiology, very little is known about which genes modulate phenotypic variations in humans or if they are due to combinatorial effects of reduced dosage of multiple genes acting in concert. Here, we report on decreased expression levels of genes within the deletion region of chromosome 22, including DGCR8, in peripheral leukocytes derived from individuals with 22q11DS compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found dysregulated miRNA expression in individuals with 22q11DS, including miR-150, miR-194 and miR-185. We postulate this to be related to DGCR8 haploinsufficiency as DGCR8 regulates miRNA biogenesis. Importantly we demonstrate that the level of some miRNAs correlates with brain measures, CHD and thyroid abnormalities, suggesting that the dysregulated miRNAs may contribute to these phenotypes and/or represent relevant blood biomarkers of the disease in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25084529

  2. Experimental generating the partially coherent and partially polarized electromagnetic source.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrey S; Rodríguez-Zurita, Gustavo; Meneses-Fabián, Cruz; Olvera-Santamaría, Miguel A; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina

    2010-06-07

    The technique for generating the partially coherent and partially polarized source starting from the completely coherent and completely polarized laser source is proposed and analyzed. This technique differs from the known ones by the simplicity of its physical realization. The efficiency of the proposed technique is illustrated with the results of physical experiment in which an original technique for characterizing the coherence and polarization properties of the generated source is employed.

  3. Neuroacanthocytosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hans H; Danek, Adrian; Walker, Ruth H

    2011-10-25

    Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington's disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome) and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes. Differential diagnoses

  4. Gerstmann's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benton, A L

    1992-05-01

    Recent case reports describe the occurrence of a more or less pure Gerstmann syndrome in association with a focal lesion in the posterior perisylvian territory of the brain's left hemisphere. In addition, an electrocortical stimulation study reported the Gerstmann symptom combination and a number of other symptom combinations on stimulation of small areas in the left posterior parietotemporal cortex. The neuropsychological implications of these and other recent findings are considered in light of the variety of "syndromes" produced by lesions in this region, the rare occurrence of Gerstmann's syndrome, and its appearance as a consequence of lesions in diverse cerebral areas.

  5. Rapunzel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Altonbary, Ahmed Youssef; Bahgat, Monir Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Bezoars are concretions of human or vegetable fibers that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoars are common in patients with underlying psychiatric disorders who chew and swallow their own hair. Rapunzel syndrome is a rare form of gastric trichobezoar with a long tail extending into the small bowel. This syndrome was first described in 1968 by Vaughan et al. and since then till date just 64 cases have been described in the literature. We present the only documented case with Rapunzel syndrome in Egypt. PMID:27847892

  6. A common cis-acting sequence in the DiGeorge critical region regulates bi-directional transcription of UFD1L and CDC45L.

    PubMed

    Kunte, A; Ivey, K; Yamagishi, C; Garg, V; Yamagishi, H; Srivastava, D

    2001-10-01

    Two to three megabase deletions on chromosome 22q11 are the cytogenetic findings most commonly associated with cardiac and craniofacial defects in humans. The constellation of clinical findings associated with these deletions is termed the 22q11 deletion syndrome. We had earlier described a patient with the 22q11 deletion phenotype who was hemizygous for an atypical 20 kb microdeletion in this region. The deletion included coding regions of two genes organized head-to-head, UFD1L and CDC45L, along with an 884 bp CpG-rich intervening region. Based on this genomic organization, we hypothesized that both genes may be co-expressed and co-regulated by sequences within this region. We demonstrate that expression of both genes is enhanced in a similar pattern in precursors of structures affected by the deletion. The intergenic region is sufficient to direct transcription most strongly in the developing pharyngeal arches and limb buds of transgenic mice and can also direct bi-directional transcriptional activation in a neural crest-derived cell line. Deletion analyses revealed that a 404 bp fragment closest to UFD1L is necessary and sufficient to direct this bi-directional transcriptional activity. These results reveal the presence of a conserved regulatory region in the 22q11 deletion locus that can direct simultaneous transcription of genes involved in ubiquitin mediated protein processing (UFD1L) and cell cycle control (CDC45L).

  7. [Autoinflammatory syndromes/fever syndromes].

    PubMed

    Schedel, J; Bach, B; Kümmerle-Deschner, J B; Kötter, I

    2011-05-01

    Hereditary periodic (fever) syndromes, also called autoinflammatory syndromes, are characterized by relapsing fever and additional manifestations such as skin rashes, mucosal manifestations, or joint symptoms. Some of these disorders present with organ involvement and serological signs of inflammation without fever. There is a strong serological inflammatory response with an elevation of serum amyloid A (SAA), resulting in an increased risk of secondary amyloidosis. There are monogenic disorders (familial mediterranean fever (FMF), hyper-IgD-syndrome (HIDS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), "pyogenic arthritis, acne, pyoderma gangrenosum" (PAPA), and "pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) where mutations in genes have been described, which in part by influencing the function of the inflammasome, in part by other means, lead to the induction of the production of IL-1β. In "early-onset of enterocolitis (IBD)", a functional IL-10 receptor is lacking. Therapeutically, above all, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra is used. In case of TRAPS and PGA, TNF-antagonists (etanercept) may also be used; in FMF colchicine is first choice. As additional possible autoinflammatory syndromes, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis), Schnitzler syndrome, Still's disease of adult and pediatric onset, Behçet disease, gout, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and Crohn's disease also are mentioned.

  8. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. Translocation Down syndrome is the only form of ... risk of passing along certain genetic conditions. The embryo is tested for genetic abnormalities before it's implanted ...

  9. Behcet's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Behcet's syndrome is a disease that involves vasculitis, which is inflammation of the blood vessels. It causes problems in many parts of the body. The ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  10. Hunter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hunter syndrome is a disease in which long chains of sugar molecules (glycosaminoglycans, formerly called mucopolysaccharides ) are ... of the enzyme iduronate sulfatase. Without this enzyme, chains of sugar molecules build up in various body ...

  11. Horner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... birth Tumor of the hormonal and nervous systems (neuroblastoma) Unknown causes In some cases the cause of ... a tumor of the hormonal and nervous systems (neuroblastoma). There's no specific treatment for Horner syndrome. Often, ...

  12. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person is concentrating (like working on a computer) or relaxing (like listening to music). The type ... doctor who knows a lot about the nervous system). All kids who have Tourette syndrome have tics — ...

  13. Reye's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms such as confusion, seizures and loss of consciousness require emergency treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of ... which can cause seizures, convulsions or loss of consciousness. The signs and symptoms of Reye's syndrome typically ...

  14. Tourette syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines are available to treat Tourette syndrome. The exact medicine that is used depends on the symptoms ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  15. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur in different parts of the body) can cause similar problems with cortisol balance. Common symptoms of Cushing's syndrome include upper body obesity, severe fatigue and muscle weakness, high blood pressure, ...

  16. HELLP syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... out of 1,000 pregnancies. In women with preeclampsia or eclampsia , the condition develops in 10 to ... have high blood pressure and are diagnosed with preeclampsia before they develop HELLP syndrome. In some cases, ...

  17. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help improve skills. They may include speech, physical, occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many people with Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  18. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that your adrenal gland makes. Sometimes, ... can cause your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper ...

  19. Aase syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... make ribosomal proteins) This condition is similar to Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and the 2 conditions should not ... chromosome 19 is found in some people with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. The anemia in Aase syndrome is ...

  20. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... do before that she or he can no longer do? How severe are your child's signs and ... as children become older — it's usually necessary throughout life. Treating Rett syndrome requires a team approach. Treatments ...

  1. Caplan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with rheumatoid arthritis who have breathed in mining dust that contains coal. This lung disease is ... Caplan syndrome is caused by breathing in coal mining dust. This causes inflammation and can lead to ...

  2. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a condition in which your body's connective tissue is abnormal. Connective tissue helps support all parts of your body. It ... and develops. Marfan syndrome most often affects the connective tissue of the heart and blood vessels, eyes, bones, ...

  3. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, and other organs. One of these proteins is fibrillin. A problem with the ...

  4. Marfan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. Marfan syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue. This is the tissue that strengthens the body's structures. Disorders of connective tissue affect the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, eyes, and ...

  5. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  6. Carcinoid syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... things such as blue cheese, chocolate, or red wine. Exams and Tests Most of these tumors are ... outlook is more favorable thanks to new treatment methods. Possible Complications Complications of carcinoid syndrome may include: ...

  7. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sciatic nerve. The syndrome, which affects more women than men, is uncommon. But when it occurs, it can cause sciatica . Causes The piriformis muscle is involved in nearly every movement you make with your lower body, from walking ...

  8. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... will probably do some painless exams — like taking measurements of the body, including an arm span. You ... doors" inside the heart that help direct the flow of blood). In someone with Marfan syndrome, those ...

  9. Metabolic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity ). This body type may be described as "apple-shaped." Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced ... Syndrome Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  10. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye muscles. In Duane syndrome, the sixth cranial nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle (the muscle ... abnormal innervation of a branch from the third cranial nerve, which normally controls the medial rectus muscle (the ...

  11. Menkes syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menkes syndrome, cells in the body can absorb copper, but they are unable to release it. It ... makes it hard for the body to distribute copper in food from the intestines into the bloodstream ...

  12. Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Eesha; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue, with skeletal, ligamentous, orooculofacial, pulmonary, abdominal, neurological and the most fatal, cardiovascular manifestations. It has no cure but early diagnosis, regular monitoring and preventive lifestyle regimen ensure a good prognosis. However, the diagnosis can be difficult as it is essentially a clinical one, relying on family history, meticulous physical examination and investigation of involved organ systems. Patients of Marfan syndrome portray very typical physical and orofacial characteristics, suggesting obvious recognition, but due to variable phenotypic expression, cases often go unnoticed unless a full range of attributing features is apparent. Dental practitioners are very likely to encounter patients of Marfan syndrome at an early age as they frequently present for dental treatment. The present case report illustrates the preliminary screening of Marfan syndrome in a dental office followed by timely diagnosis and appropriate referrals. PMID:24336584

  13. Klinefelter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone therapy may be prescribed. This can help: Grow body hair Improve appearance of muscles Improve concentration Improve mood and self esteem Increase energy and sex drive Increase strength Most men with this syndrome are not able to get ...

  14. Sjogren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to developing cavities if your mouth is dry. Yeast infections. People with Sjogren's syndrome are much more likely to develop oral thrush, a yeast infection in the mouth. Vision problems. Dry eyes ...

  15. Beals Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... have many of the skeletal (bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments ... appearance to the top of the ear Aortic enlargement and/or mitral valve regurgitation (occasionally) People with ...

  16. Autoinflammatory syndromes.

    PubMed

    Galeazzi, M; Gasbarrini, G; Ghirardello, A; Grandemange, S; Hoffman, H M; Manna, R; Podswiadek, M; Punzi, L; Sebastiani, G D; Touitou, I; Doria, A

    2006-01-01

    The autoinflammatory disorders are a new and expanding classification of inflammatory diseases characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation in the absence of pathogens, autoantibodies or antigen specific T cells. These disorders are caused by primary dysfunction of the innate immune system, without evidence of adaptive immune dysregulation. Innate immune abnormalities include aberrant responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) like lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, prominent neutrophilia in blood and tissues, and dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) or their receptors. The autoinflammatory diseases comprise both hereditary (Familial Mediterranean Fever, FMF; Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency, MKD; TNF Receptor Associated Periodic Syndrome, TRAPS; Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndrome, CAPS; Blau syndrome; Pyogenic sterile Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum and Acne syndrome, PAPA; Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis, CRMO) and multifactorial (Crohn's and Behçet's diseases) disorders. Mutations responsible for FMF, TRAPS, CAPS, PAPA are in proteins involved in modulation of inflammation and apoptosis.

  17. [Mobius syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vladuţiu, Cristina; Duma, Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Mobius syndrom, an anomaly in cranial nerve developement, presents with a remarkable clinical polymorphism. The rare occurence of this pathology and the questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment determined us to make this presentation.

  18. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... turnersyndrome. html • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Child Health & Human Development (NIH): www. nichd. nih. gov/ health/ topics/ Turner_ Syndrome. cfm • Mayo Clinic: www. mayoclinic. com/ health/ turner- ...

  19. Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Cushing syndrome have: Round, red, full face ( moon face ) Slow growth rate (in children) Weight gain ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  20. Partial-Payload Support Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R.; Freeman, M.

    1984-01-01

    Partial-payload support structure (PPSS) is modular, bridge like structure supporting experiments weighing up to 2 tons. PPSS handles such experiments more economically than standard Spacelab pallet system.