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Sample records for partial molar entropy

  1. Quadrupole terms in the Maxwell equations: Born energy, partial molar volume, and entropy of ions.

    PubMed

    Slavchov, Radomir I; Ivanov, Tzanko I

    2014-02-21

    A new equation of state relating the macroscopic quadrupole moment density Q to the gradient of the field ∇E in an isotropic fluid is derived: Q = αQ(∇E - U∇·E/3), where the quadrupolarizability αQ is proportional to the squared molecular quadrupole moment. Using this equation of state, a generalized expression for the Born energy of an ion dissolved in quadrupolar solvent is obtained. It turns out that the potential and the energy of a point charge in a quadrupolar medium are finite. From the obtained Born energy, the partial molar volume and the partial molar entropy of a dissolved ion follow. Both are compared to experimental data for a large number of simple ions in aqueous solutions. From the comparison the value of the quadrupolar length LQ is determined, LQ = (αQ/3ɛ)(1/2) = 1-4 Å. Data for ion transfer from aqueous to polar oil solution are analyzed, which allowed for the determination of the quadrupolarizability of nitrobenzene. PMID:24559353

  2. Molar heat capacity and entropy of calcium metal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.; Chase, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The heat capacity of calcium has been measured at 85 mean temperatures between T ??? 8 K and T ??? 369 K using an adiabatically-shielded calorimeter in an intermittent heating mode. At T = 298.15 K, the recommended values for the molar heat capacity, molar entropy, and molar enthalpy increment referred to T = 0 are (25.77 ?? 0.08) J??K-1??mol-1, (42.90 ?? 0.11) J??K-1??mol-1, and (5811 ?? 12) J??mol-1, respectively. The uncertainties are twice the standard deviation of the mean. ?? 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  3. [Partial molar pregnancy. A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Morales García, Víctor; Bautista Gómez, Esperanza; Vásquez Santiago, Edmundo; Santos Pérez, Ursula

    2011-07-01

    We report the case of a 17 year old patient with partial molar pregnancy and coexistent live fetus of 13 gestational weeks diagnosed by ultrasound, which required the termination of pregnancy for maternal decompensation. PMID:21966838

  4. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory†

    PubMed Central

    Vilseck, Jonah Z.; Tirado-Rives, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood–Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm3 mol−1. The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute–solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  5. Infinitely dilute partial molar properties of proteins from computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Smith, Paul E

    2014-11-13

    A detailed understanding of temperature and pressure effects on an infinitely dilute protein's conformational equilibrium requires knowledge of the corresponding infinitely dilute partial molar properties. Established molecular dynamics methodologies generally have not provided a way to calculate these properties without either a loss of thermodynamic rigor, the introduction of nonunique parameters, or a loss of information about which solute conformations specifically contributed to the output values. Here we implement a simple method that is thermodynamically rigorous and possesses none of the above disadvantages, and we report on the method's feasibility and computational demands. We calculate infinitely dilute partial molar properties for two proteins and attempt to distinguish the thermodynamic differences between a native and a denatured conformation of a designed miniprotein. We conclude that simple ensemble average properties can be calculated with very reasonable amounts of computational power. In contrast, properties corresponding to fluctuating quantities are computationally demanding to calculate precisely, although they can be obtained more easily by following the temperature and/or pressure dependence of the corresponding ensemble averages.

  6. Entropy and convexity for nonlinear partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Ball, John M; Chen, Gui-Qiang G

    2013-12-28

    Partial differential equations are ubiquitous in almost all applications of mathematics, where they provide a natural mathematical description of many phenomena involving change in physical, chemical, biological and social processes. The concept of entropy originated in thermodynamics and statistical physics during the nineteenth century to describe the heat exchanges that occur in the thermal processes in a thermodynamic system, while the original notion of convexity is for sets and functions in mathematics. Since then, entropy and convexity have become two of the most important concepts in mathematics. In particular, nonlinear methods via entropy and convexity have been playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations in recent decades. This opening article of the Theme Issue is intended to provide an introduction to entropy, convexity and related nonlinear methods for the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations. We also provide a brief discussion about the content and contributions of the papers that make up this Theme Issue.

  7. Entropy and convexity for nonlinear partial differential equations

    PubMed Central

    Ball, John M.; Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2013-01-01

    Partial differential equations are ubiquitous in almost all applications of mathematics, where they provide a natural mathematical description of many phenomena involving change in physical, chemical, biological and social processes. The concept of entropy originated in thermodynamics and statistical physics during the nineteenth century to describe the heat exchanges that occur in the thermal processes in a thermodynamic system, while the original notion of convexity is for sets and functions in mathematics. Since then, entropy and convexity have become two of the most important concepts in mathematics. In particular, nonlinear methods via entropy and convexity have been playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations in recent decades. This opening article of the Theme Issue is intended to provide an introduction to entropy, convexity and related nonlinear methods for the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations. We also provide a brief discussion about the content and contributions of the papers that make up this Theme Issue. PMID:24249768

  8. Urban aerosol refractive index prediction by partial molar refraction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stelson, A.W. )

    1990-11-01

    The ambient aerosol of the polluted troposphere is a complex mixture of water, electrolytes, ionic solids, metal oxides and glasses, and carbonaceous material. Prediction of the refractive indexes of these inhomogeneous mixtures can be a formidable task. Contained within this paper is the necessary parameterization to estimate the mean real aerosol refractive index based on aerosol chemical composition and the partial molar refraction approach. This approach assumes all chemical constituents are homogeneously distributed throughout the aerosol phase. Consistency of the data is discussed, and this approach is verified by prediction of refractive indexes of NaOH-Si-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O mixtures. Finally, aerosol chemical composition data from the Los Angeles Basin are used to predict mean real aerosol refractive indexes. These values are compared to urban aerosol refractive indexes calculated via other techniques (light scattering).

  9. Entropy Computation in Partially Observed Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbouvries, François

    2006-11-01

    Let X = {Xn}n∈N be a hidden process and Y = {Yn}n∈N be an observed process. We assume that (X,Y) is a (pairwise) Markov Chain (PMC). PMC are more general than Hidden Markov Chains (HMC) and yet enable the development of efficient parameter estimation and Bayesian restoration algorithms. In this paper we propose a fast (i.e., O(N)) algorithm for computing the entropy of {Xn}n=0N given an observation sequence {yn}n=0N.

  10. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars.

    PubMed

    Kircos, L T; Eakle, W S; Smith, R A

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography. PMID:3458783

  11. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars

    SciTech Connect

    Kircos, L.T.; Eakle, W.S.; Smith, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography.

  12. Partial molar volume of L-Valine in water under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    Partial molar volume of L-valine in water was estimated up to 400 MPa from pressure coefficient of the solubility of the solute and molar volume of solid valine. The former was measured in a previous paper and the latter was measured in this article using a piston-cylinder typed cell. The partial molar volume increased with pressure and a maximum was observed around 250 MPa. It was compared with other amino acids.

  13. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  14. Partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium, vanadium, and tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.T.; Herro, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium were measured in vanadium, niobium, and tantalum by a differential pressure technique. One-half of an electrolytically charged sample plat was compressed between hardened steel blocks in a hydraulic press. The activity of hydrogen in the hig pressure region was raised and caused hydrogen to diffuse into the low pressure region. The partia molar volume was calculated from the ratio of the hydrogen concentrations in the high and low pressure regions of the sample. Small isotope effects were found in the partial molar volume. Hydrogen had the larger volume in niobium and tantalum, but the reverse was true in vanadium.

  15. Partial moment entropy approximation to radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Martin . E-mail: frank@mathematik.uni-kl.de; Dubroca, Bruno . E-mail: Bruno.Dubroca@math.u-bordeaux.fr; Klar, Axel . E-mail: klar@mathematik.uni-kl.de

    2006-10-10

    We extend the half moment entropy closure for the radiative heat transfer equations presented in Dubroca and Klar [B. Dubroca, A. Klar, Half moment closure for radiative transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 180 (2002) 584-596] and Turpault et al. [R. Turpault, M. Frank, B. Dubroca, A. Klar, Multigroup half space moment approximations to the radiative heat transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 198 (2004) 363-371] to multi-D. To that end, we consider a partial moment system with general partitions of the unit sphere closed by an entropy minimization principle. We give physical and mathematical reasons for this choice of model and study its properties. Several numerical examples in different physical regimes are presented.

  16. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4}H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  17. Partial molar volumes of isoniazid solutions in aqueous-ethanol mixtures at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Sawale, R. T.; Tawde, P. D.; Kalyankar, T. M.

    2015-02-01

    Densities (ρ) of antitubercular drug isoniazid solutions in water, aqueous-ethanol (20-80 vol % EtOH) and in pure ethanol at 298.15 K with different molar concentrations (0.01-0.16 mol dm-3) were measured. Experimental density data were used to calculate apparent molar volumes (φ v ) of isoniazid in different media. The φ v data were fitted to Massons relation and partial molar volumes (φ{/v 0}) of drug for infinitely dilute solution were determined for each solution. Experimental and derived properties were interpreted in terms of drug-solvent molecular interactions and structural fittings in studied systems.

  18. Thermal diffusion and partial molar enthalpy variations of n-butane in silicalite-1.

    PubMed

    Inzoli, I; Simon, J M; Bedeaux, D; Kjelstrup, S

    2008-11-27

    We report for the first time the heat of transfer and the Soret coefficient for n-butane in silicalite-1. The heat of transfer was typically 10 kJ/mol. The Soret coefficient was typically 0.006 K(-1) at 360 K. Both varied with the temperature and the concentration. The thermal conductivity of the crystal with butane adsorbed was 1.46 +/- 0.07 W/m K. Literature values of the isosteric enthalpy of adsorption, the concentration at saturation, and the diffusion coefficients were reproduced. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were used to find these results, and a modified heat-exchange algorithm, Soft-HEX, was developed for the purpose. Enthalpies of butane were also determined. We use these results to give numerical proof for a recently proposed relation, that the heat of transfer plus the partial molar enthalpy of butane is constant at a given temperature. The proof is offered for a regime where the partial molar enthalpy can be approximated by the molar internal energy. This result may add to the understanding of the sign of the Soret coefficient. The technical importance of the heat of transfer is discussed.

  19. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Miller, Benjamin T.; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-02-01

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol VE as a function of ethanol mole fraction XE is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has "brittle" hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water.

  20. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses and Aluminate Solutions - 13099

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-07-01

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOHNaAl(OH){sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results determined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components. (authors)

  1. The component slope linear model for calculating intensive partial molar properties /application to waste glasses and aluminate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH){sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results determined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  2. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Miller, Benjamin T; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R; Brooks, Bernard R; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-02-14

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol VE as a function of ethanol mole fraction XE is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has "brittle" hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water. PMID:25681917

  3. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-02-14

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol V{sub E} as a function of ethanol mole fraction X{sub E} is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has “brittle” hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water.

  4. Partial molar enthalpies and reaction enthalpies from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schnell, Sondre K.; Skorpa, Ragnhild; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Simon, Jean-Marc

    2014-10-14

    We present a new molecular simulation technique for determining partial molar enthalpies in mixtures of gases and liquids from single simulations, without relying on particle insertions, deletions, or identity changes. The method can also be applied to systems with chemical reactions. We demonstrate our method for binary mixtures of Weeks-Chandler-Anderson particles by comparing with conventional simulation techniques, as well as for a simple model that mimics a chemical reaction. The method considers small subsystems inside a large reservoir (i.e., the simulation box), and uses the construction of Hill to compute properties in the thermodynamic limit from small-scale fluctuations. Results obtained with the new method are in excellent agreement with those from previous methods. Especially for modeling chemical reactions, our method can be a valuable tool for determining reaction enthalpies directly from a single MD simulation.

  5. Strongly Composition-Dependent Partial Molar Compressibility of Water in Silicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, A. G.; Richet, P.; Polian, A.

    2010-12-01

    Water and other volatiles have long been known to play a fundamental role in igneous processes, yet their influence on the physical properties of melts are still not well enough understood. Of particular interest is the density contrast between liquid and solid phases, which facilitates melt extraction and migration. Owing to its low molecular weight, dissolved water must decrease magma density, but the way it does so as a function of pressure remains largely to be determined. Studies on quenched melts (glasses) provide useful information because the glass has the same structure as the melt. We measured compressional and shear wave velocities of seven series of hydrous aluminosilicate glasses by Brillouin scattering at room temperature and pressure. The glasses were quenched from high temperature and 2 or 3 kbar pressure. The dry end-members range from highly polymerized albitic and granitic compositions, to depolymerized synthetic analogues of mantle-derived melts. For each set of glasses, the adiabatic shear and bulk moduli have been calculated from the measured sound velocities and densities. These moduli are linear functions of water content up to 5 wt % H2O, the highest concentration investigated, indicating that both are independent of water speciation in all series. For water-free glasses, the bulk modulus decreases from about 65 to 35 GPa with increasing degree of polymerization. Sympathetically, the partial molar bulk modulus of the water component decreases from 114 to 8 GPa, such that dissolved water amplifies the differences in rigidity between the anhydrous glasses. This strong variation indicates that the solubility mechanisms of water depend strongly on silicate composition. Depolymerized liquids are also much less compressible than their polymerized counterparts, suggesting that the partial molar compressibility of dissolved water approaches zero in depolymerized liquids. If this is correct, hydrous mantle melts formed beneath volcanic arcs would be

  6. Fluctuations of entropy production in partially masked electric circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Kuan-Hsun; Chou, Chia-Wei; Lee, Chi-Lun; Lai, Pik-Yin; Chen, Yung-Fu

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally investigate fluctuations of entropy production in a coupled driven-RC circuit. In particular, we focus on the hidden-variable problem, where part of the circuit is neglected intentionally. In the two versions of the reduced descriptions we provide for the system, the fluctuation theorem (FT) is valid in all timescales for weak coupling. However, FT fails in the strong-coupling regime, in the short-time limit for one version, and in the long-time limit for the other. In these timescales where FT fails, both descriptions still give FT-like behavior. The failure of FT implies non-Markovian dynamics, meaning there exists a hidden variable that cannot be incorporated into the heat bath. We argue that FT can be restored with the introduction of a timescale-dependent effective noise.

  7. Thermodynamic studies of aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-cryptand at 298.15 K: enthalpy-entropy compensation, partial entropies, and complexation with K+ ions.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Vasim R; Terdale, Santosh S; Ahamad, Abdul; Gupta, Gaurav R; Dagade, Dilip H; Hundiwale, Dilip G; Patil, Kesharsingh J

    2013-12-19

    The osmotic coefficient measurements for binary aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-cryptand (4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8.8.8] hexacosane) in the concentration range of ~0.009 to ~0.24 mol·kg(-1) and in ternary aqueous solutions containing a fixed concentration of 2,2,2-cryptand of ~0.1 mol·kg(-1) with varying concentration of KBr (~0.06 to ~0.16 mol·kg(-1)) have been reported at 298.15 K. The diamine gets hydrolyzed in aqueous solutions and needs proper approach to obtain meaningful thermodynamic properties. The measured osmotic coefficient values are corrected for hydrolysis and are used to determine the solvent activity and mean ionic activity coefficients of solute as a function of concentration. Strong ion-pair formation is observed, and the ion-pair dissociation constant for the species [CrptH](+)[OH(-)] is reported. The excess and mixing thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes) have been obtained using the activity data from this study and the heat data reported in the literature. Further, the data are utilized to compute the partial molal entropies of solvent and solute at finite as well as infinite dilution of 2,2,2-cryptand in water. The concentration dependent non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation effect has been observed for the studied system, and the compensation temperature along with entropic parameter are reported. Using solute activity coefficient data in ternary solutions, the transfer Gibbs free energies for transfer of the cryptand from water to aqueous KBr as well as transfer of KBr from water to aqueous cryptand were obtained and utilized to obtain the salting constant (ks) and thermodynamic equilibrium constant (log K) values for the complex (2,2,2-cryptand:K(+)) at 298.15 K. The value of log K = 5.8 ± 0.1 obtained in this work is found to be in good agreement with that reported by Lehn and Sauvage. The standard molar entropy for complexation is also estimated for the 2,2,2-cryptand

  8. Infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chang Yi; Siratori, Tomoya; Funazukuri, Toshitaka; Wang, Guosheng

    2014-10-01

    The effects of temperature and density on retention of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical fluid chromatography were investigated at temperatures of 308.15-343.15K and pressure range from 8 to 40MPa by the chromatographic impulse response method with curve fitting. The retention factors were utilized to derive the infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide. The determined partial molar volumes were small and positive at high pressures but exhibited very large and negative values in the highly compressible near critical region of carbon dioxide.

  9. Apparent molar and partial molar volumes of aqueous ceric ammonium nitrate solutions at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Wanale, S. G.; Shelke, M. P.

    2014-07-01

    Present paper reports the measured densities (ρ) and refractive indices ( n D) of aqueous solutions of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C in different concentrations of solution. Apparent molar volumes (φv) have been calculated from the density data at different temperatures and fitted to Massons relation to get limiting partial molar volumes (ϕ{v/0}) of CAN. Refractive index data were fitted to linear dependence over concentration of solutions and values of constant K and n {D/0} for different temperatures were evaluated. Specific refractions ( R D) of solutions were calculated from the refractive index and density data. Concentration and temperature effects on experimental and derived properties have been discussed in terms of structural interactions.

  10. Partial molar volumes and viscous properties of glycine-aqueous urea solutions at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Ban, A. R.; Tawde, P. D.; Sawale, R. T.

    2015-07-01

    Density (ρ) and viscosity (η) of glycine ( c = 0.02-0.22 mol dm-3) in aqueous urea ( c = 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 mol dm-3) solutions were measured at 298.15 K. Experimental density data has been used to calculate apparent molar volumes (φv) of glycine in aqueous and aqueous-urea solutions at 298.15 K. The dependence of apparent molar volumes on concentration of glycine was fitted to the Massons relation and apparent molar volume of glycine at infinite dilution (partial molar volume, φ{v/0}) was determined graphically. The partial molar volumes of transfer (Δtrφ{v/0}) of glycine at infinite dilution from pure water to aqueous-urea solutions at 298.15 K were calculated and interpreted in terms of various interactions and structural fittings in studied solutions. The relative viscosity data has been analyzed by Jones-Dole relation and viscosity B-coefficients were determined graphically. Viscosity B-coefficient of transfer (Δ B) was also calculated and compared with Δtrφ{v/0}.

  11. Determination of conformational entropy of fully and partially folded conformations of holo- and apomyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Andreas M; Koza, Michael Marek; Fitter, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Holo- and apomyoglobin can be stabilized in native folded, partially folded molten globules (MGs) and denatured states depending on the solvent composition. Although the protein has been studied as a model system in the field of protein folding, little is known about the internal dynamics of the different structural conformations on the picosecond time scale. In a comparative experimental study we investigated the correlation between protein folding and dynamics on the picosecond time scale using incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The measured mean square displacements (MSDs) of conformational motions depend significantly on the secondary structure content of the protein, whereas the correlation times of the observed internal dynamics were found to be similar irrespective of the degree of folding. The conformational entropy difference ΔSconf between the folded conformations and the acid denatured state could be determined from the measured MSDs and was compared to the entropy difference ΔS obtained from thermodynamic parameters reported in the literature. The observed difference between ΔS and ΔSconf was attributed to the entropy difference ΔShydr of dynamically disordered water molecules of the hydration shell. The entropy content of the hydration water is significantly larger in the native folded proteins than in the partially folded MGs. We demonstrate the potential of incoherent neutron scattering for the investigation of the role of conformational dynamics in protein folding.

  12. The partial molar sound speed of TiO2 in sodium silicate melts: Evidence for an exceptionally compressible component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Ai, Y.; Lange, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Longitudinal acoustic velocities were measured at one bar by an ultrasonic frequency sweep acoustic interferometer for ten Na2O-TiO2-SiO2 (NTS) liquids for which previous density and thermal expansion measurements were made (Liu and Lange, 2001). This previous study showed that the partial molar volume of the TiO2 component varied systematically with composition and reflected changes in the average coordination of Ti4+ from values of ~4.6 to ~5.4. Sound speed data were collected at frequencies of 4.5, 5, and 6 MHz between 1233 and 1896 K; in all cases, the sound speeds decrease with increasing temperature. Six of the liquids share a similar (~25 mol%) TiO2 concentration, so that the effect of varying Na:Si ratio on the partial molar sound speed of the TiO2 component can be evaluated. The results for these ten NTS liquids were combined with sound speed data on Na2O-SiO2 liquids from the literature to derive the partial molar sound speed of the TiO2 component in these liquids. The results show that, at 1573 K, it is inversely correlated with SiO2 concentration, from values as low as 571±56 m/s to those as high as 1235±54 m/s, a variation of more than 100%. Fitted values for the partial molar sound speeds of the SiO2 and Na2O components at 1573 K are constants at 2538±52 and 2713±52 m/s, respectively. When the sound speed data are combined with density data to calculate melt compressibility, the results show that the TiO2 component is 3-15 more compressible than either the Na2O or SiO2 component. The partial molar compressibility of the TiO2 component is also strongly correlated to its partial molar thermal expansivity. It is shown that the TiO2 component is most compressible and most expansive when the average Ti4+ coordination in these sodium silicate liquids is near five, which strongly suggests that the abundance of five-coordinated Ti4+ enhances topological mechanisms of both compression and thermal expansion.

  13. Fast Computation of Solvation Free Energies with Molecular Density Functional Theory: Thermodynamic-Ensemble Partial Molar Volume Corrections.

    PubMed

    Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr P; Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Molecular density functional theory (MDFT) offers an efficient implicit-solvent method to estimate molecule solvation free-energies, whereas conserving a fully molecular representation of the solvent. Even within a second-order approximation for the free-energy functional, the so-called homogeneous reference fluid approximation, we show that the hydration free-energies computed for a data set of 500 organic compounds are of similar quality as those obtained from molecular dynamics free-energy perturbation simulations, with a computer cost reduced by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This requires to introduce the proper partial volume correction to transform the results from the grand canonical to the isobaric-isotherm ensemble that is pertinent to experiments. We show that this correction can be extended to 3D-RISM calculations, giving a sound theoretical justification to empirical partial molar volume corrections that have been proposed recently.

  14. Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yulin; Li, Bin; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values.

  15. Low-temperature molar heat capacities and entropies of MnO2 (pyrolusite), Mn3O4 (hausmanite), and Mn2O3 (bixbyite)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolusite (MnO2), hausmanite (Mn3O4), and bixbyite (Mn2O3), are important ore minerals of manganese and accurate values for their thermodynamic properties are desirable to understand better the {p(O2), T} conditions of their formation. To provide accurate values for the entropies of these important manganese minerals, we have measured their heat capacities between approximately 5 and 380 K using a fully automatic adiabatically-shielded calorimeter. All three minerals are paramagnetic above 100 K and become antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic at lower temperatures. This transition is expressed by a sharp ??-type anomaly in Cpmo for each compound with Ne??el temperatures TN of (92.2??0.2), (43.1??0.2), and (79.45??0.05) K for MnO2, Mn3O4, and Mn2O3, respectively. In addition, at T ??? 308 K, Mn2O3 undergoes a crystallographic transition, from orthorhombic (at low temperatures) to cubic. A significant thermal effect is associated with this change. Hausmanite is ferrimagnetic below TN and in addition to the normal ??-shape of the heat-capacity maxima in MnO2 and Mn2O3, it has a second rounded maximum at 40.5 K. The origin of this subsidiary bump in the heat capacity is unknown but may be related to a similar "anomalous bump" in the curve of magnetization against temperature at about 39 K observed by Dwight and Menyuk.(1) At 298.15 K the standard molar entropies of MnO2, Mn3O4, and Mn2O3, are (52.75??0.07), (164.1??0.2), and (113.7??0.2) J??K-1??mol-1, respectively. Our value for Mn3O4 is greater than that adopted in the National Bureau of Standards tables(2) by 14 per cent. ?? 1985.

  16. Solubility and partial molar volumes of naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzoic acid, and 2-methoxynaphthalene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Goenenc, Z.S.; Akman, U. |; Sunol, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of temperature, pressure, and supercritical fluid density on the retention and solubility in the mobile phase of solutes in supercritical fluid chromatography was investigated. New retention data for naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzoic acid, and 2-methoxynaphthalene were obtained as a function of pressure at different temperatures. Most of the data were taken near the critical region of the fluid phase where the anomalities such as enhanced solubility/selectivity and retrogate behavior are expected. These data were then used to compare two different approaches for modeling the pressure dependence of solute retention on the column. In these approaches, mobile-phase partial molar volumes of the solutes were determined either from bulk solubility data or from infinite-dilution fugacity coefficients. In both approaches, an integrated expression for the change of retention with pressure was utilized to explicitly reveal the nature of interactions between the stationary phase and the solute. The approach that utilizes the infinite-dilution fugacity coefficient predicts the pressure dependence of solute retention more accurately, especially for solutes that are substantially soluble in the mobile phase near the critical point of the mobile phase. Relationships between the pressure and temperature dependence of the solute solubility in the mobile phase and the retention of solutes on the column were also investigated.

  17. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient from 3D-RISM-KH Molecular Theory of Solvation with Partial Molar Volume Correction.

    PubMed

    Huang, WenJuan; Blinov, Nikolay; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-04-30

    The octanol-water partition coefficient is an important physical-chemical characteristic widely used to describe hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of chemical compounds. The partition coefficient is related to the transfer free energy of a compound from water to octanol. Here, we introduce a new protocol for prediction of the partition coefficient based on the statistical-mechanical, 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation. It was shown recently that with the compound-solvent correlation functions obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation, the free energy functional supplemented with the correction linearly related to the partial molar volume obtained from the Kirkwood-Buff/3D-RISM theory, also called the "universal correction" (UC), provides accurate prediction of the hydration free energy of small compounds, compared to explicit solvent molecular dynamics [ Palmer , D. S. ; J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2010 , 22 , 492101 ]. Here we report that with the UC reparametrized accordingly this theory also provides an excellent agreement with the experimental data for the solvation free energy in nonpolar solvent (1-octanol) and so accurately predicts the octanol-water partition coefficient. The performance of the Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) and Gaussian fluctuation (GF) functionals of the solvation free energy, with and without UC, is tested on a large library of small compounds with diverse functional groups. The best agreement with the experimental data for octanol-water partition coefficients is obtained with the KH-UC solvation free energy functional.

  18. Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:26986064

  19. Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yulin; Li, Bin; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:26986064

  20. Partial molar volumes of NiO and CoO liquids: implications for the pressure dependence of metal-silicate partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtial, Philippe; Gottsmann, Joachim; Holzheid, Astrid; Dingwell, Donald B.

    1999-08-01

    Volumetric measurements have been conducted on 7 Ni- and Co-containing sodium disilicate liquids within a compositional range varying from 0 to 9 mol% of NiO and from 0 to 23 mol% of CoO and over a large temperature interval (i.e., above their respective glass transition temperature and up to at least 1473 K). Their molar volumes and thermal expansivities have been determined by combining high-temperature measurements using the Pt-based double-bob Archimedean method and low-temperature measurements using the method described by Webb et al. [S.L. Webb, R. Knoche, D.B. Dingwell, Determination of silicate liquid thermal expansivity using dilatometry and calorimetry, Eur. J. Mineral. 4 (1992) 95-104] based on an assumed equivalence of the relaxation of volume and enthalpy at the glass transition. The molar volume of the present liquids decreases with increasing NiO and CoO contents and the Co-containing liquids exhibit a greater molar volume than the Ni-containing liquids at equivalent molar concentrations. The present results were analysed using a regression equation from which the partial molar volume of NiO and CoO liquids was obtained by the least squares method. This procedure yields partial molar volumes valid over the entire temperature range of 11.506 ± 0.687 and 14.884 ± 0.149 cm 3/mol and temperature derivatives of 2.684 ± 1.6 × 10 -3 and 1.441 ± 0.4 × 10 -3 cm 3/mol K, respectively for NiO and CoO at 800 K. The behavior of M-Fe metal-silicate exchange partition coefficient (M = Ni, Co), based on present molar volume determinations, has been estimated as a function of pressure over a wide temperature range. The metal-silicate exchange partition coefficients of both Ni and Co decrease with increasing pressure within the entire temperature range considered in this study (i.e., 800-3000 K).

  1. Partial Molar Volumes and Viscosity B-Coefficients of Nicotinamide in Aqueous Resorcinol Solutions at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mahendra Nath; Banerjee, Ashis; Roy, Pran Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Partial molar volumes {( {φ _v^o} )} and viscosity B-coefficients for nicotinamide in (0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) mol·dm-3 aqueous resorcinol solutions have been determined from solution density and viscosity measurements at (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K as a function of the concentration of nicotinamide (NA). Here the relation {φ v^o =a_0 +a1 T+a2 T2}, has been used to describe the temperature dependence of the partial molar volume {φ _v^o }. These results and the results obtained in pure water were used to calculate the standard volumes of transfer {Δ φ v^o } and viscosity B-coefficients of transfer of nicotinamide from water to aqueous resorcinol solutions to study various interactions in the ternary solutions. The partial molar volume {( {φ v^o})} and experimental slopes obtained from the Masson equation have been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. The viscosity data have been analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation, and the derived parameters B and A have also been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively, in the ternary solutions.The structure making or breaking ability of nicotinamide has been discussed in terms of the sign of {( {δ 2φ _v^o /δ T2})_P}. The activation parameters of viscous flow for the ternary solutions studied were also calculated and explained by the application of transition state theory.

  2. The free energy, enthalpy and entropy of native and of partially denatured closed circular DNA.

    PubMed

    Bauer, W R; Benham, C J

    1993-12-20

    We have used gel electrophoresis to measure the progress of local denaturation in closed circular pBR322 DNA as a function of temperature and linking deficiency, delta Lk. Local denaturation is closely coupled to supercoiling in closed DNA, requiring statistical mechanical methods for analysis. We have applied these methods to the experimental data to evaluate the free energies for three associated molecular processes. These processes are changes in the residual linking deficiency, delta Lkr, initiation of local denaturation, and twisting of denatured strands about one another. Our results confirm the quadratic dependence of the supercoiling free energy upon delta Lk, with a free energy coefficient of 740/N kcal/mol at 37 degrees C, where N is the number of base-pairs. The free energy of initiation of denaturation is 10.2(+/- 0.7) kcal/mol. The free energy of interstrand twisting of denatured regions varies with the square of the twist density, with proportionality coefficient C tau = 1.62 (+/- 0.11) kcal/rad2 at 37 degrees C. We have also calculated the entropy and enthalpy of these three processes, using the temperature dependence of the respective free energies. We find that both the entropy and the enthalpy of supercoiling are positive and vary quadratically with delta Lk. The free energy of initiation of denaturation is independent of temperature, hence arises primarily from a change in enthalpy. The entropy and enthalpy of interstrand twisting of denatured regions are both positive, and the twisting force constant decreases with temperature. These results differ considerably from expectations based solely upon considerations of chain configuration in vacuo, indicating the importance of solvent-dependent factors in determining the structure of closed circular DNA.

  3. The impact of oxygen nonstoichiometry upon partial molar thermodynamic quantities in PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ}

    SciTech Connect

    Suntsov, A.Yu.; Leonidov, I.A.; Patrakeev, M.V.; Kozhevnikov, V.L.

    2014-05-01

    The coulometric titration data are utilized in order to calculate changes of oxygen partial entropy and enthalpy in PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} with variations of oxygen content and temperature. The thermodynamic equilibrium of the cobaltite with the ambient gas phase is analyzed based on the interface of oxygen exchange and oxidation, and the intrinsic reaction of thermal excitation of Co{sup 3+} cations. The partial thermodynamic functions of the movable oxygen in PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} are shown to be interrelated with the thermodynamic parameters of the defect formation reactions. The existence of a band gap of about 0.4 eV in the electronic spectrum of the cobaltite follows from a favorable comparison of the calculated and experimental dependencies of the partial thermodynamic functions of the movable oxygen. - Graphical abstract: Partial thermodynamic functions of movable oxygen in PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ}. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic functions of oxygen in PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} are obtained from pO{sub 2}–T–δ diagram. • The defect model is developed to describe changes in thermodynamic functions. • Thermodynamic analysis gives evidence to a band gap in PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ}.

  4. Entropy of adsorption of mixed surfactants from solutions onto the air/water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.-W.; Chen, J.-H.; Zhou, N.-F.

    1995-01-01

    The partial molar entropy change for mixed surfactant molecules adsorbed from solution at the air/water interface has been investigated by surface thermodynamics based upon the experimental surface tension isotherms at various temperatures. Results for different surfactant mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium tetradecyl sulfate, decylpyridinium chloride and sodium alkylsulfonates have shown that the partial molar entropy changes for adsorption of the mixed surfactants were generally negative and decreased with increasing adsorption to a minimum near the maximum adsorption and then increased abruptly. The entropy decrease can be explained by the adsorption-orientation of surfactant molecules in the adsorbed monolayer and the abrupt entropy increase at the maximum adsorption is possible due to the strong repulsion between the adsorbed molecules.

  5. New Measurements of the Densities of Copper- and Nickel-Sulfide Liquids and Preliminary Estimates of the Partial Molar Volumes of Cu, Ni, S and O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, V. C.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2001-12-01

    We present the results of density measurements in Ni- and Cu-sulfide liquids. Density measurements were performed in-situ at 1250° C under controlled-atmosphere conditions using the modified single-bob (MSB) Archimedean method. The MSB consists of a ~2 mm diameter rod with a ~6 mm long ~7 mm diameter cylindrical bob attached ~7 mm from the base of the rod. The bob and crucible were constructed from Yt stabilized zirconia to minimize reaction with the corrosive sulfide liquid. Zirconia density at temperature was calibrated against the known density of molten Cu metal (Drotning 1981, High Temp-High Press 13: 441-458). Density was determined by measuring buoyancy as a function of immersed volume. Buoyancy was measured with a 0.1 mg resolution analytical balance interfaced with a computer. The crucible is mounted on a micrometer "elevator" allowing regulation of immersion with .005 mm resolution. Temperature was measured with an S-type thermocouple in contact with the bottom of the crucible. We explored log(fO2) from -8.2 to -12.6 and log(fS2) from -1.9 to -3.3. Five measurements have been made so far. Cu-sulfide densities range from 6.32 to 6.36 g/cc and were reproducible to +/-0.7%. Measured Ni-sulfide densities were lower, ranging from 5.27 to 5.79 g/cc. Wetting problems in Ni-sulfide compositions made these measurements more difficult. Reproducibility in Ni-sulfide melts was roughly +/-5%. Measured density values were used to regress preliminary partial molar volumes of sulfide liquids in the Cu-Ni-S-O system. A linear least squares fit was derived from the five density measurements along with the densities of pure molten Cu (Drotning 1981, ibid.) and Ni (Nasch 1995, Phys Chem Liq 29: 43-58) at 1250° C. Melt compositions under experimental conditions were estimated using the thermodynamic model of Kress (submitted). The molar volume of the system (V) can be expressed as: V = 8.18 XCu + 7.38 XNi + 30.33 XS where XI is the mole fraction of component i. Oxygen

  6. Entanglement entropy after a partial projective measurement in 1  +  1 dimensional conformal field theories: exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabpour, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    We calculate analytically the Rényi bipartite entanglement entropy {{S}α} of the ground state of 1  +  1 dimensional conformal field theories (CFT) after performing a projective measurement in part of the system. We show that the entanglement entropy in this setup is dependent on the central charge and the operator content of the system. When the measurement region A separates the two parts B and \\bar{B} , the entanglement entropy between B and \\bar{B} decreases like a power-law with respect to the characteristic distance between the two regions with an exponent which is dependent on the rank α of the Rényi entanglement entropy and the smallest scaling dimension present in the system. We check our findings by making numerical calculations on the Klein–Gordon field theory (coupled harmonic oscillators) after fixing the position (partial measurement) of some of the oscillators. We also comment on the post-measurement entanglement entropy in the massive quantum field theories.

  7. Partial molar volumes and viscosities of aqueous hippuric acid solutions containing LiCl and MnCl2 · 4H2O at 303.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Tawde, P. D.; Zinjade, A. B.; Shaikh, A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Density (ρ) and viscosity (η) of aqueous hippuric acid (HA) solutions containing LiCl and MnCl2 · 4H2O have been studied at 303.15 K in order to understand volumetric and viscometric behavior of these systems. Apparent molar volume (φv) of salts were calculated from density data and fitted to Massons relation and partial molar volumes (φ{v/0}) at infinite dilution were determined. Relative viscosity data has been used to determine viscosity A and B coefficients using Jones-Dole relation. Partial molar volume and viscosity coefficients have been discussed in terms of ion-solvent interactions and overall structural fittings in solution.

  8. Live-born diploid fetus complicated with partial molar pregnancy presenting with pre-eclampsia, maternal anemia, and seemingly huge placenta: A rare case of confined placental mosaicism and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kaoru; Kondoh, Eiji; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Fujita, Kohei; Mogami, Haruta; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-08-01

    A partial molar pregnancy almost always ends in miscarriage due to a triploid fetus. We describe a rare case of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy with a seemingly huge placenta, which continued to delivery of a live-born diploid baby. A 27-year-old primigravida suffered from severe pre-eclampsia and progressive anemia. The uterus was enormously enlarged for the gestational age. A cesarean section was performed because of deterioration of maternal status at 25 weeks' gestation, when more than 3000 mL blood spouted concurrently with the delivery of the placenta. The histological examination showed congestion in the decidua, which indicated disturbance of maternal venous return from the intervillous space. The chromosome complement of the placenta and the neonate were 69,XXX and 46,XX, respectively. We also reviewed all published cases of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy. A literature search yielded 18 cases of a singleton, diploid fetus with partial molar pregnancy. The mean gestational age at delivery was 24.5 ± 6.2 weeks, and fetuses survived outside the uterus in only four cases (22.2%). Intriguingly, previous reports numbered 10 cases with diploid placenta as well as five cases with no karyotyping of the placenta, indicating that they may have included a complete mole in a twin pregnancy or placental mesenchymal dysplasia. In conclusion, this was the first case of placentomegaly that presented manifestations of excessive abdominal distension and maternal severe anemia, and the second case of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy confirmed by chromosome analysis resulting in a diploid living baby.

  9. Live-born diploid fetus complicated with partial molar pregnancy presenting with pre-eclampsia, maternal anemia, and seemingly huge placenta: A rare case of confined placental mosaicism and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kaoru; Kondoh, Eiji; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Fujita, Kohei; Mogami, Haruta; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-08-01

    A partial molar pregnancy almost always ends in miscarriage due to a triploid fetus. We describe a rare case of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy with a seemingly huge placenta, which continued to delivery of a live-born diploid baby. A 27-year-old primigravida suffered from severe pre-eclampsia and progressive anemia. The uterus was enormously enlarged for the gestational age. A cesarean section was performed because of deterioration of maternal status at 25 weeks' gestation, when more than 3000 mL blood spouted concurrently with the delivery of the placenta. The histological examination showed congestion in the decidua, which indicated disturbance of maternal venous return from the intervillous space. The chromosome complement of the placenta and the neonate were 69,XXX and 46,XX, respectively. We also reviewed all published cases of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy. A literature search yielded 18 cases of a singleton, diploid fetus with partial molar pregnancy. The mean gestational age at delivery was 24.5 ± 6.2 weeks, and fetuses survived outside the uterus in only four cases (22.2%). Intriguingly, previous reports numbered 10 cases with diploid placenta as well as five cases with no karyotyping of the placenta, indicating that they may have included a complete mole in a twin pregnancy or placental mesenchymal dysplasia. In conclusion, this was the first case of placentomegaly that presented manifestations of excessive abdominal distension and maternal severe anemia, and the second case of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy confirmed by chromosome analysis resulting in a diploid living baby. PMID:27225660

  10. Partially erupted third molars as a potential source of infection in patients receiving peripheral stem cell transplantation for malignant diseases: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ohman, David; Björk, Yvonne; Bratel, John; Kristiansson, Camilla; Johansson, Peter; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Brune, Mats; Hasséus, Bengt

    2010-02-01

    Forty-four patients with malignant diseases for which they received peripheral stem cell transplant therapy (PSCT) were retrospectively studied regarding local and systemic infection originating from around partially erupted third molars (PEMs). Twenty-two patients had one or more PEMs, while 22 patients had none. Data were retrieved from medical and dental records. Systemic and local signs of infection and treatment were assessed. We recorded the number of transplanted CD34(+) blood stem cells, days with white blood cell counts < 0.5 x 10(9) l(-1), days until engraftment, maximum level of C-reactive protein (CRP), days with fever, positive blood cultures, days taking antibiotics, days drinking < 0.5 l, days of total parenteral nutrition, days receiving intravenously administered analgesics, and number of admission days. No statistically significant difference was detected between patients with PEMs and those without PEMs regarding any of the studied parameters. Of patients with PEMs, 36% (8 of 22) developed local infections around PEMs during the PSCT period. The study indicates that PEMs pose no significant risk of causing systemic infection in patients receiving PSCT for malignant diseases but increase the risk of developing a local infection, justifying close supervision and early treatment in cases of local infection during PSCT treatment. PMID:20156265

  11. Three-dimensional bone microstructures of the mandibular angle using micro-CT and finite element analysis: relationship between partially impacted mandibular third molars and angle fractures.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hideki; Abe, Shinichi; Tamatsu, Yuichi; Mitarashi, Satoshi; Saka, Hideki; Ide, Yoshinobu

    2006-02-01

    The mandibular angle is one of the areas of the mandible that are prone to bone fractures, and the presence of an impacted third molar has been found to be associated with increased risk of angle fractures. The factors involved in bone fractures are the amount and direction of load, and the biomechanical and anatomical properties of bone. In the present study, micro-focused X-ray computed tomography was performed to observe and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) bone microstructure of the mandibular angle, and finite element analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between angle fractures and the presence or absence of mandibular third molars. 3D bone microstructure showed no marked difference between mandibles with and without third molars. Finite element analysis showed that, in the mandible with a third molar, stress was concentrated around the root apex of the third molar, and was transmitted in a direction matching the clinical findings of angle fractures. The results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of an impacted third molar changes the concentration and transmission of stress in the mandible, thus increasing the risk of an angle fracture.

  12. Binding of an RNA aptamer and a partial peptide of a prion protein: crucial importance of water entropy in molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomohiko; Oshima, Hiraku; Mashima, Tsukasa; Nagata, Takashi; Katahira, Masato; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    It is a central issue to elucidate the new type of molecular recognition accompanied by a global structural change of a molecule upon binding to its targets. Here we investigate the driving force for the binding of R12 (a ribonucleic acid aptamer) and P16 (a partial peptide of a prion protein) during which P16 exhibits the global structural change. We calculate changes in thermodynamic quantities upon the R12-P16 binding using a statistical-mechanical approach combined with molecular models for water which is currently best suited to studies on hydration of biomolecules. The binding is driven by a water-entropy gain originating primarily from an increase in the total volume available to the translational displacement of water molecules in the system. The energy decrease due to the gain of R12-P16 attractive (van der Waals and electrostatic) interactions is almost canceled out by the energy increase related to the loss of R12-water and P16-water attractive interactions. We can explain the general experimental result that stacking of flat moieties, hydrogen bonding and molecular-shape and electrostatic complementarities are frequently observed in the complexes. It is argued that the water-entropy gain is largely influenced by the geometric characteristics (overall shapes, sizes and detailed polyatomic structures) of the biomolecules.

  13. Melt densities in the CaO-FeO-Fe 2O 3-SiO 2 system and the compositional dependence of the partial molar volume of ferric iron in silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwell, Donald B.; Brearley, Mark

    1988-12-01

    The densities of 10 melts in the CaO-FeO-Fe 2O 3-SiO 2 system were determined in equilibrium with air, in the temperature range of 1200 to 1550°C, using the double-bob Archimedean technique. Melt compositions range from 6 to 58 wt% SiO 2, 14 to 76 wt% Fe 2O 3 and 10 to 46 wt% CaO. The ferric-ferrous ratios of glasses drop-quenched from loop fusion equilibration experiments were determined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Melt densities range from 2.689 to 3.618 gm/cm 3 with a mean standard deviation from replicate experiments of 0.15%. Least-squares regressions of molar volume versus molar composition have been performed and the root mean squared deviation shows that a linear combination of partial molar volumes for the oxide components (CaO, FeO, Fe 2O 3 and SiO 2) cannot describe the data set within experimental error. Instead, the inclusion of excess terms in CaFe 3+ and CaSi (product terms using the oxides) is required to yield a fit that describes the experimental data within error. The nonlinear compositional-dependence of the molar volumes of melts in this system can be explained by structural considerations of the roles of Ca and Fe 3+. The volume behavior of melts in this system is significantly different from that in the Na 2O-FeO-Fe 2O 3-SiO 2 system, consistent with the proposal that a proportion of Fe 3+ in melts in the CaO-FeO-Fe 2O 3-SiO 2 system is not tetrahedrally-coordinated by oxygen, which is supported by differences in 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of glasses. Specifically, this study confirms that the 57Fe Mössbauer spectra exhibit an area asymmetry and higher values of isomer shift of the ferric doublet that vary systematically with composition and temperature (this study; Dingwell and Virgo, 1987, 1988). These observations are consistent with a number of other lines of evidence ( e.g., homogeneous redox equilibria, Dickenson and Hess, 1986; viscosity, Dingwell and Virgo, 1987,1988). Two species of ferric iron, varying in proportions with

  14. Progress in High-Entropy Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Michael C

    2013-12-01

    Strictly speaking, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) refer to single-phase, solid-solution alloys with multiprincipal elements in an equal or a near-equal molar ratio whose configurational entropy is tremendously high. This special topic was organized to reflect the focus and diversity of HEA research topics in the community.

  15. FIGO Stage III Metastatic Gestational Choriocarcinoma Developed From an Antecedent Partial Hydatidiform Molar Pregnancy Bearing a Numerical Chromosomal Aberration 68, XX: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Naili; Litkouhi, Babak; Mannion, Ciaran M

    2016-03-01

    A 36-yr-old, gravida 5 para 4 woman presented with uterine bleeding and was discovered to have a 3.7-cm uterine mass with multiple, bilateral, lung metastases. Six months earlier, the patient was diagnosed with a partial hydatidiform mole that demonstrated a rare chromosomal karyotype 68, XX[12]. The patient's serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin was elevated from baseline to 12,039 mIU/mL before the treatment. A total hysterectomy was performed and revealed a markedly hemorrhagic, extensively necrotic choriocarcinoma. The tumor mass invaded to a depth of 1/3 of the uterine wall thickness. Cytogenetic analysis of the choriocarcinoma revealed the same 68, XX karyotype, as observed in the antecedent partial hydatidiform mole. A clinical diagnosis of advanced stage invasive choriocarcinoma was rendered, with a risk factor score of 5. Following the development of chemoresistance to a single-agent (methotrexate) regimen, the patient subsequently received 5 cycles of chemotherapy (EMA-CO), without any major complication. She is currently >5 yr posttreatment and is asymptomatic. Her most recent imaging studies, including scans of chest and brain, show no evidence of disease, and her serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level has remained consistently below detectable levels.

  16. Magnetic entropy change and magnetic properties of LaFe11.5Si1.5 after controlling the Curie temperature by partial substitution of Mn and hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Fu; Jie, Han

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic properties and magnetic entropy changes of La(Fe1-xMnx)11.5Si1.5Hy compounds are investigated. Their Curie temperatures are adjusted to room temperature by partial Mn substitution for Fe and hydrogen absorption in 1-atm (1 atm = 1.01325 × 105 Pa) hydrogen gas. Under a field change from 0 T to 2 T, the maximum magnetic entropy change for La(Fe0.99Mn0.01)11.5Si1.5H1.61 is -11.5 J/kg. The suitable Curie temperature and large value of ΔSm make it an attractive potential candidate for the room temperature magnetic refrigeration application. Projct supported by the Science and Technology Development Fund of Higher Education of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 20130301) and the Tianjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology, China (Grant No. 14JCQNJC4000).

  17. Partial Molar Volumes, Viscosity B-Coefficients, and Adiabatic Compressibilities of Sodium Molybdate in Aqueous 1,3-Dioxolane Mixtures from 303.15 to 323.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mahendra Nath; Dakua, Vikas Kumar; Sinha, Biswajit

    2007-08-01

    Partial molar volumes (V_φ^0) and viscosity B-coefficients of sodium molybdate in 1,3-dioxolane + water mixtures have been determined from solution density and viscosity measurements at 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15 K and at various electrolyte concentrations. Also, the adiabatic compressibility of different solutions has been determined from the measurement of sound speeds at 303.15 K. The experimental density data were evaluated by the Masson equation, and the derived parameters were interpreted in terms of ion-solvent and ion-ion interactions. The viscosity data have been analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation, and the derived parameters, B and A, have also been interpreted in terms of ion-solvent and ion-ion interactions, respectively. The structure- making or breaking capacity of the electrolyte under investigation has been discussed in terms of the sign of (δ 2V_φ^0/δ T2)P . The compressibility data obtained from sound speeds of different solutions indicate the electrostriction of the solvent molecules around the ions.

  18. Low-temperature heat capacity and entropy of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): estimates of the standard molar enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation of chalcopyrite and bornite (Cu5FeS4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Wiggins, L.B.; Barton, P.B.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The heat capacity of CuFeS2 (chalcopyrite) was measured between 6.3 and 303.5 K. At 298.15 K, Cp,mo and Smo(T) are (95.67??0.14) J??K-1??mol-1 and (124.9??0.2) J??K-1??mol-1, respectively. From a consideration of the results of two sets of equilibrium measurements we conclude that ??fHmo(CuFeS2, cr, 298.15 K) = -(193.6??1.6) kJ??mol-1 and that the recent bomb-calorimetric determination by Johnson and Steele (J. Chem. Thermodynamics 1981, 13, 991) is in error. The standard molar Gibbs free energy of formation of bornite (Cu5FeS4) is -(444.9??2.1) kJ??mol-1 at 748 K. ?? 1985.

  19. Transfer Partial Molar Isentropic Compressibilities of ( l-Alanine/ l-Glutamine/Glycylglycine) from Water to 0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {K}2{SO}4 Solutions Between 298.15 K and 323.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyazuddeen; Gazal, Umaima

    2013-03-01

    Speeds of sound of ( l-alanine/ l-glutamine/glycylglycine + 0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {K}2{SO}4) systems have been measured for several molal concentrations of amino acid/peptide at different temperatures: T = (298.15 to 323.15) K. Using the speed-of-sound and density data, the parameters, partial molar isentropic compressibilities φ _{kappa }0 and transfer partial molar isentropic compressibilities Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0, have been computed. The trends of variation of φ _{kappa }0 and Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0 with changes in molal concentration of the solute and temperature have been discussed in terms of zwitterion-ion, zwitterion-water dipole, ion-water dipole, and ion-ion interactions operative in the systems.

  20. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yakasai, I A; Adamu, N; Galadanchi, H S

    2012-01-01

    Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare event. The objective of this study was to present a case of ruptured tubal molar gestation, discuss its clinical features and ways to improve diagnostic accuracy. A 35-year-old woman presented with features suggestive of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. There was neither any evidence at the time of presentation to suspect a molar gestation, nor β human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) hormone estimation was done, but only a clearview pregnancy test was carried out. She had total left salpingectomy and histological evaluation of the specimen revealed complete hydatidiform mole. The hCG level normalized within 3 weeks of follow-up. Clinical features of ectopic molar pregnancy may be indistinguishable from non-molar ectopic pregnancy. We recommend βhCG estimation as well as histological examination of the surgical specimen for all patients coming with features suggestive of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:23238205

  1. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  2. Entropy, materials, and posterity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.

    1977-01-01

    Materials and energy are the interdependent feedstocks of economic systems, and thermodynamics is their moderator. It costs energy to transform the dispersed minerals of Earth's crust into ordered materials and structures. And it costs materials to collect and focus the energy to perform work - be it from solar, fossil fuel, nuclear, or other sources. The greater the dispersal of minerals sought, the more energy is required to collect them into ordered states. But available energy can be used once only. And the ordered materials of industrial economies become disordered with time. They may be partially reordered and recycled, but only at further costs in energy. Available energy everywhere degrades to bound states and order to disorder - for though entropy may be juggled it always increases. Yet industry is utterly dependent on low entropy states of matter and energy, while decreasing grades of ore require ever higher inputs of energy to convert them to metals, with ever increasing growth both of entropy and environmental hazard. Except as we may prize a thing for its intrinsic qualities - beauty, leisure, love, or gold - low-entropy is the only thing of real value. It is worth whatever the market will bear, and it becomes more valuable as entropy increases. It would be foolish of suppliers to sell it more cheaply or in larger amounts than their own enjoyment of life requires, whatever form it may take. For this reason, and because of physical constraints on the availability of all low-entropy states, the recent energy crises is only the first of a sequence of crises to be expected in energy and materials as long as current trends continue. The apportioning of low-entropy states in a modern industrial society is achieved more or less according to the theory of competitive markets. But the rational powers of this theory suffer as the world grows increasingly polarized into rich, over-industrialized nations with diminishing resource bases and poor, supplier nations

  3. Third molar infections.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  4. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon-Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  5. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Li Suo, Qi

    2015-04-15

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  6. Correct Expressions of Enthalpy of Mixing and Excess Entropy from MIVM and Their Simplified Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Dong-Ping

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the author pointed out that empirically to compare the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) with thermodynamic definition of excess Gibbs energy would result in the incorrect expressions of enthalpy of mixing and excess entropy. The correct expressions of molar and partial molar enthalpies of mixing and excess entropies from the MIVM are consistent thermodynamically and are suggested for replacing their past incorrect ones. The simplification of Z i = Z = 10 is verified to be feasible by the average errors of fitting in the binary liquid alloys M-P (M = Cr, Fe, and Mn) and of predicting in the ternary liquid alloys Fe-Cr-P and Fe-Mn-P by using two coordination numbers of phosphorus Z P = 3.04 and Z P = 8.96. Further, their simplified forms are proposed for predicting easily thermodynamic properties of a multicomponent liquid system and are preliminarily tested to be coordinated mutually in the binary liquid alloys Au-Cu, Cd-Zn, Ca-Zn, and Ni-Pb.

  7. Molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Karine; Correia, Adriana de Sales Cunha; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2009-01-01

    Enamel defects are common alterations that can occur in both the primary or permanent dentition. A range of etiological factors related to this pathology can be found in the literature. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a kind of enamel defect alteration that requires complex treatment solutions, and for this reason, it is of great clinical interest for dental practice. This article describes the management of a clinical case of MIH in a 7-year-old child. The different treatment options depending on the extension of the defect, the degree of tooth eruption and the hygiene and diet habits of the patient are also discussed.

  8. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; Fatemi, Hind El; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance. PMID:22655097

  9. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; El Fatemi, Hind; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance. PMID:22655097

  10. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Rao, Murali H; Aluru, Srikanth C; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Bandlapalli, Anila; Patel, Nikunj

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect affecting teeth. High prevalence rates of MIH and its clinical implications are significant for both the patients and clinicians. A wide variation in defect prevalence (2.4-40.2%) is reported. It seems to differ with regions and various birth cohorts. Some of the recent prevalence studies are tabulated. Patient implications include hypersensitive teeth, rapid progression of caries, mastication impairment due to rapid attrition, and esthetic repercussions. Implications for clinicians include complexity in treatment planning and treatment implementation, poor prognosis of the restorations, difficulty in achieving pain control during treatment, and behavior management problems. Intention of this paper is to review the etio-pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical features, diagnostic features, and eventually present a sequential treatment approach, i.e., in accordance with current clinical practice guidelines. PMID:27595731

  11. Entropy power inequalities for qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audenaert, Koenraad; Datta, Nilanjana; Ozols, Maris

    2016-05-01

    Shannon's entropy power inequality (EPI) can be viewed as a statement of concavity of an entropic function of a continuous random variable under a scaled addition rule: f ( √{ a } X + √{ 1 - a } Y ) ≥ a f ( X ) + ( 1 - a ) f ( Y ) ∀ a ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] . Here, X and Y are continuous random variables and the function f is either the differential entropy or the entropy power. König and Smith [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 60(3), 1536-1548 (2014)] and De Palma, Mari, and Giovannetti [Nat. Photonics 8(12), 958-964 (2014)] obtained quantum analogues of these inequalities for continuous-variable quantum systems, where X and Y are replaced by bosonic fields and the addition rule is the action of a beam splitter with transmissivity a on those fields. In this paper, we similarly establish a class of EPI analogues for d-level quantum systems (i.e., qudits). The underlying addition rule for which these inequalities hold is given by a quantum channel that depends on the parameter a ∈ [0, 1] and acts like a finite-dimensional analogue of a beam splitter with transmissivity a, converting a two-qudit product state into a single qudit state. We refer to this channel as a partial swap channel because of the particular way its output interpolates between the states of the two qudits in the input as a is changed from zero to one. We obtain analogues of Shannon's EPI, not only for the von Neumann entropy and the entropy power for the output of such channels, but also for a much larger class of functions. This class includes the Rényi entropies and the subentropy. We also prove a qudit analogue of the entropy photon number inequality (EPnI). Finally, for the subclass of partial swap channels for which one of the qudit states in the input is fixed, our EPIs and EPnI yield lower bounds on the minimum output entropy and upper bounds on the Holevo capacity.

  12. The Correlation of Standard Entropy with Enthalpy Supplied from 0 to 298.15 K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.; Leff, Harvey S.

    2009-01-01

    As a substance is heated at constant pressure from near 0 K to 298 K, each incremental enthalpy increase, dH, alters entropy by dH/T, bringing it from approximately zero to its standard molar entropy S degrees. Using heat capacity data for 32 solids and CODATA results for another 45, we found a roughly linear relationship between S degrees and…

  13. Generalized entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Marika

    2016-07-01

    We discuss two measures of entanglement in quantum field theory and their holographic realizations. For field theories admitting a global symmetry, we introduce a global symmetry entanglement entropy, associated with the partitioning of the symmetry group. This quantity is proposed to be related to the generalized holographic entanglement entropy defined via the partitioning of the internal space of the bulk geometry. Thesecond measure of quantum field theory entanglement is the field space entanglement entropy, obtained by integrating out a subset of the quantum fields. We argue that field space entanglement entropy cannot be precisely realised geometrically in a holographic dual. However, for holographic geometries with interior decoupling regions, the differential entropy provides a close analogue to the field space entanglement entropy. We derive generic descriptions of such inner throat regions in terms of gravity coupled to massive scalars and show how the differential entropy in the throat captures features of the field space entanglement entropy.

  14. Entropy descriptors and Entropy Stabilized Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    In this presentation we will discuss the development of entropy descriptors for the AFLOWLIB.org ab-initio repository and the path leading to the synthesis of the novel entropy stabilized oxides. [Nat. Comm. 6:8485 (2015)]. Research sponsored by DOD-ONR N000141310635 and N000141512863.

  15. Entropy: Order or Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    Changes in entropy can "sometimes" be interpreted in terms of changes in disorder. On the other hand, changes in entropy can "always" be interpreted in terms of changes in Shannon's measure of information. Mixing and demixing processes are used to highlight the pitfalls in the association of entropy with disorder. (Contains 3 figures.)

  16. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  17. Modeling loop entropy.

    PubMed

    Chirikjian, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Proteins fold from a highly disordered state into a highly ordered one. Traditionally, the folding problem has been stated as one of predicting "the" tertiary structure from sequential information. However, new evidence suggests that the ensemble of unfolded forms may not be as disordered as once believed, and that the native form of many proteins may not be described by a single conformation, but rather an ensemble of its own. Quantifying the relative disorder in the folded and unfolded ensembles as an entropy difference may therefore shed light on the folding process. One issue that clouds discussions of "entropy" is that many different kinds of entropy can be defined: entropy associated with overall translational and rotational Brownian motion, configurational entropy, vibrational entropy, conformational entropy computed in internal or Cartesian coordinates (which can even be different from each other), conformational entropy computed on a lattice, each of the above with different solvation and solvent models, thermodynamic entropy measured experimentally, etc. The focus of this work is the conformational entropy of coil/loop regions in proteins. New mathematical modeling tools for the approximation of changes in conformational entropy during transition from unfolded to folded ensembles are introduced. In particular, models for computing lower and upper bounds on entropy for polymer models of polypeptide coils both with and without end constraints are presented. The methods reviewed here include kinematics (the mathematics of rigid-body motions), classical statistical mechanics, and information theory.

  18. Distal caries of the second molar in the presence of a mandibular third molar - a prevention protocol.

    PubMed

    Toedtling, V; Coulthard, P; Thackray, G

    2016-09-23

    Objectives The objectives of the prospective study were to establish the prevalence of distal caries (DC) in the mandibular second molar and to assess the outcomes of these diseased teeth in our population. Further aims were to identify associated risk factors and to design a protocol for prevention.Methods Clinical and radiographic data from 210 consecutive patients were ascertained over a three-month period. The sample population included all patients who had been referred to a hospital oral surgery department for a lower wisdom tooth assessment.Results A total of 224 mandibular third molars were included and assessed. The prevalence of caries affecting the distal aspect of the second molar was 38% (n = 85) in this population. In 18% of patients there was evidence of early enamel caries. Fifty-eight percent of caries was managed with restorative treatment but 11% of patients required second molar extraction and 13% of patients required the removal of the second and third molars. The prevalence of distal caries was significantly higher in patients with partially erupted wisdom teeth positioned below the amelocemental junction (P <0.05) of the adjacent second molar and in patients who presented with mesioangular impactions (P <0.001). However there was no difference in dental health when comparing this group to the remaining study population (P = 0.354). The Pearson chi-square test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to verify the association between the tested variables.Conclusion This study demonstrates that the eruption status, type of angulation and the nature of tooth contact between both molars are useful disease predictors which can be used to indicate the likelihood of a caries process occurring on the distal aspect of the second mandibular molar. If patients' third molar teeth are not removed then consideration needs to be given to prevention and regular monitoring. PMID:27659630

  19. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner’99 and Turner’04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  20. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  1. Microcanonical origin of the maximum entropy principle for open systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Julian; Pressé, Steve

    2012-10-01

    There are two distinct approaches for deriving the canonical ensemble. The canonical ensemble either follows as a special limit of the microcanonical ensemble or alternatively follows from the maximum entropy principle. We show the equivalence of these two approaches by applying the maximum entropy formulation to a closed universe consisting of an open system plus bath. We show that the target function for deriving the canonical distribution emerges as a natural consequence of partial maximization of the entropy over the bath degrees of freedom alone. By extending this mathematical formalism to dynamical paths rather than equilibrium ensembles, the result provides an alternative justification for the principle of path entropy maximization as well.

  2. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-06-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  3. Partial Pressures of Te2 and Thermodynamic Properties of Ga-Te System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with Ga(1-x)Te(x) samples were measured by optical absorption technique from 450 to 1100 C for compositions, x, between 0.333 and 0.612. To establish the relationship between the partial pressure of Te, and the measured optical absorbance, the calibration runs of a pure Te sample were also conducted to determine the Beer's Law constants. The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with the GaTe(s) and Ga2Te3(s)compounds, or the so-called three-phase curves, were established. These partial pressure data imply the existence of the Ga3Te4(s) compound. From the partial pressures of Te2 over the Ga-Te melts, partial molar enthalpy and entropy of mixing for Te were derived and they agree reasonable well with the published data. The activities of Te in the Ga-Te melts were also derived from the measured partial pressures of Te2. These data agree well with most of the previous results. The possible reason for the high activity of Te measured for x less than 0.60 is discussed.

  4. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Boronat-Catalá, M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9-86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6-88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9-17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47-0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39-35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  5. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Boronat-Catalá, M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-08-25

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9-86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6-88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9-17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47-0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39-35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH.

  6. Molarization of mandibular second premolar.

    PubMed

    Mangla, Neha; Singh Khinda, Vineet Inder; Kallar, Shiminder; Singh Brar, Gurlal

    2014-05-01

    Macrodontia (megadontia, megalodontia, mac rodontism) is a rare shape anomaly that has been used to describe dental gigantism. Mandibular second premolars show an elevated variability of crown morphology, as are its eruptive potential and final position in the dental arch. To date, only eight cases of isolated macrodontia of second premolars have been reported in the literature. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of unusual and rare case of isolated unilateral molarization of left mandibular second premolar. How to cite this article: Mangla N, Khinda VIS, Kallar S, Brar GS. Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):137-139. PMID:25356014

  7. Entropy Transfer of Quantum Gravity Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2015-05-01

    We introduce the term smooth entanglement entropy transfer, a phenomenon that is a consequence of the causality-cancellation property of the quantum gravity environment. The causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity space removes the causal dependencies of the local systems. We study the physical effects of the causality-cancellation and show that it stimulates entropy transfer between the quantum gravity environment and the independent local systems of the quantum gravity space. The entropy transfer reduces the entropies of the contributing local systems and increases the entropy of the quantum gravity environment. We discuss the space-time geometry structure of the quantum gravity environment and the local quantum systems. We propose the space-time geometry model of the smooth entropy transfer. We reveal on a smooth Cauchy slice that the space-time geometry of the quantum gravity environment dynamically adapts to the vanishing causality. We prove that the Cauchy area expansion, along with the dilation of the Rindler horizon area of the quantum gravity environment, is a corollary of the causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity environment. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 (Secure quantum key distribution between two units on optical fiber network) project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  8. Computing the conformational entropy for RNA folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2010-06-01

    We develop a polymer physics-based method to compute the conformational entropy for RNA tertiary folds, namely, conformations consisting of multiple helices connected through (cross-linked) loops. The theory is based on a virtual bond conformational model for the nucleotide chain. A key issue in the calculation of the entropy is how to treat the excluded volume interactions. The weak excluded volume interference between the different loops leads to the decomposition of the whole structure into a number of three-body building blocks, each consisting of a loop and two helices connected to the two ends of the loop. The simple construct of the three-body system allows an accurate computation for the conformational entropy for each building block. The assembly of the building blocks gives the entropy of the whole structure. This approach enables treatment of molten globule-like folds (partially unfolded tertiary structures) for RNAs. Extensive tests against experiments and exact computer enumerations indicate that the method can give accurate results for the entropy. The method developed here provides a solid first step toward a systematic development of a theory for the entropy and free energy landscape for complex tertiary folds for RNAs and proteins.

  9. Correlation of acute pericoronitis and the position of the mandibular third molar.

    PubMed

    Leone, S A; Edenfield, M J; Cohen, M E

    1986-09-01

    Acute pericoronitis is a painful, debilitating infection that is most commonly found among young adults with erupting mandibular third molars. Prophylactic removal of third molars to prevent this disease has been advocated, but this procedure requires an accurate description of the third molar at highest risk for this infection. Clinical and radiographic measurements were compared in 25 diseased subjects and 109 normal subjects. Of 10 variables significantly related to the presence of acute pericoronitis, stepwise discriminant analysis selected 4 variables that produced a canonical correlation coefficient of 0.71. In clinical terms, these variables described the tooth at highest risk for acute pericoronitis as a fully erupted, vertical mandibular third molar that is in contact with the adjacent second molar, at or above the occlusal plane, and partially encapsulated by soft or hard tissues. Prophylactic treatment of these third molars is highly recommended.

  10. Negative Casimir entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Milton, Kimball

    In the last decade, various results on the entropy related to the Casimir interactions between two bodies have been obtained and the striking feature that negative values of Casimir entropy frequently appear. The origin of this effect lies in many factors, such as the dissipation of the materials, the geometry of the configuration and so on. We recently investigated the entropies of one body systems. Although the self-free energy of one body systems are always divergent, the self-entropy could be finite in many cases. These phenomenon may throw more light on thermal dynamical behavior of quantum field systems.

  11. Wehrl entropy, Lieb conjecture, and entanglement monotones

    SciTech Connect

    Mintert, Florian; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2004-02-01

    We propose to quantify the entanglement of pure states of NxN bipartite quantum systems by defining its Husimi distribution with respect to SU(N)xSU(N) coherent states. The Wehrl entropy is minimal if and only if the analyzed pure state is separable. The excess of the Wehrl entropy is shown to be equal to the subentropy of the mixed state obtained by partial trace of the bipartite pure state. This quantity, as well as the generalized (Renyi) subentropies, are proved to be Schur concave, so they are entanglement monotones and may be used as alternative measures of entanglement.

  12. Entropy in Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marder, Daniel

    The Second Law of Thermodynamics demonstrates the idea of entropy, the tendency of ordered energy to free itself and thus break apart the system that contains it and dissipate that system into chaos. When applied to communications theory, entropy increases not only with noise but with the density of information--particles of possible meaning…

  13. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  14. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phasemore » space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.« less

  15. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Negre-Barber, A.; Montiel-Company, J. M.; Boronat-Catalá, M.; Catalá-Pizarro, M.; Almerich-Silla, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9–86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6–88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9–17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47–0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39–35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  16. Charged topological entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shunji; Wen, Xueda; Hung, Ling-Yan; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-05-01

    A charged entanglement entropy is a new measure which probes quantum entanglement between different charge sectors. We study symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in (2+1)-dimensional space-time by using this charged entanglement entropy. SPT phases are short-range entangled states without topological order and hence cannot be detected by the topological entanglement entropy. We demonstrate that the universal part of the charged entanglement entropy is nonzero for nontrivial SPT phases and therefore it is a useful measure to detect short-range entangled topological phases. We also discuss that the classification of SPT phases based on the charged topological entanglement entropy is related to that of the braiding statistics of quasiparticles.

  17. Supernumerary molars. A review of 53 cases.

    PubMed

    Menardía-Pejuan, V; Berini-Aytés, L; Gay-Escoda, C

    2000-01-01

    Supernumerary molars are not uncommon and may be found nearly anywhere in the dental alveolar arches. A series of 36 patients that presented with 53 supernumerary molars are reviewed. They occurred more frequently in the maxilla (86.8%), had little or no clinical significance, tended to be impacted, and were not associated with the impactation of the third molar. Four cases of maxillary fifth molars are described. PMID:11799727

  18. Molar versus as a paradigm clash.

    PubMed

    Baum, W M

    2001-05-01

    The molar view of behavior arose in response to the demonstrated inadequacy of explanations based on contiguity. Although Dinsmoor's (2001) modifications to two-factor theory render it irrefutable, a more basic criticism arises when we see that the molar and molecular views differ paradigmatically. The molar view has proven more productive.

  19. Molar versus as a paradigm clash.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, W M

    2001-01-01

    The molar view of behavior arose in response to the demonstrated inadequacy of explanations based on contiguity. Although Dinsmoor's (2001) modifications to two-factor theory render it irrefutable, a more basic criticism arises when we see that the molar and molecular views differ paradigmatically. The molar view has proven more productive. PMID:11453623

  20. [Distalization of the upper second molar: biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A

    1991-01-01

    The Author shows a system to dystalize the second upper molars and, if necessary, the third upper molars. This system, easy to be adapted, is made up by a palatal bar inserted between the first upper molars, by a sectional and a 100 grams precalibrated open Sentalloy coil spring used as an active force. PMID:1784296

  1. Laser assisted high entropy alloy coating on aluminum: Microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Katakam, Shravana; Joshi, Sameehan S.; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2014-09-14

    High entropy alloy (Al-Fe-Co-Cr-Ni) coatings were synthesized using laser surface engineering on aluminum substrate. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution of body centered cubic high entropy alloy phase along with phases with long range periodic structures within the coating. Evolution of such type of microstructure was a result of kinetics associated with laser process, which generates higher temperatures and rapid cooling resulting in retention of high entropy alloy phase followed by reheating and/or annealing in subsequent passes of the laser track giving rise to partial decomposition. The partial decomposition resulted in formation of precipitates having layered morphology with a mixture of high entropy alloy rich phases, compounds, and long range ordered phases.

  2. Conditional entropy of ordinal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unakafov, Anton M.; Keller, Karsten

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we investigate a quantity called conditional entropy of ordinal patterns, akin to the permutation entropy. The conditional entropy of ordinal patterns describes the average diversity of the ordinal patterns succeeding a given ordinal pattern. We observe that this quantity provides a good estimation of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy in many cases. In particular, the conditional entropy of ordinal patterns of a finite order coincides with the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for periodic dynamics and for Markov shifts over a binary alphabet. Finally, the conditional entropy of ordinal patterns is computationally simple and thus can be well applied to real-world data.

  3. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  4. Local entropy generation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1991-02-01

    Second law analysis techniques have been widely used to evaluate the sources of irreversibility in components and systems of components but the evaluation of local sources of irreversibility in thermal processes has received little attention. While analytical procedures for evaluating local entropy generation have been developed, applications have been limited to fluid flows with analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature fields. The analysis of local entropy generation can be used to evaluate more complicated flows by including entropy generation calculations in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The research documented in this report consists of incorporating local entropy generation calculations in an existing CFD code and then using the code to evaluate the distribution of thermodynamic losses in two applications: an impinging jet and a magnetic heat pump. 22 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. The Mystique of Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Benjamin G.

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates qualitative and metaphoric applications of entropy in the areas of cosmology, the birth and death of the universe and time; life and evolution; literature and art; and social science. (RT)

  6. Entropy of stochastic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogovtsev, Andrei A

    2010-06-29

    For sets in a Hilbert space the concept of quadratic entropy is introduced. It is shown that this entropy is finite for the range of a stochastic flow of Brownian particles on R. This implies, in particular, the fact that the total time of the free travel in the Arratia flow of all particles that started from a bounded interval is finite. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  7. Renormalized entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Marika; Woodhead, William

    2016-08-01

    We develop a renormalization method for holographic entanglement entropy based on area renormalization of entangling surfaces. The renormalized entanglement en-tropy is derived for entangling surfaces in asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter spacetimes in general dimensions and for entangling surfaces in four dimensional holographic renor-malization group flows. The renormalized entanglement entropy for disk regions in AdS 4 spacetimes agrees precisely with the holographically renormalized action for AdS 4 with spherical slicing and hence with the F quantity, in accordance with the Casini-Huerta-Myers map. We present a generic class of holographic RG flows associated with deforma-tions by operators of dimension 3 /2 < Δ < 5 /2 for which the F quantity increases along the RG flow, hence violating the strong version of the F theorem. We conclude by explaining how the renormalized entanglement entropy can be derived directly from the renormalized partition function using the replica trick i.e. our renormalization method for the entangle-ment entropy is inherited directly from that of the partition function. We show explicitly how the entanglement entropy counterterms can be derived from the standard holographic renormalization counterterms for asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  8. Information Entropy of Fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Sabirov, Denis Sh; Ōsawa, Eiji

    2015-08-24

    The reasons for the formation of the highly symmetric C60 molecule under nonequilibrium conditions are widely discussed as it dominates over numerous similar fullerene structures. In such conditions, evolution of structure rather than energy defines the processes. We have first studied the diversity of fullerenes in terms of information entropy. Sorting 2079 structures from An Atlas of Fullerenes [ Fowler , P. W. ; Manolopoulos , D. E. An Atlas of Fullerenes ; Oxford : Clarendon , 1995 . ], we have found that the information entropies of only 14 fullerenes (<1% of the studied structures) lie between the values of C60 and C70, the two most abundant fullerenes. Interestingly, buckminsterfullerene is the only fullerene with zero information entropy, i.e., an exclusive compound among the other members of the fullerene family. Such an efficient sorting demonstrates possible relevance of information entropy to chemical processes. For this reason, we have introduced an algorithm for calculating changes in information entropy at chemical transformations. The preliminary calculations of changes in information entropy at the selected fullerene reactions show good agreement with thermochemical data.

  9. Entropy, matter, and cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Prigogine, I.; Géhéniau, J.

    1986-01-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary “C” field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production. PMID:16593747

  10. Quantum games entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban

    2007-09-01

    We propose the study of quantum games from the point of view of quantum information theory and statistical mechanics. Every game can be described by a density operator, the von Neumann entropy and the quantum replicator dynamics. There exists a strong relationship between game theories, information theories and statistical physics. The density operator and entropy are the bonds between these theories. The analysis we propose is based on the properties of entropy, the amount of information that a player can obtain about his opponent and a maximum or minimum entropy criterion. The natural trend of a physical system is to its maximum entropy state. The minimum entropy state is a characteristic of a manipulated system, i.e., externally controlled or imposed. There exist tacit rules inside a system that do not need to be specified or clarified and search the system equilibrium based on the collective welfare principle. The other rules are imposed over the system when one or many of its members violate this principle and maximize its individual welfare at the expense of the group.

  11. Intrusion of an overerupted molar using orthodontic miniscrew implant: A preprosthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Indumathi; Sivakumar, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the use of orthodontic miniscrew implant in the intrusion of overerupted molar as a preprosthodontic therapy. A 37-year-old woman with an overerupted maxillary right first molar encroaching on the opposing mandibular edentulous space was successfully intruded using a single miniscrew implant and partial fixed orthodontic appliance. The prosthodontic clinician may adopt this conservative and cost-effective strategy in their routine practice and avoid clinical crown reduction. PMID:25191088

  12. Fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We establish a generalization of the fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics. We introduce a partial entropy production with a subset of all possible transitions, and show that the partial entropy production satisfies the integral fluctuation theorem. Our result reveals the fundamental properties of a broad class of autonomous as well as nonautonomous nanomachines. In particular, our result gives a unified fluctuation theorem for both autonomous and nonautonomous Maxwell's demons, where mutual information plays a crucial role. Furthermore, we derive a fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates nonequilibrium stationary current to two kinds of equilibrium fluctuations. PMID:25679593

  13. Fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We establish a generalization of the fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics. We introduce a partial entropy production with a subset of all possible transitions, and show that the partial entropy production satisfies the integral fluctuation theorem. Our result reveals the fundamental properties of a broad class of autonomous as well as nonautonomous nanomachines. In particular, our result gives a unified fluctuation theorem for both autonomous and nonautonomous Maxwell's demons, where mutual information plays a crucial role. Furthermore, we derive a fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates nonequilibrium stationary current to two kinds of equilibrium fluctuations.

  14. On Entropy Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhi, Saeed; Taghavi, Ray; Keshmiri, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Stealth technology is developed for military aircraft to minimize their signatures. The primary attention was focused on radar signature, followed by the thermal and noise signatures of the vehicle. For radar evasion, advanced configuration designs, extensive use of carbon composites and radar-absorbing material, are developed. On thermal signature, mainly in the infra-red (IR) bandwidth, the solution was found in blended rectangular nozzles of high aspect ratio that are shielded from ground detectors. For noise, quiet and calm jets are integrated into vehicles with low-turbulence configuration design. However, these technologies are totally incapable of detecting new generation of revolutionary aircraft. These shall use all electric, distributed, propulsion system that are thermally transparent. In addition, composite skin and non-emitting sensors onboard the aircraft will lead to low signature. However, based on the second-law of thermodynamics, there is no air vehicle that can escape from leaving an entropy trail. Entropy is thus the only inevitable signature of any system, that once measured, can detect the source. By characterizing the entropy field based on its statistical properties, the source may be recognized, akin to face recognition technology. Direct measurement of entropy is cumbersome, however as a derived property, it can be easily measured. The measurement accuracy depends on the probe design and the sensors onboard. One novel air data sensor suite is introduced with promising potential to capture the entropy trail.

  15. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  16. Heat capacty, relative enthalpy, and calorimetric entropy of silicate minerals: an empirical method of prediction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Haas, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Through the evaluation of experimental calorimetric data and estimates of the molar isobaric heat capacities, relative enthalpies and entropies of constituent oxides, a procedure for predicting the thermodynamic properties of silicates is developed. Estimates of the accuracy and precision of the technique and examples of its application are also presented. -J.A.Z.

  17. Measuring heart rate variability by means of information entropies based on Choi-Williams distribution.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú, Montserrat; Clariá, Francesc; Melia, Umberto; Bayés de Luna, Antonio; Caminal, Pere

    2015-08-01

    The Shannon entropy theory was applied to the Choi-Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD) of cardiac time series (RR series) in order to extract entropy information in both time and frequency domains. From this distribution, four indexes were defined: (1) instantaneous partial entropy; (2) spectral partial entropy; (3) instantaneous complete entropy; (4) spectral complete entropy. These indexes were used for analyzing the heart rate variability of ischemic cardiomyopathy patients (ICM) with different sudden cardiac death risk. The results have shown that the values of these indexes tend to decrease, with different proportion, when the severity of pathological condition increases. Statistical differences (p-value < 0.0005) of these indexes were found comparing low risk and high risk of cardiac death during night and between daytime and nighttime periods of ICM patients. Finally, these indexes have demonstrated to be useful tools to quantify the different complex components of the cardiac time series.

  18. [Molar pregnancy (primary or recurrent?)].

    PubMed

    Ayala, A; Aizpuru, E; Tovar, J M

    1989-08-01

    A peculiar case of gestational trophoblastic disease is described. A 24 year old female with former history of three molar pregnancies, spontaneous abortion and anembryoic pregnancy was admitted because of a newly diagnosed hydatiform mole (ex novo). After uterine curettage followed by a low oral dose of methotrexate (0.5 mg/kg/day) for five days. The HCG levels determined in plasma by beta-HCG- radioinmmunoassay, became negative until four months of follow3 up. An intrauterine device was installed. She resumed HCG positivity a year later and a histerectomy was performed. A post-surgical diagnosis of invasive mole was made. Since the possibility of intercurrent pregnancy was lowered by the presence of a intrauterine device, we assumed that trophoblastic transformation into an invasive mole adopted a sort of dormant period before its resurge (resurrection) independently either from curettage of chemotherapy.

  19. Casimir entropy for magnetodielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Korikov, C. C.

    2015-06-01

    We find the analytic expressions for the Casimir free energy, entropy and pressure at low temperature in the configuration of two parallel plates made of magnetodielectic material. The cases of constant and frequency-dependent dielectic permittivity and magnetic permeability of the plates are considered. Special attention is paid to the account of dc conductivity. It is shown that in the case of finite static dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability the Nernst heat theorem for the Casimir entropy is satisfied. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy goes to a positive nonzero limit depending on the parameters of a system when the temperature vanishes, i.e. the Nernst theorem is violated. The experimental situation is also discussed.

  20. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: ► Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.► Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.► Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation

  1. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.

    2001-09-01

    In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural

  2. Entropy Effects in Chelation Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chung-Sun

    1984-01-01

    The entropy change for a reaction in aqueous solution can be evaluated as a combination of entropy factors. Valuable insight or understanding can be obtained from a detailed examination of these factors. Several entropy effects of inorganic chemical reactions are discussed as examples. (Author/JN)

  3. Entropy of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Humitaka

    2010-06-01

    Charles Darwin's calculation of a life of Earth had ignited Kelvin's insight on a life of Sun, which had eventually inherited to the physical study of stellar structure and energy source. Nuclear energy had secured a longevity of the universe and the goal of the cosmic evolution has been secured by the entropy of black holes.

  4. Rescaling Temperature and Entropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, John, III

    2010-01-01

    Temperature and entropy traditionally are expressed in units of kelvin and joule/kelvin. These units obscure some important aspects of the natures of these thermodynamic quantities. Defining a rescaled temperature using the Boltzmann constant, T' = k[subscript B]T, expresses temperature in energy units, thereby emphasizing the close relationship…

  5. Molar volumes and densities of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Bethke, Philip M.

    1962-01-01

    These tables present critically chosen "best values" for the density and molar volume of selected mineral compounds. No attempt was made to be all-inclusive; rather we have tried to present data for chemically and physically well-defined phases for which the molar volume and/or density was knovvn to the order of 0. 2 percent.

  6. Revolution vs status quo? Non-intervention strategy of asymptomatic third molars causes harm.

    PubMed

    Toedtling, V; Yates, J M

    2015-07-10

    The Faculty of Dental Surgery of the Royal College of Surgeons of England has prompted the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence to urgently re-assess the TA1 guidance on extractions of wisdom teeth and highlighted required amendments to the present version in light of published evidence concerning the harm caused by wisdom tooth retention. This article seeks to address the recent concerns relating the increasing frequency of distal-cervical caries in lower second molar teeth when associated with asymptomatic partially erupted mesial or horizontal impacted mandibular third molars. Such acute angle impactions are classified as partially erupted when one of the third molar cusps breached the epithelial attachment of the distal aspect of the second molar, thus prevents the formation of a gingival seal. At its earliest stage the wisdom tooth appears clinically absent or unerupted, yet histologically the architecture of the gingival epithelium has been disrupted allowing ingress of microbes, demineralisation and succeeding cavitation to take place on the distal aspect of the second molar. We hope to highlight the difficulties faced in addressing this growing clinical problem and encourage clinicians to re-evaluate their own caries risk assessment and caries prevention strategy in relation to mesial and horizontal third molar extractions. PMID:26159975

  7. Entropy and cosmology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, M. H.

    This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own

  8. An investigation of combustion and entropy noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The relative importance of entropy and direct combustion noise in turbopropulsion systems and the parameters upon which these noise sources depend were studied. Theory and experiment were employed to determine that at least with the apparatus used here, entropy noise can dominate combustion noise if there is a sufficient pressure gradient terminating the combustor. Measurements included combustor interior fluctuating pressure, near and far field fluctuating pressure, and combustor exit plane fluctuating temperatures, as well as mean pressures and temperatures. Analysis techniques included spectral, cross-correlation, cross power spectra, and ordinary and partial coherence analysis. Also conducted were combustor liner modification experiments to investigate the origin of the frequency content of combustion noise. Techniques were developed to extract nonpropagational pseudo-sound and the heat release fluctuation spectra from the data.

  9. Histological evaluation of mandibular third molar roots retrieved after coronectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinod; Sproat, Chris; Kwok, Jerry; Beneng, Kiran; Thavaraj, Selvam; McGurk, Mark

    2014-05-01

    There is a resurgence of interest in coronectomy for the management of mandibular third molars because it has a low risk of injury to the inferior dental nerve. However, there is concern that the root that is left in place will eventually become a source of infection. We describe the histological evaluation of 26 consecutive symptomatic coronectomy roots in 21 patients. All roots had vital tissue in the pulp chamber and there was no evidence of periradicular inflammation. Persistent postoperative symptoms related predominantly to inflammation of the soft tissue, which was caused by partially erupted roots or failure of the socket to heal. PMID:24684971

  10. Expressly Fabricated Molar Tube Bases: Enhanced Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Phull, Tarun Singh; Rana, Tarun; Kumar, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients’ parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open / raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures. PMID:25121070

  11. Expressly fabricated molar tube bases: enhanced adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun; Phull, Tarun Singh; Rana, Tarun; Kumar, Varun

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients' parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open / raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures. PMID:25121070

  12. Diffusive mixing and Tsallis entropy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Cushman, John H.

    2015-04-29

    Brownian motion, the classical diffusive process, maximizes the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. The Tsallis q-entropy, which is non-additive, was developed as an alternative to the classical entropy for systems which are non-ergodic. A generalization of Brownian motion is provided that maximizes the Tsallis entropy rather than the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. This process is driven by a Brownian measure with a random diffusion coefficient. In addition, the distribution of this coefficient is derived as a function of q for 1 < q < 3. Applications to transport in porous media are considered.

  13. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    PubMed Central

    Souki, Bernardo Q.; Cheib, Paula L.; de Brito, Gabriela M.; Pinto, Larissa S. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  14. Sextant of Sapphires for Molar Distalization

    PubMed Central

    Palla, Yudistar Venkata; Ganugapanta, Vivek Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Space analysis quantifies the amount of crowding within the arches estimating the severity of space discrepancy. The space gaining procedures include extraction and non-extraction procedures like expansion, proximal stripping and molar distalization. Aim To identify features seen in molar distalization cases. Materials and Methods The sample size comprised 20 patients in whom molar distalization was decided as the treatment plan. The study models and lateral cephalograms of all the patients were taken. Occlusograms were obtained. Model analysis and cephalometric analysis were performed. Descriptive statistical analysis like mean, standard deviation, standard error and mode were done. Results The parameters in Question gave following results. The Bolton analysis showed anterior mandibular excess with mean value of 1.56mm±1.07. The first order discrepancy between maxillary central and lateral incisors was 5±1.95. The premolar rotation showed mean value of 16.58±5.12. The molar rotation showed the value of 7.66±2.26. The nasolabial angle showed the mean of 101.25±8.7 IMPA of 101.4±5.74. Conclusion The six features studied in molar distalization cases [First order discrepancy between upper central and lateral incisors; Rotation of premolars and molars; Bolton’s discrepancy in anterior dentition; Average to horizontal growth pattern; Proclined lower incisors and Obtuse nasolabial angle] can be taken as patterns seen in molar distalization cases and considered as a valid treatment plan. PMID:27656572

  15. Local Entropy, Metric Entropy and Topological Entropy for Countable Discrete Amenable Group Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiankun; Sun, Wenxiang

    2016-06-01

    Let X be a compact metric space and G a countable infinite discrete amenable group acting on X. Like in the ℤ-action cases we define the notion of local entropy and by it we bound the difference between metric entropy and that of a partition, and bound the difference between topological entropy and that of a separated set, which generalize Theorems 1(1) and 1(2) in [Newhouse, 1989] from ℤ-actions to amenable group actions. We further prove that the entropy function hμ(G) is upper semi-continuous on ℳ(X,G) for an asymptotic entropy expansive amenable group action.

  16. Entropy-stabilized oxides

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Christina M.; Sachet, Edward; Borman, Trent; Moballegh, Ali; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Hou, Dong; Jones, Jacob L.; Curtarolo, Stefano; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Configurational disorder can be compositionally engineered into mixed oxide by populating a single sublattice with many distinct cations. The formulations promote novel and entropy-stabilized forms of crystalline matter where metal cations are incorporated in new ways. Here, through rigorous experiments, a simple thermodynamic model, and a five-component oxide formulation, we demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt that entropy predominates the thermodynamic landscape, and drives a reversible solid-state transformation between a multiphase and single-phase state. In the latter, cation distributions are proven to be random and homogeneous. The findings validate the hypothesis that deliberate configurational disorder provides an orthogonal strategy to imagine and discover new phases of crystalline matter and untapped opportunities for property engineering. PMID:26415623

  17. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  18. Intracoronal radiolucency in an incompletely erupted permanent molar with a diagnosis of pericoronitis: importance of radiographic examination.

    PubMed

    Segura, J J; Jiménez-Rubio, A; Cabrera, R

    1998-04-01

    Because of clinical signs and symptoms, a diagnosis of pericoronitis in a partially erupted, partially impacted first molar was made. A more thorough diagnosis was made with the help of a periapical radiograph that showed caries and thus revealed an irreversible pulpitis. Appropriate treatment was the result.

  19. Quantum information entropy for one-dimensional system undergoing quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu-Dong, Song; Shi-Hai, Dong; Yu, Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Calculations of the quantum information entropy have been extended to a non-analytically solvable situation. Specifically, we have investigated the information entropy for a one-dimensional system with a schematic “Landau” potential in a numerical way. Particularly, it is found that the phase transitional behavior of the system can be well expressed by the evolution of quantum information entropy. The calculated results also indicate that the position entropy Sx and the momentum entropy Sp at the critical point of phase transition may vary with the mass parameter M but their sum remains as a constant independent of M for a given excited state. In addition, the entropy uncertainty relation is proven to be robust during the whole process of the phase transition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375005) and partially by 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico.

  20. Maxillary second molar extractions in orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wilson; Wong, Ricky Wing-Kit; Ikegami, Tomio; Hägg, Urban

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the rationales, indications, methods, and effects of orthodontic treatment with maxillary second molar extractions. In addition to the patient's malocclusion, specific considerations about the status and position of the maxillary second and third molars should be taken into account. In recent years, the development of temporary anchorage devices, in addition to extraoral traction and intraoral distalization appliances, has become another armamentarium in the distalization of the maxillary posterior teeth, which may affect the selection of teeth to be extracted from second to third molars. In conclusion, extraction of maxillary second molars is a viable option in selected cases at present, but it is important to understand the indications and limitations of this treatment choice.

  1. Maxillary first molar with five canals

    PubMed Central

    Umer, Fahad

    2014-01-01

    Root canal treatment is a technically demanding procedure especially in the case of maxillary first molar where the anatomy is extremely variable. Failure to recognise and treat these variations may lead to unpredictable outcomes. This case report describes non-surgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with two palatal and two mesiobuccal canals. It also highlights the need for good anatomical knowledge of root canal morphology and its variations in order to achieve consistently successful results. PMID:25239993

  2. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  3. Molar shape variability in platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Nova Delgado, Mónica; Galbany, Jordi; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that platyrrhines constitute a monophyletic group represented by three families: Cebidae, Atelidae, and Pitheciidae. Morphological variability between and within these three families, however, is widely discussed and debated. The aim of this study was to assess molar shape variability in platyrrhines, to explore patterns of interspecific variation among extant species, and to evaluate how molar shape can be used as a taxonomic indicator. The analyses were conducted using standard multivariate analyses of geometric morphometric data from 802 platyrrhine lower molars. The results indicated that the interspecific variation exhibited a highly homoplastic pattern related to functional adaptation of some taxa. However, phylogeny was also an important factor in shaping molar morphological traits, given that some phenotypic similarities were consistent with current phylogenetic positions. Our results show that the phylogenetic and functional signals of lower molar shape vary depending on the taxa and the tooth considered. Based on molar shape, Aotus showed closer similarities to Callicebus, as well as to some Cebidae and Ateles-Lagothrix, due to convergent evolutionary trends caused by similar dietary habits, or due to fast-evolving branches in the Aotus lineage, somewhat similar to the shape of Callicebus and Cebidae.

  4. Molar shape variability in platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Nova Delgado, Mónica; Galbany, Jordi; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that platyrrhines constitute a monophyletic group represented by three families: Cebidae, Atelidae, and Pitheciidae. Morphological variability between and within these three families, however, is widely discussed and debated. The aim of this study was to assess molar shape variability in platyrrhines, to explore patterns of interspecific variation among extant species, and to evaluate how molar shape can be used as a taxonomic indicator. The analyses were conducted using standard multivariate analyses of geometric morphometric data from 802 platyrrhine lower molars. The results indicated that the interspecific variation exhibited a highly homoplastic pattern related to functional adaptation of some taxa. However, phylogeny was also an important factor in shaping molar morphological traits, given that some phenotypic similarities were consistent with current phylogenetic positions. Our results show that the phylogenetic and functional signals of lower molar shape vary depending on the taxa and the tooth considered. Based on molar shape, Aotus showed closer similarities to Callicebus, as well as to some Cebidae and Ateles-Lagothrix, due to convergent evolutionary trends caused by similar dietary habits, or due to fast-evolving branches in the Aotus lineage, somewhat similar to the shape of Callicebus and Cebidae. PMID:27650581

  5. Entropy of electromyography time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Miron; Zurcher, Ulrich; Sung, Paul S.

    2007-12-01

    A nonlinear analysis based on Renyi entropy is applied to electromyography (EMG) time series from back muscles. The time dependence of the entropy of the EMG signal exhibits a crossover from a subdiffusive regime at short times to a plateau at longer times. We argue that this behavior characterizes complex biological systems. The plateau value of the entropy can be used to differentiate between healthy and low back pain individuals.

  6. Entropy Generation in Regenerative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Heat exchange to the oscillating flows in regenerative coolers generates entropy. These flows are characterized by oscillating mass flows and oscillating temperatures. Heat is transferred between the flow and heat exchangers and regenerators. In the former case, there is a steady temperature difference between the flow and the heat exchangers. In the latter case, there is no mean temperature difference. In this paper a mathematical model of the entropy generated is developed for both cases. Estimates of the entropy generated by this process are given for oscillating flows in heat exchangers and in regenerators. The practical significance of this entropy is also discussed.

  7. Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2011-12-01

    The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the blackhole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.

  8. Three Approximate Entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    2002-04-01

    In 1993,(E. & T. Lubkin, Int.J.Theor.Phys. 32), 993 (1993) we gave exact mean trace of squared density matrix P for 3 models of an n-dimensional part of an nK-dimensional pure state. Models named: random nK ket (Haar); pure-pure driven by random Hamiltonian (Gauss); Gauss with n,K coupling reset small (weak). Neglecting higher powers of P gives the approximation: ln(n)-<entropy> defines deficit = (n - 1)/2 which yields deficits, Haar: n((n+K)/(nK+1) - 1)/2 = ( n - 1/n - 1/K + 1/nnK )/2K + Order(f[n] / KKK); Gauss: (n/2)( (n+K)/(nK+1) + 2(nK+1-n-K)/nK(nK+1)(nK+3)) - 1/2 = ( n - 1/n - 1/K + 2/nK - 1/nnK )/2K + Order( f[n]/KKK ); weak: (n/2)(2(K+n)/((K+1)(n+1))) - 1/2 = (n/(n+1))(1 + (n-1)/K - (n-1)/KK + Order(f[n]/KKK)) - 1/2 [unreliable]. These would stay poor even as Karrow∞ unless deficit << 1 bit. Haar and Gauss come out good, but weak has too large a deficit. Though many authors (beginning with Don Page(D.N.Page, PRL 71), 1291 (1993)) have found the exact <entropy> for Haar, I haven't yet seen exact <entropy> for Gauss or for weak.

  9. Blog life: Entropy Bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  10. Caries Management Strategies for Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, R.M.; Innes, N.P.T.; Machiulskiene, V.; Evans, D.J.P.; Splieth, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. There is also increasing interest in techniques where no caries is removed. We present the 1-yr results of clinical efficacy for 3 caries management options for occlusoproximal cavitated lesions in primary molars: conventional restorations (CR; complete caries removal and compomer restoration), Hall technique (HT; no caries removal, sealing in with stainless steel crowns), and nonrestorative caries treatment (NRCT; no caries removal, opening up the cavity, teaching brushing and fluoride application). In sum, 169 children (3-8 yr old; mean, 5.56 ± 1.45 yr) were enrolled in this secondary care–based, 3-arm, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Treatments were carried out by specialist pediatric dentists or postgraduate trainees. One lesion per child received CR, HT, or NRCT. Outcome measures were clinical failure rates, grouped as minor failure (restoration loss/need for replacement, reversible pulpitis, caries progression, etc.) and major failure (irreversible pulpitis, abscess, etc.). There were 148 children (87.6%) with a minimum follow-up of 11 mo (mean, 12.23 ± 0.98 mo). Twenty teeth were recorded as having at least 1 minor failure: NRCT, n = 8 (5%); CR, n = 11 (7%); HT, n = 1 (1%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Only the comparison between NRCT and CR showed no significant difference (p = .79, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.80). Nine (6%) experienced at least 1 major failure: NRCT, n = 4 (2%); CR, n = 5 (3%); HT, n = 0 (0%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Individual comparison of NRCT and CR showed no statistically significant difference in major failures (p = .75, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.76). Success and failure rates were not significantly affected by pediatric dentists’ level of experience (p = .13, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.14). The HT was significantly more successful

  11. Brodie bite with an extracted mandibular first molar in a young adult: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Vinay K; Sharma, Vijay P; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P

    2010-05-01

    Total buccal crossbites are rare, but, when they occur, they can be extremely difficult to correct, even with surgery and orthodontics. In most patients with in-locking crossbites, the maxillary teeth erupt past their mandibular antagonists, creating severe occlusal difficulties. This article presents an adult patient with scissors-bite or partial telescoping bite bilaterally in the posterior region and an extracted mandibular first molar on the right side. She was treated with expansion of the mandibular arch, and the subsequent open bite was closed with the help of masticatory muscle exercises and high-pull headgear. The second and third molars were uprighted and moved mesially to close the extraction spaces.

  12. Diagnosis of molar pregnancy and persistent trophoblastic disease by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Hemming, J D; Quirke, P; Womack, C; Wells, M; Elston, C W; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    Histopathological assessment and flow cytometric analyses were carried out on 32 placentas (representative of each trimester) and 88 molar pregnancies. Three first trimester placentas were triploid, and the remaining 29 placentas were diploid. Of the 88 cases originally diagnosed as molar pregnancies, 26 were triploid (two complete moles, 20 partial moles, and four hydropic abortions); 59 were diploid (46 complete moles, 10 partial moles, three hydropic abortions); one was tetraploid (partial mole); and two were DNA aneuploid (one partial mole, one complete mole). A significantly increased hyperdiploid fraction (a measure of cell proliferation) was detected in diploid complete moles (p less than 0.0001) and cases of persistent trophoblastic disease (p less than 0.001) when compared with diploid placentas and diploid partial moles. All seven cases of established persistent trophoblastic disease, for which follow up was available, were diploid and showed high hyperdiploid fractions within the range for diploid complete moles. These findings suggest that flow cytometric DNA measurements may be an important aid in the diagnosis of molar pregnancy. The high degree of cell proliferation found in this study may explain the premalignant potential of complete hydatidiform moles. PMID:3611391

  13. Orthodontic extrusion of horizontally impacted mandibular molars

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhigui; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shanyong; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Shen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and evaluate a novel approach in treating horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars. Materials and methods: An orthodontic technique was applied for treatment of horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars, which included a push-type spring for rotation first, and then a cantilever for extrusion. There were 8 mandibular third molars (M3s) and 2 second molars (M2s) in this study. Tooth mobility, extraction time, the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth, alveolar bone height of the adjacent tooth, and the relationship of impacted M3 and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) were evaluated. Results: Two horizontally impacted M2s could be upright in the arch and good occlusal relationships were obtained after treatment. All impacted M3s were successfully separated from the IAN, without any neurologic consequences. The average extraction time was 5 minutes. There was a significant change in the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth after treatment. A new bone apposition with the average height of 3.2 mm was noted distal to the adjacent tooth. Conclusions: This two-step orthodontic technique as presented here may be a safe and feasible alternative in management of severely horizontally impacted mandibular molars, which achieves a successful separation of M3s from the IAN and an excellent position for M2s. PMID:25419364

  14. The entropies of adsorbed molecules.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Charles T; Sellers, Jason R V

    2012-10-31

    Adsorbed molecules are involved in many reactions on solid surface that are of great technological importance. As such, there has been tremendous effort worldwide to learn how to predict reaction rates and equilibrium constants for reactions involving adsorbed molecules. Theoretical calculation of both the rate and equilibrium constants for such reactions requires knowing the entropy and enthalpy of the adsorbed molecule. While much effort has been devoted to measuring and calculating the enthalpies of well-defined adsorbates, few measurements of the entropies of adsorbates have been reported. We present here a new way to determine the standard entropies of adsorbed molecules (S(ad)(0)) on single crystal surfaces from temperature programmed desorption data, prove its accuracy by comparison to entropies measured by equilibrium methods, and apply it to published data to extract new entropies. Most importantly, when combined with reported entropies, we find that at high coverage, they linearly track the entropy of the gas-phase molecule at the same temperature (T), such that S(ad)(0)(T) = 0.70 S(gas)(0)(T) - 3.3R (R = the gas constant), with a standard deviation of only 2R over a range of 50R. These entropies, which are ~2/3 of the gas, are huge compared to most theoretical predictions. This result can be extended to reliably predict prefactors in the Arrhenius rate constant for surface reactions involving such species, as proven here for desorption. PMID:23033909

  15. Saturating the holographic entropy bound

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2010-10-15

    The covariant entropy bound states that the entropy, S, of matter on a light sheet cannot exceed a quarter of its initial area, A, in Planck units. The gravitational entropy of black holes saturates this inequality. The entropy of matter systems, however, falls short of saturating the bound in known examples. This puzzling gap has led to speculation that a much stronger bound, S < or approx. A{sup 3/4}, may hold true. In this note, we exhibit light sheets whose entropy exceeds A{sup 3/4} by arbitrarily large factors. In open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, such light sheets contain the entropy visible in the sky; in the limit of early curvature domination, the covariant bound can be saturated but not violated. As a corollary, we find that the maximum observable matter and radiation entropy in universes with positive (negative) cosmological constant is of order {Lambda}{sup -1} ({Lambda}{sup -2}), and not |{Lambda}|{sup -3/4} as had hitherto been believed. Our results strengthen the evidence for the covariant entropy bound, while showing that the stronger bound S < or approx. A{sup 3/4} is not universally valid. We conjecture that the stronger bound does hold for static, weakly gravitating systems.

  16. Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide. A Safe Molar Volume-Molar Mass Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedenbaugh, John H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a molar volume-molar mass experiment for use in general chemistry laboratories. Gives background technical information, procedures for the titration of aqueous hydrogen peroxide with standard potassium permanganate and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen, and a discussion of the results obtained in three…

  17. Entropy, Its Language, and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    2007-12-01

    The language of entropy is examined for consistency with its mathematics and physics, and for its efficacy as a guide to what entropy means. Do common descriptors such as disorder, missing information, and multiplicity help or hinder understanding? Can the language of entropy be helpful in cases where entropy is not well defined? We argue in favor of the descriptor spreading, which entails space, time, and energy in a fundamental way. This includes spreading of energy spatially during processes and temporal spreading over accessible microstates states in thermodynamic equilibrium. Various examples illustrate the value of the spreading metaphor. To provide further support for this metaphor’s utility, it is shown how a set of reasonable spreading properties can be used to derive the entropy function. A main conclusion is that it is appropriate to view entropy’s symbol S as shorthand for spreading.

  18. Lower third molar eruption following orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Salehi, P; Danaie, S Momene

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of extraction and preservation of the 1st premolar on lower 3rd molar eruption. Orthodontic clinic records from 1993 to 1995 were evaluated before and after treatment and 8-9 years after treatment for 3 groups of patients: 32 with extraction of 1st premolars in both jaws, 32 with no extraction but orthodontic treatment and 48 controls with no extraction but orthodontic treatment in the upper jaws only. Successful eruption of 3rd molars was evaluated. There was a significant difference in the rates of successful eruptions in the extraction (42%), non-extraction (12%) and control (20%) groups. The findings indicate that 1st premolar extraction may increase the chance of 3rd molar eruption, leading to a lower incidence of health and economic complications.

  19. Lower third molar eruption following orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Salehi, P; Danaie, S Momene

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of extraction and preservation of the 1st premolar on lower 3rd molar eruption. Orthodontic clinic records from 1993 to 1995 were evaluated before and after treatment and 8-9 years after treatment for 3 groups of patients: 32 with extraction of 1st premolars in both jaws, 32 with no extraction but orthodontic treatment and 48 controls with no extraction but orthodontic treatment in the upper jaws only. Successful eruption of 3rd molars was evaluated. There was a significant difference in the rates of successful eruptions in the extraction (42%), non-extraction (12%) and control (20%) groups. The findings indicate that 1st premolar extraction may increase the chance of 3rd molar eruption, leading to a lower incidence of health and economic complications. PMID:19161121

  20. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer

    PubMed Central

    Sodagar, A.; Ahmad Akhoundi, M. S.; Rafighii, A.; Arab, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD) which is a simple molar distalizing appliance. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys) with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth pattern were selected for bilateral distalization of maxillary molars via BMD. The screws were activated every other day, alternately. Lateral cephalograms and study models were obtained before treatment and after 11 weeks activation of the appliance. Results Significant amounts of molar distalization, molar distal tipping and anchorage loss were observed. The mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 1.22±0.936 mm with a distal tipping of 2.97±3.74 degrees in 11 weeks. The rate of distal movement was 0.48 mm per month. Reciprocal mesial movement of the first premolars was 2.26±1.12 mm with a mesial tipping of 4.25±3.12 degrees. Maxillary incisors moved 3.55±1.46 mm and tipped 9.87±5.03 degrees mesially. Lower anterior face height (LAFH) decreased 1.28±1.36 mm. Conclusion BMD is appropriate for distalizing maxillary molars, especially in patients with critical LAFH, although significant amounts of anchorage loss occur using this appliance. PMID:22457837

  1. Molar and molecular views of choice.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2004-06-30

    The molar and molecular views of behavior are not different theories or levels of analysis; they are different paradigms. The molecular paradigm views behavior as composed of discrete units (responses) occurring at moments in time and strung together in chains to make up complex performances. The discrete pieces are held together as a result of association by contiguity. The molecular view has a long history both in early thought about reflexes and in associationism, and, although it was helpful to getting a science of behavior started, it has outlived its usefulness. The molar view stems from a conviction that behavior is continuous, as argued by John Dewey, Gestalt psychologists, Karl Lashley, and others. The molar paradigm views behavior as inherently extended in time and composed of activities that have integrated parts. In the molar paradigm, activities vary in their scale of organization--i.e., as to whether they are local or extended--and behavior may be controlled sometimes by short-term relations and sometimes by long-term relations. Applied to choice, the molar paradigm rests on two simple principles: (a) all behavior constitutes choice; and (b) all activities take time. Equivalence between choice and behavior occurs because every situation contains more than one alternative activity. The principle that behavior takes time refers not simply to any notion of response duration, but to the necessity that identifying one action or another requires a sample extended in time. The molecular paradigm's momentary responses are inferred from extended samples in retrospect. In this sense, momentary responses constitute abstractions, whereas extended activities constitute concrete particulars. Explanations conceived within the molecular paradigm invariably involve hypothetical constructs, because they require causes to be contiguous with responses. Explanations conceived within the molar paradigm retain direct contact with observable variables.

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis),...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis),...

  4. Tight Uniform Continuity Bounds for Quantum Entropies: Conditional Entropy, Relative Entropy Distance and Energy Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    We present a bouquet of continuity bounds for quantum entropies, falling broadly into two classes: first, a tight analysis of the Alicki-Fannes continuity bounds for the conditional von Neumann entropy, reaching almost the best possible form that depends only on the system dimension and the trace distance of the states. Almost the same proof can be used to derive similar continuity bounds for the relative entropy distance from a convex set of states or positive operators. As applications, we give new proofs, with tighter bounds, of the asymptotic continuity of the relative entropy of entanglement, E R , and its regularization {E_R^{∞}}, as well as of the entanglement of formation, E F . Using a novel "quantum coupling" of density operators, which may be of independent interest, we extend the latter to an asymptotic continuity bound for the regularized entanglement of formation, aka entanglement cost, {E_C=E_F^{∞}}. Second, we derive analogous continuity bounds for the von Neumann entropy and conditional entropy in infinite dimensional systems under an energy constraint, most importantly systems of multiple quantum harmonic oscillators. While without an energy bound the entropy is discontinuous, it is well-known to be continuous on states of bounded energy. However, a quantitative statement to that effect seems not to have been known. Here, under some regularity assumptions on the Hamiltonian, we find that, quite intuitively, the Gibbs entropy at the given energy roughly takes the role of the Hilbert space dimension in the finite-dimensional Fannes inequality.

  5. Densities, Excess Molar Volumes, and Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Aqueous Aminoethylethanolamine Solutions at Temperatures from 283.15 to 343.15 K.

    PubMed

    Stec, Marcin; Tatarczuk, Adam; Spiewak, Dariusz; Wilk, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The densities of aqueous mixtures of aminoethylethanolamine (CAS #000111-41-1) were measured over the entire compositional range at temperatures of 283.15-343.15 K. The results of these measurements were used to calculate excess molar volumes and isobaric thermal expansion coefficients, and partial molar and apparent molar volumes and excess isobaric thermal expansion coefficients were subsequently derived. The excess molar volumes were correlated as a function of the mole fraction using the Redlich-Kister equation. Temperature dependences of the Redlich-Kister coefficients are also presented. The partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of AEEA in water were determined using two different methods. In addition, the solution density was correlated using a Joubian-Acree model. Aqueous solutions of AEEA exhibit similar properties to the aqueous solutions of other alkanolamines (like monoethanolamine) used in acid gas sweetening. PMID:24899753

  6. Revisiting sample entropy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J. D.; Eswaran, H.; Lowery, C. L.; Preißl, H.

    2007-03-01

    We modify the definition of sample entropy (SaEn) by incorporating a time delay between the components of the block (from which the densities are estimated) and show that the modified method characterizes the complexity of the system better than the original version. We apply the modified SaEn to the standard deterministic systems and stochastic processes (uncorrelated and long range correlated (LRC) processes) and show that the underlying complexity of the system is better quantified by the modified method. We extend this analysis to the RR intervals of the normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects (available via www.physionet.org) and show that there is a good degree of separation between the two groups.

  7. Pathological (late) fractures of the mandibular angle after lower third molar removal: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery is very rare (0.005% of third molar removals). There are 94 cases reported in the literature; cases associated with osseous pathologies such as osteomyelitis or any local and systemic diseases that may compromise mandibular bone strength have not been included. We describe three new cases of pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery. Case presentations The first patient was a 27-year-old Caucasian man who had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, mesioangular variety, class II-C third molar 20 days before admission to our clinic. The fracture of his left mandibular angle, complete and composed, occurred during chewing. The second patient was a 32-year-old Caucasian man. He had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, mesioangular variety, class II-B third molar 22 days before his admission. The fracture, which occurred during mastication, was studied by computed tomography that showed reparative tissue in the fracture site. The third patient was a 36-year-old Caucasian man who had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, vertical variety, class II-C third molar 25 days before the observation. In this case the fracture of his mandibular angle was oblique (unfavorable), complete and composed. The fracture had occurred during chewing. We studied the fracture by optical projection tomography and computed tomography. All of the surgical removals of the 3.8 third molars, performed by the patients’ dentists who had more than 10 years of experience, were difficult. We treated the fractures with open surgical reduction, internal fixation by titanium miniplates and intermaxillary elastic fixation removed after 6 weeks. Conclusions The literature indicates that the risk of pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery for total inclusions (class II-III, type C) is twice that of partial inclusions due to the necessity of

  8. Mass versus molar doses, similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, A; Lamparczyk, H

    2008-11-01

    Generally, they are two systems expressing the amounts of active substance in a given drug product, i.e. mass and molar dose. Currently, the dose system based on the mass is widely used in which doses are expressed in grams or milligrams. On the other hand, the molar dose system is in direct relation to the number of molecules. Hence, the objective of this work was to compare both systems in order to find their advantages and disadvantages. Active substances belonging to the groups of antibiotics, nootropic agents, beta-blockers, vitamins, GABA-analog, COX-2 inhibitors, calcium channel antagonists, benzodiazepine receptor agonists, lipid-modifying agents (fibrates), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (profens), estrogens, neuroleptics, analgesics and benzodiazepines were considered. Moreover, products containing two active substances were also taken into account. These are mixtures of hydrochlorothiazide with active substances influencing the renin-angiotensin system and combined oral contraceptives. For each active substance, belonging to the groups mentioned above molar doses were calculated from mass doses and molar mass. Hence, groups of drugs with a single active substance, drugs with similar pharmacological activities, pharmaceutical alternatives, and drugs with a single active ingredient manufactured in different doses were compared in order to find which dose system describes more adequately differences between and within the groups mentioned above. Comparisons were supported by a number of equations, which theoretically justify the data, and relationships derived from calculations. PMID:19069248

  9. Entanglement entropy converges to classical entropy around periodic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Berenstein, David

    2016-03-01

    We consider oscillators evolving subject to a periodic driving force that dynamically entangles them, and argue that this gives the linearized evolution around periodic orbits in a general chaotic Hamiltonian dynamical system. We show that the entanglement entropy, after tracing over half of the oscillators, generically asymptotes to linear growth at a rate given by the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents of the system. These exponents give a classical entropy growth rate, in the sense of Kolmogorov, Sinai and Pesin. We also calculate the dependence of this entropy on linear mixtures of the oscillator Hilbert-space factors, to investigate the dependence of the entanglement entropy on the choice of coarse graining. We find that for almost all choices the asymptotic growth rate is the same.

  10. Entropy distance: New quantum phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Stephan; Knauf, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    We study a curve of Gibbsian families of complex 3 Multiplication-Sign 3-matrices and point out new features, absent in commutative finite-dimensional algebras: a discontinuous maximum-entropy inference, a discontinuous entropy distance, and non-exposed faces of the mean value set. We analyze these problems from various aspects including convex geometry, topology, and information geometry. This research is motivated by a theory of infomax principles, where we contribute by computing first order optimality conditions of the entropy distance.

  11. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction.

  12. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  13. The Diagnosis of Choriocarcinoma in Molar Pregnancies: A Revised Approach in Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Lisa; Zhang, Liangtao; Sheath, Karen; Love, Donald R.; George, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydatidiform moles occur in approximately 1 in 1,500 pregnancies; however, early miscarriages or spontaneous abortions may not be correctly identified as molar pregnancies due to poor differentiation of chorionic villi. Methods The current clinical testing algorithm used for the detection of hydatidiform moles uses a combination of morphological analysis and p57 immunostaining followed by ploidy testing to establish a diagnosis of either a complete or partial molar pregnancy. We review here 198 referrals for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ploidy testing, where the initial diagnosis based on morphology is compared to the final diagnosis based on a combination of morphology, FISH and p57 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Results Approximately 40% of cases were determined to be genetically abnormal, but only 28.8% of cases were diagnosed as molar pregnancies. The underestimation of complete molar pregnancies and those with androgenetic inheritance was also found to be likely using conventional diagnostic methods, as atypical p57 staining was observed in approximately 10% of cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a revised approach to testing products of conception is necessary, with cases screened according to their clinical history in order to distinguish molar pregnancy referrals from hydropic pregnancies. PMID:26566410

  14. Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.

    2015-09-01

    Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.

  15. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  16. Quantum entropy and special relativity.

    PubMed

    Peres, Asher; Scudo, Petra F; Terno, Daniel R

    2002-06-10

    We consider a single free spin- 1 / 2 particle. The reduced density matrix for its spin is not covariant under Lorentz transformations. The spin entropy is not a relativistic scalar and has no invariant meaning.

  17. Till Surgery do us Part: Unexpected Bilateral Kissing Molars

    PubMed Central

    Anish, Narayanankutty; Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Daniel, Vineet Alex; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence impacted teeth, single or multiple is very common. But, phenomenon of kissing molars is an extremely rare phenomenon. Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first or second molars does not share the same frequency of occurrence. But, there are rare cases in which the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots point in the opposite direction, and are termed as kissing molars. Sometimes, these teeth will be associated with pathologies. This article reports a rare case of mandibular bilateral kissing molars. PMID:25918627

  18. High-Entropy Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.

    2014-10-01

    The high-entropy alloys are defined as solid-solution alloys containing five or more than five principal elements in equal or near-equal atomic percent. The concept of high mixing entropy introduces a new way for developing advanced metallic materials with unique physical and mechanical properties that cannot be achieved by the conventional microalloying approach based on only a single base element. The metallic glass (MG) is the metallic alloy rapidly quenched from the liquid state, and at room temperature it still shows an amorphous liquid-like structure. Bulk MGs represent a particular class of amorphous alloys usually with three or more than three components but based on a single principal element such as Zr, Cu, Ce, and Fe. These materials are very attractive for applications because of their excellent mechanical properties such as ultrahigh (near theoretical) strength, wear resistance, and hardness, and physical properties such as soft magnetic properties. In this article, we review the formation and properties of a series of high-mixing-entropy bulk MGs based on multiple major elements. It is found that the strategy and route for development of the high-entropy alloys can be applied to the development of the MGs with excellent glass-forming ability. The high-mixing-entropy bulk MGs are then loosely defined as metallic glassy alloys containing five or more than five elements in equal or near-equal atomic percent, which have relatively high mixing entropy compared with the conventional MGs based on a single principal element. The formation mechanism, especially the role of the mixing entropy in the formation of the high-entropy MGs, is discussed. The unique physical, mechanical, chemical, and biomedical properties of the high-entropy MGs in comparison with the conventional metallic alloys are introduced. We show that the high-mixing-entropy MGs, along the formation idea and strategy of the high-entropy alloys and based on multiple major elements, might provide

  19. Extremal surfaces and entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Shesansu Sekhar

    2014-05-01

    We have obtained the equation of the extremal hypersurface by considering the Jacobson-Myers functional and computed the entanglement entropy. In this context, we show that the higher derivative corrected extremal surfaces cannot penetrate the horizon. Also, we have studied the entanglement temperature and entanglement entropy for low excited states for such higher derivative theories when the entangling region is of the strip type.

  20. Boundary effects in entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthiere, Clément; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2016-09-01

    We present a number of explicit calculations of Renyi and entanglement entropies in situations where the entangling surface intersects the boundary of d-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. When the boundary is a single plane we compute the contribution to the entropy due to this intersection, first in the case of the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, and then in the case of a generic Robin type boundary condition. The flow in the boundary coupling between the Neumann and Dirichlet phases is analyzed in arbitrary dimension d and is shown to be monotonic, the peculiarity of d = 3 case is noted. We argue that the translational symmetry along the entangling surface is broken due the presence of the boundary which reveals that the entanglement is not homogeneous. In order to characterize this quantitatively, we introduce a density of entanglement entropy and compute it explicitly. This quantity clearly indicates that the entanglement is maximal near the boundary. We then consider the situation where the boundary is composed of two parallel planes at a finite separation and compute the entanglement entropy as well as its density in this case. The complete contribution to entanglement entropy due to the boundaries is shown not to depend on the distance between the planes and is simply twice the entropy in the case of single plane boundary. Additionally, we find how the area law, the part in the entropy proportional to the area of entire entangling surface, depends on the size of the separation between the two boundaries. The latter is shown to appear in the UV finite part of the entropy.

  1. State Ensembles and Quantum Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kak, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers quantum communication involving an ensemble of states. Apart from the von Neumann entropy, it considers other measures one of which may be useful in obtaining information about an unknown pure state and another that may be useful in quantum games. It is shown that under certain conditions in a two-party quantum game, the receiver of the states can increase the entropy by adding another pure state.

  2. Assessment of association between molar incisor hypomineralization and hypomineralized second primary molar

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rakesh; Chandak, Shweta; Chandwani, Manisha; Singh, Prabhat; Pimpale, Jitesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) has been described as a clinical entity of systemic origin affecting the enamel of one or all first permanent molars and also the incisors; less frequently the second primary molars have also been reported to develop hypomineralization of the enamel, along with MIH. Aim: To scrutinize the association between hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPMs) and MIH and their prevalence in schoolgoing pupils in Nagpur, Maharashtra, India and the associated severity of dental caries. Design: A sample of 1,109 pupils belonging to 3–12-year-old age group was included. The entire sample was then divided into Group I (3–5 years) and Group II (6–12 years). The scoring criteria proposed by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry for hypomineralization was used to score HSPM and MIH. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) was used for appraising caries status in the hypomineralized molars. The examination was conducted by a single calibrated dentist in schools in daylight. The results, thus obtained, were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and odds ratio. Result: Of the children examined, 10 in Group I (4.88%) had HSPM and 63 in Group II (7.11%) had MIH in at least one molar. In Group II, out of 63 subjects diagnosed with MIH, 30 subjects (48%) also had HSPM. Carious lesions with high severity were appreciated in hypomineralized molars. Conclusion: The prevalence of HSPM was 4.88% and of MIH was 7.11%. Approximately half of the affected first permanent molars were associated with HSPM. The likelihood of development of caries increased with the severity of hypomineralization defect. PMID:27011930

  3. Entropy generation effects in a hydromagnetic free convection flow past a vertical oscillating plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, A. S.; Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    An unsteady free convective flow of a viscous fluid past an oscillating plate is considered, and the effects of entropy generation are investigated. The governing partial differential equations are normalized by using suitable transformations, and an exact solution of the problem is obtained by using the Laplace transformation technique. The expressions for the velocity and temperature are then used to compute the skin friction, Nusselt number, local entropy generation number, and Bejan number.

  4. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  5. Mixing, entropy and competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2012-06-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices.

  6. Human dental age estimation combining third molar(s) development and tooth morphological age predictors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Galiti, D; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    In the subadult age group, third molar development, as well as age-related morphological tooth information can be observed on panoramic radiographs. The aim of present study was to combine, in subadults, panoramic radiographic data based on developmental stages of third molar(s) and morphological measurements from permanent teeth, in order to evaluate its added age-predicting performances. In the age range between 15 and 23 years, 25 gender-specific radiographs were collected within each age category of 1 year. Third molar development was classified and registered according the 10-point staging and scoring technique proposed by Gleiser and Hunt (1955), modified by Köhler (1994). The Kvaal (1995) measuring technique was applied on the indicated teeth from the individuals' left side. Linear regression models with age as response and third molar-scored stages as explanatory variables were developed, and morphological measurements from permanent teeth were added. From the models, determination coefficients (R (2)) and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated. Maximal-added age information was reported as a 6 % R² increase and a 0.10-year decrease of RMSE. Forensic dental age estimations on panoramic radiographic data in the subadult group (15-23 year) should only be based on third molar development.

  7. Molecular structure, configurational entropy and viscosity of silicate melts: link through the Adam and Gibbs theory of viscous flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Losq, Charles; Neuville, Daniel R.

    2016-04-01

    this communication, it is shown that such link is possible. By expressing the residual entropy of the glass as the sum of partial molar entropies of tetrahedral SiO2 units, with known quantities from 29Si NMR spectroscopy, and of a semi-ideal mixing of Na and K, it is possible to model the variations of the configurational entropy with chemical composition. The model reproduces the variations of the viscosity of melts with a standard deviation of 0.2 log unit in the K2O-Na2O-SiO2 ternary system, for SiO2 contents between 60 and 100 mol% SiO2. Such model opens new pathways in order to build semi-empirical viscosity models that provide structural, thermodynamic and rheological information about silicate melts.

  8. Theoretical analysis of controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields in the intensity matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiki, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields by introducing the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and entropy, which is defined using the intensity matrix [H. Gamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 976 (1957)]. The analytical derivation of the WDF and entropy is presented for a partially coherent imaging system consisting of two pinholes illuminated by a circular source. It is shown that the WDF, defined in the 4D space–spatial frequency region, and entropy can be useful tools to understand how one can freely and quantitatively control the interference when any optical components in the partially coherent imaging system are changed.

  9. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Cansiz, Erol; Isler, Sabri Cemil; Gultekin, B Alper

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth.

  10. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Sabri Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth. PMID:27429810

  11. Relative entropies in conformal field theory.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Nima

    2014-08-01

    Relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability for quantum states, and it plays a central role in quantum information theory. The family of Renyi entropies generalizes to Renyi relative entropies that include, as special cases, most entropy measures used in quantum information theory. We construct a Euclidean path-integral approach to Renyi relative entropies in conformal field theory, then compute the fidelity and the relative entropy of states in one spatial dimension at zero and finite temperature using a replica trick. In contrast to the entanglement entropy, the relative entropy is free of ultraviolet divergences, and is obtained as a limit of certain correlation functions. The relative entropy of two states provides an upper bound on their trace distance.

  12. Relative entropies in conformal field theory.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Nima

    2014-08-01

    Relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability for quantum states, and it plays a central role in quantum information theory. The family of Renyi entropies generalizes to Renyi relative entropies that include, as special cases, most entropy measures used in quantum information theory. We construct a Euclidean path-integral approach to Renyi relative entropies in conformal field theory, then compute the fidelity and the relative entropy of states in one spatial dimension at zero and finite temperature using a replica trick. In contrast to the entanglement entropy, the relative entropy is free of ultraviolet divergences, and is obtained as a limit of certain correlation functions. The relative entropy of two states provides an upper bound on their trace distance. PMID:25126908

  13. Enzyme Molar Fractions: A Powerful Tool for Understanding Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Juan L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Deduces the relationship between reduced velocity and molar fractions for productive enzyme complexes; obtains the mathematical expression of molar fractions for an enzyme with two specific binding sites per molecule; and proposes a useful plot to follow the dependence of enzyme molar fractions with the concentration of one of its ligands. (JN)

  14. Entropy from State Probabilities: Hydration Entropy of Cations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Entropy is an important energetic quantity determining the progression of chemical processes. We propose a new approach to obtain hydration entropy directly from probability density functions in state space. We demonstrate the validity of our approach for a series of cations in aqueous solution. Extensive validation of simulation results was performed. Our approach does not make prior assumptions about the shape of the potential energy landscape and is capable of calculating accurate hydration entropy values. Sampling times in the low nanosecond range are sufficient for the investigated ionic systems. Although the presented strategy is at the moment limited to systems for which a scalar order parameter can be derived, this is not a principal limitation of the method. The strategy presented is applicable to any chemical system where sufficient sampling of conformational space is accessible, for example, by computer simulations. PMID:23651109

  15. The effect of buffer molarity on axonal exposure and axoaxonal apposition in the rat molar pulp.

    PubMed

    Holland, G R

    1981-11-01

    Axons in the rat molar pulp have been examined morphometrically to determine axonal size and the degree of axonal exposure and axoaxonal apposition in tissue fixed by perfusion using 2% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffers ranging in molarity form 0.025 M to 0.4 M. Between 31.2% and 45.0% of the axons were incompletely ensheathed. This proportion of axons exposed was linearly related to the buffer molarity (P less than 0.05) and was approximately double that found in more central axons. Between 32.3% and 45.0% of the axons were in contact with other axons. This proportion was not linearly related to buffer molarity but was least ten times higher than that observed in more centrally positioned nerve fibers in the inferior alveolar nerves. Increasing buffer molarity reduced the size of the axons, a relationship not found in the more central axons. It is suggested that axonal exposure and axoaxonal apposition are constant, significant features of pulpal nerve fibers that may be related to the onset and spread of nociceptive activity. The permeability properties of pulpal axons may differ from those of more centrally placed axons.

  16. Epilepsy (partial)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy? What is the risk of relapse in people in remission when withdrawing antiepileptic drugs? What are the effects of behavioural and psychological treatments for people with epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiepileptic drugs after a single seizure; monotherapy for partial epilepsy using carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate, or topiramate; addition of second-line drugs for drug-resistant partial epilepsy (allopurinol, eslicarbazepine, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, losigamone, oxcarbazepine, retigabine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or zonisamide); antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with partial or

  17. Complications of third molar surgery and their management.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Robert D

    2012-09-01

    The frequency and severity of untoward events associated with surgical procedures are influenced by multiple factors that may be related to the procedure, patient, and/or surgeon. Not every third molar needs to be removed. Full bony impacted lower third molars well below the cervical margin of the second molar crowns should be considered for retention. Certain deviations from normal healing should be considered to be complications. Risk factors associated with third molar removal should be carefully established and explained to the patient. Third molar surgery has a predictable postsoperative course for the average patient.

  18. Complications of third molar surgery and their management.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Robert D

    2012-09-01

    The frequency and severity of untoward events associated with surgical procedures are influenced by multiple factors that may be related to the procedure, patient, and/or surgeon. Not every third molar needs to be removed. Full bony impacted lower third molars well below the cervical margin of the second molar crowns should be considered for retention. Certain deviations from normal healing should be considered to be complications. Risk factors associated with third molar removal should be carefully established and explained to the patient. Third molar surgery has a predictable postsoperative course for the average patient. PMID:23021398

  19. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-01-01

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory’s isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method. PMID:26138206

  20. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-07-03

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory's isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method.

  1. Wavelet entropy of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, L.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-06-01

    We compare two different definitions for the wavelet entropy associated to stochastic processes. The first one, the normalized total wavelet entropy (NTWS) family [S. Blanco, A. Figliola, R.Q. Quiroga, O.A. Rosso, E. Serrano, Time-frequency analysis of electroencephalogram series, III. Wavelet packets and information cost function, Phys. Rev. E 57 (1998) 932-940; O.A. Rosso, S. Blanco, J. Yordanova, V. Kolev, A. Figliola, M. Schürmann, E. Başar, Wavelet entropy: a new tool for analysis of short duration brain electrical signals, J. Neurosci. Method 105 (2001) 65-75] and a second introduced by Tavares and Lucena [Physica A 357(1) (2005) 71-78]. In order to understand their advantages and disadvantages, exact results obtained for fractional Gaussian noise ( -1<α< 1) and fractional Brownian motion ( 1<α< 3) are assessed. We find out that the NTWS family performs better as a characterization method for these stochastic processes.

  2. Quantum geometry and gravitational entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Czech, Bart Iomiej; Larjo, Klaus; Marolf, Donald; Simon, Joan

    2007-05-29

    Most quantum states have wavefunctions that are widely spread over the accessible Hilbert space and hence do not have a good description in terms of a single classical geometry. In order to understand when geometric descriptions are possible, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence in the half-BPS sector of asymptotically AdS_5 x S5 universes. In this sector we devise a"coarse-grained metric operator" whose eigenstates are well described by a single spacetime topology and geometry. We show that such half-BPS universes have a non-vanishing entropy if and only if the metric is singular, and that the entropy arises from coarse-graining the geometry. Finally, we use our entropy formula to find the most entropic spacetimes with fixed asymptotic moments beyond the global charges.

  3. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  4. Entropy of Dynamical Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Márton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2011-01-01

    Human dynamical social networks encode information and are highly adaptive. To characterize the information encoded in the fast dynamics of social interactions, here we introduce the entropy of dynamical social networks. By analysing a large dataset of phone-call interactions we show evidence that the dynamical social network has an entropy that depends on the time of the day in a typical week-day. Moreover we show evidence for adaptability of human social behavior showing data on duration of phone-call interactions that significantly deviates from the statistics of duration of face-to-face interactions. This adaptability of behavior corresponds to a different information content of the dynamics of social human interactions. We quantify this information by the use of the entropy of dynamical networks on realistic models of social interactions. PMID:22194809

  5. Construction of microcanonical entropy on thermodynamic pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campisi, Michele

    2015-05-01

    A question that is currently highly debated is whether the microcanonical entropy should be expressed as the logarithm of the phase volume (volume entropy, also known as the Gibbs entropy) or as the logarithm of the density of states (surface entropy, also known as the Boltzmann entropy). Rather than postulating them and investigating the consequence of each definition, as is customary, here we adopt a bottom-up approach and construct the entropy expression within the microcanonical formalism upon two fundamental thermodynamic pillars: (i) The second law of thermodynamics as formulated for quasistatic processes: δ Q /T is an exact differential, and (ii) the law of ideal gases: P V =kBN T . The first pillar implies that entropy must be some function of the phase volume Ω . The second pillar singles out the logarithmic function among all possible functions. Hence the construction leads uniquely to the expression S =kBlnΩ , that is, the volume entropy. As a consequence any entropy expression other than that of Gibbs, e.g., the Boltzmann entropy, can lead to inconsistencies with the two thermodynamic pillars. We illustrate this with the prototypical example of a macroscopic collection of noninteracting spins in a magnetic field, and show that the Boltzmann entropy severely fails to predict the magnetization, even in the thermodynamic limit. The uniqueness of the Gibbs entropy, as well as the demonstrated potential harm of the Boltzmann entropy, provide compelling reasons for discarding the latter at once.

  6. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Heravi, Farzin; Radvar, Mehrdad; Anbiaee, Najmeh; Madani, Azam Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the introduction of skeletal anchorage system, recently it is possible to successfully intrude molar teeth. On the other hand, there have been concerns about periodontal changes associated with intrusion and there are few studies on this topic, especially for posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Ten female patients were enrolled in this study. Maxillary molar intrusion was achieved by inserting two miniscrews and a 17 × 25 titanium molybdenum alloy spring. Crestal height changes were evaluated at three intervals including: Baseline (T0), end of active treatment (T1) and 6 months after retention (T2). Other variables including probing depth, gingival recession, attachment level and bleeding on probing were evaluated by clinical measurements in the three above mentioned intervals. One-sample Kolmogrov-Smirnov test ascertained the normality of the data. For all patients, the changes in tooth position and crestal height were evaluated using one-sample t-test. (P < 0.05) Results: Supra-erupted molars were successfully intruded a mean of 2.1 ± 0.9 mm during active treatment (T0-T1). A mean bone resorption of 0.9 ± 0.9 mm in mesial crest and 1 ± 0.8 mm in distal crest had occurred in total treatment (T0-T2). A mean of 0.6 ± 1.4 mm bone was deposited on mesial crest during the retention period (T1-T2) following tooth relapse. On average, 0.8 ± 0.4 mm attachment gain was obtained. Gingival margin coronalized a mean of 0.8 ± 0.6 mm throughout the entire treatment. Probing depth showed no significant change during treatment. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height. PMID:26288629

  7. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Spalinski, Michal

    2011-03-15

    Recent advances in holography have led to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics of higher dimensional black holes. This paper introduces a correspondence between phenomenologically defined entropy currents in relativistic hydrodynamics and 'generalized horizons' of near-equilibrium black objects in a dual gravitational description. A general formula is given, expressing the divergence of the entropy current in terms of geometric objects which appear naturally in the gravity dual geometry. The proposed definition is explicitly covariant with respect to boundary diffeomorphisms and reproduces known results when evaluated for the event horizon.

  8. Third molar development: measurements versus scores as age predictor.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2011-10-01

    Human third molar development is widely used to predict chronological age of sub adult individuals with unknown or doubted age. For these predictions, classically, the radiologically observed third molar growth and maturation is registered using a staging and related scoring technique. Measures of lengths and widths of the developing wisdom tooth and its adjacent second molar can be considered as an alternative registration. The aim of this study was to verify relations between mandibular third molar developmental stages or measurements of mandibular second molar and third molars and age. Age related performance of stages and measurements were compared to assess if measurements added information to age predictions from third molar formation stage. The sample was 340 orthopantomograms (170 females, 170 males) of individuals homogenously distributed in age between 7 and 24 years. Mandibular lower right, third and second molars, were staged following Gleiser and Hunt, length and width measurements were registered, and various ratios of these measurements were calculated. Univariable regression models with age as response and third molar stage, measurements and ratios of second and third molars as predictors, were considered. Multivariable regression models assessed if measurements or ratios added information to age prediction from third molar stage. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) and root mean squared errors (RMSE) obtained from all regression models were compared. The univariable regression model using stages as predictor yielded most accurate age predictions (males: R(2) 0.85, RMSE between 0.85 and 1.22 year; females: R(2) 0.77, RMSE between 1.19 and 2.11 year) compared to all models including measurements and ratios. The multivariable regression models indicated that measurements and ratios added no clinical relevant information to the age prediction from third molar stage. Ratios and measurements of second and third molars are less accurate age predictors

  9. Using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Leverick, Graham; Szturm, Tony; Wu, Christine Q

    2014-12-01

    Entropy measures have been widely used to quantify the complexity of theoretical and experimental dynamical systems. In this paper, the value of using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion is demonstrated based on their construct validity, predictive validity in a simple model of human walking and convergent validity in an experimental study. Results show that four of the five considered entropy measures increase meaningfully with the increased probability of falling in a simple passive bipedal walker model. The same four entropy measures also experienced statistically significant increases in response to increasing age and gait impairment caused by cognitive interference in an experimental study. Of the considered entropy measures, the proposed quantized dynamical entropy (QDE) and quantization-based approximation of sample entropy (QASE) offered the best combination of sensitivity to changes in gait dynamics and computational efficiency. Based on these results, entropy appears to be a viable candidate for assessing the stability of human locomotion.

  10. Entropy Analyses of Four Familiar Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Norman C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents entropy analysis of four processes: a chemical reaction, a heat engine, the dissolution of a solid, and osmosis. Discusses entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, and the Gibbs free energy function. (MVL)

  11. Evaluating controlling factors to Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in acidic soil water, southern and southwestern China: multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Shan; Vogt, Rolf D; Xiao, Jin-Song; Zhao, Da-Wei; Xiang, Ren-Jun; Luo, Jia-Hai

    2007-06-01

    Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water has been used as an indicator to the effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems. However, the main factors controlling this ratio have not been well documented in southern and southwestern China. In this study, we presented the variation in inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) and Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in different sites and soil horizons based on two to three years monitoring data, and evaluated the main factors controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression. Monitoring data showed although Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratios in most soil water were lower than assumed critical 1.0, higher molar ratios were found in some soil water at TSP and LXH site. Besides acid loading, both soil properties and soil water chemistry affected the value of Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. Partial least square (PLS) indicated that they had different relative importance in different soil horizons. In A-horizon, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) had higher influence on Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio than soil water chemistry did; higher soil aluminum saturation (AlS) led to higher Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. In the deeper horizons (i.e., B(1)-, B(2)- and BC-horizon), inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) in soil water had more and more important role in regulating Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. On regional scale, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) as well as cation exchange capacity (CEC) was the dominant factor controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. This should be paid enough attention on when making regional acid rain control policy in China.

  12. Evaluating controlling factors to Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in acidic soil water, southern and southwestern China: multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Shan; Vogt, Rolf D; Xiao, Jin-Song; Zhao, Da-Wei; Xiang, Ren-Jun; Luo, Jia-Hai

    2007-06-01

    Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water has been used as an indicator to the effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems. However, the main factors controlling this ratio have not been well documented in southern and southwestern China. In this study, we presented the variation in inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) and Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in different sites and soil horizons based on two to three years monitoring data, and evaluated the main factors controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression. Monitoring data showed although Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratios in most soil water were lower than assumed critical 1.0, higher molar ratios were found in some soil water at TSP and LXH site. Besides acid loading, both soil properties and soil water chemistry affected the value of Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. Partial least square (PLS) indicated that they had different relative importance in different soil horizons. In A-horizon, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) had higher influence on Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio than soil water chemistry did; higher soil aluminum saturation (AlS) led to higher Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. In the deeper horizons (i.e., B(1)-, B(2)- and BC-horizon), inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) in soil water had more and more important role in regulating Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. On regional scale, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) as well as cation exchange capacity (CEC) was the dominant factor controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. This should be paid enough attention on when making regional acid rain control policy in China. PMID:17057971

  13. Entropy of a vacuum: What does the covariant entropy count?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Weinberg, Sean J.

    2014-11-01

    We argue that a unitary description of the formation and evaporation of a black hole implies that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the "entropy of a vacuum": the logarithm of the number of possible independent ways in which quantum field theory on a fixed classical spacetime background can emerge in a full quantum theory of gravity. In many cases, the covariant entropy counts this entropy—the degeneracy of emergent quantum field theories in full quantum gravity—with the entropy of particle excitations in each quantum field theory giving only a tiny perturbation. In the Rindler description of a (black hole) horizon, the relevant vacuum degrees of freedom manifest themselves as an extra hidden quantum number carried by the states representing the second exterior region; this quantum number is invisible in the emergent quantum field theory. In a distant picture, these states arise as exponentially degenerate ground and excited states of the intrinsically quantum gravitational degrees of freedom on the stretched horizon. The formation and evaporation of a black hole involve processes in which the entropy of collapsing matter is transformed into that of a vacuum and then to that of final-state Hawking radiation. In the intermediate stage of this evolution, entanglement between the vacuum and (early) Hawking radiation develops, which is transferred to the entanglement among final-state Hawking quanta through the evaporation process. The horizon is kept smooth throughout the evolution; in particular, no firewall develops. Similar considerations also apply for cosmological horizons, for example for the horizon of a metastable de Sitter space.

  14. Permutations and topological entropy for interval maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2003-05-01

    Recently Bandt, Keller and Pompe (2002 Entropy of interval maps via permutations Nonlinearity 15 1595-602) introduced a method of computing the entropy of piecewise monotone interval maps by counting permutations exhibited by initial pieces of orbits. We show that for topological entropy this method does not work for arbitrary continuous interval maps. We also show that for piecewise monotone interval maps topological entropy can be computed by counting permutations exhibited by periodic orbits.

  15. Nonlinear dependence of the solubility of water in hydrocarbons on the molar volume of the hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Ruelle, P.; Kesselring, U.W.

    1996-07-01

    The solubility of water in fifty hydrocarbon solvents at 20{degrees}C is estimated by means of the solubility equation derived from the thermodynamics of mobile order in H-bonded liquids. Neglecting the change in nonspecific cohesion forces, and assuming that water is primarily monomeric in solution, the prediction accounts for two main effects; the breaking of the H-bond network linking the water solute molecules together, and the entropy of exchange between water and solvent molecules in solution. The formation of a weak O-H ... {pi} hydrogen bond interaction is moreover taken into account according to whether the hydrocarbon is saturated or not. The overall predictive equation foresees a non-linear dependence of the water solubility on the molar volume of the hydrocarbon. Several rules are presented regarding the water solubility-hydrocarbon structure relationship.

  16. Molar volume and thermal expansion of glaucophane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David M.; Corona, Juan-Carlos

    2006-08-01

    The molar volume of glaucophane [Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)2] has been determined in this study by correcting synthetic glaucophane-rich amphiboles made in the system Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O for very small deviations from ideal glaucophane composition using recent volume data on key amphibole components. The derived unit-cell volume for end-member glaucophane is 862.7±1.6 Å3, which gives a molar volume of 259.8±0.5 cm3/mol and a calculated density of 3.016±0.006 g/cm3. This value has been corroborated through an essentially independent method by correcting the volumes of natural sodic amphiboles reported in the literature for non-glaucophane components, particularly including calcium-rich components, to yield a value of 861.2±1.9 Å3. The unit-cell volume derived from the synthetic amphiboles, which is considered here to be more reliable, is somewhat smaller than that reported previously in the literature. A thermal expansion (αV) at 298 K of 1.88±0.06×10-5/K was derived from unit-cell volumes measured in the range of 25-500°C for a synthetic glaucophane sample, which is noticeably smaller than previously reported.

  17. Remainder terms for some quantum entropy inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H.

    2014-04-15

    We consider three von Neumann entropy inequalities: subadditivity; Pinsker's inequality for relative entropy; and the monotonicity of relative entropy. For these we state conditions for equality, and we prove some new error bounds away from equality, including an improved version of Pinsker's inequality.

  18. Entropy algebras and Birkhoff factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolli, Matilde; Tedeschi, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    We develop notions of Rota-Baxter structures and associated Birkhoff factorizations, in the context of min-plus semirings and their thermodynamic deformations, including deformations arising from quantum information measures such as the von Neumann entropy. We consider examples related to Manin's renormalization and computation program, to Markov random fields and to counting functions and zeta functions of algebraic varieties.

  19. Origin of the 'Extra Entropy'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    2008-01-01

    I will discuss how one can determine the origin of the 'extra entropy' in groups and clusters and the feedback needed in models of galaxy formation. I will stress the use of x-ray spectroscopy and imaging and the critical value that Con-X has in this regard.

  20. Coherent Informational Energy and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avramescu, Aurel

    1980-01-01

    Seeks to provide a common theoretical foundation for all known bibliometric laws by assimilating a systemic view of the information transfer process with a thermodynamic process, i.e., the conduction of heat in solids. The resulting diffusion model establishes new definitions for informational energy and entropy consistent with corresponding…

  1. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Marton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical social networks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in social networks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical social networks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical social networks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that social networks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical social networks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.

  2. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Entanglement entropy and anomaly inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.

    2016-03-01

    We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on R1 ,2 in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1 +1 -dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with nontrivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entanglement spectrum. These results can be generally applied to 2 +1 -d topological phases of matter that have edge theories with gravitational anomalies, and provide a precise connection between the gravitational anomaly of the physical edge theory and the low-lying spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian.

  4. The molarity of molecular theory and the molecularity of molar theory.

    PubMed

    Bersh, P J

    2001-05-01

    Dinsmoor (2001) rejects shock-frequency reduction as a reinforcer for avoidance behavior, and considers this to be an invalidation of so-called molar avoidance theory. This is a narrow view of operant avoidance theory, for which shock-frequency reduction is by no means the only reinforcer.

  5. The molarity of molecular theory and the molecularity of molar theory.

    PubMed Central

    Bersh, P J

    2001-01-01

    Dinsmoor (2001) rejects shock-frequency reduction as a reinforcer for avoidance behavior, and considers this to be an invalidation of so-called molar avoidance theory. This is a narrow view of operant avoidance theory, for which shock-frequency reduction is by no means the only reinforcer. PMID:11453625

  6. Stokes-Einstein relation and excess entropy in Al-rich Al-Cu melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasturel, A.; Jakse, N.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the conditions for the validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation that connects diffusivity to viscosity in melts using entropy-scaling relationships developed by Rosenfeld. Employing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine transport and structural properties of liquid Al1-xCux alloys (with composition x ≤ 0.4), we first show that reduced self-diffusion coefficients and viscosities, according to Rosenfeld's formulation, scale with the two-body approximation of the excess entropy except the reduced viscosity for x = 0.4. Then, we use our findings to evidence that the Stokes-Einstein relation using effective atomic radii is not valid in these alloys while its validity can be related to the temperature dependence of the partial pair-excess entropies of both components. Finally, we derive a relation between the ratio of the self-diffusivities of the components and the ratio of their pair excess entropies.

  7. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-07-28

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery. PMID:25071882

  8. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery. PMID:25071882

  9. Bilateral maxillary fused second and third molars: a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rui-Zhen; Wu, Jin-Tao; Wu, You-Nong; Smales, Roger J; Hu, Ming; Yu, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Dong

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and endodontic therapy of maxillary fused second and third molars, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 31-year-old Chinese male, with no contributory medical or family/social history, presented with throbbing pain in the maxillary right molar area following an unsuccessful attempted tooth extraction. Clinical examination revealed what appeared initially to be a damaged large extra cusp on the buccal aspect of the distobuccal cusp of the second molar. However, CBCT revealed that a third molar was fused to the second molar. Unexpectedly, the maxillary left third molar also was fused to the second molar, and the crown of an unerupted supernumerary fourth molar was possibly also fused to the apical root region of the second molar. Operative procedures should not be attempted without adequate radiographic investigation. CBCT allowed the precise location of the root canals of the right maxillary fused molar teeth to permit successful endodontic therapy, confirmed after 6 months. PMID:23222992

  10. Negative temperatures and the definition of entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swendsen, Robert H.; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The concept of negative temperature has recently received renewed interest in the context of debates about the correct definition of the thermodynamic entropy in statistical mechanics. Several researchers have identified the thermodynamic entropy exclusively with the "volume entropy" suggested by Gibbs, and have further concluded that by this definition, negative temperatures violate the principles of thermodynamics. We disagree with these conclusions. We demonstrate that volume entropy is inconsistent with the postulates of thermodynamics for systems with non-monotonic energy densities, while a definition of entropy based on the probability distributions of macroscopic variables does satisfy the postulates of thermodynamics. Our results confirm that negative temperature is a valid extension of thermodynamics.

  11. Entropy-based portfolio models: Practical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Yasaman Izadparast; Sabiruzzaman, Md.; Hamzah, Nor Aishah

    2015-10-01

    Entropy is a nonparametric alternative of variance and has been used as a measure of risk in portfolio analysis. In this paper, the computation of entropy risk for a given set of data is discussed with illustration. A comparison between entropy-based portfolio models is made. We propose a natural extension of the mean entropy portfolio to make it more general and diversified. In terms of performance, this new model is similar to the mean-entropy portfolio when applied to real and simulated data, and offers higher return if no constraint is set for the desired return; also it is found to be the most diversified portfolio model.

  12. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ravi kumar, Pabbati; Jyothi, Mandava; Sirisha, Kantheti; Racca, Khushboo; Uma, Chalasani

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38) without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37). The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment. PMID:23346422

  13. Molar mass distribution and solubility modeling of asphaltenes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarranton, H.W.; Masliyah, J.H.

    1996-12-01

    Attempts to model asphaltene solubility with Scatchard-Hildebrand theory were hampered by uncertainty in molar volume and solubility parameter distribution within the asphaltenes. By considering asphaltenes as a series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons with randomly distributed associated functional groups, molar volume and solubility parameter distributions are calculated from experimental measurements of molar mass and density. The molar mass distribution of Athabasca asphaltenes is determined from interfacial tension and vapor pressure osmometry measurements together with plasma desorption mass spectrometry determinations from the literature. Asphaltene densities are calculated indirectly from mixtures of known concentration of asphaltene in toluene. Asphaltene density, molar volume, and solubility parameter are correlated with molar mass. Solid-liquid equilibrium calculations based on solubility theory and the asphaltene property correlations successfully predict experimental data for both the precipitation point and the amount of precipitated asphaltenes in toluene-hexane solvent mixtures.

  14. The predictivity of mandibular third molar position as a risk indicator for pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Yamalik, Kemal; Bozkaya, Süleyman

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the mandibular third molar at highest risk for acute pericoronitis using clinical and radiographic analysis. A total of 102 volunteers, including 40 (39%) male and 62 (60%) female patients presenting with acute pericoronitis, participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 23.4 years (range 17-30 years). The variables tested included the percentage of soft tissue coverage, availability of impinging maxillary dentition, and the angulation and eruption level of the mandibular third molar. While vertical impaction was the most frequent angulation (51%), horizontal impaction was quite rare (3%). Mesioangular impaction (25%) was slightly higher than distoangular impaction (21%). Difference between type of angulation was statistically significant for all groups (p < 0.05). The frequency of partial soft tissue coverage, particularly 75% coverage, was far more observed than the full soft tissue coverage (47%). The difference for the amount of soft tissue coverage was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In 57% of the cases, pericoronitis was associated with the third molars that erupted at the same level of the adjacent tooth occlusal plane. The difference among the three levels of eruption was significant (p < 0.000). Impinging maxillary dentition did not have a significant impact on development of pericoronitis (41%). Evidence of impinging maxillary dentition did not have a statistically significant impact on presence of pericoronitis (p = 0.075). Mandibular third molars at or near to the same level of the occlusal plane of the arch and exhibiting vertical inclination were considered at highest risk for developing pericoronitis. Such third molars can be given high priority for prophylactic care due to the possibility of severe consequences of acute pericoronitis.

  15. Entropy-based financial asset pricing.

    PubMed

    Ormos, Mihály; Zibriczky, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return-entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy.

  16. Entropy-Based Financial Asset Pricing

    PubMed Central

    Ormos, Mihály; Zibriczky, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return – entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy. PMID:25545668

  17. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; Lin, Naiguo; Wilber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  18. Entropy-based financial asset pricing.

    PubMed

    Ormos, Mihály; Zibriczky, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return-entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy. PMID:25545668

  19. A simplified approach to true molar intrusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Orthodontic management of anterior open bites is a demanding task for orthodontists. Molar intrusion as a primary means of open bite correction entails the need for appropriate anchorage. Orthodontic mini implants can provide the required mechanical support. The suggested procedure aims to reduce the risk of complications such as root damage or soft tissue irritations while minimizing overall complexity. Methods Three female patients aged 14, 18 and 19 years who decided against a surgical correction were treated with a device consisting of mini implants in the palatal slope, a palatal bar and intrusion cantilevers. Results In all three patients, an open bite reduction of more than a millimeter occurred within four months. An anterior overbite of 2 mm or more could be established within 6 to 9 months. Conclusions The method presented in this article enables the practitioner to use mini implants in an easily accessible insertion site. A lab-side procedure is optional but not required. PMID:23134693

  20. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  1. Universal crossovers between entanglement entropy and thermal entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingle, Brian; Senthil, T.

    2013-01-01

    We postulate the existence of universal crossover functions connecting the universal parts of the entanglement entropy to the low-temperature thermal entropy in gapless quantum many-body systems. These scaling functions encode the intuition that the same low-energy degrees of freedom which control low-temperature thermal physics are also responsible for the long-range entanglement in the quantum ground state. We demonstrate the correctness of the proposed scaling form and determine the scaling function for certain classes of gapless systems whose low-energy physics is described by a conformal field theory. We also use our crossover formalism to argue that local systems which are “natural” can violate the boundary law at most logarithmically. In particular, we show that several non-Fermi-liquid phases of matter have entanglement entropy that is at most of order Ld-1log(L) for a region of linear size L thereby confirming various earlier suggestions in the literature. We also briefly apply our crossover formalism to the study of fluctuations in conserved quantities and discuss some subtleties that occur in systems that spontaneously break a continuous symmetry.

  2. Entropy and climate. I - ERBE observations of the entropy production of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, G. L.; O'Brien, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    An approximate method for estimating the global distributions of the entropy fluxes flowing through the upper boundary of the climate system is introduced, and an estimate of the entropy exchange between the earth and space and the entropy production of the planet is provided. Entropy fluxes calculated from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment measurements show how the long-wave entropy flux densities dominate the total entropy fluxes at all latitudes compared with the entropy flux densities associated with reflected sunlight, although the short-wave flux densities are important in the context of clear sky-cloudy sky net entropy flux differences. It is suggested that the entropy production of the planet is both constant for the 36 months of data considered and very near its maximum possible value. The mean value of this production is 0.68 x 10 exp 15 W/K, and the amplitude of the annual cycle is approximately 1 to 2 percent of this value.

  3. Mixing entropy in Dean flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Petru; Vyhnalek, Brian; Kaufman, Miron

    2013-03-01

    We investigate mixing in Dean flows by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equation for a circular channel. Tracers of two chemical species are carried by the fluid. The centrifugal forces, experienced as the fluid travels along a curved trajectory, coupled with the fluid incompressibility induce cross-sectional rotating flows (Dean vortices). These transversal flows promote the mixing of the chemical species. We generate images for different cross sections along the trajectory. The mixing efficiency is evaluated using the Shannon entropy. Previously we have found, P. S. Fodor and M. Kaufman, Modern Physics Letters B 25, 1111 (2011), this measure to be useful in understanding mixing in the staggered herringbone mixer. The mixing entropy is determined as function of the Reynolds number, the angle of the cross section and the observation scale (number of bins). Quantitative comparison of the mixing in the Dean micromixer and in the staggered herringbone mixer is attempted.

  4. Entropy of isolated horizons revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Rudranil; Kaul, Romesh K.; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2010-07-15

    The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states ''living'' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in the horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient -(3/2), with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

  5. Entropy of unimodular lattice triangulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauf, Johannes F.; Krüger, Benedikt; Mecke, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Triangulations are important objects of study in combinatorics, finite element simulations and quantum gravity, where their entropy is crucial for many physical properties. Due to their inherent complex topological structure even the number of possible triangulations is unknown for large systems. We present a novel algorithm for an approximate enumeration which is based on calculations of the density of states using the Wang-Landau flat histogram sampling. For triangulations on two-dimensional integer lattices we achieve excellent agreement with known exact numbers of small triangulations as well as an improvement of analytical calculated asymptotics. The entropy density is C=2.196(3) consistent with rigorous upper and lower bounds. The presented numerical scheme can easily be applied to other counting and optimization problems.

  6. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  7. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  8. Entropy favours open colloidal lattices.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoming; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve

    2013-03-01

    Burgeoning experimental and simulation activity seeks to understand the existence of self-assembled colloidal structures that are not close-packed. Here we describe an analytical theory based on lattice dynamics and supported by experiments that reveals the fundamental role entropy can play in stabilizing open lattices. The entropy we consider is associated with the rotational and vibrational modes unique to colloids interacting through extended attractive patches. The theory makes predictions of the implied temperature, pressure and patch-size dependence of the phase diagram of open and close-packed structures. More generally, it provides guidance for the conditions at which targeted patchy colloidal assemblies in two and three dimensions are stable, thus overcoming the difficulty in exploring by experiment or simulation the full range of conceivable parameters.

  9. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  10. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples. PMID:27377181

  11. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  12. Holographic Entanglement Entropy in NMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basanisi, Luca; Chakrabortty, Shankhadeep

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we show that a higher derivative theory, such as New Massive Gravity, allows the existence of new entangling surfaces with non-zero extrinsic curvature. We perform the analysis for Lifshitz and Warped AdS spacetimes, revealing the role of the higher derivative contributions in the calculation of the holographic entanglement entropy. Finally, as an outcome of our holographic analysis we briefly comment on the dual boundary theory.

  13. Entropy in an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Frautschi, S

    1982-08-13

    The question of how the observed evolution of organized structures from initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding "causal" region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its maximum possible value, thus allowing for the development of order. The related questions of whether entropy will continue increasing without limit in the future, and whether such increase in the form of Hawking radiation or radiation from positronium might enable life to maintain itself permanently, are considered. Attempts to find a scheme for preserving life based on solid structures fail because events such as quantum tunneling recurrently disorganize matter on a very long but fixed time scale, whereas all energy sources slow down progressively in an expanding universe. However, there remains hope that other modes of life capable of maintaining themselves permanently can be found.

  14. GENERAL: Low-temperature heat capacities and standard molar enthalpy of formation of N-methylnorephedrine C11H17NO(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, You-Ying; Wang, Da-Qi; Shi, Quan; Tan, Zhi-Cheng

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports that low-temperature heat capacities of N-methylnorephedrine C11H17NO(s) have been measured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from T = 78 K to T = 400K. A solid to liquid phase transition of the compound was found in the heat capacity curve in the temperature range of T = 342-364 K. The peak temperature, molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion of the substance were determined. The experimental values of the molar heat capacities in the temperature regions of T = 78-342 K and T = 364-400 K were fitted to two polynomial equations of heat capacities with the reduced temperatures by least squares method. The smoothed molar heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of N-methylnorephedrine C11H17NO(s) relative to the standard reference temperature 298.15 K were calculated based on the fitted polynomials and tabulated with an interval of 5 K. The constant-volume energy of combustion of the compound at T = 298.15K was measured by means of an isoperibol precision oxygen-bomb combustion calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the sample was calculated. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound was determined from the combustion enthalpy and other auxiliary thermodynamic data through a Hess thermochemical cycle.

  15. Crowd macro state detection using entropy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Yuan, Mengqi; Su, Guofeng; Chen, Tao

    2015-08-01

    In the crowd security research area a primary concern is to identify the macro state of crowd behaviors to prevent disasters and to supervise the crowd behaviors. The entropy is used to describe the macro state of a self-organization system in physics. The entropy change indicates the system macro state change. This paper provides a method to construct crowd behavior microstates and the corresponded probability distribution using the individuals' velocity information (magnitude and direction). Then an entropy model was built up to describe the crowd behavior macro state. Simulation experiments and video detection experiments were conducted. It was verified that in the disordered state, the crowd behavior entropy is close to the theoretical maximum entropy; while in ordered state, the entropy is much lower than half of the theoretical maximum entropy. The crowd behavior macro state sudden change leads to the entropy change. The proposed entropy model is more applicable than the order parameter model in crowd behavior detection. By recognizing the entropy mutation, it is possible to detect the crowd behavior macro state automatically by utilizing cameras. Results will provide data support on crowd emergency prevention and on emergency manual intervention.

  16. Phase stability and microstructures of high entropy alloys ion irradiated to high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Songqin; Gao, Michael C.; Yang, Tengfei; Liaw, Peter K.; Zhang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The microstructures of AlxCoCrFeNi (x = 0.1, 0.75 and 1.5 in molar ratio) high entropy alloys (HEAs) irradiated at room temperature with 3 MeV Au ions at the highest fluence of 105, 91, and 81 displacement per atom, respectively, were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analyses show that the initial microstructures and phase composition of all three alloys are retained after ion irradiation and no phase decomposition is observed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) and disordered body-centered cubic (BCC) phases show much less defect cluster formation and structural damage than the NiAl-type ordered B2 phase. This effect is explained by higher entropy of mixing, higher defect formation/migration energies, substantially lower thermal conductivity, and higher atomic level stress in the disordered phases.

  17. [Distalization of the upper second molar: clinical case].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A; Blasi, S; Vettese, P

    1991-01-01

    The Authors showed a clinical case in which has been put on a distalizing system together with a palatal bar between the first upper molars, a sectional placed between the first and the second molar and a 100 g precalibrated Sentalloy coil. PMID:1784297

  18. Early prediction of mandibular third molar eruption/impaction using linear and angular measurements on digital panoramic radiography: A radiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Rachninder; Kumar, Anand C.; Garg, Ranjana; Sharma, Sugandha; Rastogi, Trisha; Gupta, Vivek Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impaction rate is higher for the third molars than for any other tooth in modern human population. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the validity of linear and angular measurements on the digital panoramic radiograph as a reference for early prediction of mandibular third molar eruption/impaction. Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 200 subjects were selected based on their status of eruption of mandibular third molars; fully erupted (Group A), partially erupted (Group B), fully developed but not erupted (Group C) and partially developed groups (Group D). Each group comprised 50 subjects with 25 males and 25 females. Nine variables (linear measurements, angles, and ratios) were determined and measured bilaterally by two observers and values were compared between the study groups and genders. Results: The data thus obtained were analyzed for comparison among all the study groups. It was found that the difference in the mean values of lower eruption space (LES) measurements, α-angle (angle between long axis of the third molar and gonial-symphyseal plane) and β-angle (angle between long axis of mandibular second and third molars) were significant (P < 0.05). The mean values of mesiodistal width, LES-ramus, LES-Xi point and β-angle were found more in males than in females. No significant difference was observed between the sides. Conclusion: α- and β-angle together with LES measurements give the accurate information on early prediction of lower third molar eruption or impaction. PMID:27433048

  19. Wavelet packet entropy for heart murmurs classification.

    PubMed

    Safara, Fatemeh; Doraisamy, Shyamala; Azman, Azreen; Jantan, Azrul; Ranga, Sri

    2012-01-01

    Heart murmurs are the first signs of cardiac valve disorders. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to automatically differentiate normal heart sounds, from heart sounds with murmurs using various types of audio features. Entropy was successfully used as a feature to distinguish different heart sounds. In this paper, new entropy was introduced to analyze heart sounds and the feasibility of using this entropy in classification of five types of heart sounds and murmurs was shown. The entropy was previously introduced to analyze mammograms. Four common murmurs were considered including aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation, aortic stenosis, and mitral stenosis. Wavelet packet transform was employed for heart sound analysis, and the entropy was calculated for deriving feature vectors. Five types of classification were performed to evaluate the discriminatory power of the generated features. The best results were achieved by BayesNet with 96.94% accuracy. The promising results substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet packet entropy for heart sounds classification.

  20. Choosing a Definition of Entropy that Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swendsen, Robert H.

    2012-04-01

    Disagreements over the meaning of the thermodynamic entropy and how it should be defined in statistical mechanics have endured for well over a century. In an earlier paper, I showed that there were at least nine essential properties of entropy that are still under dispute among experts. In this paper, I examine the consequences of differing definitions of the thermodynamic entropy of macroscopic systems. Two proposed definitions of entropy in classical statistical mechanics are (1) defining entropy on the basis of probability theory (first suggested by Boltzmann in 1877), and (2) the traditional textbook definition in terms of a volume in phase space (also attributed to Boltzmann). The present paper demonstrates the consequences of each of these proposed definitions of entropy and argues in favor of a definition based on probabilities.

  1. Black Hole Entropy and the Renormalization Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satz, Alejandro; Jacobson, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Four decades after its first postulation by Bekenstein, black hole entropy remains mysterious. It has long been suggested that the entanglement entropy of quantum fields on the black hole gravitational background should represent at least an important contribution to the total Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, and that the divergences in the entanglement entropy should be absorbed in the renormalization of the gravitational couplings. In this talk, we describe how an improved understanding of black hole entropy is obtained by combining these notions with the renormalization group. By introducing an RG flow scale, we investigate whether the total entropy of the black hole can be partitioned in a "gravitational" part related to the flowing gravitational action, and a "quantum" part related to the unintegrated degrees of freedom. We describe the realization of this idea for free fields, and the complications and qualifications arising for interacting fields.

  2. Entropy Bounds for Hierarchical Molecular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Borgert, Stephan; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we derive entropy bounds for hierarchical networks. More precisely, starting from a recently introduced measure to determine the topological entropy of non-hierarchical networks, we provide bounds for estimating the entropy of hierarchical graphs. Apart from bounds to estimate the entropy of a single hierarchical graph, we see that the derived bounds can also be used for characterizing graph classes. Our contribution is an important extension to previous results about the entropy of non-hierarchical networks because for practical applications hierarchical networks are playing an important role in chemistry and biology. In addition to the derivation of the entropy bounds, we provide a numerical analysis for two special graph classes, rooted trees and generalized trees, and demonstrate hereby not only the computational feasibility of our method but also learn about its characteristics and interpretability with respect to data analysis. PMID:18769487

  3. Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.

  4. Entropy computing via integration over fractal measures.

    PubMed

    Słomczynski, Wojciech; Kwapien, Jarosław; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2000-03-01

    We discuss the properties of invariant measures corresponding to iterated function systems (IFSs) with place-dependent probabilities and compute their Renyi entropies, generalized dimensions, and multifractal spectra. It is shown that with certain dynamical systems, one can associate the corresponding IFSs in such a way that their generalized entropies are equal. This provides a new method of computing entropy for some classical and quantum dynamical systems. Numerical techniques are based on integration over the fractal measures. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Hydatidiform molar pregnancy in Malaysian women: a histopathological study from the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Cheah, P L; Looi, L M; Sivanesaratnam, V

    1993-06-01

    A review of gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from January 1989 to December 1990 using established histological criteria showed 25 complete hydatidiform moles (CHM), 11 partial hydatidiform moles (PHM), 1 invasive mole and 2 choriocarcinoma. The ages of the patients with CHM ranged from 21 to 43 years (mean = 28.5 years) and PHM 20 to 33 years (mean = 27.5 years). The invasive mole occurred in a 42-year-old Malay woman. The two patients with choriocarcinoma were both Chinese and 41 and 46-years old respectively. During the same period, 1,062 non-molar abortions and 13,115 births, inclusive of livebirths and stillbirths were recorded at the University Hospital. The incidence rate of hydatidiform moles was thus estimated to be 1:384 pregnancies. PHM constituted 30% of all molar pregnancies. Hydatidiform moles occurred among the Malays, Chinese and Indians at the rate of 2.43, 2.66 and 3.29 per 1,000 pregnancies respectively. It appears that hydatidiform molar pregnancy has the highest prevalence among the Indians, a finding similar to an earlier Singapore study.

  6. Constructing black hole entropy from gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Giovanni; Ellis, George F. R.; Goswami, Rituparno; Hamid, Aymen I. M.

    2015-03-01

    Based on a recent proposal for the gravitational entropy of free gravitational fields, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black hole formation through gravitational collapse in the framework of the semitetrad 1 +1 +2 covariant formalism. In the simplest case of an Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt collapse, we prove that the change in gravitational entropy outside a collapsing body is related to the variation of the surface area of the body itself, even before the formation of horizons. As a result, we are able to relate the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole end state to the variation of the vacuum gravitational entropy outside the collapsing body.

  7. Cyclic entropy: An alternative to inflationary cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul Howard

    2015-07-01

    We address how to construct an infinitely cyclic universe model. A major consideration is to make the entropy cyclic which requires the entropy to be reset to zero in each cycle expansion → turnaround → contraction → bounce → etc. Here, we reset entropy at the turnaround by selecting the introverse (visible universe) from the extroverse which is generated by the accelerated expansion. In the model, the observed homogeneity is explained by the low entropy at the bounce. The observed flatness arises from the contraction together with the reduction in size between the expanding and contracting universe. The present flatness is predicted to be very precise.

  8. The minimum entropy principle and task performance.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten; Weinberger, Kelsey

    2013-07-01

    According to the minimum entropy principle, efficient cognitive performance is produced with a neurocognitive strategy that involves a minimum of degrees of freedom. Although high performance is often regarded as consistent performance as well, some variability in performance still remains which allows the person to adapt to changing goal conditions or fatigue. The present study investigated the connection between performance, entropy in performance, and four task-switching strategies. Fifty-one undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The temporal patterns of performance were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, and overall performance. Task switching strategies from a previous study were available for the same participants as well. Results indicated that both topological entropy and Shannon entropy were negatively correlated with performance. Some task-switching strategies produced lower entropy in performance than others. Stepwise regression showed that the top three predictors of performance were Shannon entropy and arithmetic and spatial abilities. Additional implications for the prediction of work performance with cognitive ability measurements and the applicability of the minimum entropy principle to multidimensional performance criteria and team work are discussed.

  9. Thermal gravity, black holes, and cosmological entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Murray, Brian M.

    2006-02-15

    Taking seriously the interpretation of black hole entropy as the logarithm of the number of microstates, we argue that thermal gravitons may undergo a phase transition to a kind of black hole condensate. The phase transition proceeds via nucleation of black holes at a rate governed by a saddle point configuration whose free energy is of order the inverse temperature in Planck units. Whether the universe remains in a low entropy state as opposed to the high entropy black hole condensate depends sensitively on its thermal history. Our results may clarify an old observation of Penrose regarding the very low entropy state of the universe.

  10. The role of entropy in collisionless evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the path to mechanical equilibria for collisionless systems is a topic with a rich history. We are investigating the part that entropy plays in determining the outcome of collisionless evolution. I will discuss some previous work that lays a foundation for our current studies. With that framework in place, I will explain a modification to the entropy maximization procedure and compare the results to previous ideas. It is possible that entropy maxima are not achievable, and we argue that entropy production rates can influence collisionless system evolution. This work has been supported by NASA ATP grant NNX07AG86G.

  11. Link prediction based on path entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongqi; Pu, Cunlai; Yang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Information theory has been taken as a prospective tool for quantifying the complexity of complex networks. In this paper, first we study the information entropy or uncertainty of a path using the information theory. After that, we apply the path entropy to the link prediction problem in real-world networks. Specifically, we propose a new similarity index, namely Path Entropy (PE) index, which considers the information entropies of shortest paths between node pairs with penalization to long paths. Empirical experiments demonstrate that PE index outperforms the mainstream of link predictors.

  12. Mechanically Alloyed High Entropy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, G.; Adrian, M. M.; Csaki, I.; Popescu, C. A.; Mitrică, D.; Vasile, S.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    In the last years high entropy alloys have been investigated due to their high hardness, high temperature stability and unusual properties that make these alloys to have significant interest. In comparison with traditional alloys that are based on two or three major elements, this new generation alloys consists at least of 5 principal elements, with the concentration between 5 and 35 at.%. The present paper reports synthesis of high entropy alloys (HEA) and high entropy composites (HEC) synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA). The equiatomic AlCrFeNiMn matrix was used for creating the HEA matrix, starting from elemental powders and as reinforcing material for composites was used pure graphite. The mechanical alloying process was carried out at different duration, in a high energy planetary ball mill, under argon atmosphere. The elemental powders alloying began after '5 hours of milling and was complete after 40 hours. The mechanical alloyed matrix and composite was pressed and heat treated under argon protection. The elemental powers were investigated for physical - technological properties, and by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Phase pressing operation was realized with a hydraulic press and the applied pressure was progressive. The sintering process was carried out at 850°C for 2 h. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the MA process resulted in solid solutions formation and also revealed body- centred cubic (BCC) and face-centred cubic (FCC) structures with average grain size around 40 nm. In addition, nanoscale particles were highlighted by scanning electron microscopy, as well as the homogeneity of the chemical composition of the matrix and composite that was confirmed by EDX microanalysis. It was noted that HEA matrix and HEA composites were processed with a high degree of compaction and with a quite large capacity of mixed powder densification (around 70%).

  13. Entropy bounds and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2004-07-01

    Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant Λ finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of Λ is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w≡p/ρ=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, Λ in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

  14. Impact of Entropy Generation on Stagnation-Point Flow of Sutterby Nanofluid: A Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Ehtsham; Iqbal, Z.; Maraj, E. N.

    2016-09-01

    The present article dicusses the computational analysis of entropy generation for the stagnation-point flow of Sutterby nanofluid over a linear stretching plate. The Sutterby fluid is chosen to study the effect for three major classes of non-Newtonian fluids, i.e. pseudoplastic, Newtonian, and dilatant. The effects of pertinent physical parameters are examined under the approximation of boundary layer. The system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations is simplified by incorporating suitable similarity transformation into a system of non-linear-coupled ordinary differential equations. Entropy generation analysis is conducted numerically, and the results are displayed through graphs and tables. Significant findings are listed in the closing remarks.

  15. Occlusal molar surfaces in females with Turner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maćesić, Mihajlo; Kaić, Zvonimir; Dumancić, Jelena; Poje, Zvonko; Dumić, Miroslav

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the molar occlusal features in 73 subjects with the Turner's syndrome (TS) and compared to a control group (CG) of 322 healthy females. The occlusal features were scored on dental plaster casts using the Scoring Procedures for Key Morphological Traits of the Permanent Dentition: The Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASU). The results were analyzed through frequency, percentage and chi 2-test. TS subjects have more frequent reduction of cusp number, distolingual cusp on the upper molars and distal cusp on the lower molar, with the consequent reduction of the occlusal surface. Reduced size of occlusal surface and number cusps on upper molars resulted in the transformation of rhomboid occlusal shape into triangular, with the consequent loss of H-shaped groove system (in the upper right first molars H-shaped groove system was significantly less frequently found in TS (p < 0.05); in the upper left second molars H-shaped groove system was significantly less frequently found in TS (p < 0.01). The X-chromosome aneuploidy can cause a decrease in developmental homeostasis, which results in the alteration of apposition of the enamel and in consequently substantial changes of the molar occlusal morphological features.

  16. Human third molars development: Comparison of 9 country specific populations.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    The majority of age estimation models based on third molar development are constructed on samples from populations with described and outlined origin. Due to unlike research protocols these studies can rarely be compared for the evaluation of possible geographical or ethnical influences on third molar development. The aim of this study is to evaluate country specific third molar development on standardized collected and analyzed data. On panoramic radiographs selected from subjects out of 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India) the four third molar scores were registered, according to a modified Gleiser and Hunt methodology. To obtain for each subject a (factor) score which represents the degree of third molar development, a generalized linear mixed model for multivariate ordinal data was fitted on the repeated third molar scores. Differences between countries are analyzed using gender-specific regression models for these factor scores with age and country as predictors. Comparisons between countries revealed differences in speed and onset of development. However, although reaching statistical significance, differences in actual value were small and not constant over the considered age range. In all countries, at all ages, males were ahead in third molar development compared to females.

  17. Quantitative prediction and molar description of the environment

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular explanations of behavior, based on momentary events and variables that can be measured each time an event occurs, can be contrasted with molar explanations, based on aggregates of events and variables that can be measured only over substantial periods of time. Molecular analyses cannot suffice for quantitative accounts of behavior, because the historical variables that determine behavior are inevitably molar. When molecular explanations are attempted, they always depend on hypothetical constructs that stand as surrogates for molar environmental variables. These constructs allow no quantitative predictions when they are vague, and when they are made precise, they become superfluous, because they can be replaced with molar measures. In contrast to molecular accounts of phenomena like higher responding on ratio schedules than interval schedules and free-operant avoidance, molar accounts tend to be simple and straightforward. Molar theory incorporates the notion that behavior produces consequences that in turn affect the behavior, the notion that behavior and environment together constitute a feedback system. A feedback function specifies the dependence of consequences on behavior, thereby describing properties of the environment. Feedback functions can be derived for simple schedules, complex schedules, and natural resources. A complete theory of behavior requires describing the environment's feedback functions and the organism's functional relations. Molar thinking, both in the laboratory and in the field, can allow quantitative prediction, the mark of a mature science. PMID:22478030

  18. Odontoblast response to cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser in rat molars: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Hironobu; Ohshima, Hayato; Yoshiba, Kunihiko; Yoshiba, Nagako; Okiji, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dynamics of odontoblast-lineage cells following cavity preparation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser in rat molars. Cavity preparation was made with Er:YAG laser in the mesial surface of the maxillary left first molar of 8-week-old Wistar rats. Contralateral first molar served as unirradiated control. Immediately, 6 and 12 h and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days after the lasing (n = 5, each), specimens were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry for heat-shock protein (HSP)-25 and nestin as markers for odontoblast-lineage cells. Cell proliferation assay using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling was also performed. Unirradiated teeth showed HSP-25- and nestin-immunoreactivity in odontoblasts. At 6-12 h after irradiation, the odontoblastic layer was disorganized and some of odontoblasts lost the immunoreactivity to HSP-25 and nestin. At 1-2 days, however, HSP-25- and nestin-immunoreactivities in the odontoblast layer showed a noticeable recovery, resulting in the rearrangement of odontoblast-like cells intensely immunoreactive to HSP-25 and nestin at 3-7 days. BrdU-positive cells showed a significant increase at 2 days (P < 0.05 vs. immediate previous time point; one-way analysis of variance and Scheffé post hoc test), peaked at 3 days and then decreased significantly (P < 0.05). It was concluded that under the present experimental condition in rat molars, cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser induced mild and reversible damage to odontoblasts. The reparative process was characterized by the rearrangement of HSP-25- and nestin-immunoreactive odontoblast-like cells, which took place subsequent to the odontoblastic layer disorganization with partial loss of these immunoreactivities.

  19. Time dependence of Hawking radiation entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2013-09-01

    If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero when the black hole has disappeared. Here numerical results are given for an approximation to the time dependence of the radiation entropy under an assumption of fast scrambling, for large nonrotating black holes that emit essentially only photons and gravitons. The maximum of the von Neumann entropy then occurs after about 53.81% of the evaporation time, when the black hole has lost about 40.25% of its original Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy (an upper bound for its von Neumann entropy) and then has a BH entropy that equals the entropy in the radiation, which is about 59.75% of the original BH entropy 4πM{sub 0}{sup 2}, or about 7.509M{sub 0}{sup 2} ≈ 6.268 × 10{sup 76}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}, using my 1976 calculations that the photon and graviton emission process into empty space gives about 1.4847 times the BH entropy loss of the black hole. Results are also given for black holes in initially impure states. If the black hole starts in a maximally mixed state, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation increases from zero up to a maximum of about 119.51% of the original BH entropy, or about 15.018M{sub 0}{sup 2} ≈ 1.254 × 10{sup 77}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}, and then decreases back down to 4πM{sub 0}{sup 2} = 1.049 × 10{sup 77}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}.

  20. Clausius entropy for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2014-02-01

    Jacobson’s thermodynamic derivation of the Einstein equations was originally applied only to local Rindler horizons. But at least some parts of that construction can usefully be extended to give meaningful results for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces. As presaged in Jacobson’s original article, this more general construction sharply brings into focus the questions: is entropy objectively ‘real’? Or is entropy in some sense subjective and observer-dependent? These innocent questions open a Pandora’s box of often inconclusive debate. A consensus opinion, though certainly not universally held, seems to be that Clausius entropy (thermodynamic entropy, defined via a Clausius relation {\\rm{d}}S = \\unicode{x111} Q/T) should be objectively real, but that the ontological status of statistical entropy (Shannon or von Neumann entropy) is much more ambiguous, and much more likely to be observer-dependent. This question is particularly pressing when it comes to understanding Bekenstein entropy (black hole entropy). To perhaps further add to the confusion, we shall argue that even the Clausius entropy can often be observer-dependent. In the current article we shall conclusively demonstrate that one can meaningfully assign a notion of Clausius entropy to arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces—effectively defining a ‘virtual Clausius entropy’ for arbitrary ‘virtual (local) causal horizons’. As an application, we see that we can implement a version of the generalized second law (GSL) for this virtual Clausius entropy. This version of GSL can be related to certain (nonstandard) integral variants of the null energy condition. Because the concepts involved are rather subtle, we take some effort in being careful and explicit in developing our framework. In future work we will apply this construction to generalize Jacobson’s derivation of the Einstein equations.

  1. Time dependence of Hawking radiation entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.

    2013-09-01

    If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero when the black hole has disappeared. Here numerical results are given for an approximation to the time dependence of the radiation entropy under an assumption of fast scrambling, for large nonrotating black holes that emit essentially only photons and gravitons. The maximum of the von Neumann entropy then occurs after about 53.81% of the evaporation time, when the black hole has lost about 40.25% of its original Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy (an upper bound for its von Neumann entropy) and then has a BH entropy that equals the entropy in the radiation, which is about 59.75% of the original BH entropy 4πM02, or about 7.509M02 ≈ 6.268 × 1076(M0/Msolar)2, using my 1976 calculations that the photon and graviton emission process into empty space gives about 1.4847 times the BH entropy loss of the black hole. Results are also given for black holes in initially impure states. If the black hole starts in a maximally mixed state, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation increases from zero up to a maximum of about 119.51% of the original BH entropy, or about 15.018M02 ≈ 1.254 × 1077(M0/Msolar)2, and then decreases back down to 4πM02 = 1.049 × 1077(M0/Msolar)2.

  2. Adapting molar data (without density) for molal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, Giles M.

    2007-06-01

    Theoretical geochemical models for electrolyte solutions based on classical thermodynamic principles rely largely upon molal concentrations as input because molality (wt/wt) is independent of temperature and pressure. On the other hand, there are countless studies in the literature where concentrations are expressed as molarity (wt/vol) because these units are more easily measured. To convert from molarity to molality requires an estimate of solution density. Unfortunately, in many, if not most, cases where molarity is the concentration of choice, solution densities are not measured. For concentrated brines such as seawater or even more dense brines, the difference between molarity and molality is significant. Without knowledge of density, these brinish, molar-based studies are closed to theoretical electrolyte solution models. The objective of this paper is to present an algorithm that can accurately calculate the density of molar-based solutions, and, as a consequence, molality. The algorithm consist of molar inputs into a molal-based model that can calculate density (FREZCHEM). The algorithm uses an iterative process for calculating absolute salinity (SA), density (ρ), and the conversion factor (CF) for molarity to molality. Three cases were examined ranging in density from 1.023 to 1.203 kg(soln.)/l. In all three cases, the SA, ρ, and CF values converged to within 1ppm by nine iterations. In all three cases, the calculated densities agreed with experimental measurements to within ±0.1%. This algorithm opens a large literature based on molar concentrations to exploration with theoretical models based on molal concentrations and classical thermodynamic principles.

  3. Modification of uprighting spring for derotation of second molars.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun, Vankre; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Jaipal, Pyata Reddy

    2013-01-01

    One of the most efficient ways for the correction of rotated upper molars is derotation with a transpalatal arch, but this appliance is usually favourable when the need for correction is same on both sides of the dental arch. Derotation of unilateral upper second molar is a difficult task, especially when there is no accessible tooth/ any attachment is available distal to it for the application of couple forces. We have designed a modification of uprighting spring which is far more convenient than using the conventional method of TPA for derotation of unilateral upper second molar. PMID:24640073

  4. Mandibular first molar with single root and single root canal

    PubMed Central

    Munavalli, Anil; Kambale, Sharnappa; Ramesh, Sachhi; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable anatomic complexities and abnormalities with respect to number of roots and root canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of the existence of a fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anatomy. Mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal was diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. This case report presents a rare case of successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and root canal. PMID:26180424

  5. Entropy content of multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.

    1989-02-01

    We argue that the entropy S is an important variable to consider for multiparticle productions. A prediction of the width parameter 1//k of multiplicity distributions can be made at superhigh energies by extrapolating the entropy variable S, considered as a function of the average multiplicity Nmacr;. This is done explicitly for the negative binomial distributions and the Furry-Yule distributions, though the method is applicable to other distributions. We also argue that direct extrapolation in the variable 1//k is not advisable. Further evidence for SSZ scaling is given, and a power law for the average multiplicity N¯ as a function of the collision energy √s is derived. It is a pleasure to thank Rudy Hwa and David Kiang for discussions and help. I am also grateful to Dr. V. Šimák and Dr. M. Šumbera for a correspondence pointing out a numerical error in the earlier version of this work. This work is supported in part by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Québec Department of Education.

  6. Spectral maximum entropy hydrodynamics of fermionic radiation: a three-moment system for one-dimensional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banach, Zbigniew; Larecki, Wieslaw

    2013-06-01

    The spectral formulation of the nine-moment radiation hydrodynamics resulting from using the Boltzmann entropy maximization procedure is considered. The analysis is restricted to the one-dimensional flows of a gas of massless fermions. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate that, for such flows, the spectral nine-moment maximum entropy hydrodynamics of fermionic radiation is not a purely formal theory. We first determine the domains of admissible values of the spectral moments and of the Lagrange multipliers corresponding to them. We then prove the existence of a solution to the constrained entropy optimization problem. Due to the strict concavity of the entropy functional defined on the space of distribution functions, there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the Lagrange multipliers and the moments. The maximum entropy closure of moment equations results in the symmetric conservative system of first-order partial differential equations for the Lagrange multipliers. However, this system can be transformed into the equivalent system of conservation equations for the moments. These two systems are consistent with the additional conservation equation interpreted as the balance of entropy. Exploiting the above facts, we arrive at the differential relations satisfied by the entropy function and the additional function required to close the system of moment equations. We refer to this additional function as the moment closure function. In general, the moment closure and entropy-entropy flux functions cannot be explicitly calculated in terms of the moments determining the state of a gas. Therefore, we develop a perturbation method of calculating these functions. Some additional analytical (and also numerical) results are obtained, assuming that the maximum entropy distribution function tends to the Maxwell-Boltzmann limit.

  7. Modeling Partial Attacks with Alloy (Transcript of Discussion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Amerson

    The reason we went into this research, was that we found that partial attacks were extremely hard to model in terms of a language that could be used by an automated tool. Now there are three reasons why this is so. The first is that it is hard to identify these attacks even by hand, because you have to be really creative in thinking, what constitutes a reduction in entropy of the secret, that is significant, because a partial attack is really anything that reduces entropy, it's just that it does not reduce the entropy to zero, which would be a case of a complete attack. Next, it's hard to describe that in a formal language, part of that problem comes from the definition, you have to define what you want to be the goal, if the secret is the entire password, then getting one letter is pretty much a partial attack, but if the secret is that one letter, then getting that one letter is a complete attack. And lastly, applying that logic, how do you measure entropy, how do you measure information leakage, that's also very difficult.

  8. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  9. Generalized Entropic Uncertainty Relations with Tsallis' Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portesi, M.; Plastino, A.

    1996-01-01

    A generalization of the entropic formulation of the Uncertainty Principle of Quantum Mechanics is considered with the introduction of the q-entropies recently proposed by Tsallis. The concomitant generalized measure is illustrated for the case of phase and number operators in quantum optics. Interesting results are obtained when making use of q-entropies as the basis for constructing generalized entropic uncertainty measures.

  10. Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas of Entropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Andersson, Staffan; Elmgren, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamics, and in particular entropy, has been found to be challenging for students, not least due to its abstract character. Comparisons with more familiar and concrete domains, by means of analogy and metaphor, are commonly used in thermodynamics teaching, in particular the metaphor "entropy is disorder." However, this particular…

  11. Estimating the entropy of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, A O; Herzel, H

    1997-10-01

    The Shannon entropy is a standard measure for the order state of symbol sequences, such as, for example, DNA sequences. In order to incorporate correlations between symbols, the entropy of n-mers (consecutive strands of n symbols) has to be determined. Here, an assay is presented to estimate such higher order entropies (block entropies) for DNA sequences when the actual number of observations is small compared with the number of possible outcomes. The n-mer probability distribution underlying the dynamical process is reconstructed using elementary statistical principles: The theorem of asymptotic equi-distribution and the Maximum Entropy Principle. Constraints are set to force the constructed distributions to adopt features which are characteristic for the real probability distribution. From the many solutions compatible with these constraints the one with the highest entropy is the most likely one according to the Maximum Entropy Principle. An algorithm performing this procedure is expounded. It is tested by applying it to various DNA model sequences whose exact entropies are known. Finally, results for a real DNA sequence, the complete genome of the Epstein Barr virus, are presented and compared with those of other information carriers (texts, computer source code, music). It seems as if DNA sequences possess much more freedom in the combination of the symbols of their alphabet than written language or computer source codes. PMID:9344742

  12. Maximum entropy image reconstruction from projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, N.; Murata, K.

    1981-07-01

    The maximum entropy method is applied to image reconstruction from projections, of which angular view is restricted. The relaxation parameters are introduced to the maximum entropy reconstruction and after iteration the median filtering is implemented. These procedures improve the quality of the reconstructed image from noisy projections

  13. Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    Campbell's rule for estimating entropy changes is discussed in relation to an earlier article by Norman Craig, where it was proposed that the approximate value of the entropy of reaction was related to net moles of gas consumed or generated. It was seen that the average for Campbell's data set was lower than that for Craig's data set and…

  14. Entropy and Certainty in Lossless Data Compression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James Jay

    2009-01-01

    Data compression is the art of using encoding techniques to represent data symbols using less storage space compared to the original data representation. The encoding process builds a relationship between the entropy of the data and the certainty of the system. The theoretical limits of this relationship are defined by the theory of entropy in…

  15. Invariant of dynamical systems: A generalized entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Meson, A.M.; Vericat, F. |

    1996-09-01

    In this work the concept of entropy of a dynamical system, as given by Kolmogorov, is generalized in the sense of Tsallis. It is shown that this entropy is an isomorphism invariant, being complete for Bernoulli schemes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Rudolf Clausius and the road to entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, William H.

    1986-12-01

    That Rudolf Clausius invented the entropy concept is well known, but less familiar is the argument that served as his inspiration. This paper traces the development of Clausius' ``transformation theory'' of heat, which finally persuaded him to define the measure of transformation equivalence he called entropy.

  17. Entropy Generation in a Chemical Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    Entropy generation in a chemical reaction is analysed without using the general formalism of non-equilibrium thermodynamics at a level adequate for advanced undergraduates. In a first approach to the problem, the phenomenological kinetic equation of an elementary first-order reaction is used to show that entropy production is always positive. A…

  18. The Origins of the Entropy Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrigol, Olivier

    To this day entropy remains a strange, difficult, and multiform concept. Even the great Henri Poincaré renounced precisely defining energy and entropy. In order to justify the success of the two laws of thermodynamics for his students at the Sorbonne, he turned to history:

  19. Black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agulló, Iván; Barbero G, J. Fernando; Borja, E. F.; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.

    2012-05-01

    We discuss the recent progress on black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity, focusing in particular on the recently discovered discretization effect for microscopic black holes. Powerful analytical techniques have been developed to perform the exact computation of entropy. A statistical analysis of the structures responsible for this effect shows its progressive damping and eventual disappearance as one increases the considered horizon area.

  20. Dynamical entropy for systems with stochastic perturbation

    PubMed

    Ostruszka; Pakonski; Slomczynski; Zyczkowski

    2000-08-01

    Dynamics of deterministic systems perturbed by random additive noise is characterized quantitatively. Since for such systems the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy diverges if the diameter of the partition tends to zero, we analyze the difference between the total entropy of a noisy system and the entropy of the noise itself. We show that this quantity is finite and non-negative and we call it the dynamical entropy of the noisy system. In the weak noise limit this quantity is conjectured to tend to the KS entropy of the deterministic system. In particular, we consider one-dimensional systems with noise described by a finite-dimensional kernel for which the Frobenius-Perron operator can be represented by a finite matrix.

  1. Trends of stellar entropy along stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Avellar, Guilherme Bronzato, Marcio; Alvares de Souza, Rodrigo; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2016-02-01

    This paper is devoted to discussing the difference in the thermodynamic entropy budget per baryon in each type of stellar object found in the Universe. We track and discuss the actual decrease of the stored baryonic thermodynamic entropy from the most primitive molecular cloud up to the final fate of matter in black holes, passing through evolved states of matter as found in white dwarfs and neutron stars. We then discuss the case of actual stars with different masses throughout their evolution, clarifying the role of the virial equilibrium condition for the decrease in entropy and related issues. Finally, we discuss the role of gravity in driving the composition and the structural changes of stars with different Main Sequence masses during their evolution up to the final product. Particularly, we discuss the entropy of a black hole in this context arguing that the dramatic increase in its entropy, differently from the other cases, is due to the gravitational field itself.

  2. The role of entropy in magnetotail dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim; Zaharia, Sorin; Hesse, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The role of entropy conservation and loss in magnetospheric dynamics, particularly in relation to substorm phases, is discussed on the basis of MHD theory and simulations, using comparisons with PIC simulations for validation. Entropy conservation appears to be a crucial element leading to the formation of thin embedded current sheets in the late substorm growth phase and the potential loss of equilibrium. Entropy loss (in the form of plasmoids) is essential in the earthward transport of flux tubes (bubbles, bursty bulk flows). Entropy loss also changes the tail stability properties and may render ballooning modes unstable and thus contribute to cross-tail variability. We illustrate these effects through results from theory and simulations. Entropy conservation also governs the accessibility of final states of evolution and the amount of energy that may be released.

  3. Low Streamflow Forcasting using Minimum Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Minimum relative entropy spectral analysis is derived in this study, and applied to forecast streamflow time series. Proposed method extends the autocorrelation in the manner that the relative entropy of underlying process is minimized so that time series data can be forecasted. Different prior estimation, such as uniform, exponential and Gaussian assumption, is taken to estimate the spectral density depending on the autocorrelation structure. Seasonal and nonseasonal low streamflow series obtained from Colorado River (Texas) under draught condition is successfully forecasted using proposed method. Minimum relative entropy determines spectral of low streamflow series with higher resolution than conventional method. Forecasted streamflow is compared to the prediction using Burg's maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and Configurational entropy. The advantage and disadvantage of each method in forecasting low streamflow is discussed.

  4. Permutation entropy: One concept, two approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigó, J. M.; Keller, K.

    2013-06-01

    Since C. Bandt and B. Pompe introduced permutation entropy in 2002 for piecewise strictly monotonous self-maps of one-dimensional intervals, this concept has been generalized to ever more general settings by means of two similar, though not equivalent, approaches. The first one keeps the original spirit in that it uses "sharp" dynamics and the corresponding ordinal partitions. The second uses symbolic (or "coarse-grained" dynamics with respect to arbitrary finite partitions, as in the conventional approach to the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of dynamical systems. Precisely, one of the main questions along these two avenues refers to the relation between permutation entropy and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. In this paper the authors will explain the underpinnings of both approaches and the latest theoretical results on permutation entropy. The authors also discuss some remaining open questions.

  5. Entanglement entropy in top-down models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Peter A. R.; Taylor, Marika

    2016-08-01

    We explore holographic entanglement entropy in ten-dimensional supergravity solutions. It has been proposed that entanglement entropy can be computed in such top-down models using minimal surfaces which asymptotically wrap the compact part of the geometry. We show explicitly in a wide range of examples that the holographic entan-glement entropy thus computed agrees with the entanglement entropy computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula from the lower-dimensional Einstein metric obtained from reduc-tion over the compact space. Our examples include not only consistent truncations but also cases in which no consistent truncation exists and Kaluza-Klein holography is used to identify the lower-dimensional Einstein metric. We then give a general proof, based on the Lewkowycz-Maldacena approach, of the top-down entanglement entropy formula.

  6. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of molar distalization with a palatal plate, pendulum, and headgear according to molar eruption stage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Man; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Oh, Moonbee; Park, Chong Ook; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of maxillary second and third molar eruption status on the distalization of first molars with a modified palatal anchorage plate (MPAP), and (2) compare the results to the outcomes of the use of a pendulum and that of a headgear using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Methods Three eruption stages were established: an erupting second molar at the cervical one-third of the first molar root (Stage 1), a fully erupted second molar (Stage 2), and an erupting third molar at the cervical one-third of the second molar root (Stage 3). Retraction forces were applied via three anchorage appliance models: an MPAP with bracket and archwire, a bone-anchored pendulum appliance, and cervical-pull headgear. Results An MPAP showed greater root movement of the first molar than crown movement, and this was more noticeable in Stages 2 and 3. With the other devices, the first molar showed distal tipping. Transversely, the first molar had mesial-out rotation with headgear and mesial-in rotation with the other devices. Vertically, the first molar was intruded with an MPAP, and extruded with the other appliances. Conclusions The second molar eruption stage had an effect on molar distalization, but the third molar follicle had no effect. The application of an MPAP may be an effective treatment option for maxillary molar distalization. PMID:27668192

  7. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of molar distalization with a palatal plate, pendulum, and headgear according to molar eruption stage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Man; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Oh, Moonbee; Park, Chong Ook; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of maxillary second and third molar eruption status on the distalization of first molars with a modified palatal anchorage plate (MPAP), and (2) compare the results to the outcomes of the use of a pendulum and that of a headgear using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Methods Three eruption stages were established: an erupting second molar at the cervical one-third of the first molar root (Stage 1), a fully erupted second molar (Stage 2), and an erupting third molar at the cervical one-third of the second molar root (Stage 3). Retraction forces were applied via three anchorage appliance models: an MPAP with bracket and archwire, a bone-anchored pendulum appliance, and cervical-pull headgear. Results An MPAP showed greater root movement of the first molar than crown movement, and this was more noticeable in Stages 2 and 3. With the other devices, the first molar showed distal tipping. Transversely, the first molar had mesial-out rotation with headgear and mesial-in rotation with the other devices. Vertically, the first molar was intruded with an MPAP, and extruded with the other appliances. Conclusions The second molar eruption stage had an effect on molar distalization, but the third molar follicle had no effect. The application of an MPAP may be an effective treatment option for maxillary molar distalization.

  8. Entropy of uremia and dialysis technology.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics applies with local exceptions to patient history and therapy interventions. Living things preserve their low level of entropy throughout time because they receive energy from their surroundings in the form of food. They gain their order at the expense of disordering the nutrients they consume. Death is the thermodynamically favored state: it represents a large increase in entropy as molecular structure yields to chaos. The kidney is an organ dissipating large amounts of energy to maintain the level of entropy of the organism as low as possible. Diseases, and in particular uremia, represent conditions of rapid increase in entropy. Therapeutic strategies are oriented towards a reduction in entropy or at least a decrease in the speed of entropy increase. Uremia is a process accelerating the trend towards randomness and disorder (increase in entropy). Dialysis is a factor external to the patient that tends to reduce the level of entropy caused by kidney disease. Since entropy can only increase in closed systems, energy and work must be spent to limit the entropy of uremia. This energy should be adapted to the system (patient) and be specifically oriented and personalized. This includes a multidimensional effort to achieve an adequate dialysis that goes beyond small molecular weight solute clearance. It includes a biological plan for recovery of homeostasis and a strategy towards long-term rehabilitation of the patient. Such objectives can be achieved with a combination of technology and innovation to answer specific questions that are still present after 60 years of dialysis history. This change in the individual bioentropy may represent a local exception to natural trends as the patient could be considered an isolated universe responding to the classic laws of thermodynamics.

  9. Reanalysis of the Lukeino molar (KNM-LU 335).

    PubMed

    Ungar, P S; Walker, A; Coffing, K

    1994-06-01

    This paper details a reanalysis of KNM-LU 335, a hominoid mandibular first molar dated to about 6 Ma from the Lukeino Formation, Kenya. Researchers have argued that this molar closely resembles those of modern chimpanzees and may approximate the ancestral morphotype of humans and chimpanzees. The investigation presented here describes a morphometric study of the Lukeino molar and M1s of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and early australopithecines. Results indicate that KNM-LU 335 differs from both human and chimpanzee M1s in relative distances (measured in three dimensions) between crown fissure termini. Further, the Lukeino molar shares with early australopithecines a pronounced flaring of the buccal surface of the crown not seen for either modern sample. Results of this study do not exclude KNM-LU 335 as a potential ancestral morphotype for Pan and Homo but provide no evidence that this morphotype resembled modern chimpanzees. PMID:8085609

  10. Cementoblastoma Relating to Right Mandibular Second Primary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Manepalli, Swapna; Mohapatra, Abinash

    2016-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a benign lesion of the odontogenic ectomesenchymal origin. It rarely occurs in primary dentition. This report describes a case of a cementoblastoma relating to the right mandibular second primary molar in a 7-year-old girl. Her panoramic radiograph revealed a well-defined radiopaque lesion with a radiolucent border extending from the distal surface of the mandibular right first primary molar to the distal surface of mandibular second primary molar. The tumor was attached to the mesial root of primary second molar and was excised along with the teeth involved and sent for histopathological evaluation, which showed irregular trabeculae of mineralized tissue interspersed with fibrovascular connective tissue, trabeculae of mineralized tissue with prominent reversal lines, and peripheral rimming of the mineralized tissue with blast cells. On a six-month follow-up, there has been no recurrence of the lesion. PMID:27738532

  11. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  12. The Tucker technique: conservative molar inlays preserving the transverse ridge.

    PubMed

    Hess, T A; Wadhwani, C P K

    2012-01-01

    Conservation of healthy tooth structure should be the aim of any restorative procedure. Two inlays may be an ideal choice for the treatment of maxillary molars to preserve the transverse ridge and maintain structural integrity.

  13. Reanalysis of the Lukeino molar (KNM-LU 335).

    PubMed

    Ungar, P S; Walker, A; Coffing, K

    1994-06-01

    This paper details a reanalysis of KNM-LU 335, a hominoid mandibular first molar dated to about 6 Ma from the Lukeino Formation, Kenya. Researchers have argued that this molar closely resembles those of modern chimpanzees and may approximate the ancestral morphotype of humans and chimpanzees. The investigation presented here describes a morphometric study of the Lukeino molar and M1s of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and early australopithecines. Results indicate that KNM-LU 335 differs from both human and chimpanzee M1s in relative distances (measured in three dimensions) between crown fissure termini. Further, the Lukeino molar shares with early australopithecines a pronounced flaring of the buccal surface of the crown not seen for either modern sample. Results of this study do not exclude KNM-LU 335 as a potential ancestral morphotype for Pan and Homo but provide no evidence that this morphotype resembled modern chimpanzees.

  14. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

  15. Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Roots

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Talebzadeh, Bita; Norlouoni, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the morphology and internal anatomy of the root canal system is essential, because it determines the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. The main goal of endodontic treatment is to prevent apical periodontitis and/or to promote the healing of periapical lesion. Presence of two canals or roots on the palatal side of the first maxillary molar has rarely been reported. This case report presents a maxillary first molar with two separate palatal roots. PMID:26523146

  16. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Angela Jordão; Arita, Emiko Saito; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2015-01-01

    Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar. PMID:26945485

  17. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  18. Finite Element Reconstruction of a Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Sara; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mandibular first molar is the most important tooth with complicated morphology. In finite element (FE) studies, investigators usually prefer to model anterior teeth with a simple and single straight root; it makes the results deviate from the actual case. The most complicated and time-consuming step in FE studies is modeling of the desired tooth, thus this study was performed to establish a finite element method (FEM) of reconstructing a mandibular first molar with the greatest precision. Materials and Methods An extracted mandibular first molar was digitized, and then radiographed from different aspects to achieve its outer and inner morphology. The solid model of tooth and root canals were constructed according to this data as well as the anatomy of mandibular first molar described in the literature. Result A three-dimensional model of mandibular first molar was created, giving special consideration to shape and root canal system dimensions. Conclusion This model may constitute a basis for investigating the effect of different clinical situations on mandibular first molars in vitro, especially on its root canal system. The method described here seems feasible and reasonably precise foundation for investigations. PMID:23717327

  19. Kissing molars extraction: Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arjona-Amo, Manuel; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Batista-Cruzado, Antonio; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles; Crespo-Torres, Santos; Belmonte-Caro, Rodolfo; Albisu-Andrade, Claudio; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Kissing molars are a very rare form of inclusion defined as molars included in the same quadrant, with occlusal surfaces contacting each other within a single dental follicle. We present four cases of this pathology: a 35 year-old male, referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Hospital Virgen del Rocio in Seville, and three females of 24, 26, and 31 years, all of which had kissing molars that were treated by tooth extraction. We have found only 10 cases published in the medical literature in which this type of inclusion is briefly described, none of which elaborate on the surgical technique employed. In these cases, the indication for surgery is established when there is a history of recurring infections or cystic lesions associated with dental inclusions. The extraction of kissing molars requires an exhaustive comprehension of the anatomy of the region involved, sufficiently developed surgical abilities, and an extensive planning process. Key words:Impacted molar, kissing molar, surgical extraction. PMID:26855716

  20. Impacted third molars and risk of angle fracture.

    PubMed

    Meisami, T; Sojat, A; Sàndor, G K B; Lawrence, H P; Clokie, C M L

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the presence, position, and severity of impaction of the mandibular third molars, on the incidence of mandibular angle fractures. A retrospective cohort study was designed for patients presenting to the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Toronto General Hospital (Toronto, Canada), for treatment of mandibular fractures from January 1995 to June 2000. The independent variables in this study were the presence, position and severity of impaction of third molars. The outcome variable was the incidence of mandibular angle fractures. Hospital charts and panoramic radiographs were used to determine and classify these variables. The demographic data included age, sex, mechanism of injury and number of mandibular fractures. The study sample comprised 413 mandibular fractures in 214 patients. The incidence of angle fractures was found to be significantly higher in the male population and was most commonly seen in the third decade of life. Assault remained the most significant aetiological factor. Patients with third molars had thrice the increased risk of angle fractures when compared to patients without (P<0.001). Impaction of third molars significantly increased the incidence of angle fractures (P<0.001). The severity and angulation of third molar impactions were not significantly associated with angle fractures. This study provides evidence that patients with retained impacted third molars are significantly more susceptible to angle fracture than those without. The risk for angle fracture, however, does not seem to be influenced by the severity of impaction.

  1. Prevalence of Taurodont molars in a North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Arya, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is very important for dentists to be familiar with anomalies of teeth not only for the clinical complications but also their management. Taurodontism also provides a valuable clue in detecting its association with various syndromes and other systemic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Taurodont molars among a North Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 patients’ full-mouth periapical radiographs were screened. The radiographs were evaluated under optimal conditions using double magnifying glasses. A total of 7615 molars (including third molars) were evaluated. The relative incidence and the correlations regarding the location of Taurodont teeth (right versus left side and maxillary versus mandibular) were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Twenty-eight patients were found to have a Taurodont molar (11 women and 17 men [P = 0.250]). The prevalence of Taurodont molar was 2.8%. Males had a higher prevalence rate than females (3.4% vs. 2.2%, respectively). A cluster analysis of total Taurodonts in the mandible (45%) versus maxilla (55%) of both males and females combined showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The occurrence of Taurodontism is basically based on racial expression in different populations. These variations in prevalence between different populations may be due to ethnic variations. The occurrence of Taurodont molars among this Indian population was rare. PMID:25767357

  2. Main occluding area in partially edentulous patients: changes before and after implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Nishinaka, H; Kashiwabara, T; Nagao, K; Ichikawa, T

    2012-09-01

    The 'main occluding area', the location where food crushing occurs during the first stroke of mastication, is reported to be an important concept; however, it is currently limited to findings in individuals with normal dentition. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the location, area and bite force of the main occluding area before and after implant treatments. We enrolled 50 partially edentulous and 22 normally dentate subjects. To identify the location of the main occluding area, each subject was instructed to freely bite once on a dental stopping using the partially edentulous side or the normally dentate area. The location, occluding contact area and bite force of the main occluding area before and after the implant treatments were analysed. The main occluding area was located at a reproducible location in the partially edentulous and normally dentate subjects. This location was principally the first molar region, and for the partially edentulous patients with missing teeth in the molar regions, it moved from the premolar region to the first molar region after treatment. The occluding contact area and bite force for the main occluding area increased (P < 0·05) after the implant treatment in the partially edentulous patients with missing teeth in the molar regions. These results suggest that the main occluding area can be restored to the first molar region after implant treatment and may be an important factor in the assessment of prosthodontic treatment. PMID:22672204

  3. Area terms in entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, Horacio; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Testé, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We discuss area terms in entanglement entropy and show that a recent formula by Rosenhaus and Smolkin is equivalent to the term involving a correlator of traces of the stress tensor in the Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of the Newton constant. We elaborate on how to fix the ambiguities in these formulas: Improving terms for the stress tensor of free fields, boundary terms in the modular Hamiltonian, and contact terms in the Euclidean correlation functions. We make computations for free fields and show how to apply these calculations to understand some results for interacting theories which have been studied in the literature. We also discuss an application to the F-theorem.

  4. Entropy changes in brain function.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2007-04-01

    The traditional way of analyzing brain electrical activity, on the basis of electroencephalography (EEG) records, relies mainly on visual inspection and years of training. Although it is quite useful, of course, one has to acknowledge its subjective nature that hardly allows for a systematic protocol. In the present work quantifiers based on information theory and wavelet transform are reviewed. The "relative wavelet energy" provides information about the relative energy associated with different frequency bands present in the EEG and their corresponding degree of importance. The "normalized total wavelet entropy" carries information about the degree of order-disorder associated with a multi-frequency signal response. Their application in the analysis and quantification of short duration EEG signals (event-related potentials) and epileptic EEG records are summarized.

  5. Urban Transfer Entropy across Scales

    PubMed Central

    Murcio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of urban agglomeration is studied here in the context of information exchange between different spatio-temporal scales. Urban migration to and from cities is characterised as non-random and following non-random pathways. Cities are multidimensional non-linear phenomena, so understanding the relationships and connectivity between scales is important in determining how the interplay of local/regional urban policies may affect the distribution of urban settlements. In order to quantify these relationships, we follow an information theoretic approach using the concept of Transfer Entropy. Our analysis is based on a stochastic urban fractal model, which mimics urban growing settlements and migration waves. The results indicate how different policies could affect urban morphology in terms of the information generated across geographical scales. PMID:26207628

  6. How multiplicity determines entropy and the derivation of the maximum entropy principle for complex systems.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan; Gell-Mann, Murray

    2014-05-13

    The maximum entropy principle (MEP) is a method for obtaining the most likely distribution functions of observables from statistical systems by maximizing entropy under constraints. The MEP has found hundreds of applications in ergodic and Markovian systems in statistical mechanics, information theory, and statistics. For several decades there has been an ongoing controversy over whether the notion of the maximum entropy principle can be extended in a meaningful way to nonextensive, nonergodic, and complex statistical systems and processes. In this paper we start by reviewing how Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is related to multiplicities of independent random processes. We then show how the relaxation of independence naturally leads to the most general entropies that are compatible with the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms, the (c,d)-entropies. We demonstrate that the MEP is a perfectly consistent concept for nonergodic and complex statistical systems if their relative entropy can be factored into a generalized multiplicity and a constraint term. The problem of finding such a factorization reduces to finding an appropriate representation of relative entropy in a linear basis. In a particular example we show that path-dependent random processes with memory naturally require specific generalized entropies. The example is to our knowledge the first exact derivation of a generalized entropy from the microscopic properties of a path-dependent random process.

  7. How multiplicity determines entropy and the derivation of the maximum entropy principle for complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan; Gell-Mann, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The maximum entropy principle (MEP) is a method for obtaining the most likely distribution functions of observables from statistical systems by maximizing entropy under constraints. The MEP has found hundreds of applications in ergodic and Markovian systems in statistical mechanics, information theory, and statistics. For several decades there has been an ongoing controversy over whether the notion of the maximum entropy principle can be extended in a meaningful way to nonextensive, nonergodic, and complex statistical systems and processes. In this paper we start by reviewing how Boltzmann–Gibbs–Shannon entropy is related to multiplicities of independent random processes. We then show how the relaxation of independence naturally leads to the most general entropies that are compatible with the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms, the -entropies. We demonstrate that the MEP is a perfectly consistent concept for nonergodic and complex statistical systems if their relative entropy can be factored into a generalized multiplicity and a constraint term. The problem of finding such a factorization reduces to finding an appropriate representation of relative entropy in a linear basis. In a particular example we show that path-dependent random processes with memory naturally require specific generalized entropies. The example is to our knowledge the first exact derivation of a generalized entropy from the microscopic properties of a path-dependent random process. PMID:24782541

  8. Radiographic evaluation of bone regeneration after the application of plasma rich in growth factors in a lower third molar socket: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A 42-year-old Mediterranean male presented complaining of inability to sustain good oral care at the posterior aspect of the lower right jaw. The main problems were food impaction in the area and the subsequent malodor. The patient reported remarkable medical history. Clinical examination revealed local erytherma with noticeable bone defect distal to the second molar with obvious defect in the mesial wall of the third molar; the penetration depth was found to be up to 6 mm. Radiological evaluation confirmed the defect and it was attributed to the mesioangularly partially impacted lower third molar. It was decided that third molar should be extracted and concentrate of the patient's growth factors (PRGF) to be applied into the bony defect to stimulate bone regeneration and promote healing. The third molar tooth was, then, removed surgically and the PRGF, which was prepared preoperatively, was implanted in the socket. At the first postoperative day, moderate pain was the main complaint and was controlled by NSAIDs. One week postoperatively, the sutures were removed and there was good tissue healing on examination. On the fiftieth postoperative day, radiographic evaluation took place and showed noticeable enhancement of density and radio-opacity in the third molar socket area, in comparison with the baseline image. Further, clinical examination showed significant reduction of periodontal pocketing and evidence of new bone formation. In conclusion, PRGF was very successful in stimulating bone regeneration and promote healing following dental extraction. PMID:20062651

  9. Radiographic evaluation of bone regeneration after the application of plasma rich in growth factors in a lower third molar socket: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nazaroglou, Ioannis; Stavrianos, Christos; Kafas, Panagiotis; Matoulas, Euthimios; Upile, Tahwinder; Barlas, Irodis; Jerjes, Waseem

    2009-12-03

    A 42-year-old Mediterranean male presented complaining of inability to sustain good oral care at the posterior aspect of the lower right jaw. The main problems were food impaction in the area and the subsequent malodor. The patient reported remarkable medical history. Clinical examination revealed local erytherma with noticeable bone defect distal to the second molar with obvious defect in the mesial wall of the third molar; the penetration depth was found to be up to 6 mm.Radiological evaluation confirmed the defect and it was attributed to the mesioangularly partially impacted lower third molar. It was decided that third molar should be extracted and concentrate of the patient's growth factors (PRGF) to be applied into the bony defect to stimulate bone regeneration and promote healing.The third molar tooth was, then, removed surgically and the PRGF, which was prepared preoperatively, was implanted in the socket. At the first postoperative day, moderate pain was the main complaint and was controlled by NSAIDs. One week postoperatively, the sutures were removed and there was good tissue healing on examination.On the fiftieth postoperative day, radiographic evaluation took place and showed noticeable enhancement of density and radio-opacity in the third molar socket area, in comparison with the baseline image. Further, clinical examination showed significant reduction of periodontal pocketing and evidence of new bone formation.In conclusion, PRGF was very successful in stimulating bone regeneration and promote healing following dental extraction.

  10. Entropy Convective Flux for Tropical Cyclone Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegahfar, Nafiseh; Gharaylou, Maryam; Ghafarian, Parvin

    2016-07-01

    It is well-known that the environmental factors control tropical cyclones (TCs). one of the most considered thermodynamical parameters is entropy that its significant role on tropical cyclogenesis and TC intensification has been professionally focused in some recent research studies. In the current work, two data sets including satellite data and NCEP-GFS data have been used to investigate the entropy parameter and its convective flux, during tropical cyclone Haiyan (TCH) occurred on 3-11 November 2013 and nominated as the strongest TC over Pacific Ocean before 2014. This purpose has been proceeded for three domain areas with different size. These domains cover inner, eyewall and rainbands, and environmental regions of TCH at various pressure levels. Also three terms of entropy vertical flux including dissipative heating, surface entropy flux and difference between entropy values over inner and outer regions have been analyzed. Our obtained results showed relatively similar behavior of averaged entropy over all selected domain, but with a delay and decrease in maximum values for the smaller domains. In addition our findings revealed different considerable contributions for three terms of entropy vertical flux.

  11. Impact of Ions on Individual Water Entropy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debasis; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2016-08-01

    Solutes determine the properties of a solution. In this study, we probe ionic solutions through the entropy of individual water molecules in the solvation shells around different cations and anions. Using a method recently developed by our group, we show the solvation shell entropy stemming from the individual contributions correlates extremely well with experimental values for both polarizable and nonpolarizable force fields. The behavior of water entropy as a function of distance reveals significant (∼20%) contributions from the second solvation shell even for the low concentration considered here. While for the cations, contributions from both translational and rotational entropy loss are similar in different solvation shells, water around anions loses much more rotational entropy due to their ability to accept hydrogen bonds. Most importantly, while charge density of cations or anions correlates with the translational entropy loss, anions with similar charge density as that of cations has a much stronger and long-range effect on water. We also show how the modulation of water entropy by ions is correlated to the structural modifications of hydration shell. This study thus provides a step toward understanding the entropic behavior of water in molecular recognition processes between proteins and drug molecules. PMID:27404917

  12. On entropy, financial markets and minority games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapart, Christopher A.

    2009-04-01

    The paper builds upon an earlier statistical analysis of financial time series with Shannon information entropy, published in [L. Molgedey, W. Ebeling, Local order, entropy and predictability of financial time series, European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems 15/4 (2000) 733-737]. A novel generic procedure is proposed for making multistep-ahead predictions of time series by building a statistical model of entropy. The approach is first demonstrated on the chaotic Mackey-Glass time series and later applied to Japanese Yen/US dollar intraday currency data. The paper also reinterprets Minority Games [E. Moro, The minority game: An introductory guide, Advances in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics (2004)] within the context of physical entropy, and uses models derived from minority game theory as a tool for measuring the entropy of a model in response to time series. This entropy conditional upon a model is subsequently used in place of information-theoretic entropy in the proposed multistep prediction algorithm.

  13. Variation in Cuspal Morphology in Maxillary First Permanent Molar with Report of 3 Cusp Molar- A Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human teeth has always been known for morphological variations in both the crown and root structures. The corono-morphological variations can be in the form of extra cusp or missing cusp. Permanent maxillary first molars are the biggest teeth in maxillary arch and have a high anchorage value and are known for their four cusp and five cusp patterns, if present with cusp of Carebelli. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cuspal variations and quantification of cusps of permanent maxillary first molar in Malwa population. Materials and Methods A total of 1249 individuals were studied at Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, to evaluate the number of cusps in permanent maxillary first molars. Results Of the studied 1249 individuals, permanent maxillary first molars had five cusps in 407 (32.6%) cases while 838 (67.08%) cases had four cusp and four (0.32%) cases had three cusps. The four cases having three cusp permanent maxillary first molars were present unilaterally and only in females. Conclusion This article emphasizes the presence of permanent maxillary first molar with only three cusps in the Malwa population of India. It also reviews the literature in respect to this rare anomaly and calls for continuous and close monitoring to report such cases in the future. PMID:27790576

  14. Component analysis of the protein hydration entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2012-05-01

    We report the development of an atomic decomposition method of the protein solvation entropy in water, which allows us to understand global change in the solvation entropy in terms of local changes in protein conformation as well as in hydration structure. This method can be implemented via a combined approach based on molecular dynamics simulation and integral-equation theory of liquids. An illustrative application is made to 42-residue amyloid-beta protein in water. We demonstrate how this method enables one to elucidate the molecular origin for the hydration entropy change upon conformational transitions of protein.

  15. Wald entropy formula and loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodendorfer, N.; Neiman, Y.

    2014-10-01

    We outline how the Wald entropy formula naturally arises in loop quantum gravity based on recently introduced dimension-independent connection variables. The key observation is that in a loop quantization of a generalized gravity theory, the analog of the area operator turns out to measure, morally speaking, the Wald entropy rather than the area. We discuss the explicit example of (higher-dimensional) Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and comment on recent work on finding the correct numerical prefactor of the entropy by comparing it to a semiclassical effective action.

  16. Erupted complex odontoma delayed eruption of permanent molar.

    PubMed

    Ohtawa, Yumi; Ichinohe, Saori; Kimura, Eri; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Odontomas, benign tumors that develop in the jaw, rarely erupt into the oral cavity. We report an erupted odontoma which delayed eruption of the first molar. The patient was a 10-year-old Japanese girl who came to our hospital due to delayed eruption of the right maxillary first molar. All the deciduous teeth had been shed. The second premolar on the right side had erupted, but not the first molar. Slight inflammation of the alveolar mucosa around the first molar had exposed a tooth-like, hard tissue. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiopaque mass indicating a lesion approximately 1 cm in diameter. The border of the image was clear, and part of the mass was situated close to the occlusal surface of the first molar. The root of the maxillary right first molar was only half-developed. A clinical diagnosis of odontoma was made. The odontoma was subsequently extracted, allowing the crown of the first molar to erupt almost 5 months later. The dental germ of the permanent tooth had been displaced by the odontoma. However, after the odontoma had been extracted, the permanent tooth was still able to erupt spontaneously, as eruptive force still remained. When the eruption of a tooth is significantly delayed, we believe that it is necessary to examine the area radiographically. If there is any radiographic evidence of a physical obstruction that might delay eruption, that obstruction should be removed before any problems can arise. Regular dental checkups at schools might improve our ability to detect evidence of delayed eruption earlier.

  17. First molar health status in different craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the health status of permanent first molars and different craniofacial relationships among adolescents. Study design This is a retrospective study on patients’ records aged 11–15 years. Sex, skeletal relationship, vertical growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, and overbite were assessed. The health status of permanent first molars was recorded from the orthopantomograms and intraoral photographs as “sound” and “not sound”. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze and correlate the assessed variables. Significance level was set at P<0.05. Results A total of 210 records were evaluated; 81 were male, 68 had Class I and 91 had Class II skeletal relationships. More than half of the subjects had normal (n=67) to moderate deep bite (n=72); normal (n=91), moderately increased (n=54), to severely increased (n=50) overjet; and Class I (n=106) and Class II division 1 (n=75) malocclusion. Significant differences were found in the health status of the permanent first molars with respect to sex (P=0.034), vertical growth pattern (P=0.01), and overbite (P=0.047). Strong correlations were only found between the health status of the permanent first molars and the following variables: sex (P=0.036) and vertical growth pattern (P=0.004). Significant correlation was further found between the upper left first molar health status and sex (P=0.019) and the lower right first molar health status and the vertical growth pattern (P=0.001). No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships (P>0.05). Conclusion Sex difference and vertical growth patterns were found to be potential predictors of the health status of the permanent first molars. No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships. PMID:27462176

  18. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T.; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the non-occluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. PMID:20034010

  19. Erupted complex odontoma delayed eruption of permanent molar.

    PubMed

    Ohtawa, Yumi; Ichinohe, Saori; Kimura, Eri; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Odontomas, benign tumors that develop in the jaw, rarely erupt into the oral cavity. We report an erupted odontoma which delayed eruption of the first molar. The patient was a 10-year-old Japanese girl who came to our hospital due to delayed eruption of the right maxillary first molar. All the deciduous teeth had been shed. The second premolar on the right side had erupted, but not the first molar. Slight inflammation of the alveolar mucosa around the first molar had exposed a tooth-like, hard tissue. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiopaque mass indicating a lesion approximately 1 cm in diameter. The border of the image was clear, and part of the mass was situated close to the occlusal surface of the first molar. The root of the maxillary right first molar was only half-developed. A clinical diagnosis of odontoma was made. The odontoma was subsequently extracted, allowing the crown of the first molar to erupt almost 5 months later. The dental germ of the permanent tooth had been displaced by the odontoma. However, after the odontoma had been extracted, the permanent tooth was still able to erupt spontaneously, as eruptive force still remained. When the eruption of a tooth is significantly delayed, we believe that it is necessary to examine the area radiographically. If there is any radiographic evidence of a physical obstruction that might delay eruption, that obstruction should be removed before any problems can arise. Regular dental checkups at schools might improve our ability to detect evidence of delayed eruption earlier. PMID:24521551

  20. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  1. Quantum statistical entropy of Schwarzchild-de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Hui-Hua

    2012-10-01

    Using the quantum statistical method, we calculate quantum statistical entropy between the black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon in Schwarzchild spacetime and derive the expression of quantum statistical entropy in de Sitter spacetime. Under the Unruh-Verlinde temperature of Schwarzchild-de Sitter spacetime in the entropic force views, we obtain the expression of quantum statistical entropy in de Sitter spacetime. It is shown that in de Sitter spacetime quantum statistical entropy is the sum of thermodynamic entropy corresponding black hole horizon and the one corresponding cosmological horizon. And the correction term of de Sitter spacetime entropy is obtained. Therefore, it is confirmed that the black hole entropy is the entropy of quantum field outside the black hole horizon. The entropy of de Sitter spacetime is the entropy of quantum field between the black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon.

  2. Dynamics and rheology of high molar mass polyethylene oxide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Abhishek; Solomon, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We report dynamic light scattering (DLS), bulk rheology and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) measurements that investigate the structure and dynamics of high molar mass PEO solutions. Steady shear rheology of high molar mass PEO solutions, when modeled by the FENE-P constitutive equation, was consistent with viscoelastic relaxation times much larger than predicted by single polymer, dilute solution theory. DLS of dilute PEO solutions showed a single relaxation mode in the decay time distribution, which scales as q-3 rather than the q-2 scaling expected of diffusive dynamics. We interpret this result as consistent with the internal dynamics of large multichain domains, clusters or aggregates in the high molar mass PEO solutions. By means of DLS, we also show that the aggregation state of dilute solutions of high molar mass PEO can be manipulated by addition of the chaotropic salt guanidine sulfate or the divalent salt magnesium sulfate. Addition of these salts shifts the power law scaling of the relaxation time from q-3 to q-2. This shift of relaxation time scaling from one indicative of aggregate dynamics (q-3) to one characteristic of polymer center-of-mass diffusion (q-2) shows that these salts are effective de-aggregation agents for PEO. We discuss the results in light of the potential connection between aggregation behavior and polymer TDR of high molar mass PEO.

  3. Applications of quantum entropy to statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.; Martz, H.F.

    1994-07-01

    This paper develops two generalizations of the maximum entropy (ME) principle. First, Shannon classical entropy is replaced by von Neumann quantum entropy to yield a broader class of information divergences (or penalty functions) for statistics applications. Negative relative quantum entropy enforces convexity, positivity, non-local extensivity and prior correlations such as smoothness. This enables the extension of ME methods from their traditional domain of ill-posed in-verse problems to new applications such as non-parametric density estimation. Second, given a choice of information divergence, a combination of ME and Bayes rule is used to assign both prior and posterior probabilities. Hyperparameters are interpreted as Lagrange multipliers enforcing constraints. Conservation principles are proposed to act statistical regularization and other hyperparameters, such as conservation of information and smoothness. ME provides an alternative to heirarchical Bayes methods.

  4. On multiscale entropy analysis for physiological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuraisingham, Ranjit A.; Gottwald, Georg A.

    2006-07-01

    We perform an analysis of cardiac data using multiscale entropy as proposed in Costa et al. [Multiscale entropy analysis of complex physiological time series, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 068102]. We reproduce the signatures of the multiscale entropy for the three cases of young healthy hearts, atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure. We show that one has to be cautious how to interpret these signatures in terms of the underlying dynamics. In particular, we show that different dynamical systems can exhibit the same signatures depending on the sampling time, and that similar systems may have different signatures depending on the time scales involved. Besides the total amount of data we identify the sampling time, the correlation time and the period of possible nonlinear oscillations as important time scales which have to be involved in a detailed analysis of the signatures of multiscale entropies. We illustrate our ideas with the Lorenz equation as a simple deterministic chaotic system.

  5. α-z-Rényi relative entropies

    SciTech Connect

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.; Datta, Nilanjana

    2015-02-15

    We consider a two-parameter family of Rényi relative entropies D{sub α,z}(ρ ∥ σ) that are quantum generalisations of the classical Rényi divergence D{sub α}(p ∥ q). This family includes many known relative entropies (or divergences) such as the quantum relative entropy, the recently defined quantum Rényi divergences, as well as the quantum Rényi relative entropies. All its members satisfy the quantum generalizations of Rényi’s axioms for a divergence. We consider the range of the parameters α, z for which the data-processing inequality holds. We also investigate a variety of limiting cases for the two parameters, obtaining explicit formulas for each one of them.

  6. Entropy and order in urban street networks

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsson, Agust; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks erase parts of their geometry as they develop, so that their evolution is difficult to quantify and trace. Here we introduce entropy measures for quantifying the complexity of street orientations and length variations within planar networks and apply them to the street networks of 41 British cities, whose geometric evolution over centuries can be explored. The results show that the street networks of the old central parts of the cities have lower orientation/length entropies - the streets are more tightly ordered and form denser networks - than the outer and more recent parts. Entropy and street length increase, because of spreading, with distance from the network centre. Tracing the 400-year evolution of one network indicates growth through densification (streets are added within the existing network) and expansion (streets are added at the margin of the network) and a gradual increase in entropy over time. PMID:24281305

  7. The entropy cost of protein association.

    PubMed

    Tamura, A; Privalov, P L

    1997-11-14

    The temperature induced unfolding/dissociation of the dimeric subtilisin inhibitor from Streptomyces and its mutant D83C having an S-S crosslink between the subunits has been studied calorimetrically. Comparison of the entropies measured at different concentrations of dimer showed that the entropy cost of crosslinking is small. Its value at the standard concentration of 1 M is of the order of -(5+/-4) cal/K.mol, i.e. it is more than one order of magnitude smaller than the values of translational entropies calculated on the base of statistical thermodynamics, using in particular the Sackur-Tetrode equation, and is close to the cratic entropy value suggested by classical mixing theory.

  8. Minimum entropy deconvolution and blind equalisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, E. H.; Mulligan, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between minimum entropy deconvolution, developed primarily for geophysics applications, and blind equalization are pointed out. It is seen that a large class of existing blind equalization algorithms are directly related to the scale-invariant cost functions used in minimum entropy deconvolution. Thus the extensive analyses of these cost functions can be directly applied to blind equalization, including the important asymptotic results of Donoho.

  9. Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature. PMID:21230944

  10. An upper bound on quantum entropy.

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    Following ref [1], a classical upper bound for quantum entropy is identified and illustrated, 0 {le} S{sub q} {le} ln (e{sigma}{sup 2}/2{h_bar}), involving the variance {sigma}{sup 2} in phase space of the classical limit distribution of a given system. A fortiori, this further bounds the corresponding information-theoretical generalizations of the quantum entropy proposed by Renyi.

  11. Entropy analysis of systems exhibiting negative probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the concept of negative probability and its impact upon entropy. An analogy between the probability generating functions, in the scope of quasiprobability distributions, and the Grünwald-Letnikov definition of fractional derivatives, is explored. Two distinct cases producing negative probabilities are formulated and their distinct meaning clarified. Numerical calculations using the Shannon entropy characterize further the characteristics of the two limit cases.

  12. Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-08

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  13. Geometrical expression of excess entropy production.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2011-11-01

    We derive a geometrical expression of the excess entropy production for quasistatic transitions between nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian jump processes, which can be exactly applied to nonlinear and nonequilibrium situations. The obtained expression is geometrical; the excess entropy production depends only on a trajectory in the parameter space, analogous to the Berry phase in quantum mechanics. Our results imply that vector potentials are needed to construct the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium steady states. PMID:22181372

  14. Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  15. Entropies and correlations in classical and quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.; Marmo, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    We present a review of entropy properties for classical and quantum systems including Shannon entropy, von Neumann entropy, Rényi entropy, and Tsallis entropy. We discuss known and new entropic and information inequalities for classical and quantum systems, both composite and noncomposite. We demonstrate matrix inequalities associated with the entropic subadditivity and strong subadditivity conditions and give a new inequality for matrix elements of unitary matrices.

  16. Another short and elementary proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskai, Mary Beth

    2007-08-01

    A short and elementary proof of the joint convexity of relative entropy is presented, using nothing beyond linear algebra. The key ingredients are an easily verified integral representation and the strategy used to prove the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in elementary courses. Several consequences are proved in a way which allows an elementary proof of strong subadditivity in a few more lines. Some expository material on Schwarz inequalities for operators and the Holevo bound for partial measurements is also included.

  17. Relaxed Plasma Equilibria and Entropy-Related Plasma Self-Organization Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, Robert L.; Hole, Matthew J.; McGann, Mathew; Mills, Ruth; Hudson, Stuart R.

    2008-12-01

    The concept of plasma relaxation as a constrained energy minimization is reviewed. Recent work by the authors on generalizing this approach to partially relaxed threedimensional plasma systems in a way consistent with chaos theory is discussed, with a view to clarifying the thermodynamic aspects of the variational approach used. Other entropy-related approaches to finding long-time steady states of turbulent or chaotic plasma systems are also briefly reviewed.

  18. The Shannon information entropy of protein sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Strait, B J; Dewey, T G

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive data base is analyzed to determine the Shannon information content of a protein sequence. This information entropy is estimated by three methods: a k-tuplet analysis, a generalized Zipf analysis, and a "Chou-Fasman gambler." The k-tuplet analysis is a "letter" analysis, based on conditional sequence probabilities. The generalized Zipf analysis demonstrates the statistical linguistic qualities of protein sequences and uses the "word" frequency to determine the Shannon entropy. The Zipf analysis and k-tuplet analysis give Shannon entropies of approximately 2.5 bits/amino acid. This entropy is much smaller than the value of 4.18 bits/amino acid obtained from the nonuniform composition of amino acids in proteins. The "Chou-Fasman" gambler is an algorithm based on the Chou-Fasman rules for protein structure. It uses both sequence and secondary structure information to guess at the number of possible amino acids that could appropriately substitute into a sequence. As in the case for the English language, the gambler algorithm gives significantly lower entropies than the k-tuplet analysis. Using these entropies, the number of most probable protein sequences can be calculated. The number of most probable protein sequences is much less than the number of possible sequences but is still much larger than the number of sequences thought to have existed throughout evolution. Implications of these results for mutagenesis experiments are discussed. PMID:8804598

  19. Entanglement entropy and nonabelian gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William

    2014-11-01

    Entanglement entropy has proven to be an extremely useful concept in quantum field theory. Gauge theories are of particular interest, but for these systems the entanglement entropy is not clearly defined because the physical Hilbert space does not factor as a tensor product according to regions of space. Here we review a definition of entanglement entropy that applies to abelian and nonabelian lattice gauge theories. This entanglement entropy is obtained by embedding the physical Hilbert space into a product of Hilbert spaces associated to regions with boundary. The latter Hilbert spaces include degrees of freedom on the entangling surface that transform like surface charges under the gauge symmetry. These degrees of freedom are shown to contribute to the entanglement entropy, and the form of this contribution is determined by the gauge symmetry. We test our definition using the example of two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, and find that it agrees with the thermal entropy in de Sitter space, and with the results of the Euclidean replica trick. We discuss the possible implications of this result for more complicated gauge theories, including quantum gravity.

  20. On variational definition of quantum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Belavkin, Roman V.

    2015-01-13

    Entropy of distribution P can be defined in at least three different ways: 1) as the expectation of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of P from elementary δ-measures (in this case, it is interpreted as expected surprise); 2) as a negative KL-divergence of some reference measure ν from the probability measure P; 3) as the supremum of Shannon’s mutual information taken over all channels such that P is the output probability, in which case it is dual of some transportation problem. In classical (i.e. commutative) probability, all three definitions lead to the same quantity, providing only different interpretations of entropy. In non-commutative (i.e. quantum) probability, however, these definitions are not equivalent. In particular, the third definition, where the supremum is taken over all entanglements of two quantum systems with P being the output state, leads to the quantity that can be twice the von Neumann entropy. It was proposed originally by V. Belavkin and Ohya [1] and called the proper quantum entropy, because it allows one to define quantum conditional entropy that is always non-negative. Here we extend these ideas to define also quantum counterpart of proper cross-entropy and cross-information. We also show inequality for the values of classical and quantum information.

  1. Entanglement entropy of electronic excitations.

    PubMed

    Plasser, Felix

    2016-05-21

    A new perspective into correlation effects in electronically excited states is provided through quantum information theory. The entanglement between the electron and hole quasiparticles is examined, and it is shown that the related entanglement entropy can be computed from the eigenvalue spectrum of the well-known natural transition orbital (NTO) decomposition. Non-vanishing entanglement is obtained whenever more than one NTO pair is involved, i.e., in the case of a multiconfigurational or collective excitation. An important implication is that in the case of entanglement it is not possible to gain a complete description of the state character from the orbitals alone, but more specific analysis methods are required to decode the mutual information between the electron and hole. Moreover, the newly introduced number of entangled states is an important property by itself giving information about excitonic structure. The utility of the formalism is illustrated in the cases of the excited states of two interacting ethylene molecules, the conjugated polymer para-phenylene vinylene, and the naphthalene molecule.

  2. Relative entropy and learning rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Minping; Gong, Guanglu; Clark, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of a probabilistic neural network is characterized by the distribution ν(x'||x) of successor states x' of an arbitrary state x of the network. A prescribed memory or behavior pattern is represented in terms of an ordered sequence of network states x(1),x(2),...,x(l). A successful procedure for learning this pattern must modify the neuronal interactions in such a way that the dynamical successor of x(s) is likely to be x(s+1), with x(l+1)=x(1). The relative entropy G of the probability distribution δ(s+1)x,x' concentrated at the desired successor state, evaluated with respect to the dynamical distribution ν(x'||x(s)), is used to quantify this criterion, by providing a measure of the distance between actual and ideal probability distributions. Minimization of G subject to appropriate resource constraints leads to ``optimal'' learning rules for pairwise and higher-order neuronal interactions. The degree to which optimality is approached by simple learning rules in current use is considered, and it is found, in particular, that the algorithm adopted in the Hopfield model is more effective in minimizing G than the original Hebb law.

  3. Entropy and the Magic Flute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morowitz, Harold J.

    1996-10-01

    Harold Morowitz has long been highly regarded both as an eminent scientist and as an accomplished science writer. The essays in The Wine of Life , his first collection, were hailed by C.P. Snow as "some of the wisest, wittiest and best informed I have ever read," and Carl Sagan called them "a delight to read." In later volumes he established a reputation for a wide-ranging intellect, an ability to see unexpected connections and draw striking parallels, and a talent for communicating scientific ideas with optimism and wit. With Entropy and the Magic Flute , Morowitz once again offers an appealing mix of brief reflections on everything from litmus paper to the hippopotamus to the sociology of Palo Alto coffee shops. Many of these pieces are appreciations of scientists that Morowitz holds in high regard, while others focus on health issues, such as America's obsession with cheese toppings. There is also a fascinating piece on the American Type Culture Collection, a zoo or warehouse for microbes that houses some 11,800 strains of bacteria, and over 3,000 specimens of protozoa, algae, plasmids, and oncogenes. Here then are over forty light, graceful essays in which one of our wisest experimental biologists comments on issues of science, technology, society, philosophy, and the arts.

  4. Entanglement entropy of electronic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plasser, Felix

    2016-05-01

    A new perspective into correlation effects in electronically excited states is provided through quantum information theory. The entanglement between the electron and hole quasiparticles is examined, and it is shown that the related entanglement entropy can be computed from the eigenvalue spectrum of the well-known natural transition orbital (NTO) decomposition. Non-vanishing entanglement is obtained whenever more than one NTO pair is involved, i.e., in the case of a multiconfigurational or collective excitation. An important implication is that in the case of entanglement it is not possible to gain a complete description of the state character from the orbitals alone, but more specific analysis methods are required to decode the mutual information between the electron and hole. Moreover, the newly introduced number of entangled states is an important property by itself giving information about excitonic structure. The utility of the formalism is illustrated in the cases of the excited states of two interacting ethylene molecules, the conjugated polymer para-phenylene vinylene, and the naphthalene molecule.

  5. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  6. Holographic entanglement entropy of anisotropic minimal surfaces in LLM geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanju; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Kwon, O.-Kab

    2016-08-01

    We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of the Zk orbifold of Lin-Lunin-Maldacena (LLM) geometries which are dual to the vacua of the mass-deformed ABJM theory with Chern-Simons level k. By solving the partial differential equations analytically, we obtain the HEEs for all LLM solutions with arbitrary M2 charge and k up to μ02 -order where μ0 is the mass parameter. The renormalized entanglement entropies are all monotonically decreasing near the UV fixed point in accordance with the F-theorem. Except the multiplication factor and to all orders in μ0, they are independent of the overall scaling of Young diagrams which characterize LLM geometries. Therefore we can classify the HEEs of LLM geometries with Zk orbifold in terms of the shape of Young diagrams modulo overall size. HEE of each family is a pure number independent of the 't Hooft coupling constant except the overall multiplication factor. We extend our analysis to obtain HEE analytically to μ04 -order for the symmetric droplet case.

  7. Tenoxicam for pain relief following third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Cheung, L K; Rodrigo, C

    1992-01-01

    Tenoxicam is a long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that appears to have the ability to control pain of musculoskeletal origin. A double-blind randomized crossover study was designed to determine the efficacy of tenoxicam for pain relief following third molar surgery by comparing it with paracetamol. Immediately before surgery, 30 Chinese patients with bilateral symmetrically impacted mandibular third molars were given 40 mg of tenoxicam for surgery on one side and 1,000 mg of paracetamol for surgery on the other. Both paracetamol and tenoxicam were efficient as pain relievers after third molar surgery. Tenoxicam had comparable efficacy to paracetamol, but did not provide any advantage in terms of duration of action. The discrepancy between the clinical observation and pharmacokinetic prediction may be related to the strong serum binding property of tenoxicam. PMID:1298491

  8. Transcervical removal of an impacted third molar: an uncommon indication.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yash K; Adamo, Arthur K; Parikh, Niral; Buchbinder, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a case of and reviews the literature involving the extraoral approach for surgical removal of an ectopic mandibular third molar tooth. Case reports describing extraction of the mandibular third molar using the extraoral approach are very limited. This article describes an unusual case of an impacted, infected, ectopic right mandibular third molar that was positioned at the inferior border and had caused an extraoral draining sinus. Furthermore, the roots were intimately involved with the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and had perforated the buccal cortex of the mandible. Surgical removal using a transcervical submandibular approach was deemed necessary to try to preserve the IAN and avoid fracture of the mandible in this 74-year-old patient.

  9. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient’s compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73. PMID:27274159

  10. First permanent molar root development arrest associated with compound odontoma.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Sachin A; Patil, Anil; Varekar, Aniruddha

    2013-07-04

    Trauma or infection to the primary tooth may have deleterious effects on the underlying developing tooth buds. Anatomically the root apices of primary teeth are in close proximity to the developing permanent tooth buds; hence spread of infection originating from pulp necrosis of primary tooth may not only affect the underlying tooth bud but may also affect the adjacent tooth buds. The extent of malformation depends on the developmental stage of tooth or the age of patient. Presented here is a rare case of complete arrest of maxillary first permanent molar root growth due to spread of periapical infection originating from second primary molar leading to failure of its eruption and finally extraction. Histopathlogical analysis revealed compound odontoma associated with maxillary first permanent molar.

  11. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Patil, Raju Umaji; Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient's compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73. PMID:27274159

  12. Microbiology of the pericoronal pouch in mandibular third molar pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, W K; Theilade, E; Comfort, M B; Lim, P L

    1993-10-01

    The microorganisms associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis were investigated using direct microscopy and anaerobic culture method. The pericoronal pouch was sampled with paper points in A) 8 patients without mandibular third molar pericoronitis and B) 6 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Under the microscope, the microflora was found to be a complex mixture comprising gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, rods and filaments (including fusiform and curved rods), motile rods and spirochetes. Significantly higher proportions of motile, gram-negative rods were found in group B than in group A. The predominant cultivable microflora of 9 samples: A (4) and B (5) comprised several species of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria, namely Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Bacteriodes, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Stomatococcus, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus, Selenomonas and Centipeda species. The microflora in pericoronitis appeared similar to that of diseased periodontal pockets.

  13. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Patil, Raju Umaji; Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient's compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73.

  14. The effective molarity (EM)--a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-08-01

    The effective molarity (EM) for 12 intramolecular S(N)2 processes involving the formation of substituted aziridines and substituted epoxides were computed using ab initio and DFT calculation methods. Strong correlation was found between the calculated effective molarity and the experimentally determined values. This result could open a door for obtaining EM values for intramolecular processes that are difficult to be experimentally provided. Furthermore, the calculation results reveal that the driving forces for ring-closing reactions in the two different systems are proximity orientation of the nucleophile to the electrophile and the ground strain energies of the products and the reactants.

  15. Clinical analysis of molar fissures by Cone-beam tomography.

    PubMed

    Cruvinel, V R N; Azevedo, B C; Gravina, D B L; Toledo, O A; Bezerra, A C B

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to validate clinical analysis of 20 pediatric dentists on occlusal groove-fossa-system of molar depth comparing to Cone-beam tomography. The 48 sound third molars were visually classified from the shallowest to the deepest. Images were taken from the Accuitomo 3DX. There was a fair correlation between clinical analysis and the tomographic scorings (rs = 0.238; P = 0.103). It was concluded that pediatric dentists were not able to classify the fissures depth by visual analysis correctly. PMID:19161057

  16. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  17. Entropy generation at multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic shocks with emphasis to the solar wind termination shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, H.-J.; Siewert, M.

    2015-04-01

    In a series of earlier papers, we developed expressions for ion and electron velocity distribution functions and their velocity moments at the passage over the solar wind termination shock. As we have shown there, with the introduction of appropriate particle invariants and the use of Liouville's theorem one can get explicit solutions for the resulting total downstream pressure by adding up from partial pressure contributions of solar wind protons, solar wind electrons and pick-up protons. These expressions are the first step toward delivering the main contributions to the total plasma pressure in the downstream plasma flow and consistently determine the shock compression ratio. Here we start from these individual fluid pressures downstream of the shock and thereafter evaluate for the first time the shock-induced entropy production of the different fluids, when they are passing over the shock to the downstream side. As shown here, the resulting ion entropy production substantially deviates from earlier calculations using a pseudo-polytropic reaction of the ions to the shock compression, with polytropies selected to describe fluid-specific reactions at the shock passage similar to those seen by the Voyagers. From these latter models, ion entropy jumps are derived that depend on the pick-up ion abundance, while our calculations deliver an abundance-independent ion entropy production that only depends on the shock compression ratio and the tilt angle between the upstream magnetic field and the normal to the shock surface. We also show here that the thermodynamically permitted upper limit in the entropy production is only reached when strongly heated electrons are included in the entropy balance.

  18. Paradental cyst associated with supernumerary tooth fused with third molar: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A Ravi; Reddy, P Sreenivas; Rajanikanth, M

    2012-01-01

    Fusion is the union of two tooth buds that are normally separated. Fusion is more frequent in deciduous teeth, particularly in the anterior region. The etiology of fusion is not known. It has been suggested that the pressure of adjacent dental follicles produces their contact and fusion before calcification. There is no difference between men and women in incidence. The term paradental cyst means that such type of cysts that are close proximity with the root of a tooth. A history of recurrent pericoronitis is reported usually and there is often the presence of a communication between the periodontal pocket and the cyst. We present a rare case report where in partially erupted mandibular third molar is fused horizontally with a supernumerary tooth with paradental cyst. PMID:22434950

  19. Substorm onset: A switch on the sequence of transport from decreasing entropy to increasing entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. X.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we propose a scenario about the trigger for substorm onset. In a stable magnetosphere, entropy is an increasing function tailward. However, in the growth phase of a substorm, a later born bubble has lower entropy than earlier born bubbles. When a bubble arrives at its final destination in the near-Earth region, it will spread azimuthally because of its relatively uniform entropy. The magnetic flux tubes of a dying bubble, which cause the most equatorward aurora thin arc, would block the later coming bubble tailward of them, forming an unstable domain. Therefore, an interchange instability develops, which leads to the collapse of the unstable domain, followed by the collapse of the stretched plasma sheet. We regard the substorm onset as a switch on the sequence of transport, i.e., from a decreasing entropy process to an increasing entropy process. We calculated the most unstable growth rates and the wavelengths of instability, and both are in agreement with observations.

  20. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  1. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  2. The chronology of third molar mineralization by digital orthopantomography.

    PubMed

    Maled, Venkatesh; Vishwanath, S B

    2016-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the chronology of third molar mineralization to establish Indian reference data and to observe the advantages of digital orthopantomography. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was undertaken by evaluating 167 digital orthopantomographs in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molar of Caucasian individuals (85 males and 82 females) between the age of 14 and 24. The evaluation was carried out using the 8-stage developmental scheme of Demirjian et al (1973). The range, mean age, standard deviation and Student t-test are presented for each stage of mineralization in all four quadrants. Statistically significant differences between males and females were not found for all four third molars. All the individuals in this study with mature third molar were at least 18 years of age. For medicolegal purposes, the likelihood of whether an Indian is older than 18 years or not was determined. The advantage of digital orthopantomography in the interpretation of the tooth mineralization over the traditional method was acknowledged.

  3. Lower molar and incisor displacement associated with mandibular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Bravo, L A; Ben-Bassat, Y; Curry, S; Korn, E L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of alveolar modeling at the apices of the mandibular incisor and first molar specifically associated with appositional and resorptive changes on the lower border of the mandible during growth and treatment. Cephalometric data from superimpositions on anterior cranial base, mandibular implants of the Björk type, and anatomical "best fit" of mandibular border structures were integrated using a recently developed strategy, which is described. Data were available at annual intervals between 8.5 and 15.5 years for a previously described sample of approximately 30 children with implants. The average magnitudes of the changes at the root apices of the mandibular first molar and central incisor associated with modeling/remodeling of the mandibular border and symphysis were unexpectedly small. At the molar apex, mean values approximated zero in both anteroposterior and vertical directions. At the incisor apex, mean values approximated zero in the anteroposterior direction and averaged less than 0.15 mm/year in the vertical direction. Standard deviations were roughly equal for the molar and the incisor in both the anteroposterior and vertical directions. Dental displacement associated with surface modeling plays a smaller role in final tooth position in the mandible than in the maxilla. It may also be reasonably inferred that anatomical best-fit superimpositions made in the absence of implants give a more complete picture of hard tissue turnover in the mandible than they do in the maxilla.

  4. A Time for Heresy: A Molar Reading Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Leon E.

    A survey of the literature concerning the mental processes used in reading reveals a proliferation of molecular theories which explain only a small (and frequently neurological) component of the reading act. Enough information exists, however, to sketch an integrated, molar model of the reading process, which stresses the interrelationships…

  5. A cervical ectopic masquerading as a molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masir, N; Tamby, M R; Jamil, M A

    2000-03-01

    We report a case of cervical pregnancy complicated by life threatening hemorrhage. An initial diagnosis of molar pregnancy was made preoperatively. During uterine evacuation she developed profuse hemorrhage which required an emergency hysterectomy for uncontrolled bleeding. Histopathological examination confirmed a cervical pregnancy. The clinical and pathological criteria for the diagnosis and the etiology of cervical pregnancy are discussed. PMID:11072500

  6. Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  7. The chronology of third molar mineralization by digital orthopantomography.

    PubMed

    Maled, Venkatesh; Vishwanath, S B

    2016-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the chronology of third molar mineralization to establish Indian reference data and to observe the advantages of digital orthopantomography. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was undertaken by evaluating 167 digital orthopantomographs in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molar of Caucasian individuals (85 males and 82 females) between the age of 14 and 24. The evaluation was carried out using the 8-stage developmental scheme of Demirjian et al (1973). The range, mean age, standard deviation and Student t-test are presented for each stage of mineralization in all four quadrants. Statistically significant differences between males and females were not found for all four third molars. All the individuals in this study with mature third molar were at least 18 years of age. For medicolegal purposes, the likelihood of whether an Indian is older than 18 years or not was determined. The advantage of digital orthopantomography in the interpretation of the tooth mineralization over the traditional method was acknowledged. PMID:27485643

  8. Entropy generation of radial rotation convective channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alić, Fikret

    2012-03-01

    The exchange of heat between two fluids is established by radial rotating pipe or a channel. The hotter fluid flows through the pipe, while the cold fluid is ambient air. Total length of pipe is made up of multiple sections of different shape and position in relation to the common axis of rotation. In such heat exchanger the hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of the hotter and colder fluid occur. Therefore, the total entropy generated within the radial rotating pipe consists of the total entropy of hotter and colder fluid, taking into account all the hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of both fluids. Finding a mathematical model of the total generated entropy is based on coupled mathematical expressions that combine hydraulic and thermal effects of both fluids with the complex geometry of the radial rotating pipe. Mathematical model follows the each section of the pipe and establishes the function between the sections, so the total generated entropy is different from section to section of the pipe. In one section of the pipe thermal irreversibility may dominate over the hydraulic irreversibility, while in another section of the pipe the situation may be reverse. In this paper, continuous analytic functions that connect sections of pipe in geometric meaning are associated with functions that describe the thermo-hydraulic effects of hotter and colder fluid. In this way, the total generated entropy of the radial rotating pipe is a continuous analytic function of any complex geometry of the rotating pipe. The above method of establishing a relationship between the continuous function of entropy with the complex geometry of the rotating pipe enables indirect monitoring of unnecessary hydraulic and thermal losses of both fluids. Therefore, continuous analytic functions of generated entropy enable analysis of hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of individual sections of pipe, as well as the possibility of improving the thermal-hydraulic performance of the rotating

  9. Entropy Measurement for Biometric Verification Systems.

    PubMed

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Yuen, Pong C

    2016-05-01

    Biometric verification systems are designed to accept multiple similar biometric measurements per user due to inherent intrauser variations in the biometric data. This is important to preserve reasonable acceptance rate of genuine queries and the overall feasibility of the recognition system. However, such acceptance of multiple similar measurements decreases the imposter's difficulty of obtaining a system-acceptable measurement, thus resulting in a degraded security level. This deteriorated security needs to be measurable to provide truthful security assurance to the users. Entropy is a standard measure of security. However, the entropy formula is applicable only when there is a single acceptable possibility. In this paper, we develop an entropy-measuring model for biometric systems that accepts multiple similar measurements per user. Based on the idea of guessing entropy, the proposed model quantifies biometric system security in terms of adversarial guessing effort for two practical attacks. Excellent agreement between analytic and experimental simulation-based measurement results on a synthetic and a benchmark face dataset justify the correctness of our model and thus the feasibility of the proposed entropy-measuring approach.

  10. Enzyme catalysis by entropy without Circe effect.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Masoud; Himo, Fahmi; Åqvist, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Entropic effects have often been invoked to explain the extraordinary catalytic power of enzymes. In particular, the hypothesis that enzymes can use part of the substrate-binding free energy to reduce the entropic penalty associated with the subsequent chemical transformation has been very influential. The enzymatic reaction of cytidine deaminase appears to be a distinct example. Here, substrate binding is associated with a significant entropy loss that closely matches the activation entropy penalty for the uncatalyzed reaction in water, whereas the activation entropy for the rate-limiting catalytic step in the enzyme is close to zero. Herein, we report extensive computer simulations of the cytidine deaminase reaction and its temperature dependence. The energetics of the catalytic reaction is first evaluated by density functional theory calculations. These results are then used to parametrize an empirical valence bond description of the reaction, which allows efficient sampling by molecular dynamics simulations and computation of Arrhenius plots. The thermodynamic activation parameters calculated by this approach are in excellent agreement with experimental data and indeed show an activation entropy close to zero for the rate-limiting transition state. However, the origin of this effect is a change of reaction mechanism compared the uncatalyzed reaction. The enzyme operates by hydroxide ion attack, which is intrinsically associated with a favorable activation entropy. Hence, this has little to do with utilization of binding free energy to pay the entropic penalty but rather reflects how a preorganized active site can stabilize a reaction path that is not operational in solution.

  11. Enzyme catalysis by entropy without Circe effect.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Masoud; Himo, Fahmi; Åqvist, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Entropic effects have often been invoked to explain the extraordinary catalytic power of enzymes. In particular, the hypothesis that enzymes can use part of the substrate-binding free energy to reduce the entropic penalty associated with the subsequent chemical transformation has been very influential. The enzymatic reaction of cytidine deaminase appears to be a distinct example. Here, substrate binding is associated with a significant entropy loss that closely matches the activation entropy penalty for the uncatalyzed reaction in water, whereas the activation entropy for the rate-limiting catalytic step in the enzyme is close to zero. Herein, we report extensive computer simulations of the cytidine deaminase reaction and its temperature dependence. The energetics of the catalytic reaction is first evaluated by density functional theory calculations. These results are then used to parametrize an empirical valence bond description of the reaction, which allows efficient sampling by molecular dynamics simulations and computation of Arrhenius plots. The thermodynamic activation parameters calculated by this approach are in excellent agreement with experimental data and indeed show an activation entropy close to zero for the rate-limiting transition state. However, the origin of this effect is a change of reaction mechanism compared the uncatalyzed reaction. The enzyme operates by hydroxide ion attack, which is intrinsically associated with a favorable activation entropy. Hence, this has little to do with utilization of binding free energy to pay the entropic penalty but rather reflects how a preorganized active site can stabilize a reaction path that is not operational in solution. PMID:26755610

  12. Enzyme catalysis by entropy without Circe effect

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Masoud; Himo, Fahmi; Åqvist, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Entropic effects have often been invoked to explain the extraordinary catalytic power of enzymes. In particular, the hypothesis that enzymes can use part of the substrate-binding free energy to reduce the entropic penalty associated with the subsequent chemical transformation has been very influential. The enzymatic reaction of cytidine deaminase appears to be a distinct example. Here, substrate binding is associated with a significant entropy loss that closely matches the activation entropy penalty for the uncatalyzed reaction in water, whereas the activation entropy for the rate-limiting catalytic step in the enzyme is close to zero. Herein, we report extensive computer simulations of the cytidine deaminase reaction and its temperature dependence. The energetics of the catalytic reaction is first evaluated by density functional theory calculations. These results are then used to parametrize an empirical valence bond description of the reaction, which allows efficient sampling by molecular dynamics simulations and computation of Arrhenius plots. The thermodynamic activation parameters calculated by this approach are in excellent agreement with experimental data and indeed show an activation entropy close to zero for the rate-limiting transition state. However, the origin of this effect is a change of reaction mechanism compared the uncatalyzed reaction. The enzyme operates by hydroxide ion attack, which is intrinsically associated with a favorable activation entropy. Hence, this has little to do with utilization of binding free energy to pay the entropic penalty but rather reflects how a preorganized active site can stabilize a reaction path that is not operational in solution. PMID:26755610

  13. Measuring entanglement entropies in many-body systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klich, Israel; Refael, Gil; Silva, Alessandro

    2006-09-15

    We explore the relation between entanglement entropy of quantum many-body systems and the distribution of corresponding, properly selected, observables. Such a relation is necessary to actually measure the entanglement entropy. We show that, in general, the Shannon entropy of the probability distribution of certain symmetry observables gives a lower bound to the entropy. In some cases this bound is saturated and directly gives the entropy. We also show other cases in which the probability distribution contains enough information to extract the entropy: we show how this is done in several examples including BEC wave functions, the Dicke model, XY spin chain, and chains with strong randomness.

  14. Kerr Black Hole Entropy and its Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ji-Jian; Li, Chuan-An; Cheng, Xie-Feng

    2016-08-01

    By constructing the four-dimensional phase space based on the observable physical quantity of Kerr black hole and gauge transformation, the Kerr black hole entropy in the phase space was obtained. Then considering the corresponding mechanical quantities as operators and making the operators quantized, entropy spectrum of Kerr black hole was obtained. Our results show that the Kerr black hole has the entropy spectrum with equal intervals, which is in agreement with the idea of Bekenstein. In the limit of large event horizon, the area of the adjacent event horizon of the black hole have equal intervals. The results are in consistent with the results based on the loop quantum gravity theory by Dreyer et al.

  15. Horizon Entropy from Quantum Gravity Condensates.

    PubMed

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2016-05-27

    We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of a horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e., without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Tracing over the bulk degrees of freedom, we show how the resulting reduced density matrix manifestly exhibits a holographic behavior. We derive a complete orthonormal basis of eigenstates for the reduced density matrix of the horizon and use it to compute the horizon entanglement entropy. By imposing consistency with the horizon boundary conditions and semiclassical thermodynamical properties, we recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for any value of the Immirzi parameter. Our analysis supports the equivalence between the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy interpretation and the Boltzmann (statistical) one. PMID:27284642

  16. What is the entropy in entropic gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Sean M.; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate theories in which gravity arises as a consequence of entropy. We distinguish between two approaches to this idea: holographic gravity, in which Einstein's equation arises from keeping entropy stationary in equilibrium under variations of the geometry and quantum state of a small region, and thermodynamic gravity, in which Einstein's equation emerges as a local equation of state from constraints on the area of a dynamical light sheet in a fixed spacetime background. Examining holographic gravity, we argue that its underlying assumptions can be justified in part using recent results on the form of the modular energy in quantum field theory. For thermodynamic gravity, on the other hand, we find that it is difficult to formulate a self-consistent definition of the entropy, which represents an obstacle for this approach. This investigation points the way forward in understanding the connections between gravity and entanglement.

  17. Generalized gravitational entropy without replica symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Joan; Kelly, William R.

    2015-03-01

    We explore several extensions of the generalized entropy construction of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, including a formulation that does not rely on preserving replica symmetry in the bulk. We show that an appropriately general ansatz for the analytically continued replica metric gives us the flexibility needed to solve the gravitational field equations beyond general relativity. As an application of this observation we study EinsteinGauss-Bonnet gravity with a small Gauss-Bonnet coupling and derive the condition that the holographic entanglement entropy must be evaluated on a surface which extremizes the Jacobson-Myers entropy. We find that in both general relativity and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity replica symmetry breaking terms are permitted by the field equations, suggesting that they do not generically vanish.

  18. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  19. IR divergences in inflation and entropy perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Wei; Brandenberger, Robert; Gao, Xian E-mail: xgao@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2012-06-01

    We study leading order perturbative corrections to the two point correlation function of the scalar field describing the curvature perturbation in a slow-roll inflationary background, paying particular attention to the contribution of entropy mode loops. We find that the infrared divergences are worse than in pure de Sitter space: they are power law rather than logarithmic. The validity of perturbation theory and thus of the effective field theory of cosmological perturbations leads to stringent constraints on the coupling constants describing the interactions, in our model the quartic self-interaction coupling constant of the entropy field. If the self coupling constant is larger than some critical value which depends in particular on the duration of the inflationary phase, then perturbation theory breaks down. Our analysis may have implications for the stability of de Sitter space: the quantum effects which lead to an instability of de Sitter space will be larger in magnitude in the presence of entropy fluctuations.

  20. Horizon Entropy from Quantum Gravity Condensates.

    PubMed

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2016-05-27

    We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of a horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e., without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Tracing over the bulk degrees of freedom, we show how the resulting reduced density matrix manifestly exhibits a holographic behavior. We derive a complete orthonormal basis of eigenstates for the reduced density matrix of the horizon and use it to compute the horizon entanglement entropy. By imposing consistency with the horizon boundary conditions and semiclassical thermodynamical properties, we recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for any value of the Immirzi parameter. Our analysis supports the equivalence between the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy interpretation and the Boltzmann (statistical) one.

  1. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  2. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  3. Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David

    2015-07-17

    We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.

  4. Entropy production in irreversible processes with friction.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S

    2008-08-01

    Established expressions for entropy production in irreversible processes are generalized to include friction explicitly, as a source of irreversibility in the interaction between a system and its surroundings. The net amount of heat delivered to the system does not come now only from the reservoir, but may have an additional component coming from the work done against friction forces and dissipated as heat. To avoid ambiguities in interpreting the different contributions to entropy increase, the latter is also written in terms of the heat directly exchanged between the system and surroundings and of the fraction of frictional work that is lost in the system. PMID:18850816

  5. Distribution entropy analysis of epileptic EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yan, Chang; Karmakar, Chandan; Liu, Changchun

    2015-01-01

    It is an open-ended challenge to accurately detect the epileptic seizures through electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Recently published studies have made elaborate attempts to distinguish between the normal and epileptic EEG signals by advanced nonlinear entropy methods, such as the approximate entropy, sample entropy, fuzzy entropy, and permutation entropy, etc. Most recently, a novel distribution entropy (DistEn) has been reported to have superior performance compared with the conventional entropy methods for especially short length data. We thus aimed, in the present study, to show the potential of DistEn in the analysis of epileptic EEG signals. The publicly-accessible Bonn database which consisted of normal, interictal, and ictal EEG signals was used in this study. Three different measurement protocols were set for better understanding the performance of DistEn, which are: i) calculate the DistEn of a specific EEG signal using the full recording; ii) calculate the DistEn by averaging the results for all its possible non-overlapped 5 second segments; and iii) calculate it by averaging the DistEn values for all the possible non-overlapped segments of 1 second length, respectively. Results for all three protocols indicated a statistically significantly increased DistEn for the ictal class compared with both the normal and interictal classes. Besides, the results obtained under the third protocol, which only used very short segments (1 s) of EEG recordings showed a significantly (p <; 0.05) increased DistEn for the interictal class in compassion with the normal class, whereas both analyses using relatively long EEG signals failed in tracking this difference between them, which may be due to a nonstationarity effect on entropy algorithm. The capability of discriminating between the normal and interictal EEG signals is of great clinical relevance since it may provide helpful tools for the detection of a seizure onset. Therefore, our study suggests that the Dist

  6. Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David

    2015-07-17

    We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold. PMID:26230779

  7. Entanglement entropy of subtracted geometry black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Saleem, Zain H.; Satz, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    We compute the entanglement entropy of minimally coupled scalar fields on subtracted geometry black hole backgrounds, focusing on the logarithmic corrections. We notice that matching between the entanglement entropy of original black holes and their subtracted counterparts is only at the order of the area term. The logarithmic correction term is not only different but also, in general, changes sign in the subtracted case. We apply Harrison transformations to the original black holes and find out the choice of the Harrison parameters for which the logarithmic corrections vanish.

  8. Entanglement entropy of electromagnetic edge modes.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, William; Wall, Aron C

    2015-03-20

    The vacuum entanglement entropy of Maxwell theory, when evaluated by standard methods, contains an unexpected term with no known statistical interpretation. We resolve this two-decades old puzzle by showing that this term is the entanglement entropy of edge modes: classical solutions determined by the electric field normal to the entangling surface. We explain how the heat kernel regularization applied to this term leads to the negative divergent expression found by Kabat. This calculation also resolves a recent puzzle concerning the logarithmic divergences of gauge fields in 3+1 dimensions. PMID:25839259

  9. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving the piezoelectric technique had less swelling at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all Ps ≤0.023). Additionally, there was a trend of less postoperative pain and trismus in the piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled

  10. Space loss following premature loss of primary second molars.

    PubMed

    Alnahwi, Hassan H; Donly, Kevin J; Contreras, Claudia I

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the amount of space loss (SL) caused by premature loss of primary second molars, determine whether the eruption status of permanent first molars is an important factor in the amount of SL, and evaluate the effectiveness of space maintainers (SMs) in SL prevention. SL associated with 100 prematurely extracted primary second molars was evaluated in 87 healthy patients. Teeth were divided into groups based on the use of SMs (36 with SM and 64 without SM). Bitewing and periapical radiographs taken before extraction and 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after extraction were used to determine the amount of SL. Not every patient attended every recall appointment, so the sample size varied at different evaluation times. The most significant amount of SL occurred in the first 12 months after extraction. In patients who did not use an SM, at 6 months there was a mean SL of 2.12 mm (SD, 1.65 mm) and at 12 months there was a mean of 4.02 mm (SD, 1.65), with significantly more SL in the first 6 months (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of SL found at 12 and 24 months (P > 0.05). When patients without an SM were grouped by the eruption status of the permanent first molar, there was significantly more SL in the groups with unerupted first molars than there was in the groups with erupted first molars at both 6 months (P < 0.001) and 12 months (P < 0.05). At both 6 and 12 months, the amount of SL in patients who had an SM (n = 13 and n = 14, respectively) was not significantly different from the amount of SL in those who did not have an SM (n = 33 and n = 23, respectively). SMs should be placed as soon as possible following tooth extraction to prevent undue SL. Placement of an SM a year or more after extraction has minimal benefit, since most SL takes place within the first year. SL does occur even when SMs are used.

  11. A Study of Turkish Chemistry Undergraduates' Understandings of Entropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sozbilir, Mustafa; Bennett, Judith M.

    2007-01-01

    Entropy is that fundamental concept of chemical thermodynamics, which explains the natural tendency of matter and energy in the Universe. The analysis presents the description of entropy, as understood by the Turkish chemistry undergraduates.

  12. Gacs quantum algorithmic entropy in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Benatti, Fabio; Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi Deh Abad, Ahmad Shafiei

    2014-08-15

    We extend the notion of Gacs quantum algorithmic entropy, originally formulated for finitely many qubits, to infinite dimensional quantum spin chains and investigate the relation of this extension with two quantum dynamical entropies that have been proposed in recent years.

  13. A logarithmic correction in the entropy functional formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Fayçal; Faizal, Mir

    2016-04-01

    The entropy functional formalism allows one to recover general relativity, modified gravity theories, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula. In most approaches to quantum gravity, the Bekenstein-Hawking’s entropy formula acquires a logarithmic correction term. As such terms occur almost universally in most approaches to quantum gravity, we analyze the effect of such terms on the entropy functional formalism. We demonstrate that the leading correction to the micro-canonical entropy in the entropy functional formalism can be used to recover modified theories of gravity already obtained with an uncorrected micro-canonical entropy. Furthermore, since the entropy functional formalism reproduces modified gravity, the rise of gravity-dependent logarithmic corrections turns out to be one way to impose constraints on these theories of modified gravity. The constraints found here for the simple case of an ℱ(R)-gravity are the same as those obtained in the literature from cosmological considerations.

  14. Exploring metameric variation in human molars: a morphological study using morphometric mapping.

    PubMed

    Morita, Wataru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ohshima, Hayato

    2016-09-01

    Human molars exhibit a type of metameric variation, which is the difference in serially repeated morphology within an organism. Various theories have been proposed to explain how this variation is brought about in the molars. Actualistic data that support the theories, however, are still relatively scarce because of methodological limitations. Here we propose new methods to analyse detailed tooth crown morphologies. We applied morphometric mapping to the enamel-dentine junction of human maxillary molars and examined whether odontogenetic models were adaptable to human maxillary molars. Our results showed that the upper first molar is phenotypically distinct among the maxillary molars. The average shape of the upper first molar is characterized by four well-defined cusps and precipitous surface relief of the occlusal table. On the other hand, upper third molar is characterized by smooth surface relief of the occlusal table and shows greater shape variation and distinct distribution patterns in morphospace. The upper second molar represents an intermediate state between first and third molar. Size-related shape variation was investigated by the allometric vector analysis, and it appeared that human maxillary molars tend to converge toward the shape of the upper first molar as the size increases. Differences between the upper first molar and the upper second and third molar can thus be largely explained as an effect of allometry. Collectively, these results indicate that the observed pattern of metameric variation in human molars is consistent with odontogenetic models of molar row structure (inhibitory cascade model) and molar crown morphology (patterning cascade model). This study shows that morphometric mapping is a useful tool to visualize and quantify the morphological features of teeth, which can provide the basis for a better understanding of tooth evolution linking morphology and development. PMID:27098351

  15. [The relation of pericoronitis to the position of the mandibular third molar].

    PubMed

    Lee, D K; Kim, B J

    1989-02-01

    Pericoronitis is the most commonly encountered pathologic condition involving the mandibular third molar. Because of the dangers associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis, prophylactic extraction of third molar at high risk has been recommended. We studied 411 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis by clinical symptoms and radiographic measurement of mandibular third molar height, wideth and angulation. The results were as follows: 1. Mandibular third molar pericoronitis is frequently seen in third decade and there are no sexual difference significantely. 2. In inflammatory type of mandibular third molar pericoronitis, chronic pericoronitis occured more frequently than acute type. 3. In relation to angulation and height, mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is vertical eruption at occlusal plane of the second molar. 4. In relation to angulation and width, it appears that the position of the mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is in a vertically erupted tooth of which the space between the ramus and the distal side of the second molar is less than the mesiodistal diameter of crown. (Class II). 5. In relation to height and width, it appears that the position of the mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is class II width (described above)at occlusal plane of the second molar.

  16. Theory of chromatography of partially cyclic polymers: Tadpole-type and manacle-type macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Vakhrushev, Andrey V; Gorbunov, Alexei A

    2016-02-12

    A theory of chromatography is developed for partially cyclic polymers of tadpole- and manacle-shaped topological structures. We present exact equations for the distribution coefficient K at different adsorption interactions; simpler approximate formulae are also derived, relevant to the conditions of size-exclusion, adsorption, and critical chromatography. Theoretical chromatograms of heterogeneous partially cyclic polymers are simulated, and conditions for good separation by topology are predicted. According to the theory, an effective SEC-radius of tadpoles and manacles is mostly determined by the molar mass M, and by the linear-cyclic composition. In the interactive chromatography, the effect of molecular topology on the retention becomes significant. At the critical interaction point, partial dependences K(Mlin) and K(Mring) are qualitatively different: while being almost independent of Mlin, K increases with Mring. This behavior could be realized in critical chromatography-for separation of partially cyclic polymers by the number and molar mass of cyclic elements.

  17. Theory of chromatography of partially cyclic polymers: Tadpole-type and manacle-type macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Vakhrushev, Andrey V; Gorbunov, Alexei A

    2016-02-12

    A theory of chromatography is developed for partially cyclic polymers of tadpole- and manacle-shaped topological structures. We present exact equations for the distribution coefficient K at different adsorption interactions; simpler approximate formulae are also derived, relevant to the conditions of size-exclusion, adsorption, and critical chromatography. Theoretical chromatograms of heterogeneous partially cyclic polymers are simulated, and conditions for good separation by topology are predicted. According to the theory, an effective SEC-radius of tadpoles and manacles is mostly determined by the molar mass M, and by the linear-cyclic composition. In the interactive chromatography, the effect of molecular topology on the retention becomes significant. At the critical interaction point, partial dependences K(Mlin) and K(Mring) are qualitatively different: while being almost independent of Mlin, K increases with Mring. This behavior could be realized in critical chromatography-for separation of partially cyclic polymers by the number and molar mass of cyclic elements. PMID:26803439

  18. Molar distalization with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices.

    PubMed

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    This article describes efficient techniques for distalization of maxillary and mandibular molars with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs). There are numerous occasions where the distalization of molars is required in lieu of the odontectomy of bicuspids. In the past, extra-oral force has been used, (i.e. Cervical or Combination Head Gear, or intra-oral force, i.e. Posterior Sagittal Appliance, Modified Greenfield Appliance, Williams DMJ 20001, CD Distalizer, Magill Sagittal, Pendulum Appliance, etc.). All the intra-oral appliances have a common denominator the orthodontic clinician has to deal with, the undesirable expression of the Third Law of Newton. The utilization of TADs allows us to circumvent this shortcoming, establishing an absolute anchorage, and thus completely negate the expression of the Third Law of Newton. PMID:25881377

  19. Periodontal pathogens in erupting third molars of periodontally healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, A; Sihvonen, O J; Peltola, M; Meurman, J H

    2007-09-01

    The presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythensis in bacteriologic samples of 5-7-mm deep mandibular third-molar pericoronal pockets was analysed by polymerase chain reaction, to test the hypothesis that these sites would harbour the bacteria. The patients were periodontally healthy 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts. Sixteen had acute pericoronitis, 28 chronic pericoronitis, and 15 were symptom-free controls. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in only 7% of the samples from chronic pericoronitis cases, whereas P. gingivalis was positive in 20% of the symptom-free versus 69% (P = 0.018) of the acute and 57% (P = 0.044) of the chronic cases. The percentages for P. intermedia were 93, 94 and 93%, and for T. forsythensis 47, 63 and 57%, respectively. These results confirm that, apart from A. actinomycetemcomitans, periodontopathogens are common in third-molar sites in periodontally healthy individuals.

  20. Ectopic 3rd molar tooth in the maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Bello, Seidu A; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O; Osunde, Otasowie D

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  1. Adolescent Psychic Entropy: A Response to Unacknowledged Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faupel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    Explored measuring psychic entropy (loss of motivation, unfocused attention, passivity, bad moods) in junior and senior high school students (N=22) and noted predictability of gender and grade using Psychic Entropy Measure for Adolescents. Found results did not support hypotheses that girls experience greater psychic entropy than boys or that…

  2. Psychological Entropy: A Framework for Understanding Uncertainty-Related Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Jacob B.; Mar, Raymond A.; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Entropy, a concept derived from thermodynamics and information theory, describes the amount of uncertainty and disorder within a system. Self-organizing systems engage in a continual dialogue with the environment and must adapt themselves to changing circumstances to keep internal entropy at a manageable level. We propose the entropy model of…

  3. GENERAL: Mutual Information and Relative Entropy of Sequential Effect Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Mei; Wu, Jun-De; Cho, Minhyung

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce and investigate the mutual information and relative entropy on the sequential effect algebra, we also give a comparison of these mutual information and relative entropy with the classical ones by the venn diagrams. Finally, a nice example shows that the entropies of sequential effect algebra depend extremely on the order of its sequential product.

  4. Discovery and Entropy in the Revision of Technical Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marder, Daniel

    A useful device in revising technical reports is the metaphor of entropy, which refers to the amount of disorder that is present in a system. Applied to communication theory, high entropy would correspond to increased amounts of unfamiliar or useless information in a text. Since entropy in rhetorical systems increases with the unfamiliarity of…

  5. Effective molarity in a nucleic acid-controlled reaction.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Michael J; Price, Nathan E; Gates, Kent S

    2016-06-01

    Positioning of reactive functional groups within a DNA duplex can enable chemical reactions that otherwise would not occur to an appreciable extent. However, few studies have quantitatively defined the extent to which the enforced proximity of reaction partners in duplex DNA can favor chemical processes. Here, we measured substantial effective molarities (as high as 25M) afforded by duplex DNA to a reaction involving interstrand cross-link formation between 2'-deoxyadenosine and a 2-deoxyribose abasic (Ap) site.

  6. Beyond the molar-molecular distinction: we need multiscaled analyses.

    PubMed

    Hineline, P N

    2001-05-01

    Dinsmoor's (2001) adherence to molecular analyses may require him to assert that molar and molecular principles are mutually exclusive, but to instead analyze the phenomena of avoidance as inherently multiscaled is to follow a well-established practice in the natural sciences. Besides the issue of scale, two-factor theory, which Dinsmoor advocates, has little to say about some important and longstanding results in experiments that qualify as avoidance.

  7. Beyond the molar-molecular distinction: we need multiscaled analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Hineline, P N

    2001-01-01

    Dinsmoor's (2001) adherence to molecular analyses may require him to assert that molar and molecular principles are mutually exclusive, but to instead analyze the phenomena of avoidance as inherently multiscaled is to follow a well-established practice in the natural sciences. Besides the issue of scale, two-factor theory, which Dinsmoor advocates, has little to say about some important and longstanding results in experiments that qualify as avoidance. PMID:11453624

  8. The maxillary second molar - anatomical variations (case report).

    PubMed

    Beshkenadze, E; Chipashvili, N

    2015-01-01

    To be acquainted with dental anatomical specificity is of great importance for dental endodontic treatment algorithm. The subject of present publication is 2 clinical cases of upper second molars, detailed characterization of, which is considered very important for enrichment of anatomical knowledge about dental anatomical variations. In one case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 38-year-old woman was complains as of esthetic character as well as functional misbalance (disturbance of chewing function due to the damage of orthopedic construction). The patient indicated to the existence of coronary defects of large size aesthetic discomforts, damage and discolouration of old orthopedic construction (denture) in maxillary right molar area. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified as a result of incomplete endodontic treatment. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified, tooth 17 with 2 roots and 2 canals. In the second clinical case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 39-year-old woman was severe pain in the upper right molar area. The patient indicated to the caries on the tooth 17. After completion of proper survey clinical and visiographical examinations, acute pulpitis (K04.00) - with three roots and 4 canals was diagnosed. In both cases after the proper examinations and agreement with the patients a treatment plan envisaging: 17 teeth endodontic treatment, filling of caries defects and their preparation on one hand for orthopedic construction (denture) and on the other hand for restoration of anatomical integrity by light-cured composite, was scheduled. The present study is designed to prevent complications of endodontic treatment of the second molar, to optimize diagnosis and treatment algorithm, once again proving reliable information indicating to the

  9. Fate of the molar dental lamina in the monophyodont mouse.

    PubMed

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  10. High School Students' Ability to Solve Molarity Problems and Their Analog Counterparts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, K. V.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated use of analog tasks for determining difficulties that high school chemistry students (N=619) might encounter in solving molarity problems. One finding is that analog task used is a predictor of success on a molarity test. (Author/JN)

  11. The third molar as an age marker in adolescents: new approach to age evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rozkovcova, Eva; Dostalova, Tatjana; Markova, Marie; Broukal, Zdenek

    2012-09-01

    Adolescence is a relatively short period between childhood and adulthood. It is very difficult to determine adulthood based on biological indicators. The third molar may be considered a potential age marker for the period between the ages of 16-21. Our study evaluated a set of 1700 panoramic radiographs of individuals aged between 5 and 21 years. Results confirmed the statistically significant difference in the course of third molars development. The mean deviation for individuals with one third molar agenesis is -0.98 years, for individuals with two third molars agenesis -1.89 years, and with three molars agenesis -3.28 years. Thus, the extent of the deviation is directly proportional to the number of unformed third molars. The calculation of age according to the mean of stages of all third molars could lead to the underestimation of age. No intergender differences were found. Age determination using third molars could be used for forensic purposes.

  12. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Sherman, Michael; Manoli, Devanand S; Shah, Nirao M; Carbone, Lawrence; Klein, Ophir

    2015-03-01

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth. PMID:25634121

  13. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Sherman, Michael; Manoli, Devanand S; Shah, Nirao M; Carbone, Lawrence; Klein, Ophir

    2015-03-23

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth.

  14. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Sherman, Michael; Manoli, Devanand S; Shah, Nirao M; Carbone, Lawrence; Klein, Ophir

    2015-01-01

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth. PMID:25634121

  15. Entropy and biological systems: experimentally-investigated entropy-driven stacking of plant photosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Husen; Liggins, John R; Chow, Wah Soon

    2014-01-01

    According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, an overall increase of entropy contributes to the driving force for any physicochemical process, but entropy has seldom been investigated in biological systems. Here, for the first time, we apply Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the Mg(2+)-induced spontaneous stacking of photosynthetic membranes isolated from spinach leaves. After subtracting a large endothermic interaction of MgCl₂ with membranes, unrelated to stacking, we demonstrate that the enthalpy change (heat change at constant pressure) is zero or marginally positive or negative. This first direct experimental evidence strongly suggests that an entropy increase significantly drives membrane stacking in this ordered biological structure. Possible mechanisms for the entropy increase include: (i) the attraction between discrete oppositely-charged areas, releasing counterions; (ii) the release of loosely-bound water molecules from the inter-membrane gap; (iii) the increased orientational freedom of previously-aligned water dipoles; and (iv) the lateral rearrangement of membrane components. PMID:24561561

  16. Entropy and biological systems: Experimentally-investigated entropy-driven stacking of plant photosynthetic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Husen; Liggins, John R.; Chow, Wah Soon

    2014-02-01

    According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, an overall increase of entropy contributes to the driving force for any physicochemical process, but entropy has seldom been investigated in biological systems. Here, for the first time, we apply Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the Mg2+-induced spontaneous stacking of photosynthetic membranes isolated from spinach leaves. After subtracting a large endothermic interaction of MgCl2 with membranes, unrelated to stacking, we demonstrate that the enthalpy change (heat change at constant pressure) is zero or marginally positive or negative. This first direct experimental evidence strongly suggests that an entropy increase significantly drives membrane stacking in this ordered biological structure. Possible mechanisms for the entropy increase include: (i) the attraction between discrete oppositely-charged areas, releasing counterions; (ii) the release of loosely-bound water molecules from the inter-membrane gap; (iii) the increased orientational freedom of previously-aligned water dipoles; and (iv) the lateral rearrangement of membrane components.

  17. Dyonic AdS 4 black hole entropy and attractors via entropy function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, Prieslei

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sen's entropy function formalism, we compute the entropy for the extremal dyonic black hole solutions of theories in the presence of dilaton field coupled to the field strength and a dilaton potential. We solve the attractor equations analytically and determine the near horizon metric, the value of the scalar fields and the electric field on the horizon, and consequently the entropy of these black holes. The attractor mechanism plays a very important role for these systems, and after studying the simplest systems involving dilaton fields, we propose a general solution for the value of the scalar field on the horizon, which allows us to solve the attractor equations for gauged supergravity theories in AdS 4 spaces. In particular, we derive an expression for the dyonic black hole entropy for the {N}=8 gauged supergravity in 4 dimensions which does not contain explicitly the gauge parameter of the potential.

  18. Dyonic AdS 4 black hole entropy and attractors via entropy function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, Prieslei

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sen's entropy function formalism, we compute the entropy for the extremal dyonic black hole solutions of theories in the presence of dilaton field coupled to the field strength and a dilaton potential. We solve the attractor equations analytically and determine the near horizon metric, the value of the scalar fields and the electric field on the horizon, and consequently the entropy of these black holes. The attractor mechanism plays a very important role for these systems, and after studying the simplest systems involving dilaton fields, we propose a general solution for the value of the scalar field on the horizon, which allows us to solve the attractor equations for gauged supergravity theories in AdS 4 spaces. In particular, we derive an expression for the dyonic black hole entropy for the N=8 gauged supergravity in 4 dimensions which does not contain explicitly the gauge parameter of the potential.

  19. Response entropy changes after noxius stimulus.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Jose L; Matute, E; Alsina, E; Del Blanco, B; Gilsanz, F

    2012-06-01

    Small changes in the frequency of the electromyography could reflect an inadequate anesthetic or analgesic level, and it could be more specific than the hemodynamic monitors. The Datex-Ohmeda S/5 Entropy Module includes information about the electromyographic activity of the face muscles (response entropy--RE). The aim of our study is compare entropy and BIS ability to detect a nociceptive stimulus during a sevoflurane anesthesia. We designed an observational, prospective and descriptive study that included 20 patients. We performed sevoflurane anaesthesia induction, the end-tidal was kept at 3 and 4 %, during 15 min at each concentration, with no analgesic drug and no neuromuscular blocking agent, and we applied a nociceptive stimulus: tetanus 100 Hz, during 5 s. We set the standard monitorization, BIS, RE, and state entropy (SE) along the study. There was a significant difference between RE and SE post-noxious stimulus values at 3 and 4 % end-tidal sevoflurane (p < 0.05). Only RE changed significantly at the moment of the noxious stimulation at both sevoflurane concentrations studied (p < 0.05). In patients under general anesthesia only carried out with sevoflurane at concentrations that inhibit the movement to painful stimuli, the RE is a single parameter able to detect variations after the nociceptive stimulation.

  20. Carnot to Clausius: Caloric to Entropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Carnot engine led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The operation of the engine is analysed both in terms of heat as the caloric fluid and heat as a form of energy. A keystone of Carnot's thinking was the absolute conservation of caloric. Although the Carnot analysis was partly…

  1. Impact of Information Entropy on Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhi-guo

    2007-01-01

    Information entropy refers to the process in which information is sent out from the information source, transmitted through information channel and acquired by information sink, while the teaching process is the one of transmitting teaching information from teachers and teaching material to students. How to improve teaching effectiveness is…

  2. Stock market stability: Diffusion entropy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shouwei; Zhuang, Yangyang; He, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we propose a method to analyze the stock market stability based on diffusion entropy, and conduct an empirical analysis of Dow Jones Industrial Average. Empirical results show that this method can reflect the volatility and extreme cases of the stock market.

  3. Rényi entropy and conformal defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Lorenzo; Meineri, Marco; Myers, Robert C.; Smolkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Rényi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Rényi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Rényi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.

  4. Entropy viscosity method applied to Euler equations

    SciTech Connect

    Delchini, M. O.; Ragusa, J. C.; Berry, R. A.

    2013-07-01

    The entropy viscosity method [4] has been successfully applied to hyperbolic systems of equations such as Burgers equation and Euler equations. The method consists in adding dissipative terms to the governing equations, where a viscosity coefficient modulates the amount of dissipation. The entropy viscosity method has been applied to the 1-D Euler equations with variable area using a continuous finite element discretization in the MOOSE framework and our results show that it has the ability to efficiently smooth out oscillations and accurately resolve shocks. Two equations of state are considered: Ideal Gas and Stiffened Gas Equations Of State. Results are provided for a second-order time implicit schemes (BDF2). Some typical Riemann problems are run with the entropy viscosity method to demonstrate some of its features. Then, a 1-D convergent-divergent nozzle is considered with open boundary conditions. The correct steady-state is reached for the liquid and gas phases with a time implicit scheme. The entropy viscosity method correctly behaves in every problem run. For each test problem, results are shown for both equations of state considered here. (authors)

  5. On the Entropy of Protein Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, John P.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Cocco, Simona; Jacquin, Hugo; Monasson, Rémi

    2016-03-01

    Proteins are essential components of living systems, capable of performing a huge variety of tasks at the molecular level, such as recognition, signalling, copy, transport, ... The protein sequences realizing a given function may largely vary across organisms, giving rise to a protein family. Here, we estimate the entropy of those families based on different approaches, including Hidden Markov Models used for protein databases and inferred statistical models reproducing the low-order (1- and 2-point) statistics of multi-sequence alignments. We also compute the entropic cost, that is, the loss in entropy resulting from a constraint acting on the protein, such as the mutation of one particular amino-acid on a specific site, and relate this notion to the escape probability of the HIV virus. The case of lattice proteins, for which the entropy can be computed exactly, allows us to provide another illustration of the concept of cost, due to the competition of different folds. The relevance of the entropy in relation to directed evolution experiments is stressed.

  6. Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael

    2014-12-01

    A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.

  7. Le Chatelier's Principle, Temperature Effects, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1985-01-01

    One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)

  8. Entropy conservation in simulations of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Schindler, K.

    2006-09-15

    Entropy and mass conservation are investigated for the dynamic field evolution associated with fast magnetic reconnection, based on the 'Newton Challenge' problem [Birn et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L06105 (2005)]. In this problem, the formation of a thin current sheet and magnetic reconnection are initiated in a plane Harris-type current sheet by temporally limited, spatially varying, inflow of magnetic flux. Using resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, specifically the entropy and mass integrated along the magnetic flux tubes are compared between the simulations. In the MHD simulation these should be exactly conserved quantities, when slippage and Ohmic dissipation are negligible. It is shown that there is very good agreement between the conservation of these quantities in the two simulation approaches, despite the effects of dissipation, provided that the resistivity in the MHD simulation is strongly localized. This demonstrates that dissipation is highly localized in the PIC simulation also, and that heat flux across magnetic flux tubes has negligible effect as well, so that the entropy increase on a full flux tube remains small even during reconnection. The mass conservation also implies that the frozen-in flux condition of ideal MHD is a good integral approximation outside the reconnection site. This result lends support for using the entropy-conserving MHD approach not only before and after reconnection but even as a constraint connecting the two phases.

  9. Detecting Goldstone modes with entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Herdman, C. M.; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger G.

    2015-09-01

    In the face of mounting numerical evidence, Metlitski and Grover (arXiv:1112.5166) have given compelling analytical arguments that systems with spontaneous broken continuous symmetry contain a subleading contribution to the entanglement entropy that diverges logarithmically with system size. They predict that the coefficient of this log is a universal quantity that depends on the number of Goldstone modes. In this paper, we confirm the presence of this log term through quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the second Rényi entropy on the spin-1/2 X Y model. Devising an algorithm to facilitate convergence of entropy data at extremely low temperatures, we demonstrate that the single Goldstone mode in the ground state can be identified through the coefficient of the log term. Furthermore, our simulation accuracy allows us to obtain an additional geometric constant additive to the Rényi entropy, that matches a predicted fully universal form obtained from a free bosonic field theory with no adjustable parameters.

  10. The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmberlake, Todd

    2010-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the…

  11. Force-Time Entropy of Isometric Impulse.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Newell, Karl M

    2016-01-01

    The relation between force and temporal variability in discrete impulse production has been viewed as independent (R. A. Schmidt, H. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979 ) or dependent on the rate of force (L. G. Carlton & K. M. Newell, 1993 ). Two experiments in an isometric single finger force task investigated the joint force-time entropy with (a) fixed time to peak force and different percentages of force level and (b) fixed percentage of force level and different times to peak force. The results showed that the peak force variability increased either with the increment of force level or through a shorter time to peak force that also reduced timing error variability. The peak force entropy and entropy of time to peak force increased on the respective dimension as the parameter conditions approached either maximum force or a minimum rate of force production. The findings show that force error and timing error are dependent but complementary when considered in the same framework with the joint force-time entropy at a minimum in the middle parameter range of discrete impulse.

  12. Information entropy of conditionally exactly solvable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, D.; Roy, P.

    2011-03-15

    We evaluate Shannon entropy for the position and momentum eigenstates of some conditionally exactly solvable potentials which are isospectral to harmonic oscillator and whose solutions are given in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality has also been tested for a number of states.

  13. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  14. Quality of life following third molar removal under conscious sedation

    PubMed Central

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess quality of life (QoL) and degree of satisfaction among outpatients subjected to surgical extraction of all four third molars under conscious sedation. A second objective was to describe the evolution of self-reported pain measured in a visual analogue scale (VAS) in the 7 days after extraction. Study design: Fifty patients received a questionnaire assessing social isolation, working isolation, eating and speaking ability, diet modifications, sleep impairment, changes in physical appearance, discomfort at suture removal and overall satisfaction at days 4 and 7 after surgery. Pain was recorded by patients on a 100-mm pain visual analogue scale (VAS) every day after extraction until day 7. Results: Thirty-nine patients fulfilled correctly the questionnaire. Postoperative pain values suffered small fluctuations until day 5 (range: 23 to 33 mm in a 100-mm VAS), when dicreased significantly. A positive association was observed between difficult ranked surgeries and higher postoperative pain levels. The average number of days for which the patient stopped working was 4.9. Conclusion: The removal of all third molars in a single appointment causes an important deterioration of the patient’s QoL during the first postoperative week, especially due to local pain and eating discomfort. Key words:Third molar removal, quality of life, sedation. PMID:22926461

  15. Lower molar shape and size in prosimian and platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Elizabeth M; Boyer, Doug M

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the relative strength of the influences of diet, size, and phylogenetic signal on dental geometric shape. Accurate comprehension of these factors and their interaction is important for reconstructing diet and deriving characters for a cladistic analysis in fossil primates. Geometric morphometric analysis is used to identify axes of shape variation in the lower second molars of (a) prosimian primates and (b) platyrrhines. Landmarks were placed on µCT-generated surface renderings. Landmark configurations were aligned using generalized Procrustes analysis. Principal components analysis and phylogenetic principal components analysis (pPCA) were performed on species average landmark co-ordinates. pPCs were examined with phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis for association with size and with diet. PCs from both phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic analyses were sufficient to separate species by broad dietary categories, including insectivores and folivores. In neither analysis was pPC1 correlated with tooth size, but some other pPCs were significantly correlated with size. The pattern of association between pPCs and size altered when centroid size and dietary variables were combined in the model; effects of diet factors typically exceeded effects of size. These results indicate a dominant phylogenetic and dietary signal in molar shape but also show some shape change correlated with size in the absence of obvious dietary associations. Geometric morphometric analysis appears to be useful for tracking functional traits in molars, particularly in tracking differences between folivorous and insectivorous species.

  16. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  17. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland.

  18. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland. PMID:23415376

  19. From molecular to molar: a paradigm shift in behavior analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2002-01-01

    A paradigm clash is occurring within behavior analysis. In the older paradigm, the molecular view, behavior consists of momentary or discrete responses that constitute instances of classes. Variation in response rate reflects variation in the strength or probability of the response class. The newer paradigm, the molar view, sees behavior as composed of activities that take up varying amounts of time. Whereas the molecular view takes response rate and choice to be "derived" measures and hence abstractions, the molar view takes response rate and choice to be concrete temporally extended behavioral allocations and regards momentary "responses" as abstractions. Research findings that point to variation in tempo, asymmetry in concurrent performance, and paradoxical resistance to change are readily interpretable when seen in the light of reinforcement and stimulus control of extended behavioral allocations or activities. Seen in the light of the ontological distinction between classes and individuals, extended behavioral allocations, like species in evolutionary taxonomy, constitute individuals, entities that change without changing their identity. Seeing allocations as individuals implies that less extended activities constitute parts of larger wholes rather than instances of classes. Both laboratory research and everyday behavior are explained plausibly in the light of concrete extended activities and their nesting. The molecular- view, because it requires discrete responses and contiguous events, relies on hypothetical stimuli and consequences to account for the same phenomena. One may prefer the molar view on grounds of elegance, integrative power, and plausibility. PMID:12144313

  20. Lower molar shape and size in prosimian and platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Elizabeth M; Boyer, Doug M

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the relative strength of the influences of diet, size, and phylogenetic signal on dental geometric shape. Accurate comprehension of these factors and their interaction is important for reconstructing diet and deriving characters for a cladistic analysis in fossil primates. Geometric morphometric analysis is used to identify axes of shape variation in the lower second molars of (a) prosimian primates and (b) platyrrhines. Landmarks were placed on µCT-generated surface renderings. Landmark configurations were aligned using generalized Procrustes analysis. Principal components analysis and phylogenetic principal components analysis (pPCA) were performed on species average landmark co-ordinates. pPCs were examined with phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis for association with size and with diet. PCs from both phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic analyses were sufficient to separate species by broad dietary categories, including insectivores and folivores. In neither analysis was pPC1 correlated with tooth size, but some other pPCs were significantly correlated with size. The pattern of association between pPCs and size altered when centroid size and dietary variables were combined in the model; effects of diet factors typically exceeded effects of size. These results indicate a dominant phylogenetic and dietary signal in molar shape but also show some shape change correlated with size in the absence of obvious dietary associations. Geometric morphometric analysis appears to be useful for tracking functional traits in molars, particularly in tracking differences between folivorous and insectivorous species. PMID:27312120

  1. Decontamination of tried-in orthodontic molar bands.

    PubMed

    Fulford, M R; Ireland, A J; Main, B G

    2003-12-01

    Molar bands are commonly used to retain orthodontic attachments on posterior teeth and due to the variation in the size of such teeth, it is usually necessary to 'try in' several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control, even following autoclaving, due to the presence of one or more small bore lumen (the archwire and headgear tubes). The aim of this experiment was, therefore, to determine whether such bands could be successfully decontaminated so that they could be re-used without a cross-infection risk. Two hundred orthodontic molar bands that had previously been tried in patients' mouths, but not cemented into place, were tested. Each band was decontaminated using an enzymatic cleaner/disinfectant and then sterilized using either a downward displacement (n = 100) or a vacuum cycle autoclave (n = 100). Following autoclaving each band was inoculated into brain heart infusion culture broth and incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 days. None of the decontaminated bands exhibited growth after 5 days. It would appear that, using this methodology, there is little risk of a cross-infection hazard occurring with the re-use of previously tried-in and decontaminated molar bands.

  2. Molar Macrowear Reveals Neanderthal Eco-Geographic Dietary Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fiorenza, Luca; Benazzi, Stefano; Tausch, Jeremy; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy G.; Schrenk, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Neanderthal diets are reported to be based mainly on the consumption of large and medium sized herbivores, while the exploitation of other food types including plants has also been demonstrated. Though some studies conclude that early Homo sapiens were active hunters, the analyses of faunal assemblages, stone tool technologies and stable isotopic studies indicate that they exploited broader dietary resources than Neanderthals. Whereas previous studies assume taxon-specific dietary specializations, we suggest here that the diet of both Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens is determined by ecological conditions. We analyzed molar wear patterns using occlusal fingerprint analysis derived from optical 3D topometry. Molar macrowear accumulates during the lifespan of an individual and thus reflects diet over long periods. Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens maxillary molar macrowear indicates strong eco-geographic dietary variation independent of taxonomic affinities. Based on comparisons with modern hunter-gatherer populations with known diets, Neanderthals as well as early Homo sapiens show high dietary variability in Mediterranean evergreen habitats but a more restricted diet in upper latitude steppe/coniferous forest environments, suggesting a significant consumption of high protein meat resources. PMID:21445243

  3. Efficacy of Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotic Therapy in Third Molar Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reddy B, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical extraction of mandibular third molar is the most frequently performed procedure in oral surgery. This procedure is associated with significant postoperative sequelae such as trismus, swelling, pain and infection. The need of antibiotic therapy during the removal of mandibular third molar has been a contentious issue. Method: This study investigated a regimen by using amoxycillin and metronidazole in one group and without using antibiotics in the other. Both the groups were assessed postoperatively on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 7th and 10th days by the same observer for post operative mouth opening (interincisal distance), presence of a purulent discharge at the site of surgery, pain and swelling. Result: Overall, no statistically significant difference was seen between both the treatment groups when interincisal distance, pain, swelling and purulent discharge were considered. Conclusion: The results of this study failed to show any advantage which was associated with the routine postoperative use of antibiotics in asymptomatic third molar surgeries. PMID:24995236

  4. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (~2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end.

  5. Variable permanent mandibular first molar: Review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vemuri, Sayesh; Kumar, Pabbati Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The success of root canal therapy depends on the locations of all the canals, thourough debridement and proper sealing. At times the clinicians are challenged with variations in morphology of root canal. This review article attempts to list out all the variations of permanent mandibular first molar published so for in the literature. Materials and Methods: An exhaustive search was undertaken using PUBMED database to identify published literature from 1900 to 2010 relating to the root canal morphology of permanent first molar by using key words. The selected artcles were obtained and reviewed. Results: Total ninty seven articles were selected out of which 50 were original article and forty seven were case reports. The incidence of third canal in mesial root was 0.95% to 15%. The incidence of three rooted mandibular first molar was 3% to 33%. Only ninety cases reported with c-shape canal configuration. Incidence of Taurodintism without congenital disorder was very rare. Conclusion: The root canal treatment requires proper knowlegde of variations in root canal morphology in order to recognise, disinfect and seal all portal of exit. This can be accomplished with proper diagnosis using newer modes, modification in access preparation, use of operating microscope, enhanced methods of disinfecting and sealing of all canals. PMID:23716959

  6. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500–750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  7. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area

    PubMed Central

    Saad, M.; Assaf, A.; Gerges, E.

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  8. Entropy Production in Convective Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersing, Nele; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Exploring hydrothermal reservoirs requires reliable estimates of subsurface temperatures to delineate favorable locations of boreholes. It is therefore of fundamental and practical importance to understand the thermodynamic behavior of the system in order to predict its performance with numerical studies. To this end, the thermodynamic measure of entropy production is considered as a useful abstraction tool to characterize the convective state of a system since it accounts for dissipative heat processes and gives insight into the system's average behavior in a statistical sense. Solving the underlying conservation principles of a convective hydrothermal system is sensitive to initial conditions and boundary conditions which in turn are prone to uncertain knowledge in subsurface parameters. There exist multiple numerical solutions to the mathematical description of a convective system and the prediction becomes even more challenging as the vigor of convection increases. Thus, the variety of possible modes contained in such highly non-linear problems needs to be quantified. A synthetic study is carried out to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a finite porous layer heated from below. Various two-dimensional models are created such that their corresponding Rayleigh numbers lie in a range from the sub-critical linear to the supercritical non-linear regime, that is purely conductive to convection-dominated systems. Entropy production is found to describe the transient evolution of convective processes fairly well and can be used to identify thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, varying the aspect ratio for each Rayleigh number shows that the variety of realized convection modes increases with both larger aspect ratio and higher Rayleigh number. This phenomenon is also reflected by an enlarged spread of entropy production for the realized modes. Consequently, the Rayleigh number can be correlated to the magnitude of entropy production. In cases of moderate

  9. Hagedorn transition and topological entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Fen; Gao, Yi-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Induced by the Hagedorn instability, weakly-coupled U (N) gauge theories on a compact manifold exhibit a confinement/deconfinement phase transition in the large-N limit. Recently we discover that the thermal entropy of a free theory on S3 gets reduced by a universal constant term, -N2 / 4, compared to that from completely deconfined colored states. This entropy deficit is due to the persistence of Gauss's law, and actually independent of the shape of the manifold. In this paper we show that this universal term can be identified as the topological entangle entropy both in the corresponding 4 + 1 D bulk theory and the dimensionally reduced theory. First, entanglement entropy in the bulk theory contains the so-called "particle" contribution on the entangling surface, which naturally gives rise to an area-law term. The topological term results from the Gauss's constraint of these surface states. Secondly, the high-temperature limit also defines a dimensionally reduced theory. We calculate the geometric entropy in the reduced theory explicitly, and find that it is given by the same constant term after subtracting the leading term of O (β-1). The two procedures are then applied to the confining phase, by extending the temperature to the complex plane. Generalizing the recently proposed 2D modular description to an arbitrary matter content, we show the leading local term is missing and no topological term could be definitely isolated. For the special case of N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, the results obtained here are compared with that at strong coupling from the holographic derivation.

  10. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Results Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures. PMID:25741462

  11. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  12. SUPERMODEL ANALYSIS OF A1246 AND J255: ON THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM HIGH TO LOW ENTROPY STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Fusco-Femiano, R.; Lapi, A.

    2015-02-10

    We present an analysis of high-quality X-ray data out to the virial radius for the two galaxy clusters A1246 and GMBCG J255.34805+64.23661 (J255) by means of our entropy-based SuperModel. For A1246 we find that the spherically averaged entropy profile of the intracluster medium (ICM) progressively flattens outward, and that a nonthermal pressure component amounting to ≈20% of the total is required to support hydrostatic equilibrium in the outskirts; there we also estimate a modest value C ≈ 1.6 of the ICM clumping factor. These findings agree with previous analyses on other cool-core, relaxed clusters, and lend further support to the picture by Lapi et al. that relates the entropy flattening, the development of the nonthermal pressure component, and the azimuthal variation of ICM properties to weakening boundary shocks. In this scenario clusters are born in a high-entropy state throughout, and are expected to develop on similar timescales a low-entropy state both at the center due to cooling, and in the outskirts due to weakening shocks. However, the analysis of J255 testifies how such a typical evolutionary course can be interrupted or even reversed by merging especially at intermediate redshift, as predicted by Cavaliere et al. In fact, a merger has rejuvenated the ICM of this cluster at z ≈ 0.45 by reestablishing a high-entropy state in the outskirts, while leaving intact or erasing only partially the low-entropy, cool core at the center.

  13. The third law of thermodynamics and the fractional entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baris Bagci, G.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the fractal calculus based Ubriaco and Machado entropies and investigate whether they conform to the third law of thermodynamics. The Ubriaco entropy satisfies the third law of thermodynamics in the interval 0 < q ≤ 1 exactly where it is also thermodynamically stable. The Machado entropy, on the other hand, yields diverging inverse temperature in the region 0 < q ≤ 1, albeit with non-vanishing negative entropy values. Therefore, despite the divergent inverse temperature behavior, the Machado entropy fails the third law of thermodynamics. We also show that the aforementioned results are also supported by the one-dimensional Ising model with no external field.

  14. Entropy coders for image compression based on binary forward classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hoon; Jeong, Jechang

    2000-12-01

    Entropy coders as a noiseless compression method are widely used as final step compression for images, and there have been many contributions to increase of entropy coder performance and to reduction of entropy coder complexity. In this paper, we propose some entropy coders based on the binary forward classification (BFC). The BFC requires overhead of classification but there is no change between the amount of input information and the total amount of classified output information, which we prove this property in this paper. And using the proved property, we propose entropy coders that are the BFC followed by Golomb-Rice coders (BFC+GR) and the BFC followed by arithmetic coders (BFC+A). The proposed entropy coders introduce negligible additional complexity due to the BFC. Simulation results also show better performance than other entropy coders that have similar complexity to the proposed coders.

  15. Entanglement entropy of a black hole and isolated horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianhua; Hu, Shuangqi; Zhao, Ren

    2013-02-01

    Using Unruh-Verlinde temperature obtained by entropic force, we directly calculate partition functions of quantum field in Schwarzschild spacetime via quantum statistical method and derive the expression of the black hole statistical entropy. In our calculation the lower limit of integral is the location of isolated horizon introduced in loop quantum gravity and the upper limit of integral is infinity. So the obtained entropy is the statistical entropy from isolated horizon to the infinite. In our calculation there are not the cutoff and approximation. The results showed that, as long as proper Immirzi parameters are selected, the entropy obtained by loop quantum gravity is consistent with the quantum statistical entropy outside the black hole horizon. Therefore the black hole entropy is a quantum entanglement entropy outside the isolated horizon.

  16. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  17. Mandibular third molar development after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Hopkins, K.P.; Thompson, E.I.; Hustu, H.O.

    1987-05-01

    Sequential panoramic radiographs were assessed for mandibular third molar development in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease after treatment with 37 Gy mantle field radiation. To make a comparison, panoramic radiographs of 149 healthy, nonirradiated children were reviewed for the presence of mandibular third molars. In children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars was more frequent in patients who had been treated with mantle radiation than in nonirradiated patients. Unilateral agenesis, crown hypoplasia, and root growth impairment of mandibular third molars were also found. Similar, apparent, radiation-induced developmental anomalies were noted in maxillary third molars of the irradiated patients.

  18. Single water entropy: hydrophobic crossover and application to drug binding.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2014-09-11

    Entropy of water plays an important role in both chemical and biological processes e.g. hydrophobic effect, molecular recognition etc. Here we use a new approach to calculate translational and rotational entropy of the individual water molecules around different hydrophobic and charged solutes. We show that for small hydrophobic solutes, the translational and rotational entropies of each water molecule increase as a function of its distance from the solute reaching finally to a constant bulk value. As the size of the solute increases (0.746 nm), the behavior of the translational entropy is opposite; water molecules closest to the solute have higher entropy that reduces with distance from the solute. This indicates that there is a crossover in translational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes from negative to positive values as the size of the solute is increased. Rotational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes for all sizes increases with distance from the solute, indicating the absence of crossover in rotational entropy. This makes the crossover in total entropy (translation + rotation) of water molecule happen at much larger size (>1.5 nm) for hydrophobic solutes. Translational entropy of single water molecule scales logarithmically (Str(QH) = C + kB ln V), with the volume V obtained from the ellipsoid of inertia. We further discuss the origin of higher entropy of water around water and show the possibility of recovering the entropy loss of some hypothetical solutes. The results obtained are helpful to understand water entropy behavior around various hydrophobic and charged environments within biomolecules. Finally, we show how our approach can be used to calculate the entropy of the individual water molecules in a protein cavity that may be replaced during ligand binding.

  19. Compensation trends of the angulation of first molars: retrospective study of 1403 malocclusion cases.

    PubMed

    Su, Hong; Han, Bing; Li, Sa; Na, Bin; Ma, Wen; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the compensatory trends of mesiodistal angulation of first molars in malocclusion cases. We compared differences in the angulation of first molars in different developmental stages, malocclusion classifications and skeletal patterns. The medical records and lateral cephalogrammes of 1403 malocclusion cases taken before treatment were measured to evaluate compensation of molar angulation in relation to the skeletal jaw. The cases were stratified by age, Angle classification and skeletal patterns. Differences in the mesiodistal angulation of the first molars were compared among the stratifications. We observed three main phenomena. First, angulation of the upper first molar varied significantly with age and tipped most distally in cases aged <12 years and least distally in cases aged >16 years. The lower first molar did not show such differences. Second, in Angle Class II or skeletal Class II cases, the upper first molar was the most distally tipped, the lower first molar was the most mesially tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in Class III cases. Third, in high-angle cases, the upper and lower first molars were the most distally tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in low-angle cases. These data suggest that the angulation of the molars compensated for various growth patterns and malocclusion types. Hence, awareness of molar angulation compensation would help to adjust occlusal relationships, control anchorage and increase the chances of long-term stability.

  20. Compensation trends of the angulation of first molars: retrospective study of 1 403 malocclusion cases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong; Han, Bing; Li, Sa; Na, Bin; Ma, Wen; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the compensatory trends of mesiodistal angulation of first molars in malocclusion cases. We compared differences in the angulation of first molars in different developmental stages, malocclusion classifications and skeletal patterns. The medical records and lateral cephalogrammes of 1 403 malocclusion cases taken before treatment were measured to evaluate compensation of molar angulation in relation to the skeletal jaw. The cases were stratified by age, Angle classification and skeletal patterns. Differences in the mesiodistal angulation of the first molars were compared among the stratifications. We observed three main phenomena. First, angulation of the upper first molar varied significantly with age and tipped most distally in cases aged <12 years and least distally in cases aged >16 years. The lower first molar did not show such differences. Second, in Angle Class II or skeletal Class II cases, the upper first molar was the most distally tipped, the lower first molar was the most mesially tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in Class III cases. Third, in high-angle cases, the upper and lower first molars were the most distally tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in low-angle cases. These data suggest that the angulation of the molars compensated for various growth patterns and malocclusion types. Hence, awareness of molar angulation compensation would help to adjust occlusal relationships, control anchorage and increase the chances of long-term stability. PMID:24699185

  1. Effect of bite force on orthodontic mini-implants in the molar region: Finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Jung; Lee, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Min-Ji

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of bite force on the displacement and stress distribution of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) in the molar region according to placement site, insertion angle, and loading direction. Methods Five finite element models were created using micro-computed tomography (microCT) images of the maxilla and mandible. OMIs were placed at one maxillary and two mandibular positions: between the maxillary second premolar and first molar, between the mandibular second premolar and first molar, and between the mandibular first and second molars. The OMIs were inserted at angles of 45° and 90° to the buccal surface of the cortical bone. A bite force of 25 kg was applied to the 10 occlusal contact points of the second premolar, first molar, and second molar. The loading directions were 0°, 5°, and 10° to the long axis of the tooth. Results With regard to placement site, the displacement and stress were greatest for the OMI placed between the mandibular first molar and second molar, and smallest for the OMI placed between the maxillary second premolar and first molar. In the mandibular molar region, the angled OMI showed slightly less displacement than the OMI placed at 90°. The maximum Von Mises stress increased with the inclination of the loading direction. Conclusions These results suggest that placement of OMIs between the second premolar and first molar at 45° to the cortical bone reduces the effect of bite force on OMIs. PMID:24228236

  2. Forces and pressures in adsorbing partially directed walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.; Prellberg, T.

    2016-05-01

    Polymers in confined spaces lose conformational entropy. This induces a net repulsive entropic force on the walls of the confining space. A model for this phenomenon is a lattice walk between confining walls, and in this paper a model of an adsorbing partially directed walk is used. The walk is placed in a half square lattice {{{L}}}+2 with boundary \\partial {{{L}}}+2, and confined between two vertical parallel walls, which are vertical lines in the lattice, a distance w apart. The free energy of the walk is determined, as a function of w, for walks with endpoints in the confining walls and adsorbing in \\partial {{{L}}}+2. This gives the entropic force on the confining walls as a function of w. It is shown that there are zero force points in this model and the locations of these points are determined, in some cases exactly, and in other cases asymptotically.

  3. Effect of the suture technique on postoperative pain, swelling and trismus after removal of lower third molars: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Santos, Laila; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Herráez-Vilas, José-María

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the intensity of pain, swelling and trismus after the removal of impacted lower third molars comparing two different suture techniques of the triangular flap: the complete suture of the distal incision and relieving incision and the partial suture with only one suture knot for closure of the corner of the flap and the closure of the distal incision, without suturing the relieving incision. Material and Methods A prospective, randomized, crossover clinical trial was conducted in 40 patients aged from 18 to 45 years who underwent surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars at the Department of Oral Surgery in the Odontological Hospital of the University of Barcelona during the year 2011. Patients were randomly divided in 2 groups. Two different techniques (hermetical closure and partial closure of the wound) were performed separated by a one month washout period in each patient. Postoperative pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated prior to the surgical procedure and also at 2 and 7 days post operatively. Results No statistically significant differences were observed for pain (p<0.06), trismus (p<0.71) and swelling (p<0.05) between the test and the control group. However, the values of the three parameters related to the test group were lower than those for the control group. Conclusions Partial closure of the flap without suturing the relieving incision after surgical extraction of lower third molars reduces operating time and it does not produce any postoperative complications compared with complete closure of the wound. Key words: Third molar, surgical flaps, suture techniques, postoperative pain, swelling, trismus. PMID:25662551

  4. Modified distal shoe appliance for the loss of a primary second molar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dhull, Kanika Singh; Bhojraj, Nandlal; Yadav, Shweta; Prabhakaran, Sheeja Devi

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of primary teeth until their normal exfoliation plays a crucial role in preventive and interceptive dentistry. Premature loss of the primary second molar prior to the eruption of the permanent first molar in the absence of the primary second molar can lead to mesial movement and migration of the permanent molar before and during its eruption. In such cases, an intra-alveolar type of space maintainer to guide the eruption of the permanent first molar is indicated. In certain cases, however, the conventional design is not practical. This paper describes a new design for distal shoe appliances in cases of primary second molar loss prior to the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar.

  5. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3M<0.08 is 18 years or older is 94.5% for females, and 96.5% for males. With high accuracy, the third molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia.

  6. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3M<0.08 is 18 years or older is 94.5% for females, and 96.5% for males. With high accuracy, the third molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia. PMID:26013667

  7. [Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Gotler, M; Ratson, T

    2010-04-01

    MIH was defined by Weerheijm (2001) as "hypomineralisation of systemic origin of 1-4 permanent first molars, frequently associated with affected incisors". The prevalence of MIH varies between 2.8% and 25%, dependent upon the study. At their sixth congress in 2003, The European Association of pediatric dentistry defined criteria for diagnosis of the phenomena. It included the presence of demarcated opacity, posteruptive enamel breakdown, atypical restoration, extracted molar due to MIH and unerupted teeth. According to the teeth involved and to the time of the crown formation, researches focused on environmental and systemic conditions as possible reasons for MIH.The etiologies were divided into five groups: Exposure to environmental contaminants, pre/peri and neonatal problems, exposure to fluoride, common childhood illnesses and medically compromised children. The clinical implications include highly sensitive teeth, difficulty to achieve adequate anesthesia, behavioral problems and anxiety, rapid progression of caries and the esthetic implications. A six step approach to management was described suggested: risk identification, early diagnosis, remineralization and desensitization, prevention of caries and posteruption breakdown, restorations and extractions and finally maintenance. Restoring an affected molar can vary from adhesive intra coronal restorations (resin composite is the material of choice) to extra coronal restorations (e.g. preformed metal crown). Esthetic solutions to affected incisors may include microabrasion (that shows little improvement) and resin composite or porcelain veneer. The key for a successful treatment is early diagnosis, intense follow up and usage of remineralizating agents as soon as the teeth erupt. There is still need for further research to clarify the etiological factors and improve the durability of restoration in affected teeth.

  8. On the entropy function in sociotechnical systems

    PubMed Central

    Montroll, Elliott W.

    1981-01-01

    The entropy function H = -Σpj log pj (pj being the probability of a system being in state j) and its continuum analogue H = ∫p(x) log p(x) dx are fundamental in Shannon's theory of information transfer in communication systems. It is here shown that the discrete form of H also appears naturally in single-lane traffic flow theory. In merchandising, goods flow from a whole-saler through a retailer to a customer. Certain features of the process may be deduced from price distribution functions derived from Sears Roebuck and Company catalogues. It is found that the dispersion in logarithm of catalogue prices of a given year has remained about constant, independently of the year, for over 75 years. From this it may be inferred that the continuum entropy function for the variable logarithm of price had inadvertently, through Sears Roebuck policies, been maximized for that firm subject to the observed dispersion. PMID:16593136

  9. Teaching Electrostatics and Entropy in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Mark

    Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology courses is important contribution of the entropy in driving fundamental biological processes towards equilibrium. I will present material developed to teach electrostatic screening in solutions and the function of nerve cells where entropic effects act to counterbalance electrostatic attraction. These ideas are taught in an introductory, calculus-based physics course to biomedical engineers using SCALEUP pedagogy. Results of student mastering of complex problems that cross disciplinary boundaries between biology and physics, as well as the challenges that they face in learning this material will be presented.

  10. Entropy generation analysis of magnetohydrodynamic induction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Hugo; Cuevas, Sergio; López de Haro, Mariano

    1999-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) induction devices such as electromagnetic pumps or electric generators are analysed within the approach of entropy generation. The flow of an electrically-conducting incompressible fluid in an MHD induction machine is described through the well known Hartmann model. Irreversibilities in the system due to ohmic dissipation, flow friction and heat flow are included in the entropy-generation rate. This quantity is used to define an overall efficiency for the induction machine that considers the total loss caused by process irreversibility. For an MHD generator working at maximum power output with walls at constant temperature, an optimum magnetic field strength (i.e. Hartmann number) is found based on the maximum overall efficiency.

  11. New entropy formula with fluctuating reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biró, T. S.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Ván, P.

    2015-01-01

    Finite heat reservoir capacity, C, and temperature fluctuation, ΔT / T, lead to modifications of the well known canonical exponential weight factor. Requiring that the corrections least depend on the one-particle energy, ω, we derive a deformed entropy, K(S) . The resultingformula contains the Boltzmann-Gibbs, Rényi, and Tsallis formulas as particular cases. For extreme large fluctuations, in the limit CΔT2 /T2 → ∞, a new parameter-free entropy-probability relation is gained. The corresponding canonical energy distribution is nearly Boltzmannian for high probability, but for low probability approaches the cumulative Gompertz distribution. The latter is met in several phenomena, like earthquakes, demography, tumor growth models, extreme value probability, etc.

  12. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  13. Configurational entropy in brane-world models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, R. A. C.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy.

  14. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, António M.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Galhano, Alexandra M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies complex systems using a generalized multidimensional scaling (MDS) technique. Complex systems are characterized by time-series responses, interpreted as a manifestation of their dynamics. Two types of time-series are analyzed, namely 18 stock markets and the gross domestic product per capita of 18 countries. For constructing the MDS charts, indices based on parametric entropies are adopted. Multiparameter entropies allow the variation of the parameters leading to alternative sets of charts. The final MDS maps are then assembled by means of Procrustes’ method that maximizes the fit between the individual charts. Therefore, the proposed method can be interpreted as a generalization to higher dimensions of the standard technique that represents (and discretizes) items by means of single “points” (i.e. zero-dimensional “objects”). The MDS plots, involving one-, two- and three-dimensional “objects”, reveal a good performance in capturing the correlations between data.

  15. Entanglement entropy from the truncated conformal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmai, T.

    2016-08-01

    A new numerical approach to entanglement entropies of the Rényi type is proposed for one-dimensional quantum field theories. The method extends the truncated conformal spectrum approach and we will demonstrate that it is especially suited to study the crossover from massless to massive behavior when the subsystem size is comparable to the correlation length. We apply it to different deformations of massless free fermions, corresponding to the scaling limit of the Ising model in transverse and longitudinal fields. For massive free fermions the exactly known crossover function is reproduced already in very small system sizes. The new method treats ground states and excited states on the same footing, and the applicability for excited states is illustrated by reproducing Rényi entropies of low-lying states in the transverse field Ising model.

  16. Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated `total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.

  17. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  18. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    PubMed

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  19. Logarithmic corrections to the entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2015-12-01

    In a d -dimensional conformal field theory, it has been known that a relevant deformation operator with the conformal dimension, Δ =d/+2 2 , generates a logarithmic correction to the entanglement entropy. In the large 't Hooft coupling limit, we can investigate such a logarithmic correction holographically by deforming an AdS space with a massive scalar field dual to the operator with Δ =d/+2 2 . There are two sources generating the logarithmic correction. One is the metric deformation and the other is the minimal surface deformation. In this work, we investigate the change of the entanglement entropy caused by the minimal surface deformation and find that the second order minimal surface deformation leads to an additional logarithmic correction.

  20. Entropy of quantum-corrected black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Matyjasek, Jerzy

    2006-11-15

    The approximate renormalized one-loop effective action of the quantized massive scalar, spinor and vector field in a large mass limit, i.e., the lowest order of the DeWitt-Schwinger expansion involves the coincidence limit of the Hadamard-DeWitt coefficient a{sub 3}. Building on this and using Wald's approach we shall construct the general expression describing entropy of the spherically-symmetric static black hole being the solution of the semiclassical field equations. For the concrete case of the quantum-corrected Reissner-Nordstroem black hole this result coincides, as expected, with the entropy obtained by integration of the first law of black hole thermodynamics with a suitable choice of the integration constant. The case of the extremal quantum-corrected black hole is briefly considered.