Turbulent flame propagation in partially premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, T.; Veynante, D.; Trouve, A.; Ruetsch, G.
1996-01-01
Turbulent premixed flame propagation is essential in many practical devices. In the past, fundamental and modeling studies of propagating flames have generally focused on turbulent flame propagation in mixtures of homogeneous composition, i.e. a mixture where the fuel-oxidizer mass ratio, or equivalence ratio, is uniform. This situation corresponds to the ideal case of perfect premixing between fuel and oxidizer. In practical situations, however, deviations from this ideal case occur frequently. In stratified reciprocating engines, fuel injection and large-scale flow motions are fine-tuned to create a mean gradient of equivalence ratio in the combustion chamber which provides additional control on combustion performance. In aircraft engines, combustion occurs with fuel and secondary air injected at various locations resulting in a nonuniform equivalence ratio. In both examples, mean values of the equivalence ratio can exhibit strong spatial and temporal variations. These variations in mixture composition are particularly significant in engines that use direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber. In this case, the liquid fuel does not always completely vaporize and mix before combustion occurs, resulting in persistent rich and lean pockets into which the turbulent flame propagates. From a practical point of view, there are several basic and important issues regarding partially premixed combustion that need to be resolved. Two such issues are how reactant composition inhomogeneities affect the laminar and turbulent flame speeds, and how the burnt gas temperature varies as a function of these inhomogeneities. Knowledge of the flame speed is critical in optimizing combustion performance, and the minimization of pollutant emissions relies heavily on the temperature in the burnt gases. Another application of partially premixed combustion is found in the field of active control of turbulent combustion. One possible technique of active control consists of pulsating
A Method to Measure Flame Index in Turbulent Partially-Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, David Ari
This dissertation describes the development of a diagnostic technique and data processing routine to measure the flame index in partially-premixed flames, called the Flame Index Measurement Method. Many modern combustion applications involve conditions in which the fuel and oxidizer are only partially mixed prior to entering the flame. These partially-premixed flames contain some regions of premixed and some regions of non-premixed flamelets. New computational approaches use the flame index concept: premixed regions are identified and a premixed model is applied; non-premixed regions are also identified and a non-premixed model is applied. The flame index is defined as the normalized dot product of the gradients of the fuel and oxidizer mass fractions; it is +1 in premixed flamelets and is -1 in non-premixed flamelets. Previously there had been no experimentally measured values of flame index available to assess the modeling approaches. A new method has been developed to measure the flame index using planar laser-induced fluorescence tracers to indicate the sign and direction of the fuel and oxygen gradients. Through the modeling of premixed and non-premixed flamelets, acetone was selected as a fuel tracer and nitrogen dioxide was selected as an oxygen tracer. The fluorescence properties of both acetone and nitrogen dioxide were studied. With acetone seeded into the fuel, and nitrogen dioxide seeded into the air, the Flame Index Measurement Method was evaluated in laminar premixed and non-premixed methane/acetone/air flames, as well as in a well-defined turbulent partially-premixed burner, the Gas Turbine Model Combustor (GTMC). The flame index was measured in the GTMC with methane, propane, and syngas flames. Statistics (mean, variance, and probability mass functions) of the flame index are reported for the highly-turbulent partially-premixed GTMC flames. Two new statistical quantities were developed that describe the probability for the occurrence of premixed
Partially premixed prevalorized kerosene spray combustion in turbulent flow
Chrigui, M.; Ahmadi, W.; Sadiki, A.; Janicka, J.; Moesl, K.
2010-04-15
A detailed numerical simulation of kerosene spray combustion was carried out on a partially premixed, prevaporized, three-dimensional configuration. The focus was on the flame temperature profile dependency on the length of the pre-vaporization zone. The results were analyzed and compared to experimental data. A fundamental study was performed to observe the temperature variation and flame flashback. Changes were made to the droplet diameter, kerosene flammability limits, a combustion model parameter and the location of the combustion initialization. Investigations were performed for atmospheric pressure, inlet air temperature of 90 C and a global equivalence ratio of 0.7. The simulations were carried out using the Eulerian Lagrangian procedure under a fully two-way coupling. The Bray-Moss-Libby model was adjusted to account for the partially premixed combustion. (author)
The structure of partially premixed methane flames in high-intensity turbulent flows
Yaldizli, Murat; Mehravaran, Kian; Mohammad, Hyderuddin; Jaberi, Farhad A.
2008-09-15
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted to study the structure of partially premixed and non-premixed methane flames in high-intensity two-dimensional isotropic turbulent flows. The results obtained via ''flame normal analysis'' show local extinction and reignition for both non-premixed and partially premixed flames. Dynamical analysis of the flame with a Lagrangian method indicates that the time integrated strain rate characterizes the finite-rate chemistry effects and the flame extinction better than the strain rate. It is observed that the flame behavior is affected by the ''pressure-dilatation'' and ''viscous-dissipation'' in addition to strain rate. Consistent with previous studies, high vorticity values are detected close to the reaction zone, where the vorticity generation by the ''baroclinic torque'' was found to be significant. The influences of (initial) Reynolds and Damkoehler numbers, and various air-fuel premixing levels on flame and turbulence variables are also studied. It is observed that the flame extinction occurs similarly in flames with different fuel-air premixing. Our simulations also indicate that the CO emission increases as the partial premixing of the fuel with air increases. Higher values of the temperature, the OH mass fraction and the CO mass fraction are observed within the flame zone at higher Reynolds numbers. (author)
Yan, B.; Liu, C.; Li, B.; Sun, Z.W.; Li, Z.S.; Alden, M.; Baudoin, E.; Bai, X.S.; Chen, G.; Mansour, M.S.
2010-04-15
Experiments are carried out on partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized in a conical burner. The investigated gaseous fuels are methane, methane diluted with nitrogen, and mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, simulating typical products from gasification of biomass, and co-firing of gasification gas with methane. The fuel and air are partially premixed in concentric tubes. Flame stabilization behavior is investigated and significantly different stabilization characteristics are observed in flames with and without the cone. Planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of a fuel-tracer species, acetone, and OH radicals is carried out to characterize the flame structures. Large eddy simulations of the conical flames are carried out to gain further understanding of the flame/flow interaction in the cone. The data show that the flames with the cone are more stable than those without the cone. Without the cone (i.e. jet burner) the critical jet velocities for blowoff and liftoff of biomass derived gases are higher than that for methane/nitrogen mixture with the same heating values, indicating the enhanced flame stabilization by hydrogen in the mixture. With the cone the stability of flames is not sensitive to the compositions of the fuels, owing to the different flame stabilization mechanism in the conical flames than that in the jet flames. From the PLIF images it is shown that in the conical burner, the flame is stabilized by the cone at nearly the same position for different fuels. From large eddy simulations, the flames are shown to be controlled by the recirculation flows inside cone, which depends on the cone angle, but less sensitive to the fuel compositions and flow speed. The flames tend to be hold in the recirculation zones even at very high flow speed. Flame blowoff occurs when significant local extinction in the main body of the flame appears at high turbulence intensities. (author)
Partially premixed flames in stagnating turbulence: The merging of planar triple flames
Bray, Ken; Champion, Michel; Libby, Paul A.
2008-07-15
The aim of this work, which takes a RANS perspective, is to consider the prospect of establishing a planar turbulent triple flame whose mean consists of two parallel premixed flame brushes separated by a nonpremixed flame brush. Experiments involving a counterflow between fuel-rich and fuel-lean turbulent streams are considered. A correlation of published experimental data is used to estimate premixed turbulent flame brush locations and brush thicknesses. Previously validated model calculations then allow an estimate to be made of the thickness of a central nonpremixed flame or mixing layer, a thickness which is shown to be strongly influenced by flame-turbulence interactions in the premixed flames. This thickness turns out to be orders-of-magnitude greater than the width of the hot burned gas region between the two premixed flames strongly suggesting that the three reacting flow regions will merge with each other. It is concluded that unlike the corresponding laminar counterflow planar turbulent triple flames will be difficult to establish in laboratory scale experiments. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansour, Mohy S.; Imam, Hisham; Elsayed, Khaled A.; Abbass, Wafaa
2009-10-01
One of the most recently applied laser-based techniques in combustion environment is the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The technique has been extensively and successfully applied to elemental concentration measurements in solids and liquids. The LIBS signal is much weaker in gases and hence more work is required for quantitative measurements in flames. In the present work we used two orthogonal Nd:YAG lasers that operate at the fundamental wavelength with laser pulse energy of about 100 mJ/pulse. A Princeton-Instruments IMAX ICCD camera attached to a PI-Echelle spectrometer was used for signal detection. The lasers are focused using two 5-cm lenses. Several calibration points have been collected in well defined and homogeneous mixtures of air and fuel in order to be used as references for the measurements in turbulent partially premixed flames. This work shows that the application of the LIBS technique in a turbulent combustion environment is feasible and signal is enhanced by applying an orthogonal dual-pulse arrangement for air-fuel.
Turbulent partially premixed flames of nitrogen-diluted methane near extinction
Mansour, M.S.; Bilger, R.W. ); Dibble, R.W. )
1991-05-01
Spontaneous Raman/Rayleigh measurements have been carried out in turbulent partially premixed flames of nitrogen-diluted methane near extinction. The flames are created in a reverse flow reactor (RFR) and are stabilized by means of a recirculation zone. The flames are stretched by reducing the residence time of the flow within the reactor. The mean profiles, scatter plots, and conditional pdfs are used to study the flame structure in the present investigation. The detailed structure studies have been carried out in two shear layers, where the stretch rates are highest. The data presented in this article are for two flames close to extinction at low residence times (3.6 and 5.1 ms). The flame structure at both shear layers shows quite significant chemical kinetic effects on approaching extinction. These effects reduce the products concentration and temperature and increase the reactants. Also, these effects increase the CO concentration. A substantial decrease in the reactedness of the reactive scalars has also been found at both shear layers on approaching extinction. The flame structure shows broad distribution between the equilibrium and frozen limits with no obvious bimodality. From the conditional pdfs, the reactedness decreases around stoichiometric and increases at the lean side of the stoichiometric.
Premixed Turbulent Flame Propagation in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, S.; Disseau, M.; Chakravarthy, V. K.; Jagoda, J.
1997-01-01
Papers included address the following topics: (1) Turbulent premixed flame propagation in microgravity; (2) The effect of gravity on turbulent premixed flame propagation - a preliminary cold flow study; and (3) Characteristics of a subgrid model for turbulent premixed combustion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juddoo, Mrinal; Masri, Assaad R.; Pope, Stephen B.
2011-12-01
This paper reports measured stability limits and PDF calculations of piloted, turbulent flames of compressed natural gas (CNG) partially-premixed with either pure oxygen, or with varying levels of O2/N2. Stability limits are presented for flames of CNG fuel premixed with up to 20% oxygen as well as CNG-O2-N2 fuel where the O2 content is varied from 8 to 22% by volume. Calculations are presented for (i) Sydney flame B [Masri et al. 1988] which uses pure CNG as well as flames B15 to B25 where the CNG is partially-premixed with 15-25% oxygen by volume, respectively and (ii) Sandia methane-air (1:3 by volume) flame E [Barlow et al. 2005] as well as new flames E15 and E25 that are partially-premixed with 'reconstituted air' where the O2 content in nitrogen is 15 and 25% by volume, respectively. The calculations solve a transported PDF of composition using a particle-based Monte Carlo method and employ the EMST mixing model as well as detailed chemical kinetics. The addition of oxygen to the fuel increases stability, shortens the flames, broadens the reaction zone, and shifts the stoichiometric mixture fraction towards the inner side of the jet. It is found that for pure CNG flames where the reaction zone is narrow (∼0.1 in mixture fraction space), the PDF calculations fail to reproduce the correct level of local extinction on approach to blow-off. A broadening in the reaction zone up to about 0.25 in mixture fraction space is needed for the PDF/EMST approach to be able to capture these finite-rate chemistry effects. It is also found that for the same level of partial premixing, increasing the O2/N2 ratio increases the maximum levels of CO and NO but shifts the peak to richer mixture fractions. Over the range of oxygenation investigated here, stability limits have shown to improve almost linearly with increasing oxygen levels in the fuel and with increasing the contribution of release rate from the pilot.
Coriton, Bruno; Frank, Jonathan H.
2016-02-16
In turbulent flows, the interaction between vorticity, ω, and strain rate, s, is considered a primary mechanism for the transfer of energy from large to small scales through vortex stretching. The ω-s coupling in turbulent jet flames is investigated using tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV). TPIV provides a direct measurement of the three-dimensional velocity field from which ω and s are determined. The effects of combustion and mean shear on the ω-s interaction are investigated in turbulent partially premixed methane/air jet flames with high and low probabilities of localized extinction as well as in a non-reacting isothermal air jet withmore » Reynolds number of approximately 13,000. Results show that combustion causes structures of high vorticity and strain rate to agglomerate in highly correlated, elongated layers that span the height of the probe volume. In the non-reacting jet, these structures have a more varied morphology, greater fragmentation, and are not as well correlated. The enhanced spatiotemporal correlation of vorticity and strain rate in the stable flame results in stronger ω-s interaction characterized by increased enstrophy and strain-rate production rates via vortex stretching and straining, respectively. The probability of preferential local alignment between ω and the eigenvector of the intermediate principal strain rate, s2, which is intrinsic to the ω-s coupling in turbulent flows, is larger in the flames and increases with the flame stability. The larger mean shear in the flame imposes a preferential orientation of ω and s2 tangential to the shear layer. The extensive and compressive principal strain rates, s1 and s3, respectively, are preferentially oriented at approximately 45° with respect to the jet axis. As a result, the production rates of strain and vorticity tend to be dominated by instances in which ω is parallel to the s1¯-s2¯ plane and orthogonal to s3¯.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coriton, Bruno; Frank, Jonathan H.
2016-02-01
In turbulent flows, the interaction between vorticity, ω, and strain rate, s, is considered a primary mechanism for the transfer of energy from large to small scales through vortex stretching. The ω-s coupling in turbulent jet flames is investigated using tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV). TPIV provides a direct measurement of the three-dimensional velocity field from which ω and s are determined. The effects of combustion and mean shear on the ω-s interaction are investigated in turbulent partially premixed methane/air jet flames with high and low probabilities of localized extinction as well as in a non-reacting isothermal air jet with Reynolds number of approximately 13 000. Results show that combustion causes structures of high vorticity and strain rate to agglomerate in highly correlated, elongated layers that span the height of the probe volume. In the non-reacting jet, these structures have a more varied morphology, greater fragmentation, and are not as well correlated. The enhanced spatiotemporal correlation of vorticity and strain rate in the stable flame results in stronger ω-s interaction characterized by increased enstrophy and strain-rate production rates via vortex stretching and straining, respectively. The probability of preferential local alignment between ω and the eigenvector of the intermediate principal strain rate, s2, which is intrinsic to the ω-s coupling in turbulent flows, is larger in the flames and increases with the flame stability. The larger mean shear in the flame imposes a preferential orientation of ω and s2 tangential to the shear layer. The extensive and compressive principal strain rates, s1 and s3, respectively, are preferentially oriented at approximately 45° with respect to the jet axis. The production rates of strain and vorticity tend to be dominated by instances in which ω is parallel to the s1 ¯-s2 ¯ plane and orthogonal to s3 ¯.
Dhamale, N.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.
2011-01-01
Canola methyl ester (CME) is a biofuel that is a renewable alternative energy resource and is produced by the transesterification of canola oil. The objective of this study was to document the effects of turbulence on the combustion characteristics of blends of CME and No 2 diesel fuel in a partially-premixed flame environment. The experiments were conducted with mixtures of pre-vaporized fuel and air at an initial equivalence ratio of 7 and three burner exit Reynolds numbers, 2700, 3600, and 4500. Three blends with 25, 50, and 75% volume concentration of CME were studied. The soot volume fraction was highestmore » for the pure diesel flames and did not change significantly with Reynolds number due to the mutually compensating effects of increased carbon input rate and increased air entrainment as the Reynolds number was increased. The global NOx emission index was highest and the CO emission index was the lowest for the pure CME flame, and varied non-monotonically with biofuel content in the blend The mean temperature and the NOx concentration at three-quarter flame height were generally correlated, indicating that the thermal mechanism of NOx formation was dominant in the turbulent biofuel flames also.« less
Flame propagation in partially premixed conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruetsch, G.; Poinsot, T.; Veynante, D.; Trouvé, A.
1996-11-01
Turbulent flame propagation is studied under inhomogenously premixed conditions via data from direct numerical simulations. Departures from the premixed case are studied using four different configurations, ranging from one dimensional unsteady flames to turbulent three-dimensional simulations. Simulations are performed in these cases with various values of the mean equivalence ratio, fluctuations about the mean equivlalence ratio, correlation length scales, and probability denisty functions of the mixture composition. Propagation characteristics are described in terms of the flamelet approach, where the the main contribution of partial premixing on flame propagation is due to flame wrinkling relative to modification of the mean flamelet structure. This behavior is consistent over a broad range of conditions, with the exception being extreme departures from stoichiometric conditions where flamability limits are exceeded and flame quenching is observed.
Gravity Effects Observed In Partially Premixed Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Gauguly, Ranjan; Hegde, Uday
2003-01-01
Partially premixed flames (PPFs) contain a rich premixed fuel air mixture in a pocket or stream, and, for complete combustion to occur, they require the transport of oxidizer from an appropriately oxidizer-rich (or fuel-lean) mixture that is present in another pocket or stream. Partial oxidation reactions occur in fuel-rich portions of the mixture and any remaining unburned fuel and/or intermediate species are consumed in the oxidizer-rich portions. Partial premixing, therefore, represents that condition when the equivalence ratio (phi) in one portion of the flowfield is greater than unity, and in another section its value is less than unity. In general, for combustion to occur efficiently, the global equivalence ratio is in the range fuel-lean to stoichiometric. These flames can be established by design by placing a fuel-rich mixture in contact with a fuel-lean mixture, but they also occur otherwise in many practical systems, which include nonpremixed lifted flames, turbulent nonpremixed combustion, spray flames, and unwanted fires. Other practical applications of PPFs are reported elsewhere. Although extensive experimental studies have been conducted on premixed and nonpremixed flames under microgravity, there is a absence of previous experimental work on burner stabilized PPFs in this regard. Previous numerical studies by our group employing a detailed numerical model showed gravity effects to be significant on the PPF structure. We report on the results of microgravity experiments conducted on two-dimensional (established on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner) and axisymmetric flames (on a coannular burner) that were investigated in a self-contained multipurpose rig. Thermocouple and radiometer data were also used to characterize the thermal transport in the flame.
Turbulent Premixed Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Suresh
1996-01-01
The experimental cold-flow facility is now full operational and is currently being used to obtain baseline turbulence data in a Couette flow. The baseline turbulence data is necessary to confirm the capability of the chosen device to generate and maintain the required turbulence intensity. Subsequent reacting flow studies will assume that a similar turbulent flow field exists ahead of the premixed flame. Some modifications and refinements had to be made to enable accurate measurements. It consists of two rollers, one (driven by a motor) which drives a continuous belt and four smaller rollers used to set the belt spacing and tension to minimize belt flutter. The entire assemble is enclosed in a structure that has the dimensions to enable future drop tower experiments of the hot facility. All critical dimensions are the same as the original plans except for the pulley ratio which has been changed to enable a wider operating regime in terms of the Reynolds number. With the current setup, Reynolds numbers as low as 100 and as high as 14,000 can be achieved. This is because the in-between belt spacing can be varied from 1 cm to 7.6 cm, and the belt speed can be accurately varied from .15 m/sec to 3.1 m/sec.
NON-PREMIXED TURBULENT JET FLAMES
The paper, part of a general investigation of mixing and chemical reaction in turbulent jets, concerns the length of non-premixed turbulent jet flames in a stationary environment. Experimental results for the turbulent flame length of chemically reacting jets in water show both i...
Premixed turbulent flame propagation in microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, S.; Jagoda, J.; Sujith, R.
1995-01-01
To reduce pollutant formation there is, at present, an increased interest in employing premixed fuel/air mixture in combustion devices. It is well known that greater control over local temperature can be achieved with premixed flames and with lean premixed mixtures, significant reduction of pollutants such as NO(x) can be achieved. However, an issue that is still unresolved is the predictability of the flame propagation speed in turbulent premixed mixtures, especially in lean mixtures. Although substantial progress has been made in recent years, there is still no direct verification that flame speeds in turbulent premixed flows are highly predictable in complex flow fields found in realistic combustors. One of the problems associated with experimental verification is the difficulty in obtaining access to all scales of motion in typical high Reynolds number flows, since, such flows contain scales of motion that range from the size of the device to the smallest Kolmogorov scale. The overall objective of this study is to characterize the behavior of turbulent premixed flames at reasonable high Reynolds number, Re(sub L). Of particular interest here is the thin flame limit where the laminar flame thickness is much smaller than the Kolmogorov scale. Thin flames occur in many practical combustion devices and will be numerically studied using a recently developed new formulation that is briefly described.
Flame front configuration of turbulent premixed flames
Furukawa, Junichi; Maruta, Kaoru; Hirano, Toshisuke
1998-02-01
The present study is performed to explore dependence of the wrinkle scale of propane-air turbulent premixed flames on the characteristics of turbulence in the nonreacting flow, burner size, and mixture ratio. The wrinkle scales are examined and expressed in the frequency distribution of the radii of flame front curvatures. The average wrinkle scale depends not only on the characteristics of turbulence in the nonreacting flow but also on burner diameter and mixture ratio. The average wrinkle scale of a lean propane-air flame is larger than those of the near stoichiometric and rich flames. The smallest wrinkle scale of turbulent premixed flame is in the range of 0.75--1.0 mm, which is much larger than the Kolmogorov scale of turbulence in the nonreacting flow.
Active control for turbulent premixed flame simulations
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.
2004-03-26
Many turbulent premixed flames of practical interest are statistically stationary. They occur in combustors that have anchoring mechanisms to prevent blow-off and flashback. The stabilization devices often introduce a level of geometric complexity that is prohibitive for detailed computational studies of turbulent flame dynamics. As a result, typical detailed simulations are performed in simplified model configurations such as decaying isotropic turbulence or inflowing turbulence. In these configurations, the turbulence seen by the flame either decays or, in the latter case, increases as the flame accelerates toward the turbulent inflow. This limits the duration of the eddy evolutions experienced by the flame at a given level of turbulent intensity, so that statistically valid observations cannot be made. In this paper, we apply a feedback control to computationally stabilize an otherwise unstable turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. For the simulations, we specify turbulent in flow conditions and dynamically adjust the integrated fueling rate to control the mean location of the flame in the domain. We outline the numerical procedure, and illustrate the behavior of the control algorithm. We use the simulations to study the propagation and the local chemical variability of turbulent flame chemistry.
Can we characterize turbulence in premixed flames?
Lipatnikov, A.N.
2009-06-15
Modeling of premixed turbulent combustion involves averaging reaction rates in turbulent flows. The focus of most approaches to resolving this problem has been placed on determining the dependence of the mean rate w of product creation on the laminar flame speed S{sub L}, the rms turbulence velocity u', etc. The goal of the present work is to draw attention to another issue: May the input quantity u{sup '} for a model of w= w(u'/S{sub L},..) be considered to be known? The point is that heat release substantially affects turbulence and, hence, turbulence characteristics in premixed flames should be modeled. However, standard moment methods for numerically simulating turbulent flows do not allow us to evaluate the true turbulence characteristics in a flame. For instance, the Reynolds stresses in premixed flames are affected not only by turbulence itself, but also by velocity jump across flamelets. A common way to resolving this problem consists of considering the Reynolds stresses conditioned on unburned (or burned) mixture to be the true turbulence characteristics. In the present paper, this widely accepted but never proved hypothesis is put into question, first, by considering simple model constant-density problems (flame motion in an oscillating one-dimensional laminar flow; flame stabilized in a periodic shear, one-dimensional, laminar flow; turbulent mixing). In all the cases, the magnitude of velocity fluctuations, calculated using the conditioned Reynolds stresses, is affected by the intermittency of reactants and products and, hence, is not the true rms velocity. Second, the above claim is further supported by comparing balance equations for the mean and conditioned Reynolds stresses. The conditioned Reynolds stresses do not characterize the true turbulence in flames, because conditional averaging cuts off flow regions characterized by either high or low velocities. (author)
NO formation in counterflow partially premixed flames
Mungekar, Hemant; Atreya, Arvind
2007-02-15
An experimental and computational study of NO formation in low-strain-rate partially premixed methane counterflow flames is reported. For progressive fuel-side partial premixing the peak NO concentration increased and the NO distribution along the stagnation streamline broadened. New temperature-dependent emissivity data for a SiO{sub 2}-coated Pt thermocouple was used to estimate the radiation correction for the thermocouple, thus improving the accuracy of the reported flame temperature. Flame structure computations with GRIMech 3.00 showed good agreement between measured and computed concentration distributions of NO and OH radical. With progressive partial premixing the contribution of the thermal NO pathway to NO formation increases. The emission index of NO (EINO) first increased and then decreased, reaching its peak value for the level of partial premixing that corresponds to location of the nonpremixed reaction zone at the stagnation plane. The observation of a maximum in EINO at a level of partial premixing corresponding to the nonpremixed reaction zone at the stagnation plane seems to be a consistent feature of low (<20 s{sup -1})-strain-rate counterflow flames. (author)
Dynamics and structure of turbulent premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilger, R. W.; Swaminathan, N.; Ruetsch, G. R.; Smith, N. S. A.
1995-01-01
In earlier work (Mantel & Bilger, 1994) the structure of the turbulent premixed flame was investigated using statistics based on conditional averaging with the reaction progress variable as the conditioning variable. The DNS data base of Trouve and Poinsot (1994) was used in this investigation. Attention was focused on the conditional dissipation and conditional axial velocity in the flame with a view to modeling these quantities for use in the conditional moment closure (CMC) approach to analysis of kinetics in premixed flames (Bilger, 1993). Two remarkable findings were made: there was almost no acceleration of the axial velocity in the flame front itself; and the conditional scalar dissipation remained as high, or higher, than that found in laminar premixed flames. The first finding was surprising since in laminar flames all the fluid acceleration occurs through the flame front, and this could be expected also for turbulent premixed flames at the flamelet limit. The finding gave hope of inventing a new approach to the dynamics of turbulent premixed flames through use of rapid distortion theory or an unsteady Bernoulli equation. This could lead to a new second order closure for turbulent premixed flames. The second finding was contrary to our measurements with laser diagnostics in lean hydrocarbon flames where it is found that conditional scalar dissipation drops dramatically below that for laminar flamelets when the turbulence intensity becomes high. Such behavior was not explainable with a one-step kinetic model, even at non-unity Lewis number. It could be due to depletion of H2 from the reaction zone by preferential diffusion. The capacity of the flame to generate radicals is critically dependent on the levels of H2 present (Bilger, et al., 1991). It seemed that a DNS computation with a multistep reduced mechanism would be worthwhile if a way could be found to make this feasible. Truly innovative approaches to complex problems often come only when there is the
Premixed Turbulent Flame Propagation in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Suresh
1999-01-01
A combined numerical-experimental study has been carried out to investigate the structure and propagation characteristics of turbulent premixed flames with and without the influence of buoyancy. Experimentally, the premixed flame characteristics are studied in the wrinkled regime using a Couette flow facility and an isotropic flow facility in order to resolve the scale of flame wrinkling. Both facilities were chosen for their ability to achieve sustained turbulence at low Reynolds number. This implies that conventional diagnostics can be employed to resolve the smallest scales of wrinkling. The Couette facility was also built keeping in mind the constraints imposed by the drop tower requirements. Results showed that the flow in this Couette flow facility achieves full-developed turbulence at low Re and all turbulence statistics are in good agreement with past measurements on large-scale facilities. Premixed flame propagation studies were then carried out both using the isotropic box and the Couette facility. Flame imaging showed that fine scales of wrinkling occurs during flame propagation. Both cases in Ig showed significant buoyancy effect. To demonstrate that micro-g can remove this buoyancy effect, a small drop tower was built and drop experiments were conducted using the isotropic box. Results using the Couette facility confirmed the ability to carry out these unique reacting flow experiments at least in 1g. Drop experiments at NASA GRC were planned but were not completed due to termination of this project.
Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations
Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.
2007-07-01
The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.
Counter-gradient in premixed turbulent flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Libby, P. A.; Bray, K. N. C.
1980-01-01
A new theory for premixed turbulent flames normal to the oncoming reactants is developed on the basis of the Bray-Moss-Libby model of premixed combustion and second-order closure. Gradient transport assumptions are carefully avoided. The final formulation focuses on the intensity of the fluctuations of the velocity component normal to the flame and on the mean flux of product. At low rates of heat release corresponding to small intensities of the density fluctuations the new theory is in agreement with our earlier theory based on gradient transport. However, as the heat release increases toward values of practical interest, counter-gradient diffusion, i.e., mean flux in the direction of increasing mean concentration, arises and is attributable to the differential effect of mean pressure gradient on cold reactants and hot products. The implications of these results are discussed.
Nongradient diffusion in premixed turbulent flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Libby, Paul A.
1988-01-01
Recent theoretical and experimental results demonstrating the interaction between force fields and density inhomogeneities as they arise in premixed turbulent flames are discussed. In such flames, the density fluctuates between two levels, the high density in reactants rho sub r and the low density in products rho sub p, with the ratio rho sub r/rho sub p on the order of five to ten in flows of applied interest. The force fields in such flames arise from the mean pressure drop across the flame or from the Reynolds shear stresses in tangential flames with constrained streamlines. The consequence of the interaction is nongradient turbulent transport, countergradient in the direction normal to the flame and nongradient in the tangential direction. The theoretical basis for these results, the presently available experimental support therefore and the implications for other variable density turbulent flows are discussed.
Numerical simulation of premixed turbulent methane combustion
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.
2001-12-14
In this paper we study the behavior of a premixed turbulent methane flame in three dimensions using numerical simulation. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number combustion algorithm based on a second-order projection formulation that conserves both species mass and total enthalpy. The species and enthalpy equations are treated using an operator-split approach that incorporates stiff integration techniques for modeling detailed chemical kinetics. The methodology also incorporates a mixture model for differential diffusion. For the simulations presented here, methane chemistry and transport are modeled using the DRM-19 (19-species, 84-reaction) mechanism derived from the GRIMech-1.2 mechanism along with its associated thermodynamics and transport databases. We consider a lean flame with equivalence ratio 0.8 for two different levels of turbulent intensity. For each case we examine the basic structure of the flame including turbulent flame speed and flame surface area. The results indicate that flame wrinkling is the dominant factor leading to the increased turbulent flame speed. Joint probability distributions are computed to establish a correlation between heat release and curvature. We also investigate the effect of turbulent flame interaction on the flame chemistry. We identify specific flame intermediates that are sensitive to turbulence and explore various correlations between these species and local flame curvature. We identify different mechanisms by which turbulence modulates the chemistry of the flame.
Lifted Partially Premixed Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, Andrew J.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suesh K.; Hegde, Uday
2004-01-01
Lifted Double and Triple flames are established in the UIC-NASA Partially Premixed microgravity rig. The flames examined in this paper are established above a coannular burner because its axisymmetric geometry allows for future implementation of other non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques easily. Both burner-attached stable flames and lifted flames are established at normal and microgravity conditions in the drop tower facility.
Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Almgren, Ann S.; Lijewski, MichaelJ.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Cheng, Robert K.; Shepherd, Ian G.
2006-06-25
There is considerable technological interest in developingnew fuel-flexible combustion systems that can burn fuels such ashydrogenor syngas. Lean premixed systems have the potential to burn thesetypes of fuels with high efficiency and low NOx emissions due to reducedburnt gas temperatures. Although traditional scientific approaches basedon theory and laboratory experiment have played essential roles indeveloping our current understanding of premixed combustion, they areunable to meet the challenges of designing fuel-flexible lean premixedcombustion devices. Computation, with itsability to deal with complexityand its unlimited access to data, hasthe potential for addressing thesechallenges. Realizing this potential requires the ability to perform highfidelity simulations of turbulent lean premixed flames under realisticconditions. In this paper, we examine the specialized mathematicalstructure of these combustion problems and discuss simulation approachesthat exploit this structure. Using these ideas we can dramatically reducecomputational cost, making it possible to perform high-fidelitysimulations of realistic flames. We illustrate this methodology byconsidering ultra-lean hydrogen flames and discuss how this type ofsimulation is changing the way researchers study combustion.
Time resolved density measurements in premixed turbulent flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dandekar, K. V.; Gouldin, F. C.
1982-01-01
Premixed, turbulent flames are important in connection with investigations of fundamental, turbulent-reacting-flow processes and the study of practical combustion devices, such as spark ignition engines and premixed, prevaporized gas turbine combustors which burn premixed reactants. The considered investigation is concerned with the application of laser induced Rayleigh scattering to measure the gas density in premixed, methane-air flames. A description is provided of the results of density and velocity measurements in an open, lean, premixed methane-air flame stabilized in grid turbulence of low Reynolds number. It is found that where applicable, Rayleigh scattering can be used to good advantage to measure molecular number density. Mean and rms density results show that the mean flame thickens with axial distance but that the maximum in rms does not change appreciably.
Particle clustering in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
F, Battista; F, Picano; G, Troiani; M, Casciola C.
2011-12-01
Transport of inertial particles in turbulent reacting flows is frequent in a number of engineering and natural systems. Aim of this work is to illustrate the effect of the fluctuating instantaneous flame front on the particle spatial distribution. To this purpose a Direct Numerical Simulation of a Bunsen premixed flame seeded with small inertial particles is performed. The flamelet Stokes number Stfl, defined as the ratio between the particle relaxation time and the flame front time scale, is found to be the proper parameter to characterize the particle dynamics in a premixed flame. Clustering of inertial particles is apparent, especially beyond the flame front. The amount of particle segregation is here quantified by the clustering index and two distinct contributions are found to interplay. The first is independent of the particle inertia and affects also tracers. Actually it is associated to the abrupt variation of the particle concentration induced by the fluid expansion across the flame front. The second effect is mainly due to the time lag associated to the particle inertia that, in proximity of the front, affects both the mean and the fluctuation of the particle number in a fixed volume. The global effect results in an intense clustering of the inertial particles in the flame brush region with a maximum for particles with flamelet Stokes number: Stfl = Script O(1).
Multiple mapping conditioning for flames with partial premixing
Kronenburg, A.; Cleary, M.J.
2008-10-15
Fully closed multiple mapping conditioning (MMC) is used to model partially premixed flames in homogeneous, isotropic decaying turbulence where the partial premixing is caused by local extinction and reignition phenomena. Two reference variables that represent mixing and reaction progress, such as mixture fraction and sensible enthalpy, are used to emulate turbulent scalar fluctuations. Local extinction is achieved by a priori coupling between scalar dissipation and temperature fluctuations via a correlation function that is based on the conditionally averaged sensible enthalpy at stoichiometric composition. The proposed model provides closures for the joint PDF of mixture fraction and sensible enthalpy, for the conditional variance equation of a reactive scalar, and for the doubly conditioned dissipation terms. Model results are compared with DNS in three flame cases with varying levels of local extinction, up to global extinction. The joint PDF predicted by MMC is in fair agreement with DNS. It constitutes, however, a clear improvement over conventional models using preassumed distribution functions for the PDFs. The doubly conditioned dissipation terms are modeled well and the results for all major chemical species are in good agreement with DNS. Predictions for intermediate species are also satisfactory. (author)
Studies of premixed laminar and turbulent flames at microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, Paul D.
1993-01-01
A two and one-half year experimental and theoretical research program on the properties of laminar and turbulent premixed gas flames at microgravity was conducted. Progress during this program is identified and avenues for future studies are discussed.
Flame front geometry in premixed turbulent flames
Shepherd, I.G.; Ashurst, W.T.
1991-12-01
Experimental and numerical determinations of flame front curvature and orientation in premixed turbulent flames are presented. The experimental data is obtained from planar, cross sectional images of stagnation point flames at high Damkoehler number. A direct numerical simulation of a constant energy flow is combined with a zero-thickness, constant density flame model to provide the numerical results. The computational domain is a 32{sup 3} cube with periodic boundary conditions. The two-dimensional curvature distributions of the experiments and numerical simulations compare well at similar q{prime}/S{sub L} values with means close to zero and marked negative skewness. At higher turbulence levels the simulations show that the distributions become symmetric about zero. These features are also found in the three dimensional distributions of curvature. The simulations support assumptions which make it possible to determine the mean direction cosines from the experimental data. This leads to a reduction of 12% in the estimated flame surface area density in the middle of the flame brush. 18 refs.
Kim, Jong-Ryul; Choi, Gyung-Min; Kim, Duck-Jool
2011-01-15
The influence of varying combustor pressure on flame oscillation and emission characteristics in the partially premixed turbulent flame were investigated. In order to investigate combustion characteristics in the partially premixed turbulent flame, the combustor pressure was controlled in the range of -30 to 30 kPa for each equivalence ratio ({phi} = 0.8-1.2). The r.m.s. of the pressure fluctuations increased with decreasing combustor pressure for the lean condition. The combustor pressure had a sizeable influence on combustion oscillation, whose dominant frequency varied with the combustor pressure. Combustion instabilities could be controlled by increasing the turbulent intensity of the unburned mixture under the lean condition. An unstable flame was caused by incomplete combustion; hence, EICO greatly increased. Furthermore, EINO{sub x} simply reduced with decreasing combustor pressure at a rate of 0.035 g/10 kPa. The possibility of combustion control on the combusting mode and exhaust gas emission was demonstrated. (author)
Experimental study of premixed flames in intense isotropic turbulence
Bedat, B.; Cheng, R.K.
1994-04-01
A methodology for investigating premixed turbulent flames propagating in intense isotropic turbulence has been developed. The burner uses a turbulence generator developed by Videto and Santavicca and the flame is stabilized by weak-swirl generated by air injectors. This set-up produces stable premixed turbulent flames under a wide range of mixture conditions and turbulence intensities. The experiments are designed to investigate systematically the changes in flame structures for conditions which can be classified as wrinkled laminar flames, corrugated flames and flames with distributed reaction zones. Laser Doppler anemometry and Rayleigh scattering techniques are used to determine the turbulence and scalar statistics. In the intense turbulence, the flames are found to produce very little changes in the mean and rams velocities. Their flame speed increase linearly with turbulence intensity as for wrinkled laminar flames. The Rayleigh scattering pdfs for flames within the distributed reaction zone regime are distinctly bimodal. The probabilities of the reacting states (i.e. contributions from within the reaction zone) is not higher than those of wrinkled laminar flame. These results show that there is no drastic changes in flame structures at Karlovitz number close to unity. This suggest that the Klimov-Williams criterion under-predicts the resilience of wrinkled flamelets to intense turbulence.
Temperature and velocity measurements in premixed turbulent flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dandekar, K. V.; Gouldin, F. C.
1981-01-01
Turbulent flame speed data for premixed flames of methane-air, propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures stabilized in grid turbulence are reported and discussed. It is shown that turbulence effects on flame speed cannot be fully correlated by the turbulence length scale and r.m.s. velocity in the cold flow. Rather there appear to be significant flame-flow-turbulence interactions affecting both turbulence level in the reaction zone and measured flame speeds. Results of detailed velocity measurements, including autocorrelations, by laser velocimetry are used to elucidate the nature of these interactions. It is concluded that flame speed experiments must be designed and conducted to provide sufficient information (e.g., boundary conditions) to allow for reconstruction of the flow field and these interactions by modelers if the data are to be of value in turbulent combustion model development and evaluation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Won, Sang Hee; Reuter, Christopher; Windom, Bret; Ju, Yiguang
2015-11-01
Turbulent premixed flames of n-heptane/air and toluene/air mixtures affected by ignition have been experimentally investigated by using a reactor-assisted turbulent slot (RATS) burner at two burner temperatures, 450 K and 700 K. Turbulent burning velocities (ST) and flame structures have been measured by the simultaneous OH and CH2O planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging at various equivalence ratios and turbulent Reynolds numbers. Three distinct turbulent premixed flame regimes are identified for n-heptane/air mixture; chemical frozen (CF) regime at low temperature, low temperature ignition (LTI) regime, and high temperature ignition (HTI) regime for respectively lean and rich conditions at 700 K. For CF regime, the measured turbulent burning velocities of n-heptane and toluene at 450 K follow a conventional correlation of turbulent intensity (defined as u'/SL). In LTI regime, substantial changes in chemical composition alter the laminar flame speed and transport property, leading to rapid increase of turbulent burning velocity. In HTI regime, it is found that the turbulent premixed flame structure is significantly modified by the appearance of volumetric ignition kernel structures associated with the transition from LTI to HTI. The turbulent premixed flame regime in HTI is no longer represented by the thin reaction zone regime. The measured turbulent burning velocities in HTI regime increase substantially as increasing ignition Damkőhler number over those in LTI regime.
PDF Modeling of Turbulent Lean Premixed Combustion
Yilmaz, S.L.; •Givi, P.; Strakey, P.A.
2007-10-01
The joint velocity-scalar-frequency probability density function (PDF) methodology is employed for prediction of a bluff-body stabilized lean premixed methane-air flame. A reduced mechanism with CO and NO chemistry is used to describe fuel oxidation. The predicted mean and rms values of the velocity, temperature and concentrations of major and minor species are compared with laboratory measurements. This technical effort was performed in support of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s on-going research in “Assessment of Turbo-Chemistry Models for Gas Turbine Combustion Emissions” under the RDS contract DE-AC26-04NT41817.
Analysis of the flamelet concept in the numerical simulation of laminar partially premixed flames
Consul, R.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Carbonell, D.; de Goey, L.P.H.
2008-04-15
The aim of this work is to analyze the application of flamelet models based on the mixture fraction variable and its dissipation rate to the numerical simulation of partially premixed flames. Although the main application of these models is the computation of turbulent flames, this work focuses on the performance of flamelet concept in laminar flame simulations removing, in this way, turbulence closure interactions. A well-known coflow methane/air laminar flame is selected. Five levels of premixing are taken into account from an equivalence ratio {phi}={infinity} (nonpremixed) to {phi}=2.464. Results obtained using the flamelet approaches are compared to data obtained from the detailed solution of the complete transport equations using primitive variables. Numerical simulations of a counterflow flame are also presented to support the discussion of the results. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of the scalar dissipation rate modeling. (author)
Field Effects of Buoyancy on Lean Premixed Turbulent Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.; Johnson, M. R.; Greenberg, P. S.; Wernet, M. P.
2003-01-01
The study of field effects of buoyancy on premixed turbulent flames is directed towards the advancement of turbulent combustion theory and the development of cleaner combustion technologies. Turbulent combustion is considered the most important unsolved problem in combustion science and laboratory studies of turbulence flame processes are vital to theoretical development. Although buoyancy is dominant in laboratory flames, most combustion models are not yet capable to consider buoyancy effects. This inconsistency has impeded the validation of theories and numerical simulations with experiments. Conversely, the understanding of buoyancy effects is far too limited to help develop buoyant flame models. Our research is also relevant to combustion technology because lean premixed combustion is a proven method to reduce the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In industrial lean premixed combustion systems, their operating conditions make them susceptible to buoyancy thus affecting heat distribution, emissions, stability, flashback and blowoff. But little knowledge is available to guide combustion engineers as to how to avoid or overcome these problems. Our hypothesis is that through its influence on the mean pressure field, buoyancy has direct and indirect effects on local flame/turbulence interactions. Although buoyancy acts on the hot products in the farfield the effect is also felt in the nearfield region upstream of the flame. These changes also influence the generation and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy inside the flame brush and throughout the flowfield. Moreover, the plume of an open flame is unstable and the periodic fluctuations make additional contributions to flame front dynamics in the farfield. Therefore, processes such as flame wrinkling, flow acceleration due to heat release and flame- generated vorticity are all affected. Other global flame properties (e.g. flame stabilization limits and flame speed) may all be coupled to buoyancy. This
Partially Premixed Flame (PPF) Research for Fire Safety
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Hegde, Uday
2004-01-01
Incipient fires typically occur after the partial premixing of fuel and oxidizer. The mixing of product species into the fuel/oxidizer mixture influences flame stabilization and fire spread. Therefore, it is important to characterize the impact of different levels of fuel/oxidizer/product mixing on flame stabilization, liftoff and extinguishment under different gravity conditions. With regard to fire protection, the agent concentration required to achieve flame suppression is an important consideration. The initial stage of an unwanted fire in a microgravity environment will depend on the level of partial premixing and the local conditions such as air currents generated by the fire itself and any forced ventilation (that influence agent and product mixing into the fire). The motivation of our investigation is to characterize these impacts in a systematic and fundamental manner.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent non-premixed methane-air flames
Chen, J.H.; Card, J.M.; Day, M.; Mahalingam, S.
1995-07-01
Turbulent non-premixed stoichiometric methane-air flames have been studied using the direct numerical simulation approach. A global one- step mechanism is used to describe the chemical kinetics, and molecular transport is modeled with constant Lewis numbers for individual species. The effect of turbulence on the internal flame structure and extinction characteristics of methane-air flames is evaluated. The flame is wrinkled and in some regions extinguished by the turbulence, while the turbulence is weakened in the vicinity of the flame due to a combination of dilatation and a 25:1 increase in kinematic viscosity across the flame. Reignition followed by partially-premixed burning is observed in the present results. Local curvature effects are found to be important in determining the local stoichiometry of the flame, and hence, the location of the peak reaction rate relative to the stoichiometric surface. The results presented in this study demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating global-step kinetics for the oxidation of methane into direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence to study the flame structure.
Afterburning in spherical premixed turbulent explosions
Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Scott, M.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Mushi, E.M.J. )
1994-12-01
During the early stages of spherical turbulent flame propagation, more than half of the gas behind the visible flame front may be unburned. Previous models of the afterburning of the gas behind the apparent flame front have been extended in the present work, to include the effects of flame quenching, consequent upon localized flame stretch. The predictions of the model cover, the spatial and temporal variations of the fraction burned, the flame propagation rate, and the mass burning rate. They are all in dimensionless form and are well supported by associated experimental measurements in a fan-stirred bomb with controlled turbulence. The proportion of the gas that is unburned decreases with time and increases with the product of the Karlovitz stretch factor and the Lewis number. Simultaneous photographs were taken of the spherical schlieren image and of that due to Mie scattering from small seed particles in a thin laser sheet that sectioned the spherical flame. These clearly showed the amount of unburned gas within the sphere and, along with other evidence suggest laminar flamelet burning across a scale of distance which is close to the Taylor confirm the predictions of the fraction of gas unburned and of the rate at which it is burning.
Density fluctuations in premixed turbulent flames
Namazian, M.; Talbot, L.; Robben, F.
1984-03-01
The simultaneous two-point density fluctuations in a V-shaped turbulent flame are measured using a two-point Rayleigh scattering method. A wrinkle laminar flame model with finite instantaneous flame thickness is developed for the flames studied. The reaction front probability density function (pdf) is both measured directly and also calculated from the measured mean density. An analytical expression for this pdf is given which is derived based on a thin flame model. The mean, rms and correlation coefficients are calculated using the finite reaction front thickness model and the results are compared with the experimental data. The pdf of the intermediate states are shown to be due to the reaction front thickness.
Effect of dilatation on scalar dissipation in turbulent premixed flames
Swaminathan, N.; Bray, K.N.C.
2005-12-01
The scalar dissipation rate signifies the local mixing rate and thus plays a vital role in the modeling of reaction rate in turbulent flames. The local mixing rate is influenced by the turbulence, the chemical, and the molecular diffusion processes which are strongly coupled in turbulent premixed flames. Thus, a model for the mean scalar dissipation rate, and hence the mean reaction rate, should include the contributions of these processes. Earlier models for the scalar dissipation rate include only a turbulence time scale. In this study, we derive exact transport equations for the instantaneous and the mean scalar dissipation rates. Using these equations, a simple algebraic model for the mean scalar dissipation rate is obtained. This model includes a chemical as well as a turbulence time scale and its prediction compares well with direct numerical simulation results. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations of a test flame using the model obtained here show that the contribution of dilatation to local turbulent mixing rate is important to predict the propagation phenomenon.
Effects of pressure gradients on turbulent premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veynante, D.; Poinsot, T.
1995-01-01
The influence of a constant acceleration on a turbulent premixed flame is studied by direct numerical simulation. This acceleration induces a mean pressure gradient across the flame brush, leading to a modification of the turbulent flame structure due to differential buoyancy mechanisms between heavy cold fresh and light hot burnt gases. Such a pressure gradient may be encountered in practical applications in ducted flames. A favorable pressure gradient, i.e. the pressure decreases from unburnt to burnt gases, is found to decrease the flame wrinkling, the flame brush thickness, and the turbulent flame speed. A favorable pressure gradient also promotes counter-gradient turbulent transport. On the other hand, adverse pressure gradients tend to increase the flame brush thickness and turbulent flame speed, and promote classical gradient turbulent transport. The balance equation for the turbulent flux of the Favre averaged progress variable is also analyzed. The first results show that the fluctuating pressure term, cannot be neglected as generally assumed in models. Simple models assuming that a high mean pressure gradient may only be balanced by the cross-dissipation term seem too approximate. This analysis has to be continued to compare simulation data and closure schemes proposed for the transport equation. The analysis developed by Veynante et al.(1995) has been extended to imposed acceleration and mean pressure gradients. A simple model for the turbulent flux is proposed and validated from simulation data. Then, a modified criterion is derived to delineate between counter-gradient and gradient turbulent diffusion. In fact, counter-gradient diffusion may occur in most practical applications, especially for ducted flames.
Temperature response of turbulent premixed flames to inlet velocity oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayoola, B.; Hartung, G.; Armitage, C. A.; Hult, J.; Cant, R. S.; Kaminski, C. F.
2009-01-01
Flame-turbulence interactions are at the heart of modern combustion research as they have a major influence on efficiency, stability of operation and pollutant emissions. The problem remains a formidable challenge, and predictive modelling and the implementation of active control measures both rely on further fundamental measurements. Model burners with simple geometry offer an opportunity for the isolation and detailed study of phenomena that take place in real-world combustors, in an environment conducive to the application of advanced laser diagnostic tools. Lean premixed combustion conditions are currently of greatest interest since these are able to provide low NO x and improved increased fuel economy, which in turn leads to lower CO2 emissions. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the response of a bluff-body-stabilised flame to periodic inlet fluctuations under lean premixed turbulent conditions. Inlet velocity fluctuations were imposed acoustically using loudspeakers. Spatially resolved heat release rate imaging measurements, using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH and CH2O, have been performed to explore the periodic heat release rate response to various acoustic forcing amplitudes and frequencies. For the first time we use this method to evaluate flame transfer functions and we compare these results with chemiluminescence measurements. Qualitative thermometry based on two-line OH PLIF was also used to compare the periodic temperature distribution around the flame with the periodic fluctuation of local heat release rate during acoustic forcing cycles.
Hydrodynamic instability and shear layer effects in turbulent premixed combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlimpert, S.; Feldhusen, A.; Grimmen, J. H.; Roidl, B.; Meinke, M.; Schröder, W.
2016-01-01
A turbulent premixed plane jet flame is analyzed by large-eddy simulations. The analysis shows that the flame front wrinkling is strongly influenced by the shear layer effect when the gas expansion effects are small leading to larger flame front amplitudes at the flame base than at high gas expansion ratios. However, the hydrodynamic instability effect induces a continuously increasing flame front amplitude which yields an enhanced flame pocket generation at the flame tip. Both phenomena influence the magnitude of the turbulent burning area and burning area rate response through the flame front deflections which are determined by the contribution coefficient. This coefficient represents the mutual interaction between the flame and the flow. At low gas expansion ratios, the total heat release rate spectra of the turbulent flame are wider in terms of dominant modes at Strouhal numbers which are linked to the mean flame height oscillations. Thus, at low gas expansion ratios, the vortex-flame interaction is less damped by the flame in the sense that vortices can perturb the flame front stronger. The total heat release rate trend of St-2.2 previously found for a round jet flame is also determined for the current slot jet at realistic gas expansion ratios indicating a general tendency to transfer energy from large to small flame structures. At high gas expansion ratios, an increasing Markstein length leads to an energy transfer between neighboring dominant modes in the low frequency range 1 < St < 10 and the burning area rate response becomes more important for the total heat release rate spectra of the turbulent slot flames which agrees with recent findings for a laminar premixed plane flame.
Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl
Chan, C.K.; Lau, K.S.; Chin, W.K.; Cheng, R.K.
1991-12-01
A novel means has been developed for using weak swirl to stabilize freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames (swirl numbers between 0.05 to 0.3). By injecting a small amount of air tangentially into the co-flow of a concentric burner, stationary flames can be maintained above the burner exit for a large range of mixture, turbulence and flow conditions. The absence of physical surfaces in the vicinity of the flame provides free access to laser diagnostics. Laser Doppler anemometry and laser Mie scattering measurements of four flames with and without incident turbulence show that their features are typical of wrinkled laminar flames. The most distinct characteristics is that flame stabilization does not rely on flow recirculation. Centrifugal force induced by swirl causes flow divergence, and the flame is maintained at where the local mass flux balances the burning rate. The flame speeds can be estimated based on the centerline velocity vector, which is locally normal to the flame brush. This flame geometry is the closest approximation to the 1-D planar flame for determining fundamental properties to advance turbulent combustion theories. 18 refs.
Characteristics of Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegde, U.; Yuan, Z. G.; Stocker, D. P.; Bahadori, M. Y.
2001-01-01
This project is concerned with the characteristics of turbulent hydrocarbon (primarily propane) gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity. A microgravity environment provides the opportunity to study the structure of turbulent diffusion flames under momentum-dominated conditions (large Froude number) at moderate Reynolds number which is a combination not achievable in normal gravity. This paper summarizes progress made since the last workshop. Primarily, the features of flame radiation from microgravity turbulent jet diffusion flames in a reduced gravity environment are described. Tests were conducted for non-premixed, nitrogen diluted propane flames burning in quiescent air in the NASA Glenn 5.18 Second Zero Gravity Facility. Measured flame radiation from wedge-shaped, axial slices of the flame are compared for microgravity and normal gravity flames. Results from numerical computations of the flame using a k-e model for the turbulence are also presented to show the effects of flame radiation on the thermal field. Flame radiation is an important quantity that is impacted by buoyancy as has been shown in previous studies by the authors and also by Urban et al. It was found that jet diffusion flames burning under microgravity conditions have significantly higher radiative loss (about five to seven times higher) compared to their normal gravity counterparts because of larger flame size in microgravity and larger convective heat loss fraction from the flame in normal gravity. These studies, however, were confined to laminar flames. For the case of turbulent flames, the flame radiation is a function of time and both the time-averaged and time-dependent components are of interest. In this paper, attention is focused primarily on the time-averaged level of the radiation but the turbulent structure of the flame is also assessed from considerations of the radiation power spectra.
Direct simulations of premixed turbulent flames with nonunity Lewis numbers
Rutland, C.J.; Trouve, A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA . Center for Turbulence Research)
1993-07-01
A principal effect of turbulence on premixed flames in the flamelet regime is to wrinkle the flame fronts. For nonunity Lewis numbers, Le [ne] 1, the local flame structure is altered in curved regions. This effect is examined using direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional isotropic turbulence with constant density, single-step Arrhenius kinetics chemistry. Simulations of Lewis numbers 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 are compared. At the local level, curvature effects dominated changes to the flame structure while strain effects were insignificant. A strong Lewis-number-dependent correlation was found between surface curvature and the local flame speed. The correlation was positive for Le < 1 and negative for Le > 1. At the global level, strain-related effects were more significant than curvature effects. The turbulent flame speed changed significantly with Lewis number, increasing as Le decreased. This was found to be due to strain effect that have a nonzero mean over the flame surface, rather than to curvature effects that have a nearly zero mean. The mean product temperature was also found to vary with Lewis number, being higher for Le > 1 and lower for Le < 1.
A tomographic study of premixed turbulent stagnation point flames
Shepherd, I.G.; Cheng, R.K.; Goix, P.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1989-10-01
The high speed tomographic technique has been used to study premixed flame propagation in stagnation flow stabilized flames. Studies are performed on CH4/Air and C2H4/Air flames with equivalence ratios ranging from 0.75 to 1.0. The gas velocity at the nozzle exit is 5 m/s, the turbulence intensity is varied from 5% to 7% and the turbulence Reynolds number is 70. The light source is a copper vapor laser which produces 20ns, 5 mJ pulses at a 4KHz repetition rate. Cylindrical lenses transform the 38 mm circular laser beam to a sheet 50 mm high and 0.6 mm thick. A high speed Fastax camera is used to record the tomographic images. The films are digitized and the flame front extracted from the images by a thresholding technique. A fractal analysis was performed on the flame boundaries in order to characterize the flame geometry and provide an estimate of the flame surface area. The flame area increase was found to give a reasonable estimate of the burning rate when compared with other methods if the effects of flow tube divergence were considered. Characteristic wrinkle sizes were found to be much larger than the length scales of the turbulence in the reactant stream. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Direct simulations of premixed turbulent flames with nonunity Lewis numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutland, C. J.; Trouve, A.
1993-01-01
A principal effect of turbulence on premixed flames in the flamelet regime is to wrinkle the flame fronts. For nonunity Lewis numbers, Le is not equal to 1, the local flame structure is altered in curved regions. This effect is examined using direct numerical simulations of 3D isotropic turbulence with constant density, single-step Arrhenius kinetics chemistry. Simulations of Lewis numbers 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 are compared. At the local level, curvature effects dominated changes to the flame structure while strain effects were insignificant. A strong Lewis-number-dependent correlation was found between surface curvature and the local flame speed. The correlation was positive for Le less than 1 and negative for Le greater than 1. At the global level, strain-related effects were more significant than curvature effects. The turbulent flame speed changed significantly with Lewis number, increasing as Le decreased. This was found to be due to strain effects that have a nonzero mean over the flame surface, rather than to curvature effects that have a nearly zero mean. The mean product temperature was also found to vary with Lewis number, being higher for Le greater than 1 and lower for Le less than 1.
Lewis number effects on turbulent premixed flame structure
Goix, P.J. , 230 - Mont-Saint-Aignan . URA CORIA); Shepherd, I.G. )
1992-09-01
The influence of the Lewis number on turbulent flame front geometry is investigated in a premixed turbulent stagnation point flame. A laser tomography technique is used to obtain the flame shape, a fractal analysis of the multiscale flame edges is performed and the distribution of local flame front curvature is determined. Lean H[sub 2]/Air and C[sub 3]H[sub 8]/Air mixtures with similar burning rates were investigated with Lewis numbers of 0.33 and 1.85 respectively. At the conditions studied the laminar H[sub 2]/Air mixture is unstable and a cellular structure is observed. Turbulence in the reactant is generated by a perforated plate and the turbulent length scale (3mm) and intensity (7%) at the nozzle exit are fixed. The equivalence ratio is set so that the burning velocity is the same for all the cases. Results show clearly that the turbulent flame surface area is dependent on the Lewis number. For a Lewis number less than unity surface area production is observed. The shape of the flame front curvature distribution is not found to be very sensitive to the Lewis number. For the H[sub 2]/Air mixture the distribution is skewed toward the positive values indicating the presence of cusps while for the C[sub 3]H[sub 8]/Air mixture the distribution is more symmetrical. In both cases the average curvature is found to be zero, and if the local burning speed varies linearly with curvature, the local positive and negative burning velocity variations due to curvature will balance.
Lewis number effects on turbulent premixed flame structure
Goix, P.J.; Shepherd, I.G.
1992-09-01
The influence of the Lewis number on turbulent flame front geometry is investigated in a premixed turbulent stagnation point flame. A laser tomography technique is used to obtain the flame shape, a fractal analysis of the multiscale flame edges is performed and the distribution of local flame front curvature is determined. Lean H{sub 2}/Air and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/Air mixtures with similar burning rates were investigated with Lewis numbers of 0.33 and 1.85 respectively. At the conditions studied the laminar H{sub 2}/Air mixture is unstable and a cellular structure is observed. Turbulence in the reactant is generated by a perforated plate and the turbulent length scale (3mm) and intensity (7%) at the nozzle exit are fixed. The equivalence ratio is set so that the burning velocity is the same for all the cases. Results show clearly that the turbulent flame surface area is dependent on the Lewis number. For a Lewis number less than unity surface area production is observed. The shape of the flame front curvature distribution is not found to be very sensitive to the Lewis number. For the H{sub 2}/Air mixture the distribution is skewed toward the positive values indicating the presence of cusps while for the C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/Air mixture the distribution is more symmetrical. In both cases the average curvature is found to be zero, and if the local burning speed varies linearly with curvature, the local positive and negative burning velocity variations due to curvature will balance.
An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hua; Li, Shan; Wang, Hu; Ren, Zhuyin
2015-11-01
Predictive simulations of turbulent premixed flames over a wide range of Damköhler numbers in the framework of Probability Density Function (PDF) method still remain challenging due to the deficiency in current micro-mixing models. In this work, a hybrid micro-mixing model, valid in both the flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime, is proposed. A priori testing of this model is first performed by examining the conditional scalar dissipation rate and conditional scalar diffusion in a 3-D direct numerical simulation dataset of a temporally evolving turbulent slot jet flame of lean premixed H2-air in the thin reaction zone regime. Then, this new model is applied to PDF simulations of the Piloted Premixed Jet Burner (PPJB) flames, which are a set of highly shear turbulent premixed flames and feature strong turbulence-chemistry interaction at high Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. Supported by NSFC 51476087 and NSFC 91441202.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furukawa, Junichi; Noguchi, Yoshiki; Hirano, Toshisuke; Williams, Forman A.
2002-07-01
The density change across premixed flames propagating in turbulent flows modifies the turbulence. The nature of that modification depends on the regime of turbulent combustion, the burner design, the orientation of the turbulent flame and the position within the flame. The present study addresses statistically stationary turbulent combustion in the flame-sheet regime, in which the laminar-flame thickness is less than the Kolmogorov scale, for flames stabilized on a vertically oriented cylindrical burner having fully developed upward turbulent pipe flow upstream from the exit. Under these conditions, rapidly moving wrinkled laminar flamelets form the axisymmetric turbulent flame brush that is attached to the burner exit. Predictions have been made of changes in turbulence properties across laminar flamelets in such situations, but very few measurements have been performed to test the predictions. The present work measures individual velocity changes and changes in turbulence across flamelets at different positions in the turbulent flame brush for three different equivalence ratios, for comparison with theory.
Studies of Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames at Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abid, M.; Aung, K.; Ronney, P. D.; Sharif, J. A.; Wu, M.-S.
1999-01-01
Several topics relating to combustion limits in premixed flames at reduced gravity have been studied. These topics include: (1) flame balls; (2) numerical simulation of flame ball and planar flame structure and stability; (3) experimental simulation of buoyancy effects in premixed flames using aqueous autocatalytic reactions; and (4) premixed flame propagation in Hele-Shaw cells.
Effects of Lewis number on turbulent scalar transport and its modelling in turbulent premixed flames
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Cant, R.S.
2009-07-15
The behaviour of the turbulent scalar flux in premixed flames has been studied using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) with emphasis on the effects of Lewis number in the context of Reynolds-averaged closure modelling. A database was obtained from DNS of three-dimensional freely propagating statistically planar turbulent premixed flames with simplified chemistry and a range of global Lewis numbers from 0.34 to 1.2. Under the same initial conditions of turbulence, flames with low Lewis numbers are found to exhibit counter-gradient transport, whereas flames with higher Lewis numbers tend to exhibit gradient transport. The Reynolds-averaged transport equation for the turbulent scalar flux is analysed in detail and the performance of existing models for the unclosed terms is assessed with respect to corresponding quantities extracted from DNS data. Based on this assessment, existing models which are able to address the effects of non-unity Lewis number on turbulent scalar flux transport are identified, and new or modified models are suggested wherever necessary. In this way, a complete set of closure models for the scalar flux transport equation is prescribed for use in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. (author)
Intermittent features of inertial particle distributions in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Troiani, G.; Casciola, C. M.
2011-12-01
Clustering is widely observed in many turbulent flows, where it results from the inability of finite inertia particles to comply with the different time scales, which characterize a turbulent field. Depending on their inertia, particles are found to be instantaneously organized in clusters, whose size depends on the Kolmogorov-Stokes number and which presumably form as a consequence of particle ejection from persistent vortical structures. In reacting flows, the abrupt acceleration of the fluid across the thin flame front due to combustion adds new and unexpected features. The particles follow such acceleration with a certain time lag which, coupled with the flame front fluctuations, gives rise to an entirely different mechanism of cluster formation. As suggested in previous studies, a possible indicator of this preferential localization is the so-called clustering index, quantifying the departure of the actual particle arrangement from the Poissonian distribution. Most of the clustering is found in the flame brush region, where it cannot be explained by the standard arguments used in cold flows. Actually, the effect is significant also for very light particles, where the simple model we propose, based on the Bray-Moss-Libby formalism, is able to account for most of the deviation from the Poissonian. When the particle inertia increases, the effect becomes larger and it is found to persist well within the region of the burned gases. The observed clustering is confirmed by a more precise analysis in terms of a generalization of the radial distribution function to inhomogeneous, anisotropic flows. The results taken from a direct numerical simulation with single step kinetics favorably compare with experiments on a premixed Bunsen turbulent flame. The present findings are expected to be of some relevance for the plenty of applications dealing with particles in presence of combustion, e.g., liquid droplet swarms for combustion temperature control, soot dynamics, or
Studies of Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames at Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, O. C.; Abid, M.; Porres, J.; Liu, J. B.; Ronney, P. D.; Struk, P. M.; Weiland, K. J.
2003-01-01
Several topics relating to premixed flame behavior at reduced gravity have been studied. These topics include: (1) flame balls; (2) flame structure and stability at low Lewis number; (3) experimental simulation of buoyancy effects in premixed flames using aqueous autocatalytic reactions; and (4) premixed flame propagation in Hele-Shaw cells. Because of space limitations, only topic (1) is discussed here, emphasizing results from experiments on the recent STS-107 Space Shuttle mission, along with numerical modeling efforts.
Blowoff dynamics of bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flames
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Kostka, Stanislav; Renfro, Michael W.; Cetegen, Baki M.
2010-04-15
This article concerns the flame dynamics of a bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches lean blowoff. Time resolved chemiluminescence imaging along with simultaneous particle image velocimetry and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence were utilized in an axisymmetric bluff body stabilized, propane-air flame to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff and provide a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. It was found that as lean blowoff is approached by reduction of equivalence ratio, flame speed decreases and the flame shape progressively changes from a conical to a columnar shape. For a stably burning conical flame away from blowoff, the flame front envelopes the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, the columnar flame front and shear layer vortices overlap to induce high local stretch rates that exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously and in the mean, resulting in local flame extinction along the shear layers. Following shear layer extinction, fresh reactants can pass through the shear layers to react within the recirculation zone with all other parts of the flame extinguished. This flame kernel within the recirculation zone may survive for a few milliseconds and can reignite the shear layers such that the entire flame is reestablished for a short period. This extinction and reignition event can happen several times before final blowoff which occurs when the flame kernel fails to reignite the shear layers and ultimately leads to total flame extinguishment. (author)
Transport of inertial particles in a turbulent premixed jet flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Troiani, G.; Casciola, C. M.
2011-12-01
The heat release, occurring in reacting flows, induces a sudden fluid acceleration which particles follow with a certain lag, due to their finite inertia. Actually, the coupling between particle inertia and the flame front expansion strongly biases the spatial distribution of the particles, by inducing the formation of localized clouds with different dimensions downstream the thin flame front. A possible indicator of this preferential localization is the so-called Clustering Index, quantifying the departure of the actual particle distribution from the Poissonian, which would correspond to a purely random spatial arrangement. Most of the clustering is found in the flame brush region, which is spanned by the fluctuating instantaneous flame front. The effect is significant also for very light particles. In this case a simple model based on the Bray-Moss-Libby formalism is able to account for most of the deviation from the Poissonian. When the particle inertia increases, the effect is found to increases and persist well within the region of burned gases. The effect is maximum when the particle relaxation time is of the order of the flame front time scale. The evidence of this peculiar source of clustering is here provided by data from a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent premixed jet flame and confirmed by experimental data.
A second-order closure prediction of premixed turbulent combustion in jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davé, N.; Kollmann, W.
1987-02-01
In this paper, a numerical prediction is reported involving second-order closure of a turbulent flow of a vertically burning, lean mixture of premixed combustible gases discharging from a pipe and developing into a turbulent combusting roundjet. Classical closures are used where available. Expressions for the chemical reaction rate term and other unclosed terms related to variable density flow in the Favre-averaged turbulent transport equations are based on the Bray-Moss-Libby aerothermochemistry for premixed turbulent combustion, extended to variable enthalpy systems. Mixing of hot burned and cool ambient gases and the attendant buoyancy effects are found to be significant physical phenomena in the behavior of such lean premixed combusting jets. Results of the simulation are compared with experimental data of Yoshida [Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 931] with which reasonable numerical agreement is obtained. Reasons for discrepancies and possible lines for future research are discussed.
Combustion dynamics linked to flame behaviour in a partially premixed swirled industrial burner
Biagioli, Fernando; Guethe, Felix; Schuermans, Bruno
2008-07-15
Previous work [Biagioli, F., Stabilization mechanism of turbulent premixed flames in strongly swirled flows, Combustion, Theory and Modelling 10 (3) (2006) 389-412; Guethe, F., Lachner, R., Schuermans, B., Biagioli, F., Geng, W., Inauen, A., Schenker, S., Bombach, R., Hubschmid, W., Flame imaging on the ALSTOM EV-burner: thermo acoustic pulsations and CFD-validation, in: AIAA Paper 2006-437 presented at the 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 9-12, 2006] has shown that turbulent dry low NO{sub x} (partially premixed) flames in high swirl conical burners may be subject to a large change of their anchoring location at the symmetry axis when a critical value of the bulk equivalence ratio is reached, i.e. they are bi-stable. This flame behavior is linked here to combustion pressure dynamics measured in an atmospheric test rig for a prototype version of the Alstom EnVironmental (EV) conical burner. The link is made via the solution of the problem of the 'travelling flameholder', which shows that the unsteady displacement of the flame anchoring location implies an unsteady variation of the flame surface area and therefore unsteady heat release. The relevance of this source of unsteady heat release - which is different from more usual ones due to variations in turbulent burning rate and in the sensible enthalpy jump across the flame - to the generation of combustion dynamics in strongly swirled flows is confirmed here by the strong positive correlation between the tendency of the flame to be displaced and the measured amplitude of pressure pulsations. (author)
Gradient, counter-gradient transport and their transition in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimont, Vladimir L.; Biagioli, Fernando
2002-03-01
We theoretically and numerically analyse the phenomenon of counter-gradient transport in turbulent premixed flames with pressure distribution across the flame brush mainly controlled by heat release. The focus is on the transition from counter-gradient to gradient transport obtained when increasing the turbulence intensity/laminar flame speed ratio, a phenomenon recently found in open laboratory flame experiments by Frank et al (1999 Combust. Flame 116 220). The analysis is based on the turbulent flame closure combustion model for the simulation of turbulent premixed flames at strong turbulence (u' >> sL). In this case, earlier work suggests that turbulent premixed flames have non-equilibrium increasing flame brush width controlled in the model only by turbulence and independent from the counter-gradient transport phenomenon which has gasdynamic nature, and equilibrium turbulent flame speed which quickly adapts to the local turbulence. Flames of this type have been called intermediate steady propagation flames. According to the present analysis, transport in turbulent premixed flames is composed of two contributions: real physical gradient turbulent diffusion, which is responsible for the growth of flame brush thickness, and counter-gradient pressure-driven convective transport related to the different acceleration of burnt and unburnt gases subject to the average pressure variation across the turbulent flame. The original gasdynamics model for the pressure-driven transport which is developed here shows that the overall transport may be of gradient or counter-gradient nature according to which of these two contributions is dominant, and that along the flame a transformation from gradient to counter-gradient transport takes place. Reasonable agreement with the mentioned laboratory experimental data strongly support the validity of the present modelling ideas. Finally, we explain why this phenomenon is also highly probable in large-scale industrial burners at much
Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames
Ayoola, B.O.; Kaminski, C.F.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.; Frank, J.H.
2006-01-01
Heat release rate is a fundamental property of great importance for the theoretical and experimental elucidation of unsteady flame behaviors such as combustion noise, combustion instabilities, and pulsed combustion. Investigations of such thermoacoustic interactions require a reliable indicator of heat release rate capable of resolving spatial structures in turbulent flames. Traditionally, heat release rate has been estimated via OH or CH radical chemiluminescence; however, chemiluminescence suffers from being a line-of-sight technique with limited capability for resolving small-scale structures. In this paper, we report spatially resolved two-dimensional measurements of a quantity closely related to heat release rate. The diagnostic technique uses simultaneous OH and CH{sub 2}O planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and the pixel-by-pixel product of the OH and CH{sub 2}O PLIF signals has previously been shown to correlate well with local heat release rates. Results from this diagnostic technique, which we refer to as heat release rate imaging (HR imaging), are compared with traditional OH chemiluminescence measurements in several flames. Studies were performed in lean premixed ethylene flames stabilized between opposed jets and with a bluff body. Correlations between bulk strain rates and local heat release rates were obtained and the effects of curvature on heat release rate were investigated. The results show that the heat release rate tends to increase with increasing negative curvature for the flames investigated for which Lewis numbers are greater than unity. This correlation becomes more pronounced as the flame gets closer to global extinction.
Partially-Premixed Flames in Internal Combustion Engines
Robert W. Pitz; Michael C. Drake; Todd D. Fansler; Volker Sick
2003-11-05
This was a joint university-industry research program funded by the Partnerships for the Academic-Industrial Research Program (PAIR). The research examined partially premixed flames in laboratory and internal combustion engine environments at Vanderbilt University, University of Michigan, and General Motors Research and Development. At Vanderbilt University, stretched and curved ''tubular'' premixed flames were measured in a unique optically accessible burner with laser-induced spontaneous Raman scattering. Comparisons of optically measured temperature and species concentration profiles to detailed transport, complex chemistry simulations showed good correspondence at low-stretch conditions in the tubular flame. However, there were significant discrepancies at high-stretch conditions near flame extinction. The tubular flame predictions were found to be very sensitive to the specific hydrogen-air chemical kinetic mechanism and four different mechanisms were compared. In addition, the thermo-diffusive properties of the deficient reactant, H2, strongly affected the tubular flame structure. The poor prediction near extinction is most likely due to deficiencies in the chemical kinetic mechanisms near extinction. At the University of Michigan, an optical direct-injected engine was built up for laser-induced fluorescence imaging experiments on mixing and combustion under stratified charge combustion conditions with the assistance of General Motors. Laser attenuation effects were characterized both experimentally and numerically to improve laser imaging during the initial phase of the gasoline-air mixture development. Toluene was added to the isooctane fuel to image the fuel-air equivalence ratio in an optically accessible direct-injected gasoline engine. Temperature effects on the toluene imaging of fuel-air equivalence ratio were characterized. For the first time, oxygen imaging was accomplished in an internal combustion engine by combination of two fluorescence trackers
Studies of Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames at Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, Paul D.
1993-01-01
The work of the Principal Investigator (PI) has encompassed four topics related to the experimental and theoretical study of combustion limits in premixed flames at microgravity, as discussed in the following sections. These topics include: (1) radiation effects on premixed gas flames; (2) flame structure and stability at low Lewis number; (3) flame propagation and extinction is cylindrical tubes; and (4) experimental simulation of combustion processes using autocatalytic chemical reactions.
Pdf modeling for premixed turbulent combustion based on the properties of iso-concentration surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vervisch, L.; Kollmann, W.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.
1994-01-01
In premixed turbulent flames the presence of intense mixing zones located in front of and behind the flame surface leads to a requirement to study the behavior of iso-concentration surfaces defined for all values of the progress variable (equal to unity in burnt gases and to zero in fresh mixtures). To support this study, some theoretical and mathematical tools devoted to level surfaces are first developed. Then a database of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames is generated and used to investigate the internal structure of the flame brush, and a new pdf model based on the properties of iso-surfaces is proposed.
Flamelet Model Application for Non-Premixed Turbulent Combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Secundov, A.; Bezgin, L.; Buriko, Yu.; Guskov, O.; Kopchenov, V.; Laskin, I.; Lomkov, K.; Tshepin, S.; Volkov, D.; Zaitsev, S.
1996-01-01
The current Final Report contains results of the study which was performed in Scientific Research Center 'ECOLEN' (Moscow, Russia). The study concerns the development and verification of non-expensive approach for modeling of supersonic turbulent diffusion flames based on flamelet consideration of the chemistry/turbulence interaction (FL approach). Research work included: development of the approach and CFD tests of the flamelet model for supersonic jet flames; development of the simplified procedure for solution of the flamelet equations based on partial equilibrium chemistry assumption; study of the flame ignition/extinction predictions provided by flamelet model. The performed investigation demonstrated that FL approach allowed to describe satisfactory main features of supersonic H 2/air jet flames. Model demonstrated also high capabilities for reduction of the computational expenses in CFD modeling of the supersonic flames taking into account detailed oxidation chemistry. However, some disadvantages and restrictions of the existing version of approach were found in this study. They were: (1) inaccuracy in predictions of the passive scalar statistics by our turbulence model for one of the considered test cases; and (2) applicability of the available version of the flamelet model to flames without large ignition delay distance only. Based on the results of the performed investigation, we formulated and submitted to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration our Project Proposal for the next step research directed toward further improvement of the FL approach.
Schneider, E.; Maltsev, A.; Sadiki, A.; Janicka, J.
2008-03-15
In this work the potential of two combustion modeling approaches (BML and G-equation based models) for partially premixed flames in combustion systems of various complexities is investigated using URANS computations. The first configuration consists of a nonconfined swirled premixed methane/air flame (swirl number 0.75) exhibiting partially premixed effects due to coflowing. The system is studied either in the isothermal case or in the reacting mode and for different thermal powers. The second configuration represents a model GT combustion chamber and features the main properties of real GT combustors: a confined swirled flow with multiple recirculation zones and reattachment points, resulting in a partially premixed methane/air aerodynamically stabilized flame and an additional diffusion flame formed by the fuel and oxidizer not consumed in the premixed flame. This makes it possible to subject the modeling to variation of different parameters, such as confinement, Re-number or flame power, or adiabatic or nonadiabatic conditions. For this purpose an extended Bray-Moss-Libby model and a G-equation-based approach, both coupled to the mixture fraction transport equation to account for partially premixed effects, are used following the so-called conditional progress variable approach (CPVA). The radiation effects are also taken into account. To account for the turbulence-chemistry interaction, a (multivariate) presumed PDF approach is applied. The results are compared with LDV, Raman, and PLIF measurements. Beyond a pure validation, the URANS is used to capture the presence of the precessing vortex core and to analyze the performance of different modeling strategies of partially premixed combustion in capturing the expansion ratio, species formation conditioned on the flame front, and flame front stabilization. It appears that the combustion models used are able to achieve plausible results in the complex combustion systems under study, while the BML-based model
LES and acoustic analysis of thermo-acoustic instabilities in a partially premixed model combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, Ignacio; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Poinsot, Thierry; Román Casado, Juan C.; Kok, Jim B. W.
2013-01-01
Numerical simulations were performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and acoustic analysis tools to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in a methane/air academic burner installed at the University of Twente (The Netherlands). It operates under fuel-lean partially premixed conditions at atmospheric pressure, and was built to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in conditions representative of gas turbine Lean Premixed systems: gaseous fuel is injected upstream of the combustor and has a limited time to mix with air. Even though the objective is to burn in a premixed mode, the actual regime corresponds to a partially premixed flame where strong equivalence ratio variations are created especially during combustion instabilities. Capturing these modes with LES is a challenge: here, simulations for both stable and unstable regimes are performed. In the unstable case, the limit cycle oscillations (LCO) are characterized and compared to experimental results. Reasonable agreement is found between simulations and experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunno, A. Cody; Mueller, Michael E.
2015-11-01
Radiation effects are examined in turbulent premixed flames using a detailed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The approach combines a tabulated premixed flamelet model (Flamelet Generated Manifolds) with an optically thin radiation model. Radiation heat loss is tracked using an enthalpy deficit coordinate. Heat loss in the flamelets is calculated by varying a coefficient on the radiation source term, ranging from zero (adiabatic) to unity (full optically thin heat loss). NOx emissions are modeled with an additional transport equation that is able to capture unsteady effects resulting from slow kinetics. The model is compared against experimental measurements of methane-air piloted turbulent premixed planar jet flames with increasing levels of water dilution that maintain a constant adiabatic flame temperature. The effects of water dilution on global flame structure and NO emissions resulting directly and indirectly from radiation are examined in detail.
Study of Turbulent Premixed Flame Propagation using a Laminar Flamelet Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Im, H. G.
1995-01-01
The laminar flamelet concept in turbulent reacting flows is considered applicable to many practical combustion systems (Linan & Williams 1993). For turbulent premixed combustion, the laminar flamelet regime is valid when turbulent Karlovitz number is less than unity, which is equivalent to stating that the characteristic thickness of the flame is less than that of a Kolmogorov eddy; this is known as the Klimov-Williams criterion (Williams 1985). In such a case, the flame maintains its laminar structure, and the effect of turbulent flow is merely to wrinkle and strain the flame front. The propagating wrinkled premixed flame can then be described as an infinitesimally thin surface dividing the unburnt fresh mixture and the burnt product.
Subfilter Scale Combustion Modelling for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazian, Nasim
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a powerful computational tool for modelling turbulent combustion processes. However, for reactive flows, LES is still under significant development. In particular, for turbulent premixed flames, a considerable complication of LES is that the flame thickness is generally much smaller than the LES filter width such that the flame front and chemical reactions cannot be resolved on the grid. Accurate and robust subfilter-scale (SFS) models of the unresolved turbulence-chemistry interactions are therefore required and studies are needed to evaluate and improve them. In this thesis, a detailed comparison and evaluation of five different SFS models for turbulence- chemistry interactions in LES of premixed flames is presented. These approaches include both flamelet- and non-flamelet-based models, coupled with simple or tabulated chemistry. The mod- elling approaches considered herein are: algebraic- and transport-equation variants of the flame surface density (FSD) model, the presumed conditional moment (PCM) with flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated chemistry, or PCM-FPI approach, evaluated with two different presumed probability density function (PDF) models; and conditional source-term estimation (CSE) approach. The predicted LES solutions are compared to the existing laboratory-scale experimental observation of Bunsen-type turbulent premixed methane-air flames, corresponding to lean and stoichiometric conditions lying from the upper limit of the flamelet regime to well within the thin reaction zones regime of the standard regimes diagram. Direct comparison of different SFS approaches allows investigation of stability and performance of the models, while the weaknesses and strengths of each approach are identified. Evaluation of algebraic and transported FSD models highlights the importance of non-equilibrium transport in turbulent premixed flames. The effect of the PDF type for the reaction progress
Response of partially premixed flames to acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio perturbations
Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A.
2010-09-15
This article describes an experimental investigation of the forced response of a swirl-stabilized partially premixed flame when it is subjected to acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations. The flame's response is analyzed using phase-resolved CH{sup *} chemiluminescence images and flame transfer function (FTF) measurements, and compared with the response of a perfectly premixed flame under acoustic perturbations. The nonlinear response of the partially premixed flame is manifested by a partial extinction of the reaction zone, leading to rapid reduction of flame surface area. This nonlinearity, however, is observed only when the phase difference between the acoustic velocity and the equivalence ratio at the combustor inlet is close to zero. The condition, {delta}{phi}{sub {phi}}'-V'{approx}0 , indicates that reactant mixtures with high equivalence ratio impinge on the flame front with high velocity, inducing large fluctuations of the rate of heat release. It is found that the phase difference between the acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio nonuniformities is a key parameter governing the linear/nonlinear response of a partially premixed flame, and it is a function of modulation frequency, inlet velocity, fuel injection location, and fuel injector impedance. The results presented in this article will provide insight into the response of a partially premixed flame, which has not been well explored to date. (author)
The Behavior of Methane-Air Partially Premixed Flames Under Normal- and Zero-G Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Choi, Chun Wai; Hegde, Uday
2001-01-01
Partially premixed flames (PPFs) represent a class of hybrid flames containing multiple reaction zones. These flames are established when less than stoichiometric quantity of oxidizer is molecularly mixed with the fuel stream before entering the reaction zone where additional oxidizer is available for complete combustion. This mode of combustion can be used to exploit the advantages of both nonpremixed and premixed flames regarding operational safety, lower pollutant emissions and flame stabilization. A double flame containing a fuel-rich premixed reaction zone, which is anchored by a nonpremixed reaction zone, is one example of a partially premixed flame. A triple flame is also a PPF that contains three reaction zones, namely, a fuel-rich premixed zone, a fuel-lean premixed zone, and a nonpremixed reaction zone. Herein we focus on two aspects of our investigation, one involving the development of optical diagnostics that can be used on a microgravity rig, which has been recently fabricated, and the other on the numerically predicted differences between normal- and zero-gravity PPFs. Both the measurements and simulations examine the detailed structure of methane-air PPFs stabilized on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner.
The evolution equation for the flame surface density in turbulent premixed combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trouve, Arnaud
1993-01-01
The mean reaction rate in flamelet models for turbulent premixed combustion depends on two basic quantities: a mean chemical rate, called the flamelet speed, and the flame surface density. Our previous work had been primarily focused on the problem of the structure and topology of turbulent premixed flames, and it was then determined that the flamelet speed, when space-averaged, is only weakly sensitive to the turbulent flow field. Consequently, the flame surface density is the key quantity that conveys most of the effects of the turbulence on the rate of energy release. In flamelet models, this quantity is obtained via a modeled transport equation called the Sigma-equation. Past theoretical work has produced a rigorous approach that leads to an exact but unclosed formulation for the turbulent Sigma-equation. In the exact Sigma-equation, it appears that the dynamical properties of the flame surface density are determined by a single parameter, namely the turbulent flame stretch. Unfortunately, the turbulent flame stretch as well as the flame surface density is not available from experiments, and, in the absence of experimental data, little is known on the validity of the closure assumptions used in current flamelet models. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is the alternative approach to get basic information on these fundamental quantities. In the present work, three-dimensional DNS of premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow is used to estimate the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation. A new methodology is proposed to provide the source and sink terms for the flame surface density, resolved both temporally and spatially throughout the turbulent flame brush. Using this methodology, our objective is to extract the turbulent flame stretch from the DNS data base and then perform extensive comparisons with flamelet models. Thanks to the detailed information produced by the DNS-based analysis, it is expected that this type of comparison will not only
Consistent flamelet modeling of differential molecular diffusion for turbulent non-premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haifeng
2016-03-01
Treating differential molecular diffusion correctly and accurately remains as a great challenge to the modeling of turbulent non-premixed combustion. The aim of this paper is to develop consistent modeling strategies for differential molecular diffusion in flamelet models. Two types of differential molecular diffusion models are introduced, linear differential diffusion models and nonlinear differential diffusion models. A multi-component turbulent mixing layer problem is analyzed in detail to gain insights into differential molecular diffusion and its characteristics, particularly the dependence of differential molecular diffusion on the Reynolds number and the Lewis number. These characteristics are then used to validate the differential molecular diffusion models. Finally, the new models are applied to the modeling of a series of laboratory-scale turbulent non-premixed jet flames with different Reynolds number (Sandia Flames B, C, and D) to further assess the models' performance.
a Second-Order Closure Prediction of Premixed Turbulent Combustion in Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dave, Nikhil
1985-12-01
This thesis is a report on work carried out and results obtained in the prediction of a turbulent flow of premixed combustible gases discharging from a pipe and developing into a turbulent, combusting roundjet. The expressions for the chemical reaction rate term and other unclosed terms in the Favre averaged turbulent transport equations at the level of second-order closure are based on the Bray-Moss-Libby aerothermochemistry for premixed turbulent combustion, extended to variable enthalpy systems as in Bray, Champion, Dave, Libby (referenced herein). The numerical technique used is a parabolic solver developed by Kollmann from the GENMIX program due to Patankar and Spalding. Various test cases such as constant density and variable density jets are calculated using the program and the results are compared herein with experimentally observed values. Results for premixed turbulent combusting jets are compared with experimental data of Yoshida and of Shepherd and Moss. Buoyancy is found to play an important role in the behavior of these primixed combusting jets. Reasonable numerical agreement is obtained with the results of Yoshida, and good qualitative agreement is obtained with the data of Shepherd and Moss. Reasons for the discrepancies and limitations of the numerical simulation are discussed.
Relevance of the Bray number in the small-scale modeling of turbulent premixed flames
Mura, Arnaud; Champion, Michel
2009-03-15
The present study is devoted to the analysis of the influence of expansion phenomena on turbulent small scales in premixed reactive flows. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the expansion that takes place across wrinkled laminar flamelet can be sufficient to control the fluctuating velocity gradients and associated dissipation rate functions. These conditions are fixed by the respective values of a set of nondimensional parameters, namely the turbulence Reynolds number Re{sub T}, the Bray number, and the ratio between integral length scale of turbulence and thermal flame front thickness. A new criterion is introduced that makes it possible to delineate the influence of expansion phenomena on small-scale turbulent premixed reactive flows. The relevance of this criterion is analyzed in the light of experimental results represented in the classical diagram of combustion regime. The present analysis confirms that special care is required to represent and include the influence of expansion phenomena when using either RANS or LES closures to model turbulent premixed combustion. (author)
Detection of temperature and equivalence ratio in turbulent premixed flames using chemiluminescence
Roby, R.J.; Reaney, J.E.; Johnsson, E.L.
1998-07-01
A non-intrusive, fast-response method for the determination of temperature and equivalence ratio has been developed for laminar and turbulent premixed methane/air flames. This method utilizes chemiluminescent flame emissions to make correlations with flame temperature and equivalence ratio. Emissions from two radical groups were used for the correlations: an OH system at 309 nm and a CH system at 431 nm. the experimental apparatus consisted of a laminar or turbulent premixed burner, an optical system (lenses, monochromator, and photomultiplier tube), and a data collection system (digital oscilloscope and computer). An optical system using fiber optics and band pass interference filters was also investigated. The spectra of laminar and turbulent, premixed methane flames of known stoichiometry were recorded and a high temperature Pt-Pt10%Rh thermocouple was used to establish flame temperature. The ratio of signal width to signal height of the OH spectra was used to correlate flame temperature. The ratio of OH to CH signal heights was used to correlate equivalence ratio. Similar correlations were found for both temperature and equivalence ratio when the turbulent and laminar correlations were compared. The effect of increasing turbulence was investigated and found to have little or not effect on the correlations over the Reynolds number range of 3,000 to 7,000.
Local curvature measurements of a lean, partially premixed swirl-stabilised flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayley, Alan E.; Hardalupas, Yannis; Taylor, Alex M. K. P.
2012-04-01
A swirl-stabilised, lean, partially premixed combustor operating at atmospheric conditions has been used to investigate the local curvature distributions in lifted, stable and thermoacoustically oscillating CH4-air partially premixed flames for bulk cold-flow Reynolds numbers of 15,000 and 23,000. Single-shot OH planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to capture instantaneous images of these three different flame types. Use of binary thresholding to identify the reactant and product regions in the OH planar laser-induced fluorescence images, in order to extract accurate flame-front locations, is shown to be unsatisfactory for the examined flames. The Canny-Deriche edge detection filter has also been examined and is seen to still leave an unacceptable quantity of artificial flame-fronts. A novel approach has been developed for image analysis where a combination of a non-linear diffusion filter, Sobel gradient and threshold-based curve elimination routines have been used to extract traces of the flame-front to obtain local curvature distributions. A visual comparison of the effectiveness of flame-front identification is made between the novel approach, the threshold binarisation filter and the Canny-Deriche filter. The novel approach appears to most accurately identify the flame-fronts. Example histograms of the curvature for six flame conditions and of the total image area are presented and are found to have a broader range of local flame curvatures for increasing bulk Reynolds numbers. Significantly positive values of mean curvature and marginally positive values of skewness of the histogram have been measured for one lifted flame case, but this is generally accounted for by the effect of flame brush curvature. The mean local flame-front curvature reduces with increasing axial distance from the burner exit plane for all flame types. These changes are more pronounced in the lifted flames but are marginal for the thermoacoustically oscillating flames. It is
A simulation of a bluff-body stabilized turbulent premixed flame using LES-PDF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeonglae; Pope, Stephen
2013-11-01
A turbulent premixed flame stabilized by a triangular cylinder as a flame-holder is simulated. The computational condition matches the Volvo experiments (Sjunnesson et al. 1992). Propane is premixed at a fuel lean condition of ϕ = 0 . 65 . For this reactive simulation, LES-PDF formulation is used, similar to Yang et al. (2012). The evolution of Lagrangian particles is simulated by solving stochastic differential equations modeling transport of the composition PDF. Mixing is modeled by the modified IEM model (Viswanathan et al. 2011). Chemical reactions are calculated by ISAT and for the good load balancing, PURAN distribution of ISAT tables is applied (Hiremath et al. 2012). To calculate resolved density, the two-way coupling (Popov & Pope 2013) is applied, solving a transport equation of resolved specific volume to reduce statistical noise. A baseline calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental measurements in turbulence statistics, temperature, and minor species mass fractions. Chemical reaction does not significantly contribute to the overall computational cost, in contrast to non-premixed flame simulations (Hiremath et al. 2013), presumably due to the restricted manifold of the purely premixed flame in the composition space.
Numerical computations and optical diagnostics of unsteady partially premixed methane/air flames
Nogenmyr, K.J.; Bai, X.S.; Kiefer, J.; Li, Z.S.; Alden, M.
2010-05-15
The structures and dynamics of unsteady laminar partially premixed methane/air Bunsen flames are studied by means of numerical simulations, OH and CH PLIF imaging, and high speed chemiluminescence imaging employing a high framing speed intensified charge coupled device camera. The Bunsen burner has a diameter of 22 mm. Rich methane/air mixtures with an equivalence ratio of 1.5 are injected from the burner into atmosphere at different flow speeds ranging from 0.77 to 1.7 m/s, with Reynolds numbers based on the nozzle flow ranging from 1100 to 2500. The numerical simulations are based on a two-scalar flamelet manifold tabulation approach. Detailed chemistry is used to generate the flamelet manifold tabulation which relates the species concentrations, reaction rates, temperature and density to a distance function G and mixture fraction Z. Two distinct reaction zones are identified using CH and OH PLIF imaging and numerical simulations; one inner reaction zone corresponds to premixed flames on the rich side of the mixture and one outer reaction zone corresponds to mixing controlled diffusion flames on the lean side of the mixture. Under normal gravity conditions both the inner premixed flames and the outer diffusion flames are unsteady. The outer diffusion flames oscillate with a flickering frequency of about 15 Hz, which slightly increases with the burner exit velocity. The inner premixed flames are more random with much more small-scale wrinkling structures. Under zero gravity conditions the outer diffusion flames are stable whereas the inner premixed flames are unstable and highly wrinkled. It appears that the outer diffusion flames are governed by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability whereas the inner premixed flames are dictated by Landau-Darrieus instability. The two-scalar flamelet approach is shown to capture the basic structures and dynamics of the investigated unsteady partially premixed flames. (author)
A dynamic model for the turbulent burning velocity for large eddy simulation of premixed combustion
Knudsen, E.; Pitsch, H.
2008-09-15
Turbulent premixed combustion is particularly difficult to describe using large eddy simulation (LES). In LES, premixed flame structures typically exist on subfilter length scales. Consequently, premixed LES models must be capable of describing how completely unresolved flame structures propagate under the influence of completely unresolved eddies. This description is usually accomplished through the implementation of a model for the turbulent burning velocity. Here, a dynamic model for describing the turbulent burning velocity in the context of LES is presented. This model uses a new surface filtering procedure that is consistent with standard LES filtering. Additionally, it only uses information that comes directly from the flame front. This latter attribute is important for two reasons. First, it guarantees that the model can be consistently applied when level set methods, where arbitrary constraints can be imposed on field variables away from fronts, are used to track the flame. Second, it forces the model to recognize that the physics governing flame front propagation are only valid locally at the front. Results showing model validation in the context of direct numerical simulation (DNS), and model application in the context of LES, are presented. (author)
Characteristics of Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegde, U.; Yuan, Z. G.; Stocker, D. P.; Bahadori, M. Y.
1999-01-01
The momentum of the fuel (and/or air) jet is important in classifying gas-jet diffusion flame behavior. Normal-gravity data on gas-jet flames show that the flame height (non-dimensionalized with respect to an effective diameter) can be correlated to a density weighted Froude number in the buoyancy-dominated limit. In the momentum-dominated limit this non-dimensional flame height asymptotes to a constant value. The momentum-dominated limit under normal gravity conditions is usually obtained for very high injection velocities which in turn results in high values of the injection Reynolds number. This results in a complicated flame structure because of the large number of turbulence scales involved. In order to gain better insight into the structure of these flames it would be useful to reduce the injection Reynolds number while still maintaining turbulent conditions. This can be done in microgravity where momentum-dominated turbulent flames are obtained at much smaller velocities than in normal gravity. In this paper, experimental results on the effects of nozzle diameter and fuel dilution on flame height are discussed. The experimental values are compared with predictions from a numerical procedure utilizing the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Flame height scaling with nozzle size and dilution is established. Differences between model predictions and measurements are presented. In order to explain these differences, evolutions of turbulent spectra and Taylor microscale along the flame axis are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chin Yik; Li, Larry Kin Bong; Juniper, Matthew P.; Cant, Robert Stewart
2016-01-01
Turbulent premixed flames often experience thermoacoustic instabilities when the combustion heat release rate is in phase with acoustic pressure fluctuations. Linear methods often assume a priori that oscillations are periodic and occur at a dominant frequency with a fixed amplitude. Such assumptions are not made when using nonlinear analysis. When an oscillation is fully saturated, nonlinear analysis can serve as a useful avenue to reveal flame behaviour far more elaborate than period-one limit cycles, including quasi-periodicity and chaos in hydrodynamically or thermoacoustically self-excited system. In this paper, the behaviour of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed propane/air flame in a model jet-engine afterburner configuration is investigated using computational fluid dynamics. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach is found to be appropriate. Combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic closure for the flame surface density. The results are validated by comparison with existing experimental data and with large eddy simulation, and the observed self-excited oscillations in pressure and heat release are studied using methods derived from dynamical systems theory. A systematic analysis is carried out by increasing the equivalence ratio of the reactant stream supplied to the premixed flame. A strong variation in the global flame structure is observed. The flame exhibits a self-excited hydrodynamic oscillation at low equivalence ratios, becomes steady as the equivalence ratio is increased to intermediate values, and again exhibits a self-excited thermoacoustic oscillation at higher equivalence ratios. Rich nonlinear behaviour is observed and the investigation demonstrates that turbulent premixed flames can exhibit complex dynamical behaviour including quasiperiodicity, limit cycles and period-two limit cycles due to the interactions of various
Conditional statistics in a turbulent premixed flame derived from direct numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mantel, Thierry; Bilger, Robert W.
1994-01-01
The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce conditional moment closure (CMC) methods for premixed systems and to derive the transport equation for the conditional species mass fraction conditioned on the progress variable based on the enthalpy. Our statistical analysis will be based on the 3-D DNS database of Trouve and Poinsot available at the Center for Turbulence Research. The initial conditions and characteristics (turbulence, thermo-diffusive properties) as well as the numerical method utilized in the DNS of Trouve and Poinsot are presented, and some details concerning our statistical analysis are also given. From the analysis of DNS results, the effects of the position in the flame brush, of the Damkoehler and Lewis numbers on the conditional mean scalar dissipation, and conditional mean velocity are presented and discussed. Information concerning unconditional turbulent fluxes are also presented. The anomaly found in previous studies of counter-gradient diffusion for the turbulent flux of the progress variable is investigated.
Study and modeling of finite rate chemistry effects in turbulent non-premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vervisch, Luc
1993-01-01
The development of numerical models that reflect some of the most important features of turbulent reacting flows requires information about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between turbulent and chemical processes is so strong that it is extremely difficult to isolate the role played by one individual physical phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (hereafter DNS) allows us to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interaction in some restricted but completely defined situations. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting regimes: the fast chemistry case, where the turbulent flame can be pictured as a random distribution of local chemical equilibrium problems; and the slow chemistry case, where the chemistry integrates in time the turbulent fluctuations. The Damkoehler number, ratio of a mechanical time scale to chemical time scale, is used to distinguish between these regimes. Today most of the industrial computer codes are able to perform predictions in the hypothesis of local equilibrium chemistry using a presumed shape for the probability density function (pdt) of the conserved scalar. However, the finite rate chemistry situation is of great interest because industrial burners usually generate regimes in which, at some points, the flame is undergoing local extinction or at least non-equilibrium situations. Moreover, this variety of situations strongly influences the production of pollutants. To quantify finite rate chemistry effect, the interaction between a non-premixed flame and a free decaying turbulence is studied using DNS. The attention is focused on the dynamic of extinction, and an attempt is made to quantify the effect of the reaction on the small scale mixing process. The unequal diffusivity effect is also addressed. Finally, a simple turbulent combustion model based on the DNS observations and tractable in real flow configurations is proposed.
A ring stabilizer for lean premixed turbulent flames
Johnson, M.R.; Kostiuk, L.W.; Cheng, R.K.
1998-08-01
In previous experiments on conical flame behavior in microgravity, which were conducted in drop-towers and in airplanes, the use of a pilot flame was not an option. To permit combustion of stable lean premixed conical flames without a pilot, a ring stabilizer was developed. Although similar types of bluff-body stabilization have been used in the past, the ring stabilizer is somewhat unique. It is designed to fit inside the burner exit port and has demonstrated to be highly effective in stabilizing flames over a very wide range of conditions (including ultra-lean flames at high flow-rates) without adversely affecting flame emissions. Unlike a simple rod stabilizer or a stagnation flame system, the benefit of having the stabilizer conform to the burner port is that there is very little leakage of the unburned fuel. The purpose of this brief communication is to offer this simple and highly useful device to the combustion research community. Presented are highlights of a parametric study that measured the stabilization limits and pollutant emissions of several different rings, and demonstrated their potential for use in practical systems.
Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, premixed flames: the transition to turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hicks, Elizabeth; Rosner, Robert
2010-11-01
A premixed flame moving against a sufficiently strong gravitational field becomes deformed and creates vorticity. If gravity is strong enough, this vorticity is shed and deposited behind the flame front. We present two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of this vortex shedding process and its effect on the flame front for various values of the gravitational force. The flame and its shed vortices go through the following stages as gravity is increased: no vorticity and a flat flame front; long vortices attached to a cusped flame front; instability of the attached vortices and vortex shedding (Hopf bifurcation); disruption of the flame front by the shed vortices, causing the flame to pulsate; loss of left/right symmetry (period doubling); dominance of Rayleigh-Taylor instability over burning (torus bifurcation); and, finally, complex interactions between the flame front and the vortices. We measure the subsequent wrinkling of the flame front by computing its fractal dimension and also measure mixing behind the flame front by computing the finite-time Lyapunov exponents.
Characteristics of Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegde, Uday; Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Stocker, Dennis; Bahadori, M. Yousef
1997-01-01
The overall objectives of this research are: (1) to obtain and analyze experimental data on flame images, and the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature, radiation, velocity and gas-phase species in microgravity turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames; and (2) to utilize these data to validate and refine the existing predictive capabilities. Work on this project commenced in June 1996. The first investigations on turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity were initiated by Bahadori and co-workers in 1991. These studies have shown that significant differences exist in the transition processes in normal-gravity and microgravity flames, and that the turbulent flames in microgravity behave very differently as compared to their buoyancy-dominated normal-gravity counterparts. For example, in the transition regime while the visible flame height, for given fuel and nozzle size, in normal gravity decreases, the height of the microgravity flame increases. In the fully developed turbulent regime, the normal-gravity flame height is independent of injection velocity, whereas the microgravity flame height continues to increase, although at a lower rate than in the laminar and transitional regimes. Other differences between the normal-gravity and microgravity flames arise in the jet shear-layer instability characteristics, extent of the transitional regime and blow-off limit characteristics.
Surface properties of turbulent premixed propane/air flames at various Lewis numbers
Lee, T.W.; North, G.L.; Santavicca, D.A. )
1993-06-01
Surface properties of turbulent premixed flames including the wrinkled flame perimeter, fraction of the flame pocket perimeter, flame curvature, and orientation distributions have been measured for propane-air flames at Lewis numbers ranging from 0.98 to 1.86 and u[prime]/S[sub L] = 1.42-5.71. The wrinkled flame perimeter is found to be greater for the thermodiffusively unstable Lewis number (Le < 1) by up to 30% in comparison to the most stable condition (Le = 1.86) tested, while the fraction of the flame pocket perimeter shows a similar tendency to be greater for Le < 1. The flame curvature probability density functions are nearly symmetric with respect to the zero mean at all Lewis numbers throughout the range of u[prime]/S[sub L] tested, and show a much stronger dependence on the turbulence condition than on the Lewis number. Similarly, the flame orientation distributions show a trend from anisotropy toward a more uniform distribution with increasing u[prime]/S[sub L] at a similar rate for all Lewis numbers. Thus, for turbulent premixed propane/air flames for a practical range of Lewis number from 0.98 to 1.86, the effect of Lewis number is primarily to affect the flame structures and thereby flame surface areas and flame pocket areas, while the flame curvature and orientation statistics are essentially determined by the turbulence properties.
Gradient and counter-gradient scalar transport in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veynante, D.; Trouvé, A.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.
1997-02-01
In premixed turbulent combustion, the modelling of the turbulent flux of the mean reaction progress variable c˜, rho;u[double prime or second]ic[double prime or second], remains, remains somewhat controversial. Classical gradient transport assumptions based on the eddy viscosity concept are often used while both experimental data and theoretical analysis have pointed out the existence of counter-gradient turbulent diffusion. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used in this paper to provide basic information on the turbulent flux of c˜ and study the occurrence of counter-gradient transport. The numerical configuration corresponds to two- or three-dimensional premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow. The simulations correspond to various flame and flow conditions that are representative of flamelet combustion. They reveal that different flames will feature different turbulent transport properties and that these differences can be related to basic dynamical differences in the flame flow interactions: counter-gradient diffusion occurs when the flow field near the flame is dominated by thermal dilatation due to chemical reaction, whereas gradient diffusion occurs when the flow field near the flame is dominated by the turbulent motions. The DNS-based analysis leads to a simple expression to describe the turbulent flux of c˜, which in turn leads to a simple criterion to delineate between the gradient and counter-gradient turbulent diffusion regimes. This criterion suggests that the occurrence of one regime or the other is determined primarily by the ratio of turbulence intensity divided by the laminar flame speed, u[prime prime or minute]/sL, and by the flame heat release factor, [tau] [identical with] (Tb [minus sign] Tu)/Tu, where Tu and Tb are respectively the temperature within unburnt and burnt gas. Consistent with the Bray Moss Libby theory, counter-gradient (gradient) diffusion is promoted by low (high) values of u[prime prime or minute]/sL and high (low
Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiesset, F.; Maurice, G.; Halter, F.; Mazellier, N.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.
2016-01-01
This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar
Field Effects of Buoyancy on Lean Premixed Turbulent Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.; Dimalanta, R.; Wernet, M. P.; Greenberg, P. S.
2001-01-01
Buoyancy affects the entire flowfield of steady turbulent flames and this aspect of flame buoyancy coupling is largely unexplored by experiments or by theory. Open flames and flames within large confinements are free to expand and interact with the surrounding environment. In addition to fluid and combustion conditions, their aerodynamic flowfields are determined by the flame brush orientation and geometry, wake of the stabilizer, enclosure size, and of course, the gravitational field. Because the flowfield consists mainly of cold reactants (mostly in the nearfield) and hot products (mostly in the farfield), buoyancy effects are manifested in the farfield region. In upward pointing flames, an obvious effect is a favorable axial pressure gradient that accelerates the products thereby increasing the axial aerodynamic stretch rate. Intrinsic to turbulent flows, changes in mean aerodynamic stretch also couple to the fluctuating pressure field. Consequently, buoyancy can influence the turbulence intensities upstream and downstream of the flame. Flame wrinkling process, and heat release rate are also directly affected. This backward coupling mechanism is the so-called elliptic problem. To resolve the field effects of buoyancy would require the solution of three-dimensional non-linear Navier Stokes equations with full specification of the upstream, wall and downstream boundary conditions.
The evolution equation for the flame surface density in turbulent premixed combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trouve, A.; Poinsot, T.
1992-01-01
One central ingredient in flamelet models for turbulent premixed combustion is the flame surface density. This quantity conveys most of the effects of the turbulence on the rate of energy release and is obtained via a modeled transport equation, called the Sigma-equation. Past theoretical work has produced a rigorous approach that leads to an exact, but unclosed, formulation for the turbulent Sigma-equation. In this exact Sigma-equation, it appears that the dynamical properties of the flame surface density are determined by a single parameter, namely the turbulent flame stretch. Unfortunately, the flame surface density and the turbulent flame stretch are not available from experiments and, in the absence of experimental data, little is known on the validity of the closure assumptions used in current flamelet models. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is the obvious, complementary approach to get basic information on these fundamental quantities. Three-dimensional DNS of premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow is used to estimate the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation. A new methodology is proposed to provide the source and sink terms for the flame surface density, resolved both temporally and spatially throughout the turbulent flame brush. Using this methodology, the effects of the Lewis number on the rate of production of flame surface area are described in great detail and meaningful comparisons with flamelet models can be performed. The analysis reveals in particular the tendency of the models to overpredict flame surface dissipation as well as their inability to reproduce variations due to thermo-diffusive phenomena. Thanks to the detailed information produced by a DNS-based analysis, this type of comparison not only underscores the shortcomings of current models but also suggests ways to improve them.
Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces.
Thiesset, F; Maurice, G; Halter, F; Mazellier, N; Chauveau, C; Gökalp, I
2016-01-01
This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar
The production of premixed flame surface area in turbulent shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trouve, A.
1993-01-01
In the present work, we use three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of premixed flames in turbulent shear flow to characterize the effect of a mean shear motion on flame surface production. The shear is uniform in the unburnt gas, and simulations are performed for different values of the mean shear rate, S. The data base is then used to estimate and compare the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation as a function of S. The analysis gives in particular the relative weights f the turbulent flow and mean flow components, a(sub T) and A(sub T), of the flame surface production term. This comparison indicates whether the dominant effects of a mean flow velocity gradient on flame surface area are implicit and scale with the modified turbulent flow parameters, kappa and epsilon, or explicit and scale directly with the rate of deformation.
Effects of Buoyancy on the Flowfields of Lean Premixed Turbulent V-Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D. T.; Greenberg, P.
1999-01-01
Open laboratory turbulent flames used for investigating fundamental flame turbulence interactions are greatly affected by buoyancy. Though much of our current knowledge is based on observations made in open flames, buoyancy effects are usually not considered in data interpretation, numerical analysis or theories. This inconsistency remains an obstacle to merging experimental observations and theoretical predictions. To better understanding the effects of buoyancy, our research focuses on steady lean premixed flames propagating in fully developed turbulence. We hypothesize that the most significant role of buoyancy forces on these flames is to influence their flowfields through a coupling with the mean and the fluctuating pressure fields. This coupling relates to the elliptical problem that emphasizes the importance of the upstream, wall and downstream boundary conditions in determining all aspects of flame propagation. Therefore, buoyancy has the same significance as other parameters such as flow configuration, and flame geometry.
Position, thickness and transport properties of turbulent premixed flames in stagnating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biagioli, Fernando
2004-09-01
The stabilization mechanism of turbulent premixed flames in stagnation flows is analysed in the framework of a turbulent burning rate closure. It is shown that the mean flame brush thickness depends in this kind of flame on the balance between turbulent dispersion of the flame brush and the adverse gradient of the mean axial mass flux at the combustor axis. The flame position is determined in terms of the characteristic turbulent burning rate, the axial velocity distribution and the radial curvature of the flame at the combustor axis, the last pushing a flame curved toward the stream of reactants closer to the stagnation point. The flame curvature at the axis is related by simple mass conservation considerations to the radial curvature of the axial velocity which in turn is related to the shape of the stagnation body. The transport properties of turbulent premixed flames in stagnation flows are also analysed. In particular, a model developed by Zimont and Biagioli (2002 Combust. Theory Modelling 6 79) to account for the pressure-driven, typically counter-gradient, component of \\overline{\\rho u'' c''} in one-dimensional freely propagating flames and extended by Biagioli and Zimont (2003 29th Int. Symp. Combustion p 2087) to the case of stagnation-type flames is further reconsidered here to account for the effect of pressure-driven transport in radial direction and for buoyancy. This model, whose key element is the conservation of reactants total pressure, gives the pressure-driven part of \\overline{\\rho \\\\bit u'' c''} in algebraic closed form. The model is successfully applied to recent experimental data for stagnation-type flames showing that scalar transport can have a gradient or counter-gradient nature depending on the intensity of turbulent velocity fluctuations. The idea of flame thickness is also successfully validated with these experiments.
DNS and modeling of the interaction between turbulent premixed flames and walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, T. J.; Haworth, D. C.
1992-01-01
The interaction between turbulent premixed flames and walls is studied using a two-dimensional full Navier-Stokes solver with simple chemistry. The effects of wall distance on the local and global flame structure are investigated. Quenching distances and maximum wall heat fluxes during quenching are computed in laminar cases and are found to be comparable to experimental and analytical results. For turbulent cases, it is shown that quenching distances and maximum heat fluxes remain of the same order as for laminar flames. Based on simulation results, a 'law-of-the-wall' model is derived to describe the interaction between a turbulent premixed flame and a wall. This model is constructed to provide reasonable behavior of flame surface density near a wall under the assumption that flame-wall interaction takes place at scales smaller than the computational mesh. It can be implemented in conjunction with any of several recent flamelet models based on a modeled surface density equation, with no additional constraints on mesh size or time step.
Stochastic modeling of unsteady extinction in turbulent non-premixed combustion
Lackmann, T.; Hewson, J. C.; Knaus, R. C.; Kerstein, A. R.; Oevermann, M.
2016-07-19
Turbulent fluctuations of the scalar dissipation rate have a major impact on extinction in non-premixed combustion. Recently, an unsteady extinction criterion has been developed (Hewson, 2013) that predicts extinction dependent on the duration and the magnitude of dissipation rate fluctuations exceeding a critical quenching value; this quantity is referred to as the dissipation impulse. Furthermore, the magnitude of the dissipation impulse corresponding to unsteady extinction is related to the difficulty with which a flamelet is exintguished, based on the steady-state S-curve.
Understanding and predicting soot generation in turbulent non-premixed jet flames.
Wang, Hai; Kook, Sanghoon; Doom, Jeffrey; Oefelein, Joseph Charles; Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Pickett, Lyle M.
2010-10-01
This report documents the results of a project funded by DoD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) on the science behind development of predictive models for soot emission from gas turbine engines. Measurements of soot formation were performed in laminar flat premixed flames and turbulent non-premixed jet flames at 1 atm pressure and in turbulent liquid spray flames under representative conditions for takeoff in a gas turbine engine. The laminar flames and open jet flames used both ethylene and a prevaporized JP-8 surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane and m-xylene. The pressurized turbulent jet flame measurements used the JP-8 surrogate fuel and compared its combustion and sooting characteristics to a world-average JP-8 fuel sample. The pressurized jet flame measurements demonstrated that the surrogate was representative of JP-8, with a somewhat higher tendency to soot formation. The premixed flame measurements revealed that flame temperature has a strong impact on the rate of soot nucleation and particle coagulation, but little sensitivity in the overall trends was found with different fuels. An extensive array of non-intrusive optical and laser-based measurements was performed in turbulent non-premixed jet flames established on specially designed piloted burners. Soot concentration data was collected throughout the flames, together with instantaneous images showing the relationship between soot and the OH radical and soot and PAH. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for ethylene combustion, including fuel-rich chemistry and benzene formation steps, was compiled, validated, and reduced. The reduced ethylene mechanism was incorporated into a high-fidelity LES code, together with a moment-based soot model and models for thermal radiation, to evaluate the ability of the chemistry and soot models to predict soot formation in the jet diffusion flame. The LES results highlight the importance of including an optically-thick radiation model
Effects of Buoyancy on Laminar and Turbulent Premixed V-Flame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Robert K.; Bedat, Benoit
1997-01-01
Turbulent combustion occurs naturally in almost all combustion systems and involves complex dynamic coupling of chemical and fluid mechanical processes. It is considered as one of the most challenging combustion research problems today. Though buoyancy has little effect on power generating systems operating under high pressures (e.g., IC engines and turbines), flames in atmospheric burners and the operation of small to medium furnaces and boilers are profoundly affected by buoyancy. Changes in burner orientation impacts on their blow-off, flash-back and extinction limits, and their range of operation, burning rate, heat transfer, and emissions. Theoretically, buoyancy is often neglected in turbulent combustion models. Yet the modeling results are routinely compared with experiments of open laboratory flames that are obviously affected by buoyancy. This inconsistency is an obstacle to reconciling experiments and theories. Consequently, a fundamental understanding of the coupling between turbulent flames and buoyancy is significant to both turbulent combustion science and applications. The overall effect of buoyancy relates to the dynamic interaction between the flame and its surrounding, i.e., the so-called elliptical problem. The overall flame shape, its flowfield, stability, and mean and local burning rates are dictated by both upstream and downstream boundary conditions. In steady propagating premixed flames, buoyancy affects the products region downstream of the flame zone. These effects are manifested upstream through the mean and fluctuating pressure fields to influence flame stretch and flame wrinkling. Intuitively, the effects buoyancy should diminish with increasing flow momentum. This is the justification for excluding buoyancy in turbulent combustion models that treats high Reynolds number flows. The objectives of our experimental research program is to elucidate flame-buoyancy coupling processes in laminar and turbulent premixed flames, and to
Emission characteristics of a premix combustor fueled with a simulated partial-oxidation product gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clayton, R. M.
1979-01-01
A two-stage gas turbine combustor concept employing a very fuel-rich partial oxidation stage is being explored for broadening the combustion margin between ultralow emissions and the lean stability limit. Combustion and emission results are presented for a series of experiments where a simulated partial oxidation product gas was used in a premix combustor operated with inlet air state conditions typical of cruise power for high-performance aviation engines (12 atm and 850 F). Ultralow NOx, CO, and HC emissions and an extended lean burning limit were achieved simultaneously.
Systematically reduced rate mechanisms and presumed PDF models for premixed turbulent combustion
Bray, Ken; Champion, Michel; Libby, Paul A.
2010-03-15
The use of reduced kinetic mechanisms in models for turbulent premixed flames, at large but finite Damkoehler numbers, is described. Taking as examples the two cases of hydrogen-air and methane-air systems for which there exist reduced kinetic schemes characterized by two independent scalar variables only, it is shown that the mean chemical production rate can be in a general way expressed as the product of a mixing factor, depending on the segregation of species due to turbulence, with a reaction rate factor. In this latter factor the probability density function (PDF) of the two scalars appears only as a constant integral quantity. The extension of this analysis to systems involving more than two independent scalars is envisaged. The general result is applied to the two specific cases of interior PDF's modelled by (i) a single Dirac delta function and (ii) a laminar flamelet. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiesset, Fabien; Maurice, Guillaume; Halter, Fabien; Mazellier, Nicolas; Chauveau, Christian; Gökalp, Iskender
2016-05-01
We propose a model for assessing the unresolved wrinkling factor in the large eddy simulation of turbulent premixed combustion. It relies essentially on a power-law dependence of the wrinkling factor on the filter size and an original expression for the 'active' corrugating strain rate. The latter is written as the turbulent strain multiplied by an efficiency function that accounts for viscous effects and the kinematic constraint of Peters. This yields functional expressions for the fractal dimension and the inner cut-off length scale, the latter being (i) filter-size independent and (ii) consistent with the Damköhler asymptotic behaviours at both large and small Karlovitz numbers. A new expression for the wrinkling factor that incorporates finite Reynolds number effects is further proposed. Finally, the model is successfully assessed on an experimental filtered database.
Finite rate chemistry and presumed PDF models for premixed turbulent combustion
Bray, K.N.C.; Swaminathan, N.; Champion, M.; Libby, P.A.
2006-09-15
The sensitivity of the prediction of mean reaction rates in turbulent premixed flames to presumed PDF shape is studied. Three different presumed PDF shapes are considered: (i) a beta function PDF, (ii) a twin delta function PDF, and (iii) a PDF based on unstrained laminar flame properties. The unstrained laminar flame has the same thermochemistry as the turbulent flame. Emphasis is placed on capturing the finite rate chemistry effects and obtaining a simple expression for the mean reaction rate. It is shown that, as the PDFs approach their bimodal limit, the mean reaction rate expressions obtained using the above three PDFs reduce to a common form. These expressions differ only in the numerical value of a multiplying factor. Predictions are compared with DNS data. Under the conditions of this comparison, the beta function and twin delta function PDFs lead to significant errors, while the PDF based on properties of an unstrained laminar flame gives good agreement with the DNS. (author)
Dynamic formulation of thickened flame model for LES of premixed turbulent combustion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneveau, C.; Nottin, C.; Veynante, D.
2000-11-01
As demonstrated in Colin et al. (Phys. Fluids 12, p. 1843, 2000) the thickened flame model for LES of premixed combustion (TFLES) has a number of attractive features such as correct asymptotics in the limit of DNS, in the case of a thickened laminar, steady flame, etc.. For the general case of turbulent, unsteady and curved, premixed flames, the model requires empirical parameters to be specified. With the aim of decreasing the dependence on empirical parameters, the dynamic procedure is applied to this problem. We find that the traditional application of the Germano identity, which seeks undetermined multiplicative model coefficients, fails because of a trivial cancellation of the coefficients when inserted in the Germano identity. We suggest that this is a general problem when applying the dynamic model to phenomena that occur at very disparate length-scales (here the true reaction occurs in a region which is typically much thinner than the LES grid-size). On the other hand, we find that the dynamic procedure is well-posed when searching for unknown scaling exponents (instead of coefficients). A new power-law formulation of dynamic TFLES is developed, and tested using a fully compressible, sixth-order finite-difference code (NTMIX). Applications to several cases are discussed: (a) 1-D laminar flame, (b) laminar flame-vortex interaction, and (c) flame propagation through 2-D decaying isotropic turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Card, J. M.; Chen, J. H.; Day, M.; Mahalingam, S.
1994-01-01
Turbulent non-premixed stoichiometric methane-air flames modeled with reduced kinetics have been studied using the direct numerical simulation approach. The simulations include realistic chemical kinetics, and the molecular transport is modeled with constant Lewis numbers for individual species. The effect of turbulence on the internal flame structure and extinction characteristics of methane-air flames is evaluated. Consistent with earlier DNS with simple one-step chemistry, the flame is wrinkled and in some regions extinguished by the turbulence, while the turbulence is weakened in the vicinity of the flame due to a combination of dilatation and an increase in kinematic viscosity. Unlike previous results, reignition is observed in the present simulations. Lewis number effects are important in determining the local stoichiometry of the flame. The results presented in this work are preliminary but demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating reduced kinetics for the oxidation of methane with direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence to evaluate the limitations of various levels of reduction in the kinetics and to address the formation of thermal and prompt NO(x).
Effects of Buoyancy on the Flowfields of Lean Premixed Turbulent V-Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.; Greenberg, P.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D. T.
1999-01-01
Open laboratory turbulent flames used for investigating fundament flame turbulence interactions are greatly affected by buoyancy. Though much of our current knowledge is based on observations made in these open flames, the effects of buoyancy are usually not included in data interpretation, numerical analysis or theories. This inconsistency remains an obstacle to merging experimental observations and theoretical predictions. To better understanding the effects of buoyancy, our research focuses on steady lean premixed flames propagating in fully developed turbulence. We hypothesize that the most significant role of buoyancy forces on these flames is to influence their flowfields through a coupling with mean and fluctuating pressure fields. Changes in flow pattern alter the mean aerodynamic stretch and in turn affect turbulence fluctuation intensities both upstream and downstream of the flame zone. Consequently, flame stabilization, reaction rates, and turbulent flame processes are all affected. This coupling relates to the elliptical problem that emphasizes the importance of the upstream, wall and downstream boundary conditions in determining all aspects of flame propagation. Therefore, buoyancy has the same significance as other parameters such as flow configuration, flame geometry, means of flame stabilization, flame shape, enclosure size, mixture conditions, and flow conditions.
Field Effects of Buoyancy on a Premixed Turbulent Flame Studied by Particle Image Velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Robert K.
2003-01-01
Typical laboratory flames for the scientific investigation of flame/turbulence interactions are prone to buoyancy effects. Buoyancy acts on these open flame systems and provides upstream feedbacks that control the global flame properties as well as local turbulence/flame interactions. Consequently the flame structures, stabilization limits, and turbulent reaction rates are directly or indirectly coupled with buoyancy. The objective of this study is to characterize the differences between premixed turbulent flames pointing upwards (1g), pointing downwards (-1g), and in microgravity (mg). The configuration is an inverted conical flame stabilized by a small cone-shaped bluff body that we call CLEAN Flames (Cone-Stabilized Lean Flames). We use two laser diagnostics to capture the velocity and scalar fields. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measures the mean and root mean square velocities and planar imaging by the flame fronts method outlines the flame wrinkle topology. The results were obtained under typical conditions of small domestic heating systems such as water heaters, ovens, and furnaces. Significant differences between the 1g and -1g flames point to the need for including buoyancy contributions in theoretical and numerical calculations. In Earth gravity, there is a complex coupling of buoyancy with the turbulent flow and heat release in the flame. An investigation of buoyancy-free flames in microgravity will provide the key to discern gravity contributions. Data obtained in microgravity flames will provide the benchmark for interpreting and analyzing 1g and -1g flame results.
Krishnan, S. R.; inivasan, K. K.
2010-09-14
Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60° before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO_{x}). Further, the 60° before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20° before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40° before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NO_{x} trends, which showed the lowest NO_{x} emissions for the 60°, 20°, and 40° before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to higher peak
Studies in premixed combustion
Sivashinsky, G.I.
1992-01-01
This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)
Velocity and scalar fields of turbulent premixed flame in stagnation flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, P.; Law, C. K.; Cheng, R. K.; Shepherd, I. G.
1988-08-01
Detailed experimental measurements of the scalar and velocity statistics of premixed methane/air flames stabilized by a stagnation plant are reported. Conditioned and unconditioned velocity of two components and the reaction progress variables are measured by using a two-component laser Doppler velocimetry techniques and Mie scattering techniques, respectively. Experimental conditions cover equivalence ratios of 0.9 and 1.0, incident turbulence intensities of 0.3 to 0.45 m/s, and global stretch rates of 100 to 150 sec sup minus 1. The experimental results are analyzed in the context of the Bray-Moss-Libby flamelet model of these flames. The results indicate that there is no turbulence production within the turbulent flame brush and the second and third order turbulent transport terms are reduced to functions of the difference between the conditioned mean velocity. The result of normalization of these relative velocities by the respective velocity increase across laminar flames suggest that the mean unconditioned velocity profiles are self-similar.
Numerical simulations of turbulent premixed H2/O2/N2 flames with complex chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baum, M.; Poinsot, T. J.; Haworth, D. C.
1992-01-01
Premixed stoichiometric H2/O2/N2 flames propagating in two-dimensional turbulence were studied using direct numerical simulation (simulations in which all fluid and thermochemical scales are fully resolved) including realistic chemical kinetics and molecular transport. Results are compared with earlier zero-chemistry (flame sheet) and one-step chemistry simulations. Consistent with the simpler models, the turbulent flame with realistic chemistry aligns preferentially with extensive strain rates in the tangent plane and flame curvature probability density functions are close to symmetric with near-zero means. By contrast to simple-chemistry results with non-unity Lewis numbers (ratio of thermal to species diffusivity), local flame structure does not correlate with curvature but rather with tangential strain rate. Turbulent straining results in substantial thinning of the flame relative to the steady unstrained laminar case. Heat release and H2O2 contours remain thin and connected ('flamelet-like') while species including H-atom and OH are more diffuse. Peak OH concentration occurs well behind the peak heat-release zone. The feasibility of incorporating realistic chemistry into full turbulence simulations to address issues such as pollutant formation in hydrocarbon-air flames is suggested.
Armitage, C.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S.; Balachandran, R.
2006-08-15
Acoustically forced lean premixed turbulent bluff-body stabilized flames are investigated using turbulent combustion CFD. The calculations simulate aspects of the experimental investigation by Balachandran et al. [R. Balachandran, B. Ayoola, C. Kaminski, A. Dowling, E. Mastorakos, Combust. Flame 143 (2005) 37-55] and focus on the amplitude dependence of the flame response. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is appropriate. The combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic representation of the flame surface density. The predictions are compared with flame surface density (FSD) and OH* chemiluminescence measurements. In the experiments the response of the flame has been quantified by means of a number of single-frequency, amplitude-dependent transfer functions. The predicted flame shape and position are in good agreement with the experiment. The dynamic response of the flame to inlet velocity forcing is also well captured by the calculations. At moderate frequencies nonlinear behavior of the transfer functions is observed as the forcing amplitude is increased. In the experiments this nonlinearity was attributed in part to the rollup of the reacting shear layer into vortices and in part to the collision of the inner and outer flame sheets. This transition to nonlinearity is also observed in the transfer functions obtained from the predictions. Furthermore, the vortex shedding and flame-sheet collapse may be seen in snapshots of the predicted flow field taken throughout the forcing cycle. The URANS methodology successfully predicts the behavior of the forced premixed turbulent flames and captures the effects of saturation in the transfer function of the response of the heat release to velocity fluctuations. (author)
Rayleigh/Raman/LIF measurements in a turbulent lean premixed combustor
Nandula, S.P.; Pitz, R.W.; Barlow, R.S.
1995-10-01
Much of the industrial electrical generation capability being added worldwide is gas-turbine engine based and is fueled by natural gas. These gas-turbine engines use lean premixed (LP) combustion to meet the strict NO{sub x} emission standards, while maintaining acceptable levels of CO. In conventional, diffusion flame gas turbine combustors, large amount of NO{sub x} forms in the hot stoichiometric zones via the Zeldovich (thermal) mechanism. Hence, lean premixed combustors are rapidly becoming the norm, since they are specifically designed to avoid these hot stoichiometric zones and the associated thermal NO, However, considerable research and development are still required to reduce the NO{sub x} levels (25-40 ppmvd adjusted to 15% O{sub 2} with the current technology), to the projected goal of under 10 ppmvd by the turn of the century. Achieving this objective would require extensive experiments in LP natural gas (or CH{sub 4}) flames for understanding the combustion phenomena underlying the formation of the exhaust pollutants. Although LP combustion is an effective way to control NO{sub x}, the downside is that it increases the CO emissions. The formation and destruction of the pollutants (NO{sub x} and CO) are strongly affected by the fluid mechanics, the finite-rate chemistry, and their (turbulence-chemistry) interactions. Hence, a thorough understanding of these interactions is vital for controlling and reducing the pollutant emissions. The present research is contributing to this goal by providing a detailed nonintrusive laser based data set with good spatial and temporal resolutions of the pollutants (NO and CO) along with the major species, temperature, and OH. The measurements reported in this work, along with the existing velocity data on a turbulent LP combustor burning CH{sub 4}, would provide insight into the turbulence-chemistry interactions and their effect on pollutant formation.
Rayleigh/Raman/LIF measurements in a turbulent lean premixed combustor
Nandula, S.P.; Pitz, R.W.; Barlow, R.S.; Fiechtner, G.J.
1995-12-31
Much of the industrial electrical generation capability being added worldwide is gas-turbine engine based and is fueled by natural gas. These gas-turbine engines use lean premixed (LP) combustion to meet the strict NO{sub x} emission standards, while maintaining acceptable levels of CO. In conventional, diffusion flame gas turbine combustors, large amount of NO{sub x} forms in the hot stoichiometric zones via the Zeldovich (thermal) mechanism. Hence, lean premixed combustors are rapidly becoming the norm, since they are specifically designed to avoid these hot stoichiometric zones and the associated thermal NO{sub x}. However, considerable research and development are still required to reduce the NO{sub x} levels (25-40 ppmvd adjusted to 15% O{sub 2} with the current technology), to the projected goal of under 10 ppmvd by the turn of the century. Achieving this objective would require extensive experiments in LP natural gas (or CH{sub 4}) flames for understanding the combustion phenomena underlying the formation of the exhaust pollutants. Although LP combustion is an effective way to control NO{sub x}, the downside is that it increases the CO emissions. The formation and destruction of the pollutants (NO{sub x} and CO) are strongly affected by the fluid mechanics, the finite-rate chemistry, and their (turbulence-chemistry) interactions. Hence, a thorough understanding of these interactions is vital for controlling and reducing the pollutant emissions. The present research is contributing to this goal by providing a detailed nonintrusive laser based data set with good spatial and temporal resolutions of the pollutants (NO and CO) along with the major species, temperature, and OH. The measurements reported in this work, along with the existing velocity data on a turbulent LP combustor burning CH{sub 4}, would provide insight into the turbulence-chemistry interactions and their effect on pollutant formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Xiao-Chuan; Glover, Keith
2013-11-01
Self-excited oscillation is becoming a major issue in low-emission, lean partially premixed combustion systems, and active control has been shown to be a feasible method to suppress such instabilities. A number of robust control methods are employed to obtain a feedback controller and it is observed that the robustness to system uncertainty is significantly better for a low complexity controller in spite of the norms being similar. Moreover, we demonstrate that closed-loop stability for such a complex system can be proved via use of the integral quadratic constraint method. Open- and closed-loop nonlinear simulations are provided.
A direct numerical simulation study of vorticity transformation in weakly turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipatnikov, A. N.; Nishiki, S.; Hasegawa, T.
2014-10-01
Database obtained earlier in 3D Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of statistically stationary, 1D, planar turbulent flames characterized by three different density ratios σ is processed in order to investigate vorticity transformation in premixed combustion under conditions of moderately weak turbulence (rms turbulent velocity and laminar flame speed are roughly equal to one another). In cases H and M characterized by σ = 7.53 and 5.0, respectively, anisotropic generation of vorticity within the flame brush is reported. In order to study physical mechanisms that control this phenomenon, various terms in vorticity and enstrophy balance equations are analyzed, with both mean terms and terms conditioned on a particular value c of the combustion progress variable being addressed. Results indicate an important role played by baroclinic torque and dilatation in transformation of average vorticity and enstrophy within both flamelets and flame brush. Besides these widely recognized physical mechanisms, two other effects are documented. First, viscous stresses redistribute enstrophy within flamelets, but play a minor role in the balance of the mean enstrophy overline{Ω } within turbulent flame brush. Second, negative correlation overline{mathbf {u}^' } \\cdot nabla Ω ^' }} between fluctuations in velocity u and enstrophy gradient contributes substantially to an increase in the mean overline{Ω } within turbulent flame brush. This negative correlation is mainly controlled by the positive correlation between fluctuations in the enstrophy and dilatation and, therefore, dilatation fluctuations substantially reduce the damping effect of the mean dilatation on the vorticity and enstrophy fields. In case L characterized by σ = 2.5, these effects are weakly pronounced and overline{Ω } is reduced mainly due to viscosity. Under conditions of the present DNS, vortex stretching plays a minor role in the balance of vorticity and enstrophy within turbulent flame brush in all three
Scaling and efficiency of PRISM in adaptive simulations of turbulent premixed flames
Tonse, Shaheen R.; Bell, J.B.; Brown, N.J.; Day, M.S.; Frenklach, M.; Grcar, J.F.; Propp, R.M.
1999-12-01
The dominant computational cost in modeling turbulent combustion phenomena numerically with high fidelity chemical mechanisms is the time required to solve the ordinary differential equations associated with chemical kinetics. One approach to reducing that computational cost is to develop an inexpensive surrogate model that accurately represents evolution of chemical kinetics. One such approach, PRISM, develops a polynomial representation of the chemistry evolution in a local region of chemical composition space. This representation is then stored for later use. As the computation proceeds, the chemistry evolution for other points within the same region are computed by evaluating these polynomials instead of calling an ordinary differential equation solver. If initial data for advancing the chemistry is encountered that is not in any region for which a polynomial is defined, the methodology dynamically samples that region and constructs a new representation for that region. The utility of this approach is determined by the size of the regions over which the representation provides a good approximation to the kinetics and the number of these regions that are necessary to model the subset of composition space that is active during a simulation. In this paper, we assess the PRISM methodology in the context of a turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. We consider a range of turbulent intensities ranging from weak turbulence that has little effect on the flame to strong turbulence that tears pockets of burning fluid from the main flame. For each case, we explore a range of sizes for the local regions and determine the scaling behavior as a function of region size and turbulent intensity.
Large eddy simulation of soot formation in a turbulent non-premixed jet flame
El-Asrag, Hossam; Menon, Suresh
2009-02-15
A recently developed subgrid model for soot dynamics [H. El-Asrag, T. Lu, C.K. Law, S. Menon, Combust. Flame 150 (2007) 108-126] is used to study the soot formation in a non-premixed turbulent flame. The model allows coupling between reaction, diffusion and soot (including soot diffusion and thermophoretic forces) processes in the subgrid domain without requiring ad hoc filtering or model parameter adjustments. The combined model includes the entire process, from the initial phase, when the soot nucleus diameter is much smaller than the mean free path, to the final phase, after coagulation and aggregation, where it can be considered in the continuum regime. A relatively detailed but reduced kinetics for ethylene-air is used to simulate an experimentally studied non-premixed ethylene/air jet diffusion flame. Acetylene is used as a soot precursor species. The soot volume fraction order of magnitude, the location of its maxima, and the soot particle size distribution are all captured reasonably. Along the centerline, an initial region dominated by nucleation and surface growth is established followed by an oxidation region. The diffusion effect is found to be most important in the nucleation regime, while the thermophoretic forces become more influential downstream of the potential core in the oxidation zone. The particle size distribution shows a log-normal distribution in the nucleation region, and a more Gaussian like distribution further downstream. Limitations of the current approach and possible solution strategies are also discussed. (author)
Experimental Study of the Flowfield of a Two-Dimensional Premixed Turbulent Flame
Ganji, A. R.; Sawyer, R. F.
1980-07-01
A turbulent reacting shear layer in a premixed propane/air flow has been studied in a two dimensional combustor, with the flame stabilized behind a rearward facing streamlined step. Spark shadowgraphs show that in the range of velocities (7.5 to 22.5 m/sec corresponding to Reynolds numbers of .5 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} to 1. 5 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} ) and equivalence ratios (0.4 to 0.7) studied, the mixing layer is dominated by Brown~ Roshko type large coherent structures in both reacting and nonreacting flows. High speed schlieren movies show that these eddies are convected downstream and increase their size and spacing by combustion and coalescence with neighboring eddies. Tracing individual eddies shows, in the reacting shear layer, that, on the average, eddies accelerate as they move downstream with the highest acceleration close to the origin of the shear layer. Combustion is confined to these large structures which develop as a result of vortical action of the shear flow. On the average, the reacting eddies have a lower growth rate than nonreacting eddies. A turbulent boundary layer created by means of a tripping wire upstream of the edge of the step virtually eliminates the large coherent structures in the shear layer, while for the case in which the wire could not trigger the transition to turbulence, the large coherent structures dominated the reacting and nonreacting flows.
Analysis of a strong mass-based flame stretch model for turbulent premixed combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastiaans, R. J. M.; van Oijen, J. A.; de Goey, L. P. H.
2009-01-01
In the present paper a theory describing effects of strong flame stretch on turbulent flame propagation [L. P. H. de Goey and J. H. M. ten Thije Boonkkamp, "A flamelet description of premixed laminar flames and the relation with flame stretch," Combust. Flame 119, 253 (1999)] is extended to volume averaged quantities and validated with direct numerical simulation (DNS). The extended theory describes the fuel consumption rate in terms of subgrid scale contributions connected to propagation effects including strong flame stretch. In case there is no preferential diffusion present, it is predicted that the total consumption rate is not affected by local stretch at all. Then the total consumption is described by the unstretched mass burning rate multiplied with the flame surface density. DNSs of turbulent flame kernels have been carried out in order to support the results from the theory. The chemistry is described by application of the flamelet generated manifold technique. The strong stretch theory is shown to be valid up to realizations in the thin reaction zone regime by three independent methods. The local effects of stretch are described, evaluated, and interpreted. Locally the mass burning rate changes by fuel leakage tangential to the flame, but this has no integral effect. The method can be used for subgrid scale modeling of turbulent flame propagation.
The influence of pressure on the control of premixed turbulent flames using an electric field
Sakhrieh, A.; Dinkelacker, F.; Leipertz, A.; Lins, G.; Hammer, T.; Branston, D.W.
2005-11-01
Previous investigations of the effects of electric fields on flames have shown the potential for stabilizing flames and reducing emissions with comparatively little effort, but were restricted to atmospheric pressure. In the present work the influence of the electric field on premixed turbulent jet flames at increased pressure is investigated. Besides the question of whether field effects persist at elevated pressure, it is of interest to find physically based scaling laws. The current work describes experiments with premixed turbulent seven-hole Bunsen-jet flames for pressures between 1 and 10 bar, where the exit velocity was held constant, and where electric fields of varied strength and direction were applied to the flame. Concentrations of CO, NO, and NO{sub 2} were measured in the exhaust gas section. Experiments show that the electric field influence is clearly visible for increased pressures, without any indication that 10 bar should be an upper limit. CO emissions could be reduced by about 95%, irrespective of pressure. The decrease of CO was accompanied by an increase of NO{sub x} by about 25%. Both of these effects can be understood qualitatively within the framework of a one-dimensional model. For reduced voltages up to 3.5 kV/bar the model correctly describes the current-voltage characteristics and leads to the conclusion that high pressure should favor rather than hamper electric field effects on flames. The electric power required for a CO reduction of 95% amounted to 0.1% of the thermal power. The improvement of the lean blowoff limit upon application of an electric field observed so far ranges from 1 to 3% and increases with pressure.
Effects of Lewis number on vorticity and enstrophy transport in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Konstantinou, Ilias; Lipatnikov, Andrei
2016-01-01
The effects of Lewis number Le on both vorticity and enstrophy transport within the flame brush have been analysed using direct numerical simulation data of freely propagating statistically planar turbulent premixed flames, representing the thin reaction zone regime of premixed turbulent combustion. In the simulations, Le was ranged from 0.34 to 1.2 by keeping the laminar flame speed, thermal thickness, Damköhler, Karlovitz, and Reynolds numbers unchanged. The enstrophy has been shown to decay significantly from the unburned to the burned gas side of the flame brush in the Le ≈ 1.0 flames. However, a considerable amount of enstrophy generation within the flame brush has been observed for the Le = 0.34 case and a similar qualitative behaviour has been observed in a much smaller extent for the Le = 0.6 case. The vorticity components have been shown to exhibit anisotropic behaviour within the flame brush, and the extent of anisotropy increases with decreasing Le. The baroclinic torque term has been shown to be principally responsible for this anisotropic behaviour. The vortex stretching and viscous dissipation terms have been found to be the leading order contributors to the enstrophy transport for all cases, but the baroclinic torque and the sink term due to dilatation play increasingly important role for flames with decreasing Le. Furthermore, the correlation between the fluctuations of enstrophy and dilatation rate has been shown to play an important role in determining the material derivative of enstrophy based on the mean flow in the case of a low Le.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trouve, A.; Veynante, D.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.
1994-01-01
Current flamelot models based on a description of the flame surface dynamics require the closure of two inter-related equations: a transport equation for the mean reaction progress variable, (tilde)c, and a transport equation for the flame surface density, Sigma. The coupling between these two equations is investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS) with emphasis on the correlation between the turbulent fluxes of (tilde)c, bar(pu''c''), and Sigma, (u'')(sub S)Sigma. Two different DNS databases are used in the present work: a database developed at CTR by A. Trouve and a database developed by C. J. Rutland using a different code. Both databases correspond to statistically one-dimensional premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow. The run parameters, however, are significantly different, and the two databases correspond to different combustion regimes. It is found that in all simulated flames, the correlation between bar(pu''c'') and (u'')(sub S)Sigma is always strong. The sign, however, of the turbulent flux of (tilde)c or Sigma with respect to the mean gradients, delta(tilde)c/delta(x) or delta(Sigma)/delta(x), is case-dependent. The CTR database is found to exhibit gradient turbulent transport of (tilde)c and Sigma, whereas the Rutland DNS features counter-gradient diffusion. The two databases are analyzed and compared using various tools (a local analysis of the flow field near the flame, a classical analysis of the conservation equation for (tilde)(u''c''), and a thin flame theoretical analysis). A mechanism is then proposed to explain the discrepancies between the two databases and a preliminary simple criterion is derived to predict the occurrence of gradient/counter-gradient turbulent diffusion.
Monte-Carlo computation of turbulent premixed methane/air ignition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmen, Christina Lieselotte
The present work describes the results obtained by a time dependent numerical technique that simulates the early flame development of a spark-ignited premixed, lean, gaseous methane/air mixture with the unsteady spherical flame propagating in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. The algorithm described is based upon a sub-model developed by an international automobile research and manufacturing corporation in order to analyze turbulence conditions within internal combustion engines. Several developments and modifications to the original algorithm have been implemented including a revised chemical reaction scheme and the evaluation and calculation of various turbulent flame properties. Solution of the complete set of Navier-Stokes governing equations for a turbulent reactive flow is avoided by reducing the equations to a single transport equation. The transport equation is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations for a joint probability density function, thus requiring no closure assumptions for the Reynolds stresses. A Monte-Carlo method is also utilized to simulate phenomena represented by the probability density function transport equation by use of the method of fractional steps. Gaussian distributions of fluctuating velocity and fuel concentration are prescribed. Attention is focused on the evaluation of the three primary parameters that influence the initial flame kernel growth-the ignition system characteristics, the mixture composition, and the nature of the flow field. Efforts are concentrated on the effects of moderate to intense turbulence on flames within the distributed reaction zone. Results are presented for lean conditions with the fuel equivalence ratio varying from 0.6 to 0.9. The present computational results, including flame regime analysis and the calculation of various flame speeds, provide excellent agreement with results obtained by other experimental and numerical researchers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramachandran, Aravind; Mothe, Anirudh Reddy; Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran
2015-11-01
Turbulent combustion of a non-premixed methane jet issuing into a vitiated coflow is being studied in our lab. Flame luminosity studies demonstrated three dominant characteristic flame motions - a stable flame base (Mode A), complete blowout (Mode B), and partial blowout followed by re-anchoring of the flame by autoignition kernels (Mode C). The experiments presented in this work focused on Mode A, and were carried out over a range of oxidizer temperatures, oxygen molefractions, and fuel jet Reynolds numbers. Measurements of 2-D velocity fields near the base of the lifted jet flame were obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with the objective to delineate the dominant mechanisms involved in the flame stabilization. Statistical analysis of these instantaneous velocity fields will be presented, which shows non-trivial contributions from autoignition kernels as well as edge flame propagation towards flame stabilization. The effect of vortices and high local strain rates was observed to produce local extinctions and destabilize the flame, indicating their role as precursors to (unstable) Mode B and Mode C motions. NSF Grant CBET-1511216.
Paul, Bireswar; Datta, Amitava; Datta, Aparna; Saha, Abhijit
2009-12-15
An experimental study has been performed to detect the occurrence of nanosized carbon particulates below the soot laden zone of a co-flowing partially premixed flame. Samples have been extracted from different points across the flame and passed through DI water. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies have been performed with the collected water suspensions. The occurrence of carbon nanoparticles is evident across the inner flame front. In addition, evidence of naphthalene has also been found inside the inner rich premixed flame. The concentration of naphthalene decreases while that of the carbon nanoparticles increases as the inner flame front is reached. The stability of the nanoparticles in the sample has been ensured by observing that the change in fluorescence quantum yield from the sample over a long duration is small. The band gap energy has been evaluated using the absorption data to characterize the likely structures of the particles in the collected suspension. Two kinds of particles having different zones of band gap energy are found in the flame. Dynamic light scattering measurements show that the particle size grows with the increase in height in the lower part of the flame. While, at 3 and 6 mm elevations the particles are observed to be below 2.5 nm in diameter, the particles at 10 mm elevation are found in the size range of 2.5-5.5 nm. (author)
Numerical prediction of turbulent flame stability in premixed/prevaporized (HSCT) combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winowich, Nicholas S.
1990-01-01
A numerical analysis of combustion instabilities that induce flashback in a lean, premixed, prevaporized dump combustor is performed. KIVA-II, a finite volume CFD code for the modeling of transient, multidimensional, chemically reactive flows, serves as the principal analytical tool. The experiment of Proctor and T'ien is used as a reference for developing the computational model. An experimentally derived combustion instability mechanism is presented on the basis of the observations of Proctor and T'ien and other investigators of instabilities in low speed (M less than 0.1) dump combustors. The analysis comprises two independent procedures that begin from a calculated stable flame: The first is a linear increase of the equivalence ratio and the second is the linear decrease of the inflow velocity. The objective is to observe changes in the aerothermochemical features of the flow field prior to flashback. It was found that only the linear increase of the equivalence ratio elicits a calculated flashback result. Though this result did not exhibit large scale coherent vortices in the turbulent shear layer coincident with a flame flickering mode as was observed experimentally, there were interesting acoustic effects which were resolved quite well in the calculation. A discussion of the k-e turbulence model used by KIVA-II is prompted by the absence of combustion instabilities in the model as the inflow velocity is linearly decreased. Finally, recommendations are made for further numerical analysis that may improve correlation with experimentally observed combustion instabilities.
Turbulence, combustion, pollutant, and stability characterization of a premixed, step combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganji, A. T.; Sawyer, R. F.
1980-01-01
A two dimensional combustion tunnel was constructed to study a lean premixed turbulent propane/air flame stablized behind a rearward facing step. Studied were: (1) the existence and importance of large coherent structures in turbulent reacting and nonreacting free shear layers behind the steps; (2) the effect of inlet temperature and reference velocity on combustion efficiency; (3) CO, NO2 and NO sub x production in the flame; and (4) the blowout and upstream propagation of the flame. In the ranges studied, the large coherent structures dominated both the reacting and the nonreacting free shear layers behind the step. The growth of the vortices and the propagation of the flamer were intimately linked. Vortex pairing was observed to be one of the mechanisms for introduction of fresh reactants into the shear layer and growth of the shear layer. Probe composition measurements of the flame showed that, in the recirculation zone, the reaction was above 99 percent complete, CO and unburnt hydrocarbons were above the equilibrium level NO sub x concentration was far below the equilibrium level and NO2 comprised a negligible fraction of NO sub x.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramji, Sarah Ann
Improved understanding of turbulence-flame interactions in premixed combustion can be achieved using fully 3D time-resolved multi-kHz multi-scalar experimental measurements. These interactions may be represented by the evolution of various Lagrangian quantities described by theoretical Lagrangian Fluid Elements (LFEs). The data used in this work came from two experimental campaigns that used simultaneous T-PIV and OH/CH2O PLIF, at Sandia National Labs and the Air Force Research Lab at Wright-Patterson. In this thesis, an algorithm to accurately track LFEs through this 4D experimental space has been developed and verified by cross-correlation with the T-PIV seed particle fields. A novel method to measure the local instantaneous displacement speed in 3D has been developed, using this algorithm to track control masses of fluid that interact with the flame front. Statistics of the displacement speed have been presented, and the effects of local turbulence and flame topological properties on the displacement speed have been studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Day, M. S.; Bell, J. B.; Cheng, R. K.; Tachibana, S.; Beckner, V. E.; Lijewski, M. J.
2009-07-01
One strategy for reducing US dependence on petroleum is to develop new combustion technologies for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification of coal and biomass. Fuel-flexible combustion systems based on lean premixed combustion have the potential for dramatically reducing pollutant emissions in transportation systems, heat and stationary power generation. However, lean premixed flames are highly susceptible to fluid-dynamical combustion instabilities making robust and reliable systems difficult to design. Low swirl burners are emerging as an important technology for meeting design requirements in terms of both reliability and emissions for next generation combustion devices. In this paper, we present simulations of a lean, premixed hydrogen flame stabilized on a laboratory-scale low swirl burner. The simulations use detailed chemistry and transport without incorporating explicit models for turbulence or turbulence/chemistry interaction. Here we discuss the overall structure of the flame and compare with experimental data. We also use the simulation data to elucidate the characteristics of the turbulent flame interaction and how this impacts the analysis of experimental measurements.
Kemenov, Konstantin A.; Calhoon, William H.
2015-03-24
Large-scale strain rate field, a resolved quantity which is easily computable in large-eddy simulations (LES), could have profound effects on the premixed flame properties by altering the turbulent flame speed and inducing local extinction. The role of the resolved strain rate has been investigated in a posterior LES study of GE lean premixed dry low NOx emissions LM6000 gas turbine combustor model. A novel approach which is based on the coupling of the lineareddy model with a one-dimensional counter-flow solver has been applied to obtain the parameterizations of the resolved premixed flame properties in terms of the reactive progress variable,more » the local strain rate measure, and local Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. The strain rate effects have been analyzed by comparing LES statistics for several models of the turbulent flame speed, i.e, with and without accounting for the local strain rate effects, with available experimental data. The sensitivity of the simulation results to the inflow velocity conditions as well as the grid resolution have been also studied. Overall, the results suggest the necessity to represent the strain rate effects accurately in order to improve LES modeling of the turbulent flame speed.« less
Kemenov, Konstantin A.; Calhoon, William H.
2015-03-24
Large-scale strain rate field, a resolved quantity which is easily computable in large-eddy simulations (LES), could have profound effects on the premixed flame properties by altering the turbulent flame speed and inducing local extinction. The role of the resolved strain rate has been investigated in a posterior LES study of GE lean premixed dry low NOx emissions LM6000 gas turbine combustor model. A novel approach which is based on the coupling of the lineareddy model with a one-dimensional counter-flow solver has been applied to obtain the parameterizations of the resolved premixed flame properties in terms of the reactive progress variable, the local strain rate measure, and local Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. The strain rate effects have been analyzed by comparing LES statistics for several models of the turbulent flame speed, i.e, with and without accounting for the local strain rate effects, with available experimental data. The sensitivity of the simulation results to the inflow velocity conditions as well as the grid resolution have been also studied. Overall, the results suggest the necessity to represent the strain rate effects accurately in order to improve LES modeling of the turbulent flame speed.
Balachandran, R.; Dowling, A.P.; Mastorakos, E.; Ayoola, B.O.; Kaminski, C.F.
2005-10-01
This paper describes an experimental investigation of acoustically forced lean premixed turbulent bluff-body-stabilised flames in an enclosure short enough so that no coupling of the combustor downstream acoustics occurred for the frequencies studied here, which allows an unambiguous examination of the flame response to inlet velocity fluctuations. Special emphasis was placed on the amplitude dependence of this response. Measurements of the heat release rate were performed with OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH from which the flame surface density (FSD) was computed, and simultaneous CH{sub 2}O and OH PLIF imaging from which the local heat release rate (RX) was estimated. The global heat release measured with chemiluminescence and that integrated from the local FSD measurements were in close agreement, while a comparison between FSD and high-resolution RX imaging also showed good agreement. This suggests that estimates of the flame area are sufficient to determine heat release rate for this flow. The heat release response became nonlinear after inlet velocity amplitudes of around 15% of the bulk velocity. This value depended on the forcing frequency and the equivalence ratio. The nonlinearity was found to occur when the shear layers rolled up into vortices. The vortices induced by the inlet velocity fluctuations not only generated flame area when the flame wrapped around them, but also caused cusps and even large-scale flame annihilation events, as observed in time-resolved OH PLIF images. Such events occurred when parts of the flame stabilised on the inner shear layer close to the recirculation zone collapsed on parts of the flame stabilised on the outer recirculation zone, a phenomenon that was made more prominent with increasing forcing amplitude. A further nonlinearity occurred at high amplitudes and at some equivalence ratios, where a significant leakage of energy to higher harmonics was observed, but the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, L. P.
1981-01-01
An analysis was conducted of the effect of flameholding devices on the precombustion fuel-air characteristics and on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for combustion of premixed partially vaporized mixtures. The analysis includes the interrelationships of flameholder droplet collection efficiency, reatomization efficiency and blockage, and the initial droplet size distribution and accounts for the contribution of droplet combustion in partially vaporized mixtures to NOx emissions. Application of the analytical procedures is illustrated and parametric predictions of NOx emissions are presented.
Sankaran, Ramanan; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yoo, Chun Sang; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2015-06-22
Direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent Bunsen flames were performed at three different turbulence intensities. We performed these simulations using a reduced methane–air chemical mechanism which was specifically tailored for the lean premixed conditions simulated here. A planar-jet turbulent Bunsen flame configuration was used in which turbulent preheated methane–air mixture at 0.7 equivalence ratio issued through a central jet and was surrounded by a hot laminar coflow of burned products. The turbulence characteristics at the jet inflow were selected such that combustion occured in the thin reaction zones (TRZ) regime. At the lowest turbulence intensity, the conditions fall on the boundary between the TRZ regime and the corrugated flamelet regime, and progressively moved further into the TRZ regime by increasing the turbulent intensity. The data from the three simulations was analyzed to understand the effect of turbulent stirring on the flame structure and thickness. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the data showed that the thermal preheat layer of the flame was thickened due to the action of turbulence, but the reaction zone was not significantly affected. A global and local analysis of the burning velocity of the flame was performed to compare the different flames. Detailed statistical averages of the flame speed were also obtained to study the spatial dependence of displacement speed and its correlation to strain rate and curvature.
Sankaran, Ramanan; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yoo, Chun Sang; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2015-06-22
Direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent Bunsen flames were performed at three different turbulence intensities. We performed these simulations using a reduced methane–air chemical mechanism which was specifically tailored for the lean premixed conditions simulated here. A planar-jet turbulent Bunsen flame configuration was used in which turbulent preheated methane–air mixture at 0.7 equivalence ratio issued through a central jet and was surrounded by a hot laminar coflow of burned products. The turbulence characteristics at the jet inflow were selected such that combustion occured in the thin reaction zones (TRZ) regime. At the lowest turbulence intensity, the conditions fall onmore » the boundary between the TRZ regime and the corrugated flamelet regime, and progressively moved further into the TRZ regime by increasing the turbulent intensity. The data from the three simulations was analyzed to understand the effect of turbulent stirring on the flame structure and thickness. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the data showed that the thermal preheat layer of the flame was thickened due to the action of turbulence, but the reaction zone was not significantly affected. A global and local analysis of the burning velocity of the flame was performed to compare the different flames. Detailed statistical averages of the flame speed were also obtained to study the spatial dependence of displacement speed and its correlation to strain rate and curvature.« less
Xiao, Xudong; Puri, Ishwar K; Agrawal, Ajay K
2002-04-01
We focus on the utility of rainbow schlieren as a tool for measuring the temperature of axisymmetric partially premixed flames (PPFs). Methane-air PPFs are established on a coannular burner. The flames involve two spatially distinct reaction zones, one in an inner premixed region that has a curved tip and a spatially planar wing portion and another that involves an outer nonpremixed zone in which intermediate species burn in air. Schlieren images are found to visualize clearly these PPF characteristics through light deflection by steep refractive-index gradients in the two reaction zone fronts. The temperature distributions of two flames established at fuel-rich mixture equivalence ratios of phi(r) = 1.5 and 2.0, with bulk-averaged velocities, Vreac = 60 cm s(-1) and Vair = 50 cm s(-1), are inferred from color schlieren images, and a measurement error analysis is performed. Errors arise from two sources. One lies in the process of inferring the temperature from the refractive-index measurement by making assumptions regarding the local composition of the flame. We have shown through simulations that the average temperature deviations due to these assumptions are 1.7% for the phi(r) = 1.5 flame and 2.3% for the phi(r) = 2.0 flame. Another source involves the local uncertainty in the measurement of the transverse ray displacement at the filter plane that is used to determine the refractive index and thereafter the flame temperature. We have ascertained that a maximum error of 4.3% in the temperature determination can be attributed to this local measurement uncertainty. This investigation demonstrates the capability of the schlieren technique for providing not only qualitative displays of the PPFs but also full-field-of-view temperature measurements that are accurate, spatially resolved, and nonintrusive. PMID:11936791
Turbulent non - premixed flames driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varshochi, Hilda; Attal, Nitesh; Ramaprabhu, Praveen
2015-11-01
We report on Direct Numerical Simulations of shock-induced mixing between fuel (H2) and Oxidizer (O2) streams separated by a sharp interface and driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). The resulting non-premixed flame is dominated by vigorous mixing that is a consequence of deposition of baroclinic vorticity at the interface. Such RMI-driven flames, when properly controlled, could play a decisive role in improving the performance of supersonic combustors such as scramjets. While the majority of past research efforts in this area have focused on the shock-bubble flame interaction, our configuration is fundamentally different and involves a planar shock interacting with a planar interface. This allows for the placement of well-defined, precisely controlled initial perturbations on the planar surface. Furthermore, the interface is statistically homogenous in all directions perpendicular to shock traverse, thus rendering the problem amenable to reduced-order 1D modeling of planar-averaged quantities. From detailed, high-resolution DNS, we describe flow and flame characteristics of a repeatedly reshocked turbulent RMI flame. We observe that with each reshock event, fresh deposition of vorticity on the already nonlinear interface greatly enhances mixing and combustion.
An Experimental Study of the Structure of Turbulent Non-Premixed Jet Flames in Microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boxx, Isaac; Idicheria, Cherian; Clemens, Noel
2000-11-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the structure of transitional and turbulent non-premixed jet flames under microgravity conditions. The microgravity experiments are being conducted using a newly developed drop rig and the University of Texas 1.5 second drop tower. The rig itself measures 16”x33”x38” and contains a co-flowing round jet flame facility, flow control system, CCD camera, and data/image acquisition computer. These experiments are the first phase of a larger study being conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center 2.2 second drop tower facility. The flames being studied include methane and propane round jet flames at jet exit Reynolds numbers as high as 10,000. The primary diagnostic technique employed is emission imaging of flame luminosity using a relatively high-speed (350 fps) CCD camera. The high-speed images are used to study flame height, flame tip dynamics and burnout characteristics. Results are compared to normal gravity experimental results obtained in the same apparatus.
Soot volume fraction in a piloted turbulent jet non-premixed flame of natural gas
Qamar, N.H.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D.; Chan, Q.N.; Nathan, G.J.; Roekaerts, D.
2009-07-15
Planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) has been used to measure soot volume fraction in a well-characterised, piloted, turbulent non-premixed flame known as the ''Delft Flame III''. Simulated Dutch natural gas was used as the fuel to produce a flame closely matching those in which a wide range of previous investigations, both experimental and modelling, have been performed. The LII method was calibrated using a Santoro-style burner with ethylene as the fuel. Instantaneous and time-averaged data of the axial and radial soot volume fraction distributions of the flame are presented here along with the Probability Density Functions (PDFs) and intermittency. The PDFs were found to be well-characterised by a single exponential distribution function. The distribution of soot was found to be highly intermittent, with intermittency typically exceeding 97%, which increases measurement uncertainty. The instantaneous values of volume fraction are everywhere less than the values in strained laminar flames. This is consistent with the soot being found locally in strained flame sheets that are convected and distorted by the flow. (author)
Correlation of flame speed with stretch in turbulent premixed methane/air flames
Chen, J.H.; Im, H.G.
1998-03-01
Direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional unsteady premixed methane/air flames are performed to determine the correlation of flame speed with stretch over a wide range of curvatures and strain rates generated by intense two-dimensional turbulence. Lean and stoichiometric premixtures are considered with a detailed C{sub 1}-mechanism for methane oxidation. The computed correlation shows the existence of two distinct stable branches. It further shows that exceedingly large negative values of stretch can be obtained solely through curvature effects which give rise to an overall nonlinear correlation of the flame speed with stretch. Over a narrower stretch range, {minus}1 {le} Ka {le} 1, which includes 90% of the sample, the correlation is approximately linear, and hence, the asymptotic theory for stretch is practically applicable. Overall, one-third of the sample has negative stretch. In this linear range, the Markstein number associated with the positive branch is determined and is consistent with values obtained from comparable steady counterflow computations. In addition to this conventional positive branch, a negative branch is identified. This negative branch occurs when a flame cusp, with a center of curvature in the burnt gases, is subjected to intense compressive strain, resulting in a negative displacement speed. Negative flame speeds are also encountered for extensive tangential strain rates exceeding a Karlovitz number of unity, a value consistent with steady counterflow computations.
Lewis number effects on premixed flames interacting with turbulent Karman vortex streets
Lee, J.G.; Lee, T.W.; Nye, D.A.; Santavicca, D.A. )
1995-01-01
The effects of Lewis number on the global and local structure of premixed flames interacting with turbulent Karman vortex streets are experimentally investigated using OH planar-laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The OH PLIF results show that over the range of Lewis numbers studied, i.e., Le = 0.21, 0.94 and 1.79, the flame area increases and the flame front is oriented more randomly as Lewis number decreases, while the flame curvature pdfs are unchanged. The relationship between the local flame structure and the local flame curvature is found to be consistent with the results of stretched laminar flame theory. the correlation between the local maximum OH fluorescence intensity and the local curvature tends to level off for large positive curvature as U/S ratio increases, indicating that the response of the flame to large flame stretch may be non-linear at high U/S ratio. The pdfs of peak OH LIF intensity suggest that the mean burning rate of the H[sub 2]/He/air flame at U/S ratios = 3.3 is increased approximately by 10% in comparison to the undisturbed laminar flame. The present results imply that even though the local fame curvature may strongly influence the local structure and burning rate of nonunity Lewis number flames through the effect of flame stretch on the local burning rate, these variations tend to cancel in the mean due to the linear relationship between local burning rate and curvature for the most probable values of curvature and due to the symmetry and zero mean of the curvature distribution. Therefore, the main effect of turbulence and Lewis number is to wrinkle the flame and produce flame area, while increasing the mean burning rate per unit surface area by relatively small amount through flow strain effects.
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Cetegen, Baki M.
2009-03-15
Response of bluff-body stabilized conical turbulent premixed flames was experimentally studied for a range of excitation frequencies (10-400 Hz), mean flow velocities (5, 10 and 15 m/s) and three different spatial mixture distributions (uniform, inner and outer enrichment). Upstream excitation was provided by a loudspeaker producing velocity oscillation amplitudes of about 8% of the mean flow velocity. Flame response was detected by a photomultiplier observing the CH{sup *} emission from the flame. The studied turbulent flames exhibited transfer function characteristics of a low-pass filter with a cutoff Strouhal number between 0.08 and 0.12. The amplification factors at low frequencies ranged from 2 to 20 and generally increased for mean flow velocities from 5 to 15 m/s. The highest levels of amplification were found for the outer mixture enrichment followed in decreasing order by uniform and inner mixture gradient cases. The high levels of flame response for the outer enrichment case were attributed to the enhanced flame-vortex interaction in outer jet shear layer. At high excitation levels (u{sup '}/U{sub m}{approx}0.3) for U{sub m}=5 m/ s where non-linear flame response is expected, the flame exhibited a reduced amplitude response in the frequency range between 40 and 100 Hz for the uniform and outer equivalence ratio gradient cases and no discernible effect for the inner equivalence ratio gradient. In all cases, transfer function phase was found to vary linearly with excitation frequency. Finally, a relationship between the amplitude characteristics of the bluff-body wake transfer function and flame blowoff equivalence ratio was presented. (author)
Richardson, E.S.; Grout, R.W.; Chen, J.H.; Sankaran, R.
2010-03-15
The scalar mixing time scale, a key quantity in many turbulent combustion models, is investigated for reactive scalars in premixed combustion. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of three-dimensional, turbulent Bunsen flames with reduced methane-air chemistry have been analyzed in the thin reaction zones regime. Previous conclusions from single step chemistry DNS studies are confirmed regarding the role of dilatation and turbulence-chemistry interactions on the progress variable dissipation rate. Compared to the progress variable, the mixing rates of intermediate species is found to be several times greater. The variation of species mixing rates are explained with reference to the structure of one-dimensional premixed laminar flames. According to this analysis, mixing rates are governed by the strong gradients which are imposed by flamelet structures at high Damkoehler numbers. This suggests a modeling approach to estimate the mixing rate of individual species which can be applied, for example, in transported probability density function simulations. Flame-turbulence interactions which modify the flamelet based representation are analyzed. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tap, F. A.; Hilbert, R.; Thévenin, D.; Veynante, D.
2004-03-01
Auto-ignition of turbulent non-premixed systems is encountered in practical devices such as diesel internal combustion engines. It remains a challenge for modellers, as it exhibits specific features such as unsteadiness, flame propagation and combustion far from stoichiometric conditions. In this paper, a two-dimensional DNS database of an igniting H2/O2/N2 mixing layer, including detailed chemistry and transport, is extensively post-processed in order to gain physical insight into the flame structure and dynamics during auto-ignition. The results are used as a framework for the development of a generalized flame surface density modelling approach by integrating the equations over all possible mixture fraction values. The mean reaction rate is split into two contributions: a generalized flame surface density and a mean reaction rate per unit generalized flame surface density. The unsteadiness of the ignition phenomenon is accounted for via a generalized progress variable. Closures for the generalized surface average of the reaction rate and for the generalized progress variable are proposed, and the modelling approach is tested a priori versus the DNS data. The use of a laminar database for the chemistry coupled to the mean turbulent field via the generalized progress variable shows very promising results, capturing the correct ignition delay and the premixed peak in the turbulent mean heat release rate evolution. This allows confidence in future inclusion and validation of this approach in a RANS-CFD code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolaevich Lipatnikov, Andrei; Nishiki, Shinnosuke; Hasegawa, Tatsuya
2015-05-01
The linear relation between the mean rate of product creation and the mean scalar dissipation rate, derived in the seminal paper by K.N.C. Bray ['The interaction between turbulence and combustion', Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 17 (1979), pp. 223-233], is the cornerstone for models of premixed turbulent combustion that deal with the dissipation rate in order to close the reaction rate. In the present work, this linear relation is straightforwardly validated by analysing data computed earlier in the 3D Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of three statistically stationary, 1D, planar turbulent flames associated with the flamelet regime of premixed combustion. Although the linear relation does not hold at the leading and trailing edges of the mean flame brush, such a result is expected within the framework of Bray's theory. However, the present DNS yields substantially larger (smaller) values of an input parameter cm (or K2 = 1/(2cm - 1)), involved by the studied linear relation, when compared to the commonly used value of cm = 0.7 (or K2 = 2.5). To gain further insight into the issue and into the eventual dependence of cm on mixture composition, the DNS data are combined with the results of numerical simulations of stationary, 1D, planar laminar methane-air flames with complex chemistry, with the results being reported in terms of differently defined combustion progress variables c, i.e. the normalised temperature, density, or mole fraction of CH4, O2, CO2 or H2O. Such a study indicates the dependence of cm both on the definition of c and on the equivalence ratio. Nevertheless, K2 and cm can be estimated by processing the results of simulations of counterpart laminar premixed flames. Similar conclusions were also drawn by skipping the DNS data, but invoking a presumed beta probability density function in order to evaluate cm for the differently defined c's and various equivalence ratios.
Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.
2015-05-12
Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to createmore » a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study
Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.
2015-05-12
Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to create a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study has
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, L. P.
1980-01-01
An experimental and analytical study of the combustion of partially vaporized fuel-air mixtures was performed to assess the impact of the degree of fuel vaporization upon emissions for a premixing-prevaporizing flametube combustor. Data collected in this study showed near linear increases in nitric oxide emissions with decreasing vaporization at equivalence ratios of 0.6. For equivalence ratios of 0.72, the degree of vaporization had very little impact on nitric oxide emissions. A simple mechanism which accounts for the combustion of liquid droplets in partially vaporized mixtures was found to agree with the measured results with fair accuracy with respect to both trends and magnitudes.
Domingo, Pascale; Vervisch, Luc; Payet, Sandra; Hauguel, Raphaeel
2005-12-01
Two complementary simulations of premixed turbulent flames are discussed. Low Reynolds number two-dimensional direct numerical simulation of a premixed turbulent V flame is first performed, to further analyze the behavior of various flame quantities and to study key ingredients of premixed turbulent combustion modeling. Flame surface density, subgrid-scale variance of progress variables, and unresolved turbulent fluxes are analyzed. These simulations include fully detailed chemistry from a flame-generated tabulation (FPI) and the analysis focuses on the dynamics of the thin flame front. Then, a novel subgrid scale closure for large eddy simulation of premixed turbulent combustion (FSD-PDF) is proposed. It combines the flame surface density (FSD) approach with a presumed probability density function (PDF) of the progress variable that is used in FPI chemistry tabulation. The FSD is useful for introducing in the presumed PDF the influence of the spatially filtered thin reaction zone evolving within the subgrid. This is achieved via the exact relation between the PDF and the FSD. This relation involves the conditional filtered average of the magnitude of the gradient of the progress variable. In the modeling, this conditional filtered mean is approximated from the filtered gradient of the progress variable of the FPI laminar flame. Balance equations providing mean and variance of the progress variable together with the measure of the filtered gradient are used to presume the PDF. A three-dimensional larger Reynolds number flow configuration (ORACLES experiment) is then computed with FSD-PDF and the results are compared with measurements.
Xiao, X; Puri, I K
2001-02-20
Partially premixed flames (PPF's) represent a class of hybrid flames that contain multiple reaction zones. A detailed understanding of the temperature distribution in PPF's is important from both practical and scientific considerations. Path-integrated or line-of-sight measurement techniques, such as holographic interferometry (HI), that are based on the change in the optical phase of a light beam can be used to reconstruct the refractive index n in flames and thereafter to infer the temperature distribution. Therefore to describe the flame structure in the context of these measurements requires that a systematic approach be developed that relates the density, the temperature, and the composition to the refractive index. We demonstrate that a conserved scalar xi that transforms the flame structure from a spatial to a generic distribution can be inferred from the refractive-index distribution. Thereafter measurements of the density, the temperature, and the composition in two-dimensional PPF's become feasible. We report the first application, to our knowledge, of this method to HI. Specifically, we used HI to measure the refractive-index distributions in methane-air PPF's. One PPF is a double flame that has two reaction zones, and the other is a triple flame that contains three reaction zones. We have applied the procedure to infer the distribution of the modified mixture fraction and thereafter the local temperature and the local mass fractions. We find the local temperature differences, DT(x, y) = |T[n(x, y)] - T?[xi(x, y)]|, to be relatively small. We conclude that it is possible to use HI to infer the mixture-fraction distribution and thereafter the flame structures by the application of state relations in the case of PPF's. PMID:18357052
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Jaesung; Huh, Kang Y.
2014-09-01
DNS is performed to analyse the effects of Lewis number (Le), density ratio and gravity in stagnating turbulent premixed flames. The results show good agreement with those of Lee and Huh (Combustion and Flame, Vol. 159, 2012, pp. 1576-1591) with respect to the turbulent burning velocity, ST, in terms of turbulent diffusivity, flamelet thickness, mean curvature and displacement speed at the leading edge. In all four stagnating flames studied, a mean tangential strain rate resulting in a mean flamelet thickness smaller than the unstretched laminar flame thickness leads to an increase in ST. A flame cusp of positive curvature involves a superadiabatic burned gas temperature due to diffusive-thermal instability for an Le less than unity. Wrinkling tends to be suppressed at a larger density ratio, not enhanced by hydrodynamic instability, in the stagnating flow configuration. Turbulence is produced, resulting in highly anisotropic turbulence with heavier unburned gas accelerating through a flame brush by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Results are also provided on brush thickness, flame surface density and conditional velocities in burned and unburned gas and on flame surfaces to represent the internal brush structures for all four test flames.
Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines
Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.
2012-05-09
Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gasÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂair mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂrelative combustion phasingÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ° to 60ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ°BTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally
Computational analysis of some physical issues in nonpremixed and premixed turbulent flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberger, Craig J.
1997-07-01
Results are presented of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a randomly perturbed spatially developing planar jet under the influence of a finite rate chemical reaction of the type F+O/to Product with initially nonpremixed reactants. The objectives of the simulations are to assess the compositional structure of the flame and to determine the influence of reaction exothermicity. It is shown that as the intensity of mixing is increased and the effect of finite rate chemistry is more pronounced, the magnitudes of the ensemble mean and root mean square of the product mass fraction decrease and those of the reactants mass fraction increase. At higher mixing rates the joint probability density functions of the reactants' mass fractions shift towards higher values within the composition domain indicating a lower reactedness. These trends are consistent with those observed experimentally and are useful in portraying the statistical structure of non-equilibrium diffusion flames. The DNS generated data are also utilized to examine the applicability of the 'laminar diffusion flamelet model' in predicting the rate of the reactant conversion with finite rate chemistry. This examination indicates that the performance of the model is improved as the value of the local Damkohler number is increased. In the setting of a 'turbulent' flame, the effect of the heat liberated by the chemical reaction is shown to increase the rate of reactant conversion. This finding is different from those of earlier DNS results and laboratory investigations. Lagrangian simulations are conducted of unsteady premixed flames in a spatially developing planar mixing layer. The flames are simulated via the FLAIR (Flux Line-Segment Model for Advection and Interface Reconstruction) algorithms combined with a vortex method flow solver. The objective of the simulations is to capture the structure of the flame front, ascertain the influences of exothermicity and baroclinic torque on the flame, and to assess the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietzsch, Felix; Gauding, Michael; Hasse, Christian
2014-11-01
By means of Direct Numerical Simulation we have investigated the influence of differential diffusion for non-premixed oxygen-enhanced turbulent flames. Oxygen-enhanced conversion usually yields higher amounts of H2 as compared to conventional air combustion. It is well known that H2 as a very diffusive species leads to differential diffusion effects. In addition to the diffusive transport mixing processes are also often controlled by turbulent transport. Previous investigations of a turbulent CH4/H2 oxygen-enhanced jet flame have shown that in mixture fraction space it is important to distinguish between regions of equal diffusivities and detailed transport. These findings are of particular interest when performing Large-Eddy simulations applying a flamelet approach. Using this approach a LES study was performed of the aforementioned flame considering differential diffusion. Therefore, flamelet equations including differential diffusion via non-unity constant Lewis numbers were solved. However, this study showed that keeping the non-unity Lewis numbers constant, is not sufficient to capture the diffusion phenomena in this particular flame. Direct Numerical Simulations have been conducted in order to investigate how Lewis numbers are affected in mixture fraction space. Computer resources for this project have been provided by the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing/Leibniz Supercomputing Centre under Grant: pr83xa.
Tonse, Shaheen R.; Brown, Nancy J.
2003-02-26
The dimensionality (D) of manifolds of active chemical composition space has been measured using three different approaches: the Hausdorff geometrical binning method, Principal Component Analysis, and the Grassberger-Procaccia cumulative distribution method. A series of artificial manifolds is also generated using a Monte Carlo approach to discern the advantages and limitations of the three methods. Dimensionality is quantified for different levels of turbulent intensity in a simulation of the interactions of a 2D premixed hydrogen flame with a localized region of turbulence superimposed over the cold region upstream of the flame front. The simulations are conducted using an adaptive mesh refinement code for low Mach number reacting flows. By treating the N{sub s} species and temperature of the local thermo-chemical state as a point in multi-dimensional chemical composition space, a snapshot of a flame region is mapped into chemical composition space to generate the manifold associated with the 2-D flame system. An increase in D was observed with increasing turbulent intensity for all three methods. Although each method provides useful information, the Grassberger-Procaccia method is subject to fewer artifacts than the other two thereby providing the most reliable quantification of D.
Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie
2015-04-14
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for highermore » loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.« less
Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie
2015-04-14
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.
Stochastic partial differential equations in turbulence related problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, P.-L.
1978-01-01
The theory of stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) and problems relating to turbulence are discussed by employing the theories of Brownian motion and diffusion in infinite dimensions, functional differential equations, and functional integration. Relevant results in probablistic analysis, especially Gaussian measures in function spaces and the theory of stochastic PDEs of Ito type, are taken into account. Linear stochastic PDEs are analyzed through linearized Navier-Stokes equations with a random forcing. Stochastic equations for waves in random media as well as model equations in turbulent transport theory are considered. Markovian models in fully developed turbulence are discussed from a stochastic equation viewpoint.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, H. Lee; Wey, Ming-Jyh
Two dimensional calculations were made of spark ignited premixed-charge combustion and direct injection stratified-charge combustion in gasoline fueled piston engines. Results are obtained using kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction or a hybrid laminar kinetics/mixing-controlled combustion submodel that accounts for laminar kinetics and turbulent mixing effects. The numerical solutions are obtained by using KIVA-2 computer code which uses a kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction (i.e., it assumes that the mixing time is smaller than the chemistry). A hybrid laminar/mixing-controlled combustion submodel was implemented into KIVA-2. In this model, chemical species approach their thermodynamics equilibrium with a rate that is a combination of the turbulent-mixing time and the chemical-kinetics time. The combination is formed in such a way that the longer of the two times has more influence on the conversion rate and the energy release. An additional element of the model is that the laminar-flame kinetics strongly influence the early flame development following ignition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, H. Lee; Wey, Ming-Jyh
1990-01-01
Two dimensional calculations were made of spark ignited premixed-charge combustion and direct injection stratified-charge combustion in gasoline fueled piston engines. Results are obtained using kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction or a hybrid laminar kinetics/mixing-controlled combustion submodel that accounts for laminar kinetics and turbulent mixing effects. The numerical solutions are obtained by using KIVA-2 computer code which uses a kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction (i.e., it assumes that the mixing time is smaller than the chemistry). A hybrid laminar/mixing-controlled combustion submodel was implemented into KIVA-2. In this model, chemical species approach their thermodynamics equilibrium with a rate that is a combination of the turbulent-mixing time and the chemical-kinetics time. The combination is formed in such a way that the longer of the two times has more influence on the conversion rate and the energy release. An additional element of the model is that the laminar-flame kinetics strongly influence the early flame development following ignition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu
2015-09-01
The spectral characteristics of combustion noise are dictated by the temporal correlation of the overall change of heat release rate fluctuations which has not received sufficient attention in prior studies. In this work, the two-time correlation of the volumetric heat release rate fluctuations within the flame brush and its role in modeling combustion noise spectrum are investigated by analyzing direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of turbulent premixed V-flames. This two-time correlation can be well represented by Gaussian-type functions and it captures the slow global variation of the fluctuating heat release rate and hence the low-frequency noise sources of unsteady combustion. The resulting correlation model is applied to predict the far-field noise spectrum from test open flames, and different reference time scales are used to scale this correlation from the DNS data to the test flames. The comparison between predictions and measurements indicates that the correlation models of all reference time scales are capable of reproducing the essential spectral shape including the low- and high-frequency dependencies. Reasonable agreement in the peak frequency, peak sound pressure level, and the Strouhal number scaling of peak frequency is also achieved for two turbulent time scales. A promising convective time scale shows great potential for characterizing the spectral features, yet its predictive capabilities are to be further verified through a longer DNS signal of a bounded flame configuration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, H. Lee; Wey, Ming-Jyh
1990-01-01
Two-dimensional calculations were made of spark ignited premixed-charge combustion and direct injection stratified-charge combustion in gasoline fueled piston engines. Results are obtained using kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction or a hybrid laminar kinetics/mixing-controlled combustion submodel that accounts for laminar kinetics and turbulent mixing effects. The numerical solutions are obtained by using KIVA-2 computer code which uses a kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction (i.e., it assumes that the mixing time is smaller than the chemistry). A hybrid laminar/mixing-controlled combustion submodel was implemented into KIVA-2. In this model, chemical species approach their thermodynamics equilibrium with a rate that is a combination of the turbulent-mixing time and the chemical-kinetics time. The combination is formed in such a way that the longer of the two times has more influence on the conversion rate and the energy release. An additional element of the model is that the laminar-flame kinetics strongly influence the early flame development following ignition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arun, C. R.; Raghavan, Vasudevan
2012-09-01
Interactions of fuel-rich and fuel-lean mixtures and formation of interlinked multiple flame zones are observed in gas turbines and industrial furnaces. For fundamentally understanding such flames, numerical investigation of heat and mass transport, and chemical reaction processes, in laminar, counter flowing partially premixed rich and lean streams of methane and air mixtures, is presented. An axisymmetric numerical reactive flow model, with C2 detailed mechanism for describing methane oxidation in air and an optically thin radiation sub-model, is used in simulations. The numerical results are validated against the experimental results from literature. The equivalence ratios of counter flowing rich and lean reactant streams and the resulting strain rates have been varied. The effect of these parameters on the flame structure is presented. For a given rich and lean side equivalence ratios, by varying the strain rates, triple, double and single flame zones are obtained.
Combustion oscillation monitoring using flame ionization in a turbulent premixed combustor
Chorpening, B.T.; Thornton, J.D.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.
2007-04-01
To achieve very low NOx emission levels, lean-premixed gas turbine combustors have been commercially implemented that operate near the fuel-lean flame extinction limit. Near the lean limit, however, flashback, lean blow off, and combustion dynamics have appeared as problems during operation. To help address these operational problems, a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) for gas turbine combustors is being developed. CCADS uses the electrical properties of the flame to detect key events and monitor critical operating parameters within the combustor. Previous development efforts have shown the capability of CCADS to monitor flashback and equivalence ratio. Recent work has focused on detecting and measuring combustion instabilities. A highly instrumented atmospheric combustor has been used to measure the pressure oscillations in the combustor, the OH emission, and the flame ion field at the premix injector outlet and along the walls of the combustor. This instrumentation allows examination of the downstream extent of the combustion field using both the OH emission and the corresponding electron and ion distribution near the walls of the combustor. In most cases, the strongest pressure oscillation dominates the frequency behavior of the OH emission and the flame ion signals. Using this highly instrumented combustor, tests were run over a matrix of equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 0.8, with an inlet reference velocity of 25 m/s 82 ft/ s . The acoustics of the fuel system for the combustor were tuned using an active-passive technique with an adjustable quarter-wave resonator. Although several statistics were investigated for correlation with the dynamic pressure in the combustor, the best correlation was found with the standard deviation of the guard current. The data show a monotonic relationship between the standard deviation of the guard current (the current through the flame at the premix injector outlet) and the standard deviation of the chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keppeler, Roman; Pfitzner, Michael
2015-01-01
An algebraic model is derived that accounts for the effects of non-resolved Landau-Darrieus and thermo-diffusive instabilities on the propagation speed of fully premixed laminar and turbulent flame fronts in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) context provided that the laminar flame speed appears as a model parameter in the LES combustion model. The model is derived assuming fractal characteristics of flames which exhibit cellular structures due to instabilities. The smallest and largest unstable wavelengths are computed employing a dispersion relation for nominally planar flames. Values for the fractal dimension characterising the flame structures are taken from the literature. A phenomenological model accounts for the stabilising effect of strain. Based on experimental data, a correlation for a critical strain rate, which indicates the onset of instabilities, is formulated. To validate the new model which accounts for instabilities on the effective speed of laminar flame propagation, laminar expanding spherical methane-air flames at p = 5 bar and p = 10 bar are simulated in the LES context. Values for the fractal dimension, as proposed in the literature, are varied. The predicted flame propagation speed is in very good agreement with experimental data when applying a fractal dimension of about D = 2.06. The critical strain turns out to be a suitable parameter to indicate the onset of instabilities and to quantify the influence of instabilities. Simulations applying a second model proposed by Bradley and valid for spherically expanding flames show similar results. LES of turbulent Bunsen flames at 1, 5 and 10 bar, which are characterised by u‧/s0L < 1, are performed to evaluate the derived instability model for turbulent flames. The simulated flames (from the Kobayashi database) have already been experimentally investigated in the context of Landau-Darrieus and thermo-diffusive instabilities. In agreement with conclusions from these investigations, for the
Effects of buoyancy on lean premixed v-flames. Part 1: Laminar and turbulent flame structures
Cheng, R.K.; Bedat, B.; Kostiuk, L.W.
1999-02-01
Laser schlieren and planar laser-induced fluorescence techniques have been used to investigate laminar and turbulent v-flames in normal, inverse, and microgravity conditions under flow conditions that span the regimes of momentum domination (Ri < 0.1) and buoyancy domination (Ri > 0.1). Overall flame features shown by schlieren indicate that buoyancy dominates the entire flow field for conditions close to Ri = 1. With decreasing Ri, buoyancy effects are observed only in the far-field regions. Analyses of the mean flame angles demonstrate that laminar and turbulent flames do not have similar responses to buoyancy. Difference in the laminar +g and {minus}g flame angles decrease with Ri (i.e., increasing Re) and converge to the {micro}g flame angle at the momentum limit (Ri = 0). This is consistent with the notion that the effects of buoyancy diminish with increasing flow momentum. The +g and {minus}g turbulent flame angles, however, do not converge at Ri = 0. As shown by OH-PLIF images, the inconsistency in +g and {minus}g turbulent flame angles is associated with the differences in flame wrinkles. Turbulent flame wrinkles evolve more slowly in +g than in {minus}g. The difference in flame wrinkle structures, however, cannot be explained in terms of buoyancy that stretches the turbulent flame brushes in +g and compresses the flame brush in {minus}g. Flame wrinkling offers a mechanism through which the flame responds to the field effects of buoyancy despite increasing flow momentum. These observations point to the need to include both upstream and downstream contributions in theoretical analysis of flame turbulence interactions.
Structure of turbulent non-premixed flames modeled with two-step chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J. H.; Mahalingam, S.; Puri, I. K.; Vervisch, L.
1992-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent diffusion flames modeled with finite-rate, two-step chemistry, A + B yields I, A + I yields P, were carried out. A detailed analysis of the turbulent flame structure reveals the complex nature of the penetration of various reactive species across two reaction zones in mixture fraction space. Due to this two zone structure, these flames were found to be robust, resisting extinction over the parameter ranges investigated. As in single-step computations, mixture fraction dissipation rate and the mixture fraction were found to be statistically correlated. Simulations involving unequal molecular diffusivities suggest that the small scale mixing process and, hence, the turbulent flame structure is sensitive to the Schmidt number.
Tang, B.H.Y.; Chan, C.K.
2006-10-15
In this paper, a 2-dimensional rod-stabilized V-shaped flame is simulated using contour advection with surgery as well as the random vortex method. Effects of turbulence on various quantities, such as flame brush thickness and flame surface density, are investigated. The flame surface density S is estimated using the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation, which involves the use of a mean orientation factor {sigma}{sub c}. As a comparison, values of S are also obtained using Shepherd's model, which employs the values of mean flame surface area and mean flame length. Local flame structure is characterized in terms of turbulent flame brush, orientation factor, and flame surface density. Profiles of S obtained using the two different models are compared and show that discrepancy is more evident with increasing turbulence intensity. (author)
Chaparro, Andres; Landry, Eric; Cetegen, Baki M.
2006-04-15
The response of bluff-body stabilized conical V-shaped premixed flames to periodic upstream velocity oscillations was characterized as a function of oscillation frequency, mean flow velocity, and equivalence ratio. The flame heat release response to the imposed velocity oscillations was determined from the CH* chemiluminescence captured by two photomultiplier (PMT) detectors at a wavelength of 430 nm. One of the PMTs viewed flame radiation in a 10-mm horizontal slice, 50 mm above the bluff-body. The second PMT observed the overall flame radiation. The flame transfer function characteristics were determined from the spectral analysis of the velocity and PMT signals. It was found that the flame heat release amplitude response is confined to low-frequency excitation below a Strouhal number of 4. The phase relationship of the transfer function for these turbulent flames was evaluated using the signal from the spatially masked PMT. The transfer function estimate based on these data exhibits second-order characteristics with a phase lag between the velocity and heat release signals. The localized heat-release response contains frequencies that are multiples of the excitation frequency, suggesting splitting and tilting of flame structures as well as some nonlinear effects. Increase of flame equivalence ratio from lean toward stoichiometric resulted in slight amplification of the high-frequency response. (author)
Kim, Munki; Choi, Youngil; Oh, Jeongseog; Yoon, Youngbin
2009-12-15
This study examines the effect of acoustic excitation using forced coaxial air on the flame characteristics of turbulent hydrogen non-premixed flames. A resonance frequency was selected to acoustically excite the coaxial air jet due to its ability to effectively amplify the acoustic amplitude and reduce flame length and NO{sub x} emissions. Acoustic excitation causes the flame length to decrease by 15% and consequently, a 25% reduction in EINO{sub x} is achieved, compared to coaxial air flames without acoustic excitation at the same coaxial air to fuel velocity ratio. Moreover, acoustic excitation induces periodical fluctuation of the coaxial air velocity, thus resulting in slight fluctuation of the fuel velocity. From phase-lock PIV and OH PLIF measurement, the local flow properties at the flame surface were investigated under acoustic forcing. During flame-vortex interaction in the near field region, the entrainment velocity and the flame surface area increased locally near the vortex. This increase in flame surface area and entrainment velocity is believed to be a crucial factor in reducing flame length and NO{sub x} emission in coaxial jet flames with acoustic excitation. Local flame extinction occurred frequently when subjected to an excessive strain rate, indicating that intense mass transfer of fuel and air occurs radially inward at the flame surface. (author)
Turbulence effects on cellular burning structures in lean premixed hydrogen flames
Day, Marc; Bell, John; Beckner, Vince; Lijewski, Michael; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio
2009-05-15
We present numerical simulations of lean hydrogen flames interacting with turbulence. The simulations are performed in an idealized setting using an adaptive low Mach number model with a numerical feedback control algorithm to stabilize the flame. At the conditions considered here, hydrogen flames are thermodiffusively unstable, and burn in cellular structures. For that reason, we consider two levels of turbulence intensity and a case without turbulence whose dynamics is driven by the natural flame instability. An overview of the flame structure shows that the burning in the cellular structures is quite intense, with the burning patches separated by regions in which the flame is effectively extinguished. We explore the geometry of the flame surface in detail, quantifying the mean and Gaussian curvature distributions and the distribution of the cell sizes. We next characterize the local flame speed to quantify the effect of flame intensification on local propagation speed. We then introduce several diagnostics aimed at quantifying both the level of intensification and diffusive mechanisms that lead to the intensification. (author)
A novel plasma heater for auto-ignition studies of turbulent non-premixed flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eitel, Felix; Pareja, Jhon; Geyer, Dirk; Johchi, Ayane; Michel, Florian; Elsäßer, Wolfgang; Dreizler, Andreas
2015-10-01
In this paper, the development and characterization of a novel test rig for auto-ignition (AI) studies of a fuel jet propagating into a hot turbulent co-flow is reported. The test rig, based on microwave plasma heating, is capable of achieving co-flow temperatures up to 1300 K and velocities up to 40 {ms}^{-1}. Important boundary conditions at nozzle exit such as temperature, species, and velocity field were determined to prove the capabilities and limitations of the test rig. Liftoff height (LOH) measurements of {CH}_4, {C}_2{H}_4, and {CH}4/{H}2 jets, propagating into a turbulent heated air co-flow, were taken using chemiluminescence imaging. Effects of the temperature and Reynolds number ( Re) of co-flow and jet were also studied. Results showed that the flame stabilization mechanism is supported substantially by AI rather than pure flame propagation. While the co-flow temperature dominates the AI process, the Re and temperature of the jet just have a small impact on the LOH.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jaeseo; Lee, Gwang G.; Huh, Kang Y.
2014-12-01
This paper presents validation of new analytical expressions for the turbulent burning velocity, ST, based on asymptotic behavior at the leading edge (LE) in turbulent premixed combustion. Reaction and density variation are assumed to be negligible at the LE to avoid the cold boundary difficulty in the statistically steady state. Good agreement is shown for the slopes, dST/du', with respect to Lc/δf at low turbulence, with both normalized by those of the reference cases. δf is the inverse of the maximum gradient of reaction progress variable through an unstretched laminar flame, and Lc is the characteristic length scale given as burner diameter or measured integral length scale. Comparison is made for thirty-five datasets involving different fuels, equivalence ratios, H2 fractions in fuel, pressures, and integral length scales from eight references [R. C. Aldredge et al., "Premixed-flame propagation in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow," Combust. Flame 115, 395 (1998); M. Lawes et al., "The turbulent burning velocity of iso-octane/air mixtures," Combust. Flame 159, 1949 (2012); H. Kido et al., "Influence of local flame displacement velocity on turbulent burning velocity," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1855 (2002); J. Wang et al., "Correlation of turbulent burning velocity for syngas/air mixtures at high pressure up to 1.0 MPa," Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 50, 90 (2013); H. Kobayashi et al., "Experimental study on general correlation of turbulent burning velocity at high pressure," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 941 (1998); C. W. Chiu et al., "High-pressure hydrogen/carbon monoxide syngas turbulent burning velocities measured at constant turbulent Reynolds numbers," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 10935 (2012); P. Venkateswaran et al., "Pressure and fuel effects on turbulent consumption speeds of H2/CO blends," Proc. Combust. Inst. 34, 1527 (2013); M. Fairweather et al., "Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures," Combust. Flame 156, 780 (2009)]. The turbulent
Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles
Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian
2001-01-01
A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.
NOx Formation in a Premixed Syngas Flame
Yilmaz, S.L.; Givi, P.; Strakey, P.; Casleton, K.
2006-11-01
Reduction of NOx is a subject of significant current interest in stationary gas turbines. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of turbulence on non-thermal NOx formation in a syngas flame. This is archived by a detailed parametric study via PDF simulations of a partially stirred reactor and a dumped axisymmetric premixed flame. Several different detailed and reduced kinetics schemes are considered. The simulated results demonstrate the strong dependence of combustion process on turbulence. It is shown that the amount of NOx formation is significantly influenced by the inlet conditions. That is, the turbulence intensity can be tweaked to attain optimal ultra-low NOx emissions at a given temperature.
Jeong, Yong Ki; Jeon, Chung Hwan; Chang, Young June
2006-07-15
An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of partially premixing, varying the equivalence ratios from 0.79 to 9.52, on OH*, CH* and C{sub 2}* in laminar partially premixed flames. The signals from the electronically excited states of OH*, CH* and C{sub 2}* were detected through interference filters using a photo multiplier tube, which were processed to the intensity ratios (C{sub 2}*/CH*, C{sub 2}*/OH* and CH*/OH*) to determine a correlation with the local equivalence ratios. Furthermore, the consistency between the results of the tomographic reconstruction; Abel inversion technique, image with CCD (Couple Charged Detector) camera and the local radical intensity with PMT was investigated. The results demonstrated that (1) the flames at F=<1.36 exhibited classical double flame structure, at F>=4.76, the flames exhibited non-premixed-like flame structure and the intermediate flames at 1.36
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irandoost, M. S.; Ashjaee, M.; Askari, M. H.; Ahmadi, S.
2015-11-01
In this paper partially premixed laminar methane/air co-flow flame is studied experimentally. Methane-air flame is established on an axisymmetric co-annular burner. The fuel-air jet flows from the central tube while the secondary air flows from the region between the inner and the outer tube. The aim is to investigate the flame characteristics for methane/air axisymmetric partially premixed flame using Mach-Zehnder interferometry. Different equivalence ratios (φ=1.4-2.2) and Reynolds numbers (Re=100-1200) are considered in the study. Flame generic visible appearance and the corresponding fringe map structures are also investigated. It is seen that the fringe maps are poorly influenced by equivalence ratio variations at constant Reynolds number but are significantly affected by Reynolds number variations in constant equivalence ratio. Temperatures obtained from optical techniques are compared with those obtained from thermocouples and good agreement is observed. It is concluded that the effect of Reynolds number increment on maximum flame temperature is negligible while equivalence ratio reduction increases maximum flame temperature substantially.
Observations of turbulence in a partially stratified estuary
Stagey, M.T.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Burau, J.R.
1999-01-01
The authors present a field study of estuarine turbulence in which profiles of Reynolds stresses were directly measured using an ADCP throughout a 25-h tidal day. The dataset that is discussed quantifies turbulent mixing for a water column in northern San Francisco Bay that experiences a sequence of states that includes a weak ebb and flood that are stratified, followed by a strong, and eventually unstratified, ebb and flood. These measurements show that energetic turbulence is confined to a bottom mixed layer by the overlying stratification. Examination of individual Reynolds stress profiles along with profiles of Richardson number and turbulent Froude number shows that the water column can be divided into regions based on the relative importance of buoyancy effects. Using the measured turbulence production rate P, the dissipation rate e. is estimated. The observed turbulence had values of e/vN2 > 20 all of the time and e/vN2 > 200 most of the time, suggesting that the observed motions were buoyancy affected turbulence rather than internal waves. However, at times, turbulent Froude numbers in much of the upper-water column were less than one, indicating important stratification effects. Taken as a whole, the data show that stratification affects the turbulent velocity variance q2 most severely; that is, observed reductions in u'w' are largely associated with small values of q2 rather than with a dramatic reduction in the efficiency with which turbulent motions produce momentum fluxes. Finally, the dataset is compared to predictions made using the popular Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 closure. These comparisons show that the model tends to underestimate the turbulent kinetic energy in regions of strong stratification where the turbulence is strongly inhomogeneous and to overestimate the turbulent kinetic energy in weakly stratified regions. The length scale does not appear to compensate for these errors, and, as a result, similar errors are seen in the eddy viscosity
The performance of heterodyne detection system for partially coherent beams in turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chengqiang, Li; Tingfeng, Wang; Heyong, Zhang; Jingjiang, Xie; Lisheng, Liu; Shuai, Zhao; Jin, Guo
2015-12-01
The performance of heterodyne system is discussed for partially coherent beams in turbulent atmosphere by introducing turbulence spectrum of refractive-index fluctuations. Several analytic formulae for the heterodyne detection system using the partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beam are presented. Based on Tatarskii spectrum model, some numerical results are given for the variation in the heterodyne efficiency with the misalignment angle, detector diameter, turbulence conditions, and parameters of the overlapping beams. According to the numerical results, we find that the turbulent atmosphere degrades the heterodyne efficiency significantly, and the variation in heterodyne efficiency is even slower against the misalignment angle in turbulence. For the deterministic received signal and the detector, the performance of the heterodyne detection can be adjusted by controlling the local oscillator signal parameters.
Premixed direct injection nozzle
Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Ziminsky, Willy Steve
2011-02-15
An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Wei; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng
2006-12-01
A theoretical study of the behaviour of partially coherent beams propagating through oceanic turbulence has been performed. Based on the previously developed knowledge of beam spreading of a partially coherent beam in the atmosphere and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of ocean water, we study the normalized root-mean-square width of a partially coherent beam on propagation through oceanic turbulence and its turbulence distance which may be a measure of turbulence resistance. Our analysis indicates that the behaviour of partially coherent beams on propagation may be described by the rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature χT and that of salinity χS. In terms of a quantity w that defines the contributions of the temperature and salinity distributions to the distribution of the refractive index, χS could be written as a function of χT and w. Therefore, the behaviour of partially coherent beams on propagation can be characterized only by χT for a given w. The results are shown for curved surfaces, from which one can see that partially coherent beams exhibit robust turbulence resistance when the water volume has a smaller χT.
Studies in premixed combustion. Progress report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1992
Sivashinsky, G.I.
1992-08-01
This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Siyao; Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.
2016-08-01
We study the damping processes of both incompressible and compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a partially ionized medium. We start from the linear analysis of MHD waves, applying both single-fluid and two-fluid treatments. The damping rates derived from the linear analysis are then used in determining the damping scales of MHD turbulence. The physical connection between the damping scale of MHD turbulence and the cutoff boundary of linear MHD waves is investigated. We find two branches of slow modes propagating in ions and neutrals, respectively, below the damping scale of slow MHD turbulence, and offer a thorough discussion of their propagation and dissipation behavior. Our analytical results are shown to be applicable in a variety of partially ionized interstellar medium (ISM) phases and the solar chromosphere. The importance of neutral viscosity in damping the Alfvenic turbulence in the interstellar warm neutral medium and the solar chromosphere is demonstrated. As a significant astrophysical utility, we introduce damping effects to the propagation of cosmic rays in partially ionized ISM. The important role of turbulence damping in both transit-time damping and gyroresonance is identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efimov, Anatoly
2016-03-01
A partially coherent beam (PCB) is modulated at 1 Gbps with pseudorandom bit sequence data stream and propagated through laboratory turbulence. Eye diagrams are measured and compared to those resulting from a fully coherent beam propagated through the same turbulence. Reduced scintillations of the PCB, as measured separately, expectedly result in a higher quality eye as compared to that of a fully coherent beam. Experimental data is supported by numerical modeling. This work demonstrates the feasibility and simplicity of using PCBs for Gbps data rate free-space optical communication through turbulent atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Lipatnikov, Andrei N.
2013-04-01
The effects of global Lewis number Le on the statistics of fluid velocity components conditional in unburned reactants and fully burned products in the context of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations have been analysed using a Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) database of statistically planar turbulent premixed flames with a low Damköhler number and Lewis number ranging from 0.34 to 1.2. The conditional velocity statistics extracted from DNS data have been analysed with respect to the well-known Bray-Moss-Libby (BML) expressions which were derived based on bi-modal probability density function of reaction progress variable for high Damköhler number flames. It has been shown that the Lewis number substantially affects the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuation correlation conditional in products, with the effect being particularly pronounced for low Le. As far as the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuation correlation conditional in reactants are concerned, the BML expressions agree reasonably well with the DNS data reported in the present work. Based on a priori analysis of present and previously reported DNS data, the BML expressions have been empirically modified here in order to account for Lewis number effects, and the non-bimodal distribution of reaction progress variable. Moreover, it has been demonstrated for the first time that surface averaged velocity components and Reynolds stresses conditional in unburned reactants can be modelled without invoking expressions involving the Lewis number, as these surface averaged conditional quantities remain approximately equal to their conditionally averaged counterparts in the unburned mixture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dajun; Wang, Yaochuan; Yin, Hongming
2016-04-01
The partially coherent four-petal Gaussian vortex beam is introduced and described by analytical expressions. The analytical propagation equation for partially coherent four-petal Gaussian vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere is derived by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral formula. The influences of refraction index structure, beam order n, topological charge M and the coherence length on the average intensity distributions of beam are investigated by numerical examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
Topics considered include: New approach to turbulence modeling; Second moment closure analysis of the backstep flow database; Prediction of the backflow and recovery regions in the backward facing step at various Reynolds numbers; Turbulent flame propagation in partially premixed flames; Ensemble averaged dynamic modeling. Also included a study of the turbulence structures of wall-bounded shear flows; Simulation and modeling of the elliptic streamline flow.
Casanova, S.; Schlickeiser, R.
2012-02-01
Recently, a new transport theory of cosmic rays in magnetized space plasmas extending the quasilinear approximation to the particle orbit has been developed for the case of an axisymmetric incompressible magnetic turbulence. Here, we generalize the approach to the important physical case of a compressible plasma. As previously obtained in the case of an incompressible plasma, we allow arbitrary gyrophase deviations from the unperturbed spiral orbits in the uniform magnetic field. For the case of quasi-stationary and spatially homogeneous magnetic turbulence we derive, in the small Larmor radius approximation, gyrophase-averaged cosmic-ray Fokker-Planck coefficients. Upper limits for the perpendicular and pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficients and for the perpendicular and parallel spatial diffusion coefficients are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Xiang; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Jing-Hui; Qiao, Chun-Hong; Fan, Cheng-Yu
2016-08-01
Non-classical polarization properties of dark hollow beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence are studied. The analytic equation for the polarization degree of the quantization partially coherent dark hollow beams is obtained. It is found that the polarization fluctuations of the quantization partially coherent dark hollow beams are dependent on the turbulence factors and beam parameters with the detection photon numbers. Furthermore, an investigation of the changes in the on-axis propagation point and off-axis propagation point shows that the polarization degree of the quantization partially coherent dark hollow beams presents oscillation for a short propagation distance and gradually returns to zero for a sufficiently long distance. Project supported by the Major Research Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405205).
Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes method for turbulent thermal plume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Rajesh; Dewan, Anupam
2015-12-01
In this paper, the partially-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) simulation is performed for a turbulent thermal plume. The aim of the paper is to assess the PANS method for modeling buoyancy-driven flows at a reasonable computational cost. PANS is a turbulence closure model which is developed to be used as a bridging model ranging from the direct numerical simulation to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation by varying the level of resolution. The PANS computations are performed for various values of the filter-width to evaluate the sensitivity of the filter-widths to the computed flow statistics. The present simulations have been carried out employing a source code buoyantPimpleFOAM based on the OpenFOAM platform. In order to capture the effect of buoyancy on turbulence, the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis is employed to model the production of turbulence due to buoyancy. A detailed comparison of the time-averaged and turbulent statistics obtained from the PANS simulations with the experimental data and LES results reported in the literature has been presented. The present results have also been compared with the results of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. The PANS model is shown to enhance the computing capability significantly in predicting buoyancy-driven flows compared with those of URANS model. Finally, various important unsteady flow structures of turbulent thermal plume have been visualized from the instantaneous flow statistics obtained using the PANS simulations.
Boxx, I.; Stoehr, M.; Meier, W.; Carter, C.
2010-08-15
This paper presents observations and analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a 10 kW partially pre-mixed, swirl-stabilized methane-air flame exhibiting self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations. This analysis is based on a series of measurements wherein particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the OH radical were performed simultaneously at 5 kHz repetition rate over durations of 0.8 s. Chemiluminescence imaging of the OH{sup *} radical was performed separately, also at 5 kHz over 0.8 s acquisition runs. These measurements were of sufficient sampling frequency and duration to extract usable spatial and temporal frequency information on the medium to large-scale flow-field and heat-release characteristics of the flame. This analysis is used to more fully characterize the interaction between the self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations and the dominant flow-field structure of this flame, a precessing vortex core (PVC) present in the inner recirculation zone. Interpretation of individual measurement sequences yielded insight into various physical phenomena and the underlying mechanisms driving flame dynamics. It is observed for this flame that location of the reaction zone tracks large-scale fluctuations in axial velocity and also conforms to the passage of large-scale vortical structures through the flow-field. Local extinction of the reaction zone in regions of persistently high principal compressive strain is observed. Such extinctions, however, are seen to be self healing and thus do not induce blowout. Indications of auto-ignition in regions of unburned gas near the exit are also observed. Probable auto-ignition events are frequently observed coincident with the centers of large-scale vortical structures, suggesting the phenomenon is linked to the enhanced mixing and longer residence times associated with fluid at the core of the PVC as it moves through the flame. (author)
Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Huang, Qingqing; Cheng, Qi; Zhang, Dan
2016-06-10
The analytical formulas for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode probability density, signal OAM mode detection probability, and spiral spectrum of partially coherent Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with optical vortices propagation in weak horizontal oceanic turbulent channels were developed, based on the Rytov approximation theory. The effect of oceanic turbulence and beam source parameters on the propagation behavior of the optical vortices carried by partially coherent LG beams was investigated in detail. Our results indicated that optical turbulence in an ocean environment produced a much stronger effect on the optical vortex than that in an atmosphere environment; the effective range of the signal OAM mode of LG beams with a smaller ratio of the mode crosstalk was limited to only several tens of meters in turbulent ocean. The existence of oceanic turbulence evidently induced OAM mode crosstalk and spiral spectrum spread. The effects of oceanic turbulence on the OAM mode detection probability increased with the increase of radial and azimuthal mode orders, oceanic turbulent equivalent temperature structure parameter, and temperature-salinity balance parameter. The spatial partial coherence of the beam source would enhance the effect of turbulent aberrations on the signal OAM mode detection probability, and fully coherent vortex beams provided better performance than partially coherent ones. Increasing wavelength of the vortex beams would help improve the performance of this quantum optical communication system. These results might be of interest for the potential application of optical vortices in practical underwater quantum optical communication among divers, submarines, and sensors in the ocean environment. PMID:27409021
Multiple tube premixing device
Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David
2013-08-13
The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.
Multiple tube premixing device
Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David
2012-12-11
The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.
Numerical investigation of unsteady turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump at partial load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, T.; Baoshan, Z.; ShuLiang, C.; Yuchuan, W.; Xuhe, W.
2014-03-01
The unsteady non-cavitation and cavitation turbulent flows in a centrifugal pump at partial load condition are numerically investigated by CFX 13.0. The numerical framework employs the combination of RNG k-ε turbulence model and transport equation cavitation model, in which the effects of compressibility of fluid on cavitation region and pressure fluctuation on saturation pressure are both taken into consideration. The good agreement between the numerical and experimental values validates that the numerical framework can accurately predict the turbulent flows in the centrifugal pump. The complex flow characteristics in impeller at non-cavitation and cavitation conditions are revealed. For the noncavitation flow, the dominant frequencies of pressure fluctuation of monitoring points in impeller are all the Impeller Rotation Frequency 24.17Hz. The maximum value of pressure fluctuation on the blade pressure side appears at the 0.8 chord length from the blade leading edge due to a clockwise rotating vortex, which incepts, develops and disappears when the corresponding blade passes through the volute tongue. The dominant frequencies of pressure fluctuation of monitoring points in volute are the Blade Pass Frequency 145 Hz or twice of it. The maximum value of pressure fluctuation in the volute appears near the tongue region, where the flow fields are uneven with strong second flow in the cross section. For the cavitation flow, as the cavitation develops at the blade leading edge, the turbulent flows in the impeller are greatly influenced by the bubble shedding and collapse. The maximum values of pressure fluctuation in impeller increase with the development of cavitation, and reach the largest magnification of about 2.0 in comparison to the non-cavitation flow when the pressure at the pump inlet is very low. The complicated phenomenon of unsteady turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump indicates that the vortex has great influence on the flow pattern.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Dahai; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiaoyong
2015-02-01
Separation commonly exists in the flows around flight vehicles and also in the internal combustor flows. Simulation of high-speed turbulent-separated flows using a reliable computational design tool is crucial for the development of supersonic and hypersonic vehicles. In this paper, we present the computational results of supersonic base and ramped-cavity flows at high Reynolds numbers using the partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method. The current PANS models are based on the Menter SST turbulence model and also the Wilcox k-ω model. Results from PANS simulations are compared in detail with the available experimental data. The effect of the resolution control parameter fk (the ratio of unresolved-to-total kinetic energy) relevant to the PANS method is investigated. More turbulent flow structures are resolved as expected with decreasing fk, but it does not mean better results can be obtained. Spatially varying and dynamically updated fk in PANS simulations has been performed. Results from variable fk PANS simulations show good agreement with the experiment and great improvement when compared to Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computation and constant fk PANS simulations.
Chaos in an imperfectly premixed model combustor.
Kabiraj, Lipika; Saurabh, Aditya; Karimi, Nader; Sailor, Anna; Mastorakos, Epaminondas; Dowling, Ann P; Paschereit, Christian O
2015-02-01
This article reports nonlinear bifurcations observed in a laboratory scale, turbulent combustor operating under imperfectly premixed mode with global equivalence ratio as the control parameter. The results indicate that the dynamics of thermoacoustic instability correspond to quasi-periodic bifurcation to low-dimensional, deterministic chaos, a route that is common to a variety of dissipative nonlinear systems. The results support the recent identification of bifurcation scenarios in a laminar premixed flame combustor (Kabiraj et al., Chaos: Interdiscip. J. Nonlinear Sci. 22, 023129 (2012)) and extend the observation to a practically relevant combustor configuration. PMID:25725637
Chaos in an imperfectly premixed model combustor
Kabiraj, Lipika Saurabh, Aditya; Paschereit, Christian O.; Karimi, Nader; Sailor, Anna; Mastorakos, Epaminondas; Dowling, Ann P.
2015-02-15
This article reports nonlinear bifurcations observed in a laboratory scale, turbulent combustor operating under imperfectly premixed mode with global equivalence ratio as the control parameter. The results indicate that the dynamics of thermoacoustic instability correspond to quasi-periodic bifurcation to low-dimensional, deterministic chaos, a route that is common to a variety of dissipative nonlinear systems. The results support the recent identification of bifurcation scenarios in a laminar premixed flame combustor (Kabiraj et al., Chaos: Interdiscip. J. Nonlinear Sci. 22, 023129 (2012)) and extend the observation to a practically relevant combustor configuration.
Gershgorin, B.; Majda, A.J.
2011-02-20
A statistically exactly solvable model for passive tracers is introduced as a test model for the authors' Nonlinear Extended Kalman Filter (NEKF) as well as other filtering algorithms. The model involves a Gaussian velocity field and a passive tracer governed by the advection-diffusion equation with an imposed mean gradient. The model has direct relevance to engineering problems such as the spread of pollutants in the air or contaminants in the water as well as climate change problems concerning the transport of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide with strongly intermittent probability distributions consistent with the actual observations of the atmosphere. One of the attractive properties of the model is the existence of the exact statistical solution. In particular, this unique feature of the model provides an opportunity to design and test fast and efficient algorithms for real-time data assimilation based on rigorous mathematical theory for a turbulence model problem with many active spatiotemporal scales. Here, we extensively study the performance of the NEKF which uses the exact first and second order nonlinear statistics without any approximations due to linearization. The role of partial and sparse observations, the frequency of observations and the observation noise strength in recovering the true signal, its spectrum, and fat tail probability distribution are the central issues discussed here. The results of our study provide useful guidelines for filtering realistic turbulent systems with passive tracers through partial observations.
Huang, Yongping; Wang, Fanhou; Gao, Zenghui; Zhang, Bin
2015-01-26
Propagation properties of partially coherent electromagnetic hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian (PCESHG) vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, including the spectral degree of polarization and evolution behavior of coherent vortices and average intensity are investigated in detail by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence. It is shown that the motion, creation and annihilation of the coherent vortices of PCESHG vortex beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence may appear with the increasing propagation distance, and the distance for the conservation of the topological charge depends on the turbulence parameters and beam parameters. In additions, the evolution behavior of coherent vortices, average intensity and spectral degree of polarization vary significantly for different values of the generalized exponent parameter and the generalized refractive-index structure parameter of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the beam parameters as well as the propagation distance. PMID:25835869
Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames (TNF): Experimental Data Archives and Computational Submodels
In the 1990s an international collaboration formed around a series of workshops that became known collectively as the International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Non-Premixed Flames (TNF). An online library, hosted by Sandia National Laboratory (California) was established that provides data sets and submodels or "mechanisms" for the study of turbulence-chemistry interactions in turbulent nonpremixed and partially premixed combustion. Data are organized by flame types: simple jet flames, piloted jet flames, bluff body flames, and swirl flames. These data sets provide a means for collaborative comparisons of both measured and simulated/modeled research results and also assist scientists in determining priorities for further research. More than 20 data sets or databases are available from this website, along with various downloadable files of chemical mechanisms. The website also provides an extensive bibliography and the proceedings of the workshops themselves from 1996 through 2012. Information continues to be added to this collection.
A filtered tabulated chemistry model for LES of premixed combustion
Fiorina, B.; Auzillon, P.; Darabiha, N.; Gicquel, O.; Veynante, D.; Vicquelin, R.
2010-03-15
A new modeling strategy called F-TACLES (Filtered Tabulated Chemistry for Large Eddy Simulation) is developed to introduce tabulated chemistry methods in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent premixed combustion. The objective is to recover the correct laminar flame propagation speed of the filtered flame front when subgrid scale turbulence vanishes as LES should tend toward Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The filtered flame structure is mapped using 1-D filtered laminar premixed flames. Closure of the filtered progress variable and the energy balance equations are carefully addressed in a fully compressible formulation. The methodology is first applied to 1-D filtered laminar flames, showing the ability of the model to recover the laminar flame speed and the correct chemical structure when the flame wrinkling is completely resolved. The model is then extended to turbulent combustion regimes by including subgrid scale wrinkling effects in the flame front propagation. Finally, preliminary tests of LES in a 3-D turbulent premixed flame are performed. (author)
Premixed and nonpremixed generated manifolds in large-eddy simulation of Sandia flame D and F
Vreman, A.W.; Albrecht, B.A.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.
2008-05-15
Premixed and nonpremixed flamelet-generated manifolds have been constructed and applied to large-eddy simulation of the piloted partially premixed turbulent flames Sandia Flame D and F. In both manifolds the chemistry is parameterized as a function of the mixture fraction and a progress variable. Compared to standard nonpremixed flamelets, premixed flamelets cover a much larger part of the reaction domain. Comparison of the results for the two manifolds with experimental data of flame D show that both manifolds yield predictions of comparable accuracy for the mean temperature, mixture fraction, and a number of chemical species, such as CO{sub 2}. However, the nonpremixed manifold outperforms the premixed manifold for other chemical species, the most notable being CO and H{sub 2}. If the mixture is rich, CO and H{sub 2} in a premixed flamelet are larger than in a nonpremixed flamelet, for a given value of the progress variable. Simulations have been performed for two different grids to address the effect of the large-eddy filter width. The inclusion of modeled subgrid variances of mixture fraction and progress variable as additional entries to the manifold have only small effects on the simulation of either flame. An exception is the prediction of NO, which (through an extra transport equation) was found to be much closer to experimental results when modeled subgrid variances were included. The results obtained for flame D are satisfactory, but despite the unsteadiness of the LES, the extinction measured in flame F is not properly captured. The latter finding suggests that the extinction in flame F mainly occurs on scales smaller than those resolved by the simulation. With the presumed {beta}-pdf approach, significant extinction does not occur, unless the scalar subgrid variances are overestimated. A thickened flame model, which maps unresolved small-scale dynamics upon resolved scales, is able to predict the experimentally observed extinction to some extent
Turbulent Flow Around Fully and Partially Submerged Boulders and Implications to Sediment Movement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, T.; Tsakiris, A. G.; Hajimirzaie, S. M.; Buchholz, J.
2015-12-01
Mountain streams are characterized by steep gradients and wide grain size distributions that include fine, more mobile sediment, and large immobile boulders. These large boulders are partially submerged for most of the year, but become fully submerged at higher flows, exhibiting low and high relative submergence, respectively. Through their interaction with the approach turbulent flow, the boulders modify the surrounding bed shear stress field, thus altering the timing, magnitude and pathways of bedload patterns. The goal of this study is twofold: (1) to identify the dominant vortex structures around the boulders at high and low relative submergence; and (2) assess the effects of these vortex structures on the surrounding bed shear stress field. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to interrogate the turbulent flow field around a spherical boulder mounted atop a flat rough bed under high and low relative submergence conditions. Under high relative submergence, a pair of arch vortices and inboard vortices with the same sense of rotation dominated the boulder wake. For the low relative submergence, a pair of strong von-Karman vortices developed within the boulder wake region. The arch and von-Karman vortices observed for the high and low relative submergence conditions affected the magnitude and the directionality of the bed shear stress vector in plan view, by directing it towards and away from the boulder centerline, respectively. The reversal of the bed shear stress vector directionality likely promotes a reversal of incoming sediment deposition from the boulder wake to the stoss region for high and low relative submergence, respectively. This reversal was verified by prior observations of bedload particle deposition around the boulder. The findings of this research underline the effects that large, immobile boulders have on the surrounding turbulent flow and bed load particle movement with important implications on sediment management in mountain streams.
A new nonlinear turbulence model based on Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.; Cai, C.; Liu, S. H.; Wang, L. Q.
2013-12-01
Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) Model was recognized as a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to direct numerical simulation (DNS) bridging method. PANS model was purported for any filter width-from RANS to DNS. PANS method also shared some similarities with the currently popular URANS (unsteady RANS) method. In this paper, a new PANS model was proposed, which was based on RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Standard and RNG k-ε turbulence model were both isotropic models, as well as PANS models. The sheer stress in those PANS models was solved by linear equation. The linear hypothesis was not accurate in the simulation of complex flow, such as stall phenomenon. The sheer stress here was solved by nonlinear method proposed by Ehrhard. Then, the nonlinear PANS model was set up. The pressure coefficient of the suction side of the NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted. The result of pressure coefficient agrees well with experimental result, which proves that the nonlinear PANS model can capture the high pressure gradient flow. A low specific centrifugal pump was used to verify the capacity of the nonlinear PANS model. The comparison between the simulation results of the centrifugal pump and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) results proves that the nonlinear PANS model can be used in the prediction of complex flow field.
Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Zhu, Yun
2016-08-01
We studied Gaussian beams with three different partially coherent models, including the Gaussian-Schell model (GSM), Laguerre-Gaussian Schell model (LGSM), and Bessel-Gaussian Schell model (BGSM), propagating through oceanic turbulence. The expressions of average intensity, beam spreading, and beam wander for GSM, LGSM, and BGSM beams in the paraxial channel are derived. We make a contrast for the three models in numerical simulations and find that the GSM beam has smaller spreading than the others, and the LGSM beam needs longer propagation distance to transform into a well-like profile of average intensity than the BGSM beam in the same conditions. The salinity fluctuation has a greater contribution to the wander of LGSM and BGSM beams than that of the temperature fluctuation. Our results can be helpful in the design of an optical wireless communication link operating in oceanic environment. PMID:27505642
Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes Model for Turbulence: Implementation and Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girimaji, Sharath S.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2005-01-01
Partially-averaged Navier Stokes (PANS) is a suite of turbulence closure models of various modeled-to-resolved scale ratios ranging from Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) to Navier-Stokes (direct numerical simulations). The objective of PANS, like hybrid models, is to resolve large scale structures at reasonable computational expense. The modeled-to-resolved scale ratio or the level of physical resolution in PANS is quantified by two parameters: the unresolved-to-total ratios of kinetic energy (f(sub k)) and dissipation (f(sub epsilon)). The unresolved-scale stress is modeled with the Boussinesq approximation and modeled transport equations are solved for the unresolved kinetic energy and dissipation. In this paper, we first present a brief discussion of the PANS philosophy followed by a description of the implementation procedure and finally perform preliminary evaluation in benchmark problems.
Performance of a turbulence model for flows in partially vegetated open channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jahra, Fatima; Kawahara, Yoshihisa; Hasegawa, Fumiaki
A non-linear k-epsilon model coupled with a vegetation model has been applied to three turbulent flows in partially vegetated open channels to scrutinize its performance. Three test cases include flow in a straight rectangular channel with vegetation belts along both sides of the channel and flows in a compound channel with different emergent vegetation zones over a floodplain, where experimental data have been obtained by the authors. Comparison with the experimental results demonstrates that the non-linear k-epsilon model can reasonably captures secondary flows of the second kind and a row of large vortices along the interface between main channel and vegetated zones, which the standard k-epsilon model fails to produce. The calculated results are found to show fairly good agreement with the measurements in terms of mean streamwise velocity, secondary currents of the second kind and Reynolds shear stresses components.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yonggen; Li, Yude; Dan, Youquan; Du, Quan; Wang, Shijian
2016-07-01
The Wigner distribution function (WDF) has been used to study the propagation properties of partially coherent Laguerre Gaussian (PCLG) beams through atmospheric turbulence. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, an analytical formula of the propagation matrixes in terms of the second-order moments of the WDF for PCLG Beams in the receiving plane is derived. And then the analytical formulae for the curvature radii of PCLG Beams propagating in turbulence are given by the second-order moments of the WDF. The numerical results indicate that the curvature radius of PCLG Beams changes more rapidly in turbulence than that in the free space. The influence of the transverse coherence width and the beam waist width on the curvature radius of PCLG Beams is obvious, while the laser wavelength and the inner scale of turbulence have a slight effect. The study results may be useful for remote sensing and free space optical communications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J. H.; Mahalingam, S.; Puri, I. K.; Vervisch, L.
1992-01-01
The interaction between a quasi-laminar flame and a turbulent flowfield is investigated through direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting flow in two- and three-dimensional domains. Effects due to finite-rate chemistry are studied using a single step global reaction A (fuel) + B (oxidizer) yields P (product), and by varying a global Damkoehler number, as a result of which the turbulence-chemistry interaction in the flame is found to generate a wide variety of conditions, ranging from near-equilibrium to near-extinction. Differential diffusion effects are studied by changing the Schmidt number of one reactive species to one-half. It is observed that laminar flamelet response is followed within the turbulent flowfield, except in regions where transient effects seem to dominate.
Vorticity transformation in high Karlovitz number premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobbitt, Brock; Lapointe, Simon; Blanquart, Guillaume
2016-01-01
To better understand the two-way coupling between turbulence and chemistry, the changes in turbulence characteristics through a premixed flame are investigated. Specifically, this study focuses on vorticity, ω, which is characteristic of the smallest length and time scales of turbulence, analyzing its behavior within and across high Karlovitz number (Ka) premixed flames. This is accomplished through a series of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of premixed n-heptane/air flames, modeled with a 35-species finite-rate chemical mechanism, whose conditions span a wide range of unburnt Karlovitz numbers and flame density ratios. The behavior of the terms in the enstrophy, ω2 = ω ṡ ω, transport equation is analyzed, and a scaling is proposed for each term. The resulting normalized enstrophy transport equation involves only a small set of parameters. Specifically, the theoretical analysis and DNS results support that, at high Karlovitz number, enstrophy transport obtains a balance of the viscous dissipation and production/vortex stretching terms. It is shown that, as a result, vorticity scales in the same manner as in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence within and across the flame, namely, scaling with the inverse of the Kolmogorov time scale, τη. As τη is a function only of the viscosity and dissipation rate, this work supports the validity of Kolmogorov's first similarity hypothesis in premixed turbulent flames for sufficiently high Ka numbers. Results are unaffected by the transport model, chemical model, turbulent Reynolds number, and finally the physical configuration.
Bray, Ken; Champion, Michel; Libby, Paul A.
2009-02-15
A RANS analysis of a jet of premixed reactants impinging on a wall is presented. Unlike previous related studies by the same authors, in which the mean density distribution through the flame brush is specified from experiment in order to concentrate on the fluid mechanics of the problem, the mean density is computed in the present work. As a consequence, an appropriate description for the mean rate of heat release is required. The presumed PDF model selected for this purpose, with strong support from relevant DNS, is supplemented with a new model for the mean scalar dissipation rate. Illustrative numerical results are presented and it is shown that an approximately sixfold increase in a mean strain rate function is required to displace the flame from a location where flashback to the nozzle is about to occur to a position so close to the wall that extinction is imminent. Comparisons of predicted mean property distributions with published experimental data are found to be satisfactory and to lend support to the proposed model. (author)
Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul
2013-12-31
Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.
Deng, Peng; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Liu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Zhou; Yuan, Xiuhua
2013-07-01
We study the average capacity performance for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using multiple partially coherent beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence, assuming equal gain combining diversity configuration and the sum of multiple gamma-gamma random variables for multiple independent partially coherent beams. The closed-form expressions of scintillation and average capacity are derived and then used to analyze the dependence on the number of independent diversity branches, power law α, refractive-index structure parameter, propagation distance and spatial coherence length of source beams. Obtained results show that, the average capacity increases more significantly with the increase in the rank of MIMO channel matrix compared with the diversity order. The effect of the diversity order on the average capacity is independent of the power law, turbulence strength parameter and spatial coherence length, whereas these effects on average capacity are gradually mitigated as the diversity order increases. The average capacity increases and saturates with the decreasing spatial coherence length, at rates depending on the diversity order, power law and turbulence strength. There exist optimal values of the spatial coherence length and diversity configuration for maximizing the average capacity of MIMO FSO links over a variety of atmospheric turbulence conditions. PMID:23842307
Imaging of premixed flames in microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostiuk, L. W.; Cheng, R. K.
1994-12-01
A laser schlieren system which uses video recording and digital images analysis has been developed and applied successfully to microgravity combustion experiments performed in a drop-tower. The optical system and the experiment are installed within a small package which is subjected to free-fall. The images are recorded on video tape and are digitized and analyzed by a computer-controlled image processor. The experimental results include laminar and turbulent premixed conical flames in microgravity, normal positive gravity (upward), and reverse gravity (downward). The procedures to extract frequency information from the digitized images are described. Many gross features of the effects of gravity on premixed conical flames are found. Flames that ignite easily in normal gravity fail to ignite in microgravity. Buoyancy driven instabilities associated with an interface formed between the hot products and the cold surrounding air is the mechanism through which gravity influences premixed laminar and turbulent flames. In normal gravity, this causes the flame to flicker. In reverse gravity, - g, and microgravity, μg, the interface is stable and flame flickering ceases. The flickering frequencies of + g flames vary with changing upstream boundary conditions. The absence of flame flickering in μg suggest that μg flames would be less sensitive to these changes.
Impact of multi-component diffusion in turbulent combustion using direct numerical simulations
Bruno, Claudio; Sankaran, Vaidyanathan; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2015-08-28
This study presents the results of DNS of a partially premixed turbulent syngas/air flame at atmospheric pressure. The objective was to assess the importance and possible effects of molecular transport on flame behavior and structure. To this purpose DNS were performed at with two proprietary DNS codes and with three different molecular diffusion transport models: fully multi-component, mixture averaged, and imposing the Lewis number of all species to be unity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cho, John Y. N.; Swartz, Wesley E.; Kelley, Michael C.; Miller, Clark A.
1993-01-01
During the first rocket sequence (called Salvo B) of the NLC-91 campaign, the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) observed two simultaneously occurring layers of Polar Mesophere Summer Echoes (PMSE). during the time of the Turbo B flight, the high time-resolution CUPRI Doppler spectra exhibited sawtooth-like discontinuities in the lower layer which we interpret to be a distorted partial reflection layer which was advected across the radar beam. The upper layer, on the other hand, appeared to be caused by turbulent scatter and we estimate the turbulence energy dissipation rate in the upper layer at the time of the Turbo B flight to have been approximately 0.04 W/kg. Futhermore, a shift in the antenna beam direction from vertical to 8 deg off zenith revealed an aspect sensitivity of approximately 5 dB in the lower layer but none in the upper layer. We conclude that, at this particular time, turbulent scatter was responsible for the upper layer while some form of partial reflection was dominant in the lower layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, Uriel
1996-01-01
Written five centuries after the first studies of Leonardo da Vinci and half a century after A.N. Kolmogorov's first attempt to predict the properties of flow, this textbook presents a modern account of turbulence, one of the greatest challenges in physics. "Fully developed turbulence" is ubiquitous in both cosmic and natural environments, in engineering applications and in everyday life. Elementary presentations of dynamical systems ideas, probabilistic methods (including the theory of large deviations) and fractal geometry make this a self-contained textbook. This is the first book on turbulence to use modern ideas from chaos and symmetry breaking. The book will appeal to first-year graduate students in mathematics, physics, astrophysics, geosciences and engineering, as well as professional scientists and engineers.
Lean premixed flames for low NO{sub x} combustors
Sojka, P.; Tseng, L.; Bryjak, J.
1995-10-01
Gas turbines are being used throughout the world to generate electricity. Due to increasing fuel costs and environmental concerns, gas turbines must meet stringent performance requirements, demonstrating high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. In order for U.S. manufactured gas turbines to stay competitive, their NO{sub x} levels must be below 10 ppm and their thermal efficiencies should approach 60%. Current technology is being stretched to achieve these goals. The twin goals of high efficiency and low NO{sub x} emissions require extending the operating range of current gas turbines. Higher efficiency requires operation at higher pressures and temperatures. Lower NO{sub x} emissions requires lower flame temperatures. Lower flame temperatures can be achieved through partially to fully pre-mixed combustion. However, increased performance and lower emissions result in a set of competing goals. In order to achieve a successful compromise between high efficiency and low NO{sub x} emissions, advanced design tools must be developed. One key design tool is a computationally efficient, high pressure, turbulent flow, combustion model capable of predicting pollutant formation in an actual gas turbine. Its development is the goal of this program. Achieving this goal requires completion of three tasks. The first task is to develop a reduced chemical kinetics model describing N{sub O}x formation in natural gas-air systems. The second task is to develop a computationally efficient model that describes turbulence-chemistry interactions. The third task is to incorporate the reduced chemical kinetics and turbulence-chemistry interaction models into a commercially available flow solver and compare its predictions with experimental data obtained under carefully controlled conditions so that the accuracy of model predictions can be evaluated.
Premixing quality and flame stability: A theoretical and experimental study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radhakrishnan, K.; Heywood, J. B.; Tabaczynski, R. J.
1979-01-01
Models for predicting flame ignition and blowout in a combustor primary zone are presented. A correlation for the blowoff velocity of premixed turbulent flames is developed using the basic quantities of turbulent flow, and the laminar flame speed. A statistical model employing a Monte Carlo calculation procedure is developed to account for nonuniformities in a combustor primary zone. An overall kinetic rate equation is used to describe the fuel oxidation process. The model is used to predict the lean ignition and blow out limits of premixed turbulent flames; the effects of mixture nonuniformity on the lean ignition limit are explored using an assumed distribution of fuel-air ratios. Data on the effects of variations in inlet temperature, reference velocity and mixture uniformity on the lean ignition and blowout limits of gaseous propane-air flames are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlickeiser, R.
2011-05-01
A new transport theory of cosmic rays in magnetized space plasmas with axisymmetric incompressible magnetic turbulence is developed extending the quasilinear approximation to the particle orbit. Arbitrary gyrophase deviations from the unperturbed spiral orbits in the uniform magnetic field are allowed. For quasi-stationary and spatially homogeneous magnetic turbulence, we derive the small Larmor radius approximation gyrophase-averaged cosmic ray Fokker-Planck coefficients. The generalized Fokker-Planck coefficients correctly reduce to their known quasilinear values in the corresponding limit. New forms of the quasilinear Fokker-Planck coefficients in axisymmetric turbulence are derived which no longer involve infinite sums of products of Bessel functions, which facilitate their numerical computation for specified turbulence field correlation tensors. The Fokker-Planck coefficients for arbitrary phase orbits of the cosmic ray particles provide strict upper limits for the perpendicular and pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficients, which in turn yield strict upper and lower limits for the perpendicular and parallel spatial diffusion coefficients, respectively, describing the spatial diffusion of the isotropic part of the cosmic ray phase space density. For the associated mean free paths, we find for this general case that the product of the minimum parallel mean free path with the sum of the maximum perpendicular mean free paths equals R 2 L , where RL denotes the cosmic ray gyroradius.
Turbulence modelling of fast bimolecular reactions using one-dimensional equations of change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yang-Gi
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of one-dimensional equations of change have been made for the fast reaction A + B --> R in statistically homogeneous Burgers turbulence. Two classes of initial conditions have been considered. For initially nonpremixed reactants, the evolution of single-point statistics have been computed from the DNS results at a turbulence Reynolds number Re = 400, at turbulent Damköhler numbers of Da = 102, 10 3 and at Schmidt numbers Sc = 10-3, 10 -2, 10-1, 1. Toor's closure is more reliable for nonpremixed than for partially premixed reactants. Tarbell's closure, which failed for partially premixed reactants, offers improvement over Toor's, as does the closure developed by Kim and Reed (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 37, 3710 (1998)) for partially premixed reactants, which also offers an advantage over Tarbell's closure and recognizes the phenomenon of reaction segregation. For partially premixed reactants, the evolution of reactant and product spectra, EA(k,t)(=EB(k,t)) and ER(k,t) have been computed from the DNS concentration profiles at Re = 400 and Da = 10, 102, 103 for Sc = 10-3 , 1. The interpretation of the reactant spectra hinges on the passive additive spectra Eθ(k,t) having the same initial spectrum as EA(k,t), being convected by the same random velocity field u(x,t) that convects A, B, and R, and having the same Prandtl/Schmidt number as the Sc of A, B, and R. While ER(k,t) depends upon Da and Sc, E A(k,t) depends almost exclusively on Sc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golmohammady, Sh; Ghafary, B.
2016-06-01
In this study, generalized Stokes parameters of a phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped array beam based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle and the unified theory of coherence and polarization have been reported. Analytical formulas for 2 × 2 cross-spectral density matrix elements, and consequently Stokes parameters of a phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped array beam propagating through the turbulent atmosphere have been formulated. Effects of many physical attributes such as wavelength, turbulence strength, flatness order and other source parameters on the Stokes parameters, and therefore spectral degree of polarization upon propagation have been studied thoroughly. The behaviour of the spectral degree of coherence of a delineated beam for different source conditions has been investigated. It can be shown that four generalized Stokes parameters increase by raising the flatness order at the same propagation distance. Increasing the number of beams leads to a decrease in the Stokes parameters to zero slowly. The results are of utmost importance for optical communications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mantel, Thierry
1994-01-01
The goal of the present study is to assess numerically the ability of single-step and two-step chemical models to describe the main features encountered during the interaction between a two-dimensional vortex pair and a premixed laminar flame. In the two-step mechanism, the reaction kinetics are represented by a first chain branching reaction A + X yields 2X and a second chain termination reaction X + X yields P. This paper presents the fundamental mechanisms occurring during vortex-flame interactions and the relative impact of the major parameters encountered in turbulent premixed flames and suspected of playing a role in quenching mechanism: (1) Influence of stretch is investigated by analyzing the contribution of curvature and tangential strain on the local structure of the flame. The effect of Lewis number on the flame response to a strained field is analyzed. (2) Radiative heat losses which are suspected to be partially or totally responsible for quenching are also investigated. (3) The effect of the diffusion of the radicals is studied using a two-step mechanism in which an intermediate species is present. The parameters of the two-step mechanism are entirely determined from physical arguments. (4) Precise quantitative comparisons between the DNS and the experimental results of Samaniego et al are performed. These comparisons concern the evolution of the minimum heat release rate found along the flame front during the interaction and the distribution of the heat release rate along the flame front.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Ning-Jing; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Guo, Qiu-Fen; Wang, Ming-Jun
2015-09-01
The extended Huygens-Fresnel principle is used to develop a formulation for the backscattered intensity enhancement of a Gaussian Schell-model source beam through a weak turbulence. The results are shown that backscattered intensity enhancement factor of the reflected GSM beam is concerned with the coherence length of source, the wavelength, the size of target and wave structure function. In addition, the closed-form expressions can interpret backscattered intensity enhancement of plane and spherical wave scattered from a diffuse target. The results are illustrated by examples and compared with the previous work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaouat, Bruno
2012-04-01
The partially integrated transport modeling (PITM) method [B. Chaouat and R. Schiestel, "A new partially integrated transport model for subgrid-scale stresses and dissipation rate for turbulent developing flows," Phys. Fluids 17, 065106 (2005), 10.1063/1.1928607; R. Schiestel and A. Dejoan, "Towards a new partially integrated transport model for coarse grid and unsteady turbulent flow simulations," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 18, 443 (2005), 10.1007/s00162-004-0155-z; B. Chaouat and R. Schiestel, "From single-scale turbulence models to multiple-scale and subgridscale models by Fourier transform," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 21, 201 (2007), 10.1007/s00162-007-0044-3; B. Chaouat and R. Schiestel, "Progress in subgrid-scale transport modelling for continuous hybrid non-zonal RANS/LES simulations," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 30, 602 (2009), 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2009.02.021] viewed as a continuous approach for hybrid RANS/LES (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stoke equations/large eddy simulations) simulations with seamless coupling between RANS and LES regions is used to derive a subfilter scale stress model in the framework of second-moment closure applicable in a rotating frame of reference. This present subfilter scale model is based on the transport equations for the subfilter stresses and the dissipation rate and appears well appropriate for simulating unsteady flows on relatively coarse grids or flows with strong departure from spectral equilibrium because the cutoff wave number can be located almost anywhere inside the spectrum energy. According to the spectral theory developed in the wave number space [B. Chaouat and R. Schiestel, "From single-scale turbulence models to multiple-scale and subgrid-scale models by Fourier transform," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 21, 201 (2007), 10.1007/s00162-007-0044-3], the coefficients used in this model are no longer constants but they are some analytical functions of a dimensionless parameter controlling the spectral distribution of
Microgravity Turbulent Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
A gas-jet diffusion flame is similar to the flame on a Bunsen burner, where a gaseous fuel (e.g., propane) flows from a nozzle into an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., air). The difference is that a Bunsen burner allows for (partial) premixing of the fuel and the air, whereas a diffusion flame is not premixed and gets its oxygen (principally) by diffusion from the atmosphere around the flame. Simple gas-jet diffusion flames are often used for combustion studies because they embody the mechanisms operating in accidental fires and in practical combustion systems. However, most practical combustion is turbulent (i.e., with random flow vortices), which enhances the fuel/air mixing. These turbulent flames are not well understood because their random and transient nature complicates analysis. Normal gravity studies of turbulence in gas-jet diffusion flames can be impeded by buoyancy-induced instabilities. These gravitycaused instabilities, which are evident in the flickering of a candle flame in normal gravity, interfere with the study of turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. By conducting experiments in microgravity, where buoyant instabilities are avoided, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center hope to improve our understanding of turbulent combustion. Ultimately, this could lead to improvements in combustor design, yielding higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Gas-jet diffusion flames are often researched as model flames, because they embody mechanisms operating in both accidental fires and practical combustion systems (see the first figure). In normal gravity laboratory research, buoyant air flows, which are often negligible in practical situations, dominate the heat and mass transfer processes. Microgravity research studies, however, are not constrained by buoyant air flows, and new, unique information on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames has been obtained.
Large eddy simulation of a lifted turbulent jet flame
Ferraris, S.A.; Wen, J.X.
2007-09-15
The flame index concept for large eddy simulation developed by Domingo et al. [P. Domingo, L. Vervisch, K. Bray, Combust. Theory Modell. 6 (2002) 529-551] is used to capture the partially premixed structure at the leading point and the dual combustion regimes further downstream on a turbulent lifted flame, which is composed of premixed and nonpremixed flame elements each separately described under a flamelet assumption. Predictions for the lifted methane/air jet flame experimentally tested by Mansour [M.S. Mansour, Combust. Flame 133 (2003) 263-274] are made. The simulation covers a wide domain from the jet exit to the far flow field. Good agreement with the data for the lift-off height and the mean mixture fraction has been achieved. The model has also captured the double flames, showing a configuration similar to that of the experiment which involves a rich premixed branch at the jet center and a diffusion branch in the outer region which meet at the so-called triple point at the flame base. This basic structure is contorted by eddies coming from the jet exit but remains stable at the lift-off height. No lean premixed branches are observed in the simulation or and experiment. Further analysis on the stabilization mechanism was conducted. A distinction between the leading point (the most upstream point of the flame) and the stabilization point was made. The later was identified as the position with the maximum premixed heat release. This is in line with the stabilization mechanism proposed by Upatnieks et al. [A. Upatnieks, J. Driscoll, C. Rasmussen, S. Ceccio, Combust. Flame 138 (2004) 259-272]. (author)
Premixed direct injection disk
York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho
2013-04-23
A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.
Lean premixed/prevaporized combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lefebvre, A. H. (Editor)
1977-01-01
Recommendations were formulated on the status and application of lean premixed/prevaporized combustion to the aircraft gas turbine for the reduction of pollutant emissions. The approach taken by the NASA Stratospheric Cruise Emission Reduction Program (SCERP) in pursuing the lean premixed/prevaporized combustion technique was also discussed. The proceedings contains an overview of the SCERP program, the discussions and recommendations of the participants, and an overall summary.
Abarzhi, S I; Sreenivasan, K R
2010-04-13
Turbulence is a supermixer. Turbulent mixing has immense consequences for physical phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales under both high- and low-energy-density conditions. It influences thermonuclear fusion in inertial and magnetic confinement systems; governs dynamics of supernovae, accretion disks and explosions; dominates stellar convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics; affects premixed and non-premixed combustion; controls standard turbulent flows (wall-bounded and free-subsonic, supersonic as well as hypersonic); as well as atmospheric and oceanic phenomena (which themselves have important effects on climate). In most of these circumstances, the mixing phenomena are driven by non-equilibrium dynamics. While each article in this collection dwells on a specific problem, the purpose here is to seek a few unified themes amongst diverse phenomena. PMID:20211872
Adaptive resolution LES of a reacting non-premixed jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantano, Carlos; Deiterding, Ralf; Hill, David; Pullin, Dale
2004-11-01
We present results of a turbulent reactive non-premixed jet using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) performed within the blockstructured adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure AMROC. A fully compressible formulation of the transport equations and the stretched-vortex subgrid-stress model of Misra & Pullin (1997) are integrated with the assumed Beta subgrid pdf model for non-premixed combustion. Flamelet libraries are precomputed with the Cantera chemistry package. The modeling technique has been previously used and validated/verified in prior work, primarily for incompressible flows. One difficulty commonly encountered for these unstationary flows is the need to resolve certain regions of the flow field more finely than others. These can include thin shear layers and regions of steep density gradients produced by combustion. We show that adaptive resolution can be used successfully in the context of LES. This work is part of Caltech's ASC center supported by the Department of Energy (DOE).
Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh; Yousefi, Masoud
2016-08-10
In this research, based on an analytical expression for cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix elements, coherence and polarization properties of phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) radial array laser beams propagating through weak oceanic turbulence are analyzed. Spectral degrees of coherence and polarization are analytically calculated using CSD matrix elements. Also, the effective width of spatial degree of coherence (EWSDC) is calculated numerically. The simulation is done by considering the effects of source parameters (such as radius of the array setup's circle, effective width of the spectral degree of coherence, and wavelength) and turbulent ocean factors (such as the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations, Kolmogorov micro-scale, and rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature) in detail. Results indicate that any change in the amount of turbulence factors that increase the turbulence power reduces the EWSDC significantly and causes the reduction in the degree of polarization, and occurs at shorter propagation distances but with smaller magnitudes. In addition, being valid for all conditions, the degradation rate of the EWSDC of Gaussian array beams are more in comparison with the PCFT ones. The simulation and calculation results are shown by graphs. PMID:27534473
Highly turbulent counterflow flames: A laboratory scale benchmark for practical systems
Coppola, Gianfilippo; Coriton, Bruno; Gomez, Alessandro
2009-09-15
We propose a highly turbulent counterflow flame as a very useful benchmark of complexity intermediate between laminar flames and practical systems. By operating in a turbulent Reynolds number regime of relevance to practical systems such as gas turbines and internal combustion engines, it retains the interaction of turbulence and chemistry of such environments, but offers several advantages including: (a) the achievement of high Reynolds numbers without pilot flames, which is particularly advantageous from a modeling standpoint; (b) control of the transition from stable flames to local extinction/reignition conditions; (c) compactness of the domain by comparison with jet flames, with obvious advantages from both a diagnostic and, especially, a computational viewpoint; and (d) the reduction or, altogether, elimination of soot formation, thanks to the high strain rates and low residence times of such a system, and the establishment of conditions of large stoichiometric mixture fraction, as required for robust flame stabilization. We demonstrate the phenomenology of such highly strained turbulent flames under conditions spanning unpremixed, partially premixed and premixed regimes. The system lends itself to the validation of DNS and other computational models. It is also well-suited for the examination of practical fuel blends - a need that is becoming more and more pressing in view of the anticipated diversification of the future fossil fuel supply. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drake, M. C.; Pitz, R. W.; Lapp, M.; Fenimore, C. P.; Lucht, R. P.
1985-01-01
The first quantitative, time- and space-resolved measurements have been obtained for probability density functions of OH concentration in nonpremixed flames. Measurements using single-pulse, laser-saturated fluorescence in laminar, transitional, and turbulent nonpremixed H2-air flames provide unambiguous evidence for substantial OH superequilibrium concentrations, in qualitative agreement with predictions of laminar and turbulent combustion models. The average degree of superequilibrium, OH/OH(AE), is typically 4-5 near the jet exit and approaches unity far downstream. The maximum instantaneous OH concentration measured in transitional and turbulent H2-air flames is about 6 x 10 to the 16th molecules/cc, in accord with the maximum determined by partial equilibrium thermodynamic calculations and with the maximum OH concentrations measured in premixed H2-air flames.
Near field flow structure of isothermal swirling flows and reacting non-premixed swirling flames
Olivani, Andrea; Solero, Giulio; Cozzi, Fabio; Coghe, Aldo
2007-04-15
Two confined lean non-premixed swirl-stabilized flame typologies were investigated in order to achieve detailed information on the thermal and aerodynamic field in the close vicinity of the burner throat and provide correlation with the exhaust emissions. Previous finding indicated the generation of a partially premixed flame with radial fuel injection and a purely diffusive flame with co-axial injection in a swirling co-flow. In the present work, the experimental study is reported which has been conducted on a straight exit laboratory burner with no quarl cone, fuelled by natural gas and air, and fired vertically upwards with the flame stabilized at the end of two concentric pipes with the annulus supplying swirled air and the central pipe delivering the fuel. Two fuel injection typologies, co-axial and radial (i.e., transverse), leading to different mixing mechanisms, have been characterized through different techniques: particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for a comprehensive analysis of the velocity field, still photography for the detection of flame front and main visible features, and thermocouples for the temperature distribution. Isothermal flow conditions have been included in the experimental investigation to provide a basic picture of the flow field and to comprehend the modifications induced by the combustion process. The results indicated that, although the global mixing process and the main flame structure are governed by the swirl motion imparted to the air stream, the two different fuel injection methodologies play an important role on mixture formation and flame stabilization in the primary mixing zone. Particularly, it has been found that, in case of axial injection, the turbulent interaction between the central fuel jet and the backflow generated by the swirl can induce an intermittent fuel penetration in the recirculated hot products and the formation of a central sooting luminous plume, a phenomenon totally
Premixed Prevaporized Combustor Technology Forum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The Forum was held to present the results of recent and current work intended to provide basic information required for demonstration of lean, premixed prevaporized combustors for aircraft gas turbine engine application. Papers are presented which deal with the following major topics: (1) engine interfaces; (2) fuel-air preparation; (3) autoignition; (4) lean combustion; and (5) concept design studies.
Statistics of premixed flame cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noever, David A.
1991-01-01
The statistics of random cellular patterns in premixed flames are analyzed. Agreement is found with a variety of topological relations previously found for other networks, namely, Lewis's law and Aboav's law. Despite the diverse underlying physics, flame cells are shown to share a broad class of geometric properties with other random networks-metal grains, soap foams, bioconvection, and Langmuir monolayers.
Statistics of premixed flame cells
Noever, D.A. )
1991-07-15
The statistics of random cellular patterns in premixed flames are analyzed. Agreement is found with a variety of topological relations previously found for other networks, namely, Lewis's law and Aboav's law. Despite the diverse underlying physics, flame cells are shown to share a broad class of geometric properties with other random networks---metal grains, soap foams, bioconvection, and Langmuir monolayers.
Analysis of Lean Premixed/Prevaporized Combustion with KIVA-2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Darling, D. D.; Cline, M. C.; Micklow, G. J.; Harper, M. R.; Simons, T. A.
1994-01-01
Requirements to reduce the emissions of pollutants from gas turbines used in aircraft propulsion and ground based power generation have led to consideration of lean premixed/prevaporized (LPP) combustion concept. This paper describes some of the LPP flame tube analyses performed at the NASA Research Center with KIVA-2, a well-known multi-dimensional CFD code for problems including sprays, turbulence, and combustion. Modifications to KIVA-2's boundary condition and chemistry treatments have been made to meet the needs of the present study. The study itself focuses on two key aspects of the LPP concept, low emissions and flame stability (including flashback and lean blowoff.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaouat, Bruno; Schiestel, Roland
2005-06-01
A new subgrid-scale turbulence model involving all the transport equations of the subgrid-scale stresses and including a dissipation rate equation is proposed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of unsteady flows which present nonequilibrium turbulence spectra. Such a situation in flow physics occurs when unsteadiness is created by forced boundary conditions, but also in more complex situations, when natural unsteadiness develops due to the existence of organized eddies. This latter phenomenon explains the instability found in a porous-walled chamber with mass injection. Due to the high value of Reynolds number, the presence of wall boundaries, and the use of relatively coarse grids, the spectral cutoff may be located before the inertial zone of the energy spectrum. The use of transport equations for all the subgrid-scale stress components allows us to take into account more precisely the turbulent processes of production, transfer, pressure redistribution effects, and dissipation, and the concept of turbulent viscosity is no longer necessary. Moreover, some backscatter effects can possibly arise. As a result of modeling in the spectral space, a formally continuous derivation of the model is obtained when the cutoff location is varied, which guaranties compatibility with the two extreme limits that are the full statistical Reynolds stress transport model of Launder and Shima and direct numerical simulation. In the present approach, due to the presence of the subgrid-scale pressure-strain correlation term in the stress equations, the new subgrid model is able to account for history and nonlocal effects of the turbulence interactions, and also to describe more accurately the anisotropy of the turbulence field. The present model is first calibrated on the well-known fully turbulent channel flow. For this test case, the LES simulation reveals that the computed velocities and Reynolds stresses agree very well with the DNS data. The application to the channel flow with wall
Premixed burner experiments: Geometry, mixing, and flame structure issues
Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.; Gupta, M.
1995-10-01
This research program is exploring techniques for improved fuel-air mixing, with the aim of achieving combustor operations up to stoichiometric conditions with minimal NO x and maximum efficiency. The experimental studies involve the use of a double-concentric natural gas burner that is operable in either premixed or non-premixed modes, and the system allows systematic variation of equivalence ratio, swirl strength shear length region and flow momentum in each annulus. Flame structures formed with various combinations of swirl strengths, flow throughput and equivalence ratios in premixed mode show the significant impact of swirl flow distribution on flame structure emanating from the mixedness. This impact on flame structure is expected to have a pronounced effect on the heat release rate and the emission of NO{sub x}. Thus, swirler design and configuration remains a key factor in the quest for completely optimized combustion. Parallel numerical studies of the flow and combustion phenomena were carried out, using the RSM and thek-{epsilon} turbulence models. These results have not only indicated the strengths and limitations of CFD in performance and pollutants emission predictions, but have provided guidelines on the size and strength of the recirculation produced and the spatio-temporal structure of the combustion flowfield. The first stage of parametric studies on geometry and operational parameters at Morgan State University have culminated in the completion of a one-dimensional flow code that is integrated with a solid, virtual model of the existing premixed burner. This coupling will provide the unique opportunity to study the impact of geometry on the flowfield and vice-versa, with particular emphasis on concurrent design optimization.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey
2008-01-01
This paper describes an approach which aims at bridging the gap between the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach and the traditional large eddy simulation (LES) approach. It has the characteristics of the very large eddy simulation (VLES) and we call this approach the partially-resolved numerical simulation (PRNS). Systematic simulations using the National Combustion Code (NCC) have been carried out for fully developed turbulent pipe flows at different Reynolds numbers to evaluate the PRNS approach. Also presented are the sample results of two demonstration cases: nonreacting flow in a single injector flame tube and reacting flow in a Lean Direct Injection (LDI) hydrogen combustor.
Yousefi, Masoud; Golmohammady, Shole; Mashal, Ahmad; Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh
2015-11-01
In this paper, on the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, a semianalytical expression for describing on-axis scintillation index of a partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) laser beam of weak to moderate oceanic turbulence is derived; consequently, by using the log-normal intensity probability density function, the bit error rate (BER) is evaluated. The effects of source factors (such as wavelength, order of flatness, and beam width) and turbulent ocean parameters (such as Kolmogorov microscale, relative strengths of temperature and salinity fluctuations, rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature, and rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid) on propagation behavior of scintillation index, and, hence, on BER, are studied in detail. Results indicate that, in comparison with a Gaussian beam, a PCFT laser beam with a higher order of flatness is found to have lower scintillations. In addition, the scintillation index and BER are most affected when salinity fluctuations in the ocean dominate temperature fluctuations. PMID:26560913
The transient response of strained laminar-premixed flames
Petrov, C.A.; Ghoniem, A.F.
1995-08-01
Modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion in premixed gases, for relatively large-scale and low-intensity turbulence, have traditionally been based on the assumption that the flame response to strain is instantaneous. In this paper, the authors revisit the validity of this assumption by examining the time-dependent response of a premixed laminar flame when subjected to a sudden change in strain and a periodic strain. They find that at unity Lewis number and for a stepwise increase in strain, the settling time of the flame varies between the chemical time, the flame time and the flow time as the Karlovitz number changes from low to intermediate to high values, respectively, over the entire range of flame temperatures. At nonunity Lewis numbers, the settling time changes from the flame time to the flow time as the strain jump increases from intermediate to high Karlovitz numbers and over the entire range of flame temperatures. For given Lewis and Karlovitz numbers, the settling time decreases as these flame temperature increases. Thus, in a flamelet or thin flame modeling, and over the entire range of Lewis number, the response of a premixed flame can be considered instantaneous only for high flame temperatures. The same is found to be true for intermediate flame temperatures when the Lewis number is unity. Otherwise, for low and intermediate flame tempera tues, and nonunity Lewis number, corrections reflecting the lag between the flow an the flame should be considered. The response of the flame to oscillating strain whose maximum value is below unity Karlovitz number is also investigated for two values of the flame temperatures.
Gravitational effects on the structure and propagation of premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamins, A.; Heitor, M.; Libby, P. A.
The influence of gravity on the propagation velocity and shape of premixed laminar flames is studied experimentally over the entire flammability range of methane-air mixtures. In the experiments reported here a vertical tube 10 cm dia, closed on both ends and open in the middle is filled with reactants and ignited in its central plane so that flames propagate in both the upward and downward directions. Additional experiments are made in a vertical tube 5 cm dia with flames propagating from an open towards a closed end. Steady flame propagation is achieved over the entire range of equivalence ratios by locating a series of holes along the length of the tubes covered with a thin film which is vaporized by the passage of the flame. Measurements in the larger tube indicate that gravity affects both rich and lean laminar flames in that upward propagating flames are faster than downward. The shape of the flames is complex with the former roughly hemispherical, the latter flat but with a cellular structure. In near stoichiometric mixtures the flames are oscillatory, are unaffected by gravity and correspond to weakly turbulent flames. The results in the smaller tube indicate that upward moving flames propagate faster than downward moving flames over the entire range of equivalence ratios studied and that the flame shape is always hemispherical. The preliminary results for turbulent premixed flames propagating upward and downward are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Michael E.; Perry, Bruce A.; Masri, Assaad R.
2015-11-01
A new piloted turbulent jet burner has been developed at The University of Sydney to investigate how inhomogeneous partially premixed inlet conditions affect flame structure and stability characteristics. Compositional inhomogeneity at the inlet is achieved by recessing a central tube that separates the fuel stream and a surrounding annular air flow to allow for a controlled amount of mixing before the gases reach the nozzle exit. In this work, Large Eddy Simulation of the burner is performed using a conventional nonpremixed flamelet/progress variable model. The geometry is divided into three separately computed domains: fully developed pipe/annulus flow, pipe flow in the region of fuel/air mixing upstream of the nozzle, and the turbulent flame. The results for two recess distances of the central tube (inhomogeneous fuel inlet and effectively homogeneous fuel inlet) are compared to recent experimental measurements. Discrepancies between the simulation and experiment show that premixed combustion is dominant only for the inhomogeneous case at the base of the flame. Sensitivitiese to grid resolution in both the upstream mixing domain and the turbulent flame domain as well as pilot conditions are assessed.
Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakov, Kirill A.
2016-04-01
Analytical treatment of the premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations for a quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by a strong gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are identified. Acceleration of methane-air flames in open tubes is shown to be a combined effect of the hydrostatic pressure difference produced by the ambient cold air and the difference of dynamic gas pressure at the tube ends. On the other hand, a strong spontaneous acceleration of the fast methane-oxygen flames at the initial stage of their evolution in open-closed tubes is conditioned by metastability of the quasi-steady propagation regimes. An extensive comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data is made.
Lean Premixed Combustion Stabilized by Low Swirl a Promising Concept for Practical Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.
1999-01-01
Since its inception, the low-swirl burner (LSB) has shown to be a useful laboratory apparatus for fundamental studies of premixed turbulent flames. The LSB operates under wide ranges of equivalence ratios, flow rates, and turbulence intensities. Its flame is lifted and detached from the burner and allows easy access for laser diagnostics. The flame brush is axisymmetric and propagates normal to the incident reactants. Therefore, the LSB is well suited for investigating detailed flame structures and empirical coefficients such as flame speed, turbulence transport, and flame generated turbulence. Due to its capability to stabilize ultra-lean premixed turbulent flames (phi approx. = 0.55), the LSB has generated interest from the gas appliance industry for use as an economical low-NO(x) burner. Lean premixed combustion emits low levels of NO(x), due primarily to the low flame temperature. Therefore, it is a very effective NO(x) prevention method without involving selective catalytic reduction (SCR), fuel-air staging, or flue gas recirculation (FGR). En the gas turbine industry, substantial research efforts have already been undertaken and engines with lean premixed combustors are already in use. For commercial and residential applications, premixed pulsed combustors and premixed ceramic matrix burners are commercially available. These lean premixed combustion technologies, however, tend to be elaborate but have relatively limited operational flexibility, and higher capital, operating and maintenance costs. Consequently, these industries are continuing the development of lean premixed combustion technologies as well as exploring new concepts. This paper summarizes the research effects we have undertaken in the past few years to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the low-swirl flame stabilization method for a wide range of heating and power generation systems. The principle of flame stabilization by low-swirl is counter to the conventional high-swirl methods that
Gas turbine premixer with internal cooling
York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Stevenson, Christian Xavier
2012-12-18
A system that includes a turbine fuel nozzle comprising an air-fuel premixer. The air-fuel premixed includes a swirl vane configured to swirl fuel and air in a downstream direction, wherein the swirl vane comprises an internal coolant path from a downstream end portion in an upstream direction through a substantial length of the swirl vane.
Oscillating combustion from a premix fuel nozzle
Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.
1995-08-01
Stringent emissions requirements for stationary gas turbines have produced new challenges in combustor design. In the past, very low NOx pollutant emissions have been achieved through various combustion modifications, such as steam or water injection, or post-combustion cleanup methods such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). An emerging approach to NOx abatement is lean premix combustion. Lean premix combustion avoids the cost and operational problems associated with other NOx control methods. By premixing fuel and air at very low equivalence ratios, the high temperatures which produce NOx are avoided. The challenges of premix combustion include avoiding flashback, and ensuring adequate fuel/air premixing. In addition, the combustion must be stable. The combustor should not operate so close to extinction that a momentary upset will extinguish the flame (static stability), and the flame should not oscillate (dynamic stability). Oscillations are undesirable because the associated pressure fluctuations can shorten component lifetime. Unfortunately, experience has shown that premix fuel nozzles burning natural gas are susceptible to oscillations. Eliminating these oscillations can be a costly and time consuming part of new engine development. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is investigating the issue of combustion oscillations produced by lean premix fuel nozzles. METC is evaluating various techniques to stabilize oscillating combustion in gas turbines. Tests results from a premix fuel nozzle using swirl stabilization and a pilot flame are reported here.
Flashback resistant pre-mixer assembly
Laster, Walter R.; Gambacorta, Domenico
2012-02-14
A pre-mixer assembly associated with a fuel supply system for mixing of air and fuel upstream from a main combustion zone in a gas turbine engine. The pre-mixer assembly includes a swirler assembly disposed about a fuel injector of the fuel supply system and a pre-mixer transition member. The swirler assembly includes a forward end defining an air inlet and an opposed aft end. The pre-mixer transition member has a forward end affixed to the aft end of the swirler assembly and an opposed aft end defining an outlet of the pre-mixer assembly. The aft end of the pre-mixer transition member is spaced from a base plate such that a gap is formed between the aft end of the pre-mixer transition member and the base plate for permitting a flow of purge air therethrough to increase a velocity of the air/fuel mixture exiting the pre-mixer assembly.
Turbulent Flame Processes Via Diffusion Flame-Vortex Ring Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahm, Werner J. A.; Chen, Shin-Juh; Silver, Joel A.; Piltch, Nancy D.; VanderWal, Randall L.
2001-01-01
Flame-vortex interactions are canonical configurations that can be used to study the underlying processes occurring in turbulent reacting flows. This configuration contains many of the fundamental aspects of the coupling between fluid dynamics and combustion that could be investigated with more controllable conditions than are possible under direct investigations of turbulent flames. Diffusion flame-vortex ring interaction contains many of the fundamental elements of flow, transport, combustion, and soot processes found in turbulent diffusion flames. Some of these elements include concentrated vorticity, entrainment and mixing, strain and nonequilibrium phenomena, diffusion and differential diffusion, partial premixing and diluent effects, soot formation and oxidation, and heat release effects. Such simplified flowfield allows the complex processes to be examined more closely and yet preserving the physical processes present in turbulent reacting flows. Furthermore, experimental results from the study of flame-vortex interactions are useful for the validation of numerical simulations and more importantly to deepen our understanding of the fundamental processes present in reacting flows. Experimental and numerical results obtained under microgravity conditions of the diffusion flame-vortex ring interaction are summarized in this paper. Results are obtained using techniques that include Flame Luminosity Imaging (FLI), Laser Soot-Mie Scattering (LSMS), Computational Fluid Dynamics and Combustion (CFDC), and Diode Laser Spectroscopy/Iterative Temperature with Assumed Chemistry (DLS/ITAC).
Fuel premixing module for gas turbine engine combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Jushan (Inventor); Rizk, Nader K. (Inventor); Razdan, Mohan K. (Inventor); Marshall, Andre W. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A fuel-air premixing module is designed to reduce emissions from a gas turbine engine. In one form, the premixing module includes a central pilot premixer module with a main premixer module positioned thereround. Each of the portions of the fuel-air premixing module include an axial inflow swirler with a plurality of fixed swirler vanes. Fuel is injected into the main premixer module between the swirler vanes of the axial inflow swirler and at an acute angle relative to the centerline of the premixing module.
Lewis, Elliot; McDonell, Vincent
2015-03-31
Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when hydrogen is used as the fuel. The two main approaches for coping with flashback are either to design a combustor that is resistant to flashback, or to design a premixer that will not anchor a flame if flashback occurs. Even with a well-designed combustor flashback can occur under certain circumstances, thus it is necessary to determine how to avoid flameholding within the premixer passageways of a gas turbine. To this end, an experiment was designed that would determine the flameholding propensities at elevated pressures and temperatures of three different classes of geometric features commonly found in gas turbine premixers, with both natural gas and hydrogen fuel. Experiments to find the equivalence ratio at blow off were conducted within an optically accessible test apparatus with four flameholders: 0.25 and 0.50 inch diameter cylinders, a reverse facing step with a height of 0.25 inches, and a symmetric airfoil with a thickness of 0.25 inches and a chord length of one inch. Tests were carried out at temperatures between 300 K and 750 K, at pressures up to 9 atmospheres. Typical bulk velocities were between 40 and 100 m/s. The effect of airfoil’s angle of rotation was also investigated. Blow off for hydrogen flames was found to occur at much lower adiabatic flame temperatures than natural gas flames. Additionally it was observed that at high pressures and high turbulence intensities, reactant velocity does not have a noticeable effect on the point of blow off due in large part to corresponding increases in turbulent flame speed. Finally a semi empirical correlation was developed that predicts flame extinction for both
A premixed hydrogen/oxygen catalytic igniter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, James M.
1989-01-01
The catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants was studied using a premixing hydrogen/oxygen injector. The premixed injector was designed to eliminate problems associated with catalytic ignition caused by poor propellant mixing in the catalyst bed. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, and propellant inlet temperature were varied parametrically in testing, and a pulse mode life test of the igniter was conducted. The results of the tests showed that the premixed injector eliminated flame flashback in the reactor and increased the life of the igniter significantly. The results of the experimental program and a comparison with data collected in a previous program are given.
Improved Modeling of Finite-Rate Turbulent Combustion Processes in Research Combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanOverbeke, Thomas J.
1998-01-01
The objective of this thesis is to further develop and test a stochastic model of turbulent combustion in recirculating flows. There is a requirement to increase the accuracy of multi-dimensional combustion predictions. As turbulence affects reaction rates, this interaction must be more accurately evaluated. In this work a more physically correct way of handling the interaction of turbulence on combustion is further developed and tested. As turbulence involves randomness, stochastic modeling is used. Averaged values such as temperature and species concentration are found by integrating the probability density function (pdf) over the range of the scalar. The model in this work does not assume the pdf type, but solves for the evolution of the pdf using the Monte Carlo solution technique. The model is further developed by including a more robust reaction solver, by using accurate thermodynamics and by more accurate transport elements. The stochastic method is used with Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations. The SIMPLE method is used to solve for velocity, pressure, turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. The pdf solver solves for temperature and species concentration. Thus, the method is partially familiar to combustor engineers. The method is compared to benchmark experimental data and baseline calculations. The baseline method was tested on isothermal flows, evaporating sprays and combusting sprays. Pdf and baseline predictions were performed for three diffusion flames and one premixed flame. The pdf method predicted lower combustion rates than the baseline method in agreement with the data, except for the premixed flame. The baseline and stochastic predictions bounded the experimental data for the premixed flame. The use of a continuous mixing model or relax to mean mixing model had little effect on the prediction of average temperature. Two grids were used in a hydrogen diffusion flame simulation. Grid density did not effect the predictions except
Panoutsos, C.S.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A.M.K.P.
2009-02-15
from the OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} excited radicals can be used to identify the location of the reaction zone. Calculations of the OH{sup *}/CH{sup *} intensity ratio for strained non-premixed counterflow methane-air flames showed that the intensity ratio takes different values from those for premixed flames, and therefore has the potential to be used as a criterion to distinguish between premixed and non-premixed reaction in turbulent flames. (author)
2015-01-19
The purpose of LEM-CF Premixed Tool Kit is to process premixed flame simulation data from the LEM-CF solver (https://fileshare.craft-tech.com/clusters/view/lem-cf) into a large-eddy simulation (LES) subgrid model database. These databases may be used with a user-defined-function (UDF) that is included in the Tool Kit. The subgrid model UDF may be used with the ANSYS FLUENT flow solver or other commercial flow solvers.
Rayleigh scattering for density measurements in premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouldin, F. C.; Halthore, R. N.
1986-09-01
Rayleigh scattering measurements for molecular number density in turbulent, premixed CH4-air flames are discussed, and data for both flamelet passage time distributions and power spectral density functions are reported and compared to the recent predictions of Bray, Libby and Moss (1984). Measurement problems associated with variations in mixture-averaged Rayleigh scattering cross section, index of refraction fluctuations, finite spatial and temporal resolution and with scattering from particles are discussed. It is concluded that these effects are relatively minor in the reported experiments. Correction procedures are suggested for the effects of cross section variation and of finite resolution. Passage time and spectral data support the Bray, Libby and Moss hypothesis for the passage time distribution function. Furthermore, model predictions for the variation across the flame brush of mean passage times for both reactant and product eddies are in reasonable agreement with experiment. Finally, the data suggest that these mean times scale in part with Ū and λ in the reactant flow.
A numerical investigation of premixed combustion in wave rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nalim, M. Razi; Paxson, Daniel E.
1996-01-01
Wave rotor cycles which utilize premixed combustion processes within the passages are examined numerically using a one-dimensional CFD-based simulation. Internal-combustion wave rotors are envisioned for use as pressure-gain combustors in gas turbine engines. The simulation methodology is described, including a presentation of the assumed governing equations for the flow and reaction in the channels, the numerical integration method used, and the modeling of external components such as recirculation ducts. A number of cycle simulations are then presented which illustrate both turbulent-deflagration and detonation modes of combustion. Estimates of performance and rotor wall temperatures for the various cycles are made, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.
Premixed macroporous calcium phosphate cement scaffold
Carey, Lisa E.; Simon, Carl G.
2009-01-01
Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets in situ to form resorbable hydroxyapatite and is promising for orthopaedic applications. However, it requires on-site powder-liquid mixing during surgery, which prolongs surgical time and raises concerns of inhomogeneous mixing. The objective of this study was to develop a premixed CPC scaffold with macropores suitable for tissue ingrowth. To avoid the on-site powder-liquid mixing, the CPC paste was mixed in advance and did not set in storage; it set only after placement in a physiological solution. Using 30% and 40% mass fractions of mannitol porogen, the premixed CPC scaffold with fibers had flexural strength (mean ± sd; n = 5) of (3.9 ± 1.4) MPa and (1.8 ± 0.8) MPa, respectively. The scaffold porosity reached (68.6 ± 0.7)% and (74.7 ± 1.2)%, respectively. Osteoblast cells colonized in the surface macropores of the scaffold and attached to the hydroxyapatite crystals. Cell viability values for the premixed CPC scaffold was not significantly different from that of a conventional non-premixed CPC known to be biocompatible (P > 0.1). In conclusion, using fast-dissolving porogen and slow-dissolving fibers, a premixed macroporous CPC scaffold was developed with strength approaching the reported strengths of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants and cancellous bone, and non-cytotoxicity similar to a biocompatible non-premixed CPC. PMID:17277972
Lean premixed flames for low NO{sub x} combustors
Sojka, P.; Tseng, L.; Bryyjak, J.
1995-12-31
The overall objectives of the research at Purdue are to: obtain a reduced mechanism description of high pressure NO formation chemistry using experiments and calculations for laminar lean premixed methane air flames, develop a statistical model of turbulence NO chemistry interactions using a Bunsen type jet flame, and utilize the high pressure chemistry and turbulence models in a commercial design code, then evaluate its predictions using data from an analog gas turbine combustor. Work to date has resulted in the following achievements: spatially resolved measurements of NO in high-pressure high-temperature flat flames, plus evaluation of the influence of flame radiation on the measured temperature profile; measurements of temperature and velocity PDFs for a turbulent methane/air flame were obtained for the first time, under operating conditions which allow their study in the distributed regimes, and the increase in EINO{sub x} with equivalence ratio predicted using a chemical kinetics model; and simulation of non-reacting combustor flow fields from ambient to elevated pressure and temperature conditions and comparison of those results with experimental velocity profiles.
Numerical modeling of combustion dynamics in a lean premixed combustor
Cannon, S.M.; Smith, C.E.
1998-07-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a time-accurate, 2-D axi-symmetric CFD model to accurately predict combustion dynamics in a premixed pipe combustor driven by mixture feed variation. Independently measured data, including the magnitude and frequency of combustor pressure, were used to evaluate the model. The Smagorinsky, RGN k-{var{underscore}epsilon}, and molecular viscosity models were used to describe the subgrid turbulence, and a one-step, finite-rate reaction to equilibrium products model was used to describe the subgrid chemistry. Swirl source terms were included within the premix passage's computational domain and allowed the model to retain known boundary conditions at the choked flow inlet and the constant pressure exit. To ensure pressure waves were accurately captured, 1-D numerical analyses were first performed to assess the effects of boundary conditions, temporal and spatial differencing, time step, and grid size. It was found that the selected numerical details produced little numerical dissipation of the pressure waves. Then, 2-D axisymmetric analyses were performed in which the inlet temperature was varied. It was found that increases in the inlet temperature (keeping a constant mass flow rate) had a large effect on the unsteady combustor behavior since reaction and advection rates were increased. The correct trend of decreasing rms pressures with increasing inlet temperature was predicted. This agreement in rms pressure behavior supports the ability of the CFD model to accurately capture unsteady heat release and its coupling with resonant acoustic waves in multi-dimensional combustor systems. The effect of subgrid turbulence model was small for the unstable cases studied here.
Premixed Flame-Vortex Interactions Imaged in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driscoll, J. F.; Sichel, M.; Sinibaldi, J. O.
1997-01-01
A unique experiment makes it now possible to obtain detailed images in microgravity showing how an individual vortex causes the wrinkling, stretching, area increase, and eventual extinction of a premixed flame. The repeatable, controllable flame-vortex interaction represents the fundamental building block of turbulent combustion concepts. New information is provided that is central to turbulent flame models, including measurements of all components of flame stretch, strain, and vorticity. Simultaneous measurements of all components of these quantities are not possible in fully turbulent flames but are possible in the present axisymmetric, repeatable experiment. Advanced PIV diagnostics have been used at one-g and have been developed for microgravity. Numerical simulations of the interaction are being performed at NRL. It is found that microgravity conditions greatly augment the flame wrinkling process. Flame area and the amplitude of wrinkles at zero-g are typically twice that observed at one-g. It is inferred that turbulent flames in microgravity could have larger surface area and thus propagate significantly faster than those in one-g, which is a potential safety hazard. A new mechanism is identified by PIV images that shows how buoyancy retards flame wrinkling at one-g; buoyancy produces new vorticity (due to baroclinic torques) that oppose the wrinkling and the stretch imposed by the original vortex. Microgravity conditions remove this stabilizing mechanism and the amplitude of flame wrinkling typically is found to double. Microgravity also increases the flame speed by a factor of 1.8 to 2.2. Both methane and propane-air flames were studied at the NASA Lewis drop tower. Results indicate that it is important to add buoyancy to models of turbulent flames to simulate the correct flame wrinkling, stretch and burning velocity.
Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor
York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P
2013-05-21
An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.
An extinction/reignition dynamic method for turbulent combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knaus, Robert; Pantano, Carlos
2011-11-01
Quasi-randomly distributed locations of high strain in turbulent combustion can cause a nonpremixed or partially premixed flame to develop local regions of extinction called ``flame holes''. The presence and extent of these holes can increase certain pollutants and reduce the amount of fuel burned. Accurately modeling the dynamics of these interacting regions can improve the accuracy of combustion simulations by effectively incorporating finite-rate chemistry effects. In the proposed method, the flame hole state is characterized by a progress variable that nominally exists on the stoichiometric surface. The evolution of this field is governed by a partial-differential equation embedded in the time-dependent two-manifold of the flame surface. This equation includes advection, propagation, and flame hole formation (flame hole healing or collapse is accounted by propagation naturally). We present a computational algorithm that solves this equation by embedding it in the usual three-dimensional space. A piece-wise parabolic WENO scheme combined with a compression algorithm are used to evolve the flame hole progress variable. A key aspect of the method is the extension of the surface data to the three-dimensional space in an efficient manner. We present results of this method applied to canonical turbulent combusting flows where the flame holes interact and describe their statistics.
The role of reactant unmixedness, strain rate, and length scale on premixed combustor performance
Samuelsen, S.; LaRue, J.; Vilayanur, S.; Guillaume, D.
1995-12-31
Lean premixed combustion provides a means to reduce pollutant formation and increase combustion efficiency. However, fuel-air mixing is rarely uniform in space and time. This nonuniformity in concentration will lead to relative increases in pollutant formation and decreases in combustion efficiency. The nonuniformity of the concentration at the exit of the premixer has been defined by Lyons (1981) as the ``unmixedness.`` Although turbulence properties such as length scales and strain rate are known to effect unmixedness, the exact relationship is unknown. Evaluating this relationship and the effect of unmixedness in premixed combustion on pollutant formation and combustion efficiency are an important part of the overall goal of US Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program and are among the goals of the program described herein. The information obtained from ATS is intended to help to develop and commercialize gas turbines. The contributions to the program which the University of California (Irvine) Combustion Lab (UCICL) will provide are: (1) establish the relationship of inlet unmixedness, length scales, and mean strain rate to performance, (2) determine the optimal levels of inlet unmixedness, length scales, and mean strain rates to maximize combustor performance, and (3) identify efficient premixing methods for achieving the necessary inlet conditions. The program during this reporting period is focused on developing a means to measure and qualify different degrees of temporal and spatial unmixedness. Laser diagnostic methods for planer unmixedness measurements are being developed and preliminary results are presented herein. These results will be used to (1), aid in the design of experimental premixers, and (2), determine the unmixedness which will be correlated with the emissions of the combustor. This measure of unmixedness coupled with length scale, strain rate and intensity information is required to attain the UCI goals.
Design factors for stable lean premix combustion
Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Gemmen, R.S.
1995-10-01
The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program includes the development of low-emission combustors. Low emissions have already been achieved by premixing fuel and air to avoid the hot gas pockets produced by nozzles without premixing. While the advantages of premixed combustion have been widely recognized, turbine developers using premixed nozzles have experienced repeated problems with combustion oscillations. Left uncontrolled, these oscillations can lead to pressure fluctuations capable of damaging engine hardware. Elimination of such oscillations is often difficult and time consuming - particularly when oscillations are discovered in the last stages of engine development. To address this issue, METC is studying oscillating combustion from lean premixing fuel nozzles. These tests are providing generic information on the mechanisms that contribute to oscillating behavior in gas turbines. METC is also investigating the use of so-called {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} control of combustion oscillations. This technique periodically injects fuel pulses into the combustor to disrupt the oscillating behavior. Recent results on active combustion control are presented in Gemmen et al. (1995) and Richards et al. (1995). This paper describes the status of METC efforts to avoid oscillations through simple design changes.
Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Krishnan, S. S.; Faeth, G. M.
1999-01-01
Soot processes within hydrocarbon-fueled flames affect emissions of pollutant soot, thermal loads on combustors, hazards of unwanted fires and capabilities for computational combustion. In view of these observations, the present study is considering processes of soot formation in both burner-stabilized and freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. These flames are being studied in order to simplify the interpretation of measurements and to enhance computational tractability compared to the diffusion flame environments of greatest interest for soot processes. In addition, earlier studies of soot formation in laminar premixed flames used approximations of soot optical and structure properties that have not been effective during recent evaluations, as well as questionable estimates of flow residence times). The objective of present work was to exploit methods of avoiding these difficulties developed for laminar diffusion flames to study soot growth in laminar premixed flames. The following description of these studies is brief.
Modeling and simulation of combustion dynamics in lean-premixed swirl-stabilized gas-turbine engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ying
This research focuses on the modeling and simulation of combustion dynamics in lean-premixed gas-turbines engines. The primary objectives are: (1) to establish an efficient and accurate numerical framework for the treatment of unsteady flame dynamics; and (2) to investigate the parameters and mechanisms responsible for driving flow oscillations in a lean-premixed gas-turbine combustor. The energy transfer mechanisms among mean flow motions, periodic motions and background turbulent motions in turbulent reacting flow are first explored using a triple decomposition technique. Then a comprehensive numerical study of the combustion dynamics in a lean-premixed swirl-stabilized combustor is performed. The analysis treats the conservation equations in three dimensions and takes into account finite-rate chemical reactions and variable thermophysical properties. Turbulence closure is achieved using a large-eddy-simulation (LES) technique. The compressible-flow version of the Smagorinsky model is employed to describe subgrid-scale turbulent motions and their effect on large-scale structures. A level-set flamelet library approach is used to simulate premixed turbulent combustion. In this approach, the mean flame location is modeled using a level-set G-equation, where G is defined as a distance function. Thermophysical properties are obtained using a presumed probability density function (PDF) along with a laminar flamelet library. The governing equations and the associated boundary conditions are solved by means of a four-step Runge-Kutta scheme along with the implementation of the message passing interface (MPI) parallel computing architecture. The analysis allows for a detailed investigation into the interaction between turbulent flow motions and oscillatory combustion of a swirl-stabilized injector. Results show good agreement with an analytical solution and experimental data in terms of acoustic properties and flame evolution. A study of flame bifurcation from a stable
Colorimetric determination of selenium in mineral premixes .
Hurlbut, J A; Burkepile, R G; Geisler, C A; Kijak, P J; Rummel, N G
1997-01-01
A method is described for determination of sodium selenite or sodium selenate in mineral-based premixes. It is based on the formation of intense-yellow piazselenol by Se(IV) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. Mineral premixes typically contain calcium carbonate as a base material and magnesium carbonate, silicon dioxide, and iron(III) oxide as minor components or additives. In this method, the premix is digested briefly in nitric acid, diluted with water, and filtered to remove any Iron(III) oxide. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and HCl are added to the filtrate, which is heated to near boiling for 1 h to convert any selenate to selenite. After heating, the solution is buffered between pH 2 and 3 with NaOH and formic acid and treated with NH2OH and EDTA; any Se present forms a complex with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine at 60 degrees C. The solution is made basic with NH4OH, and the piazselenol is extracted into toluene. The absorbance of the complex in dried toluene is measured at 420 nm. The method was validated independently by 2 laboratories. Samples analyzed included calcium carbonate fortified with 100, 200, and 300 micrograms Se in the form of sodium selenite or sodium selenate, a calcium carbonate premix containing sodium selenite, a calcium carbonate premix containing sodium selenate, and a commercial premix; 5 replicates of each sample type were analyzed by each laboratory. Average recoveries ranged from 89 to 109% with coefficients of variation from 1.2 to 13.6%. PMID:9241835
Extended LES-PaSR model for simulation of turbulent combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabelnikov, V.; Fureby, C.
2013-03-01
In this work, a novel model for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of high Reynolds moderate Damköhler number turbulent flames is proposed. The development is motivated by the need for more accurate and versatile LES combustion models for engineering applications such as jet engines. The model is based on the finite rate chemistry approach in which the filtered species equations of a reduced reaction mechanism are solved prior to closure modeling. The modeling of the filtered reaction rate provides the challenge: as most of the chemical activity, and thus also most of the exothermicity occurs on the subgrid scales, this model needs to be based on the properties of fine-scale turbulence and mixing and Arrhenius chemistry. The model developed here makes use of the similarities with the mathematical treatment of multiphase flows together with the knowledge of fine-scale turbulence and chemistry obtained by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and experiments. In the model developed, equations are proposed for the fine-structure composition and volume fraction that are solved together with the LES equations for the resolved scales. If subgrid convection can be neglected, the proposed model simplifies to the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model. To validate the proposed LES model, comparisons with experimental data and other LES results are made, using other turbulence chemistry interaction models, for a lean premixed bluff-body stabilized flame.
Turbulent Methane-Air Combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yaboah, Yaw D.; Njokwe, Anny; James, LaShanda
1996-01-01
This study is aimed at enhancing the understanding of turbulent premixed methane-air combustion. Such understanding is essential since: (1) many industries are now pursuing lighter hydrocarbon alternative fuels and the use of premixed flames to reduce pollutant emissions, and (2) the characteristic dimensions and flow rates of most industrial combustors are often large for flows to be turbulent. The specific objectives of the study are: (1) to establish the effects of process variables (e.g., flow rate, fuel/air ratio, chlorinated hydro-carbons, and pressure) on the emissions and flow structure (velocity distribution, streamlines, vorticity and flame shape), and (2) to develop a mechanistic model to explain the observed trends. This includes the acquisition of Dantec FlowMap Particle Image Velocimeter. The design and fabrication of the premixed burner has also been completed. The study is now at the stage of testing of equipment and analytical instruments. The presentation will give details on the tasks completed and on the current and future plans. The project is progressing well and all activities are on schedule. The outlook for the success of the project is bright.
The role of reactant unmixedness, strain rate, and length scale on premixed combustor performance
Samuelsen, S.; LaRue, J.; Vilayanur, S.
1995-10-01
Lean premixed combustion provides a means to reduce pollutant formation and increase combustion efficiency. However, fuel-air mixing is rarely uniform in space and time. This nonuniformity in concentration will lead to relative increases in pollutant formation and decreases in combustion efficiency. The nonuniformity of the concentration at the exit of the premixer has been defined by Lyons (1981) as the {open_quotes}unmixedness.{close_quotes} Although turbulence properties such as length scales and strain rate are known to effect unmixedness, the exact relationship is unknown. Evaluating this relationship and the effect of unmixedness in premixed combustion on pollutant formation and combustion efficiency are an important part of the overall goal of US Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program and are among the goals of the program described herein. The information obtained from ATS is intended to help to develop and commercialize gas turbines which have (1) a wide range of operation/stability, (2) a minimal amount of pollutant formation, and (3) high combustion efficiency. Specifically, with regard to pollutants, the goals are to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions by at least 10%, obtain less than 20 PPM of both CO and UHC, and increase the combustion efficiency by 5%.
Hydroxyl time series and recirculation in turbulent nonpremixed swirling flames
Guttenfelder, Walter A.; Laurendeau, Normand M.; Ji, Jun; King, Galen B.; Gore, Jay P.; Renfro, Michael W.
2006-10-15
Time-series measurements of OH, as related to accompanying flow structures, are reported using picosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (PITLIF) and particle-imaging velocimetry (PIV) for turbulent, swirling, nonpremixed methane-air flames. The [OH] data portray a primary reaction zone surrounding the internal recirculation zone, with residual OH in the recirculation zone approaching chemical equilibrium. Modeling of the OH electronic quenching environment, when compared to fluorescence lifetime measurements, offers additional evidence that the reaction zone burns as a partially premixed flame. A time-series analysis affirms the presence of thin flamelet-like regions based on the relation between swirl-induced turbulence and fluctuations of [OH] in the reaction and recirculation zones. The OH integral time-scales are found to correspond qualitatively to local mean velocities. Furthermore, quantitative dependencies can be established with respect to axial position, Reynolds number, and global equivalence ratio. Given these relationships, the OH time-scales, and thus the primary reaction zone, appear to be dominated by convection-driven fluctuations. Surprisingly, the OH time-scales for these nominally swirling flames demonstrate significant similarities to previous PITLIF results in nonpremixed jet flames. (author)
Effect of degree of fuel vaporization upon emissions for a premixed prevaporized combustion system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, L. P.
1979-01-01
An experimental and analytical study of the combustion of partially vaporized fuel/air mixtures was performed to assess the impact of the degree of fuel vaporization upon emissions for a premixing-prevaporizing flametube combustor. Data collected showed near-linear increases in NOx emmissions with decreasing vaporization at equivalence ratios of 0.6. For equivalence ratios of 0.72, the degree of vaporization had very little impact on NOx emissions. A simple mechanism which accounts for the combustion of liquid droplets in partially vaporized mixtures was found to agree with the measured results with fair accuracy with respect to both trends and magnitudes.
Premixed-Gas Flame Propagation in Hele-Shaw Cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharif, J.; Abid, M.; Ronney, P. D.
1999-01-01
It is well known that buoyancy and thermal expansion affect the propagation ra and shapes of premixed gas flames. The understanding of such effects is complicated by the large density ratio between the reactants and products, which induces a baroclinic production of vorticity due to misalignment of density and pressure gradients at the front, which in turn leads to a complicated multi-dimensional flame/flow interaction. The Hele-Shaw cell, i.e., the region between closely-spaced flat parallel plates, is probably the simplest system in which multi-dimensional convection is presents consequently, the behavior of fluids in this system has been studied extensively (Homsy, 1987). Probably the most important characteristic of Hele-Shaw flows is that when the Reynolds number based on gap width is sufficiently small, the Navier-Stokes equations averaged over the gap reduce to a linear relation, namely a Laplace equation for pressure (Darcy's law). In this work, flame propagation in Hele-Shaw cells is studied to obtain a better understanding of buoyancy and thermal expansion effects on premixed flames. This work is also relevant to the study of unburned hydrocarbon emissions produced by internal combustion engines since these emissions are largely a result of the partial burning or complete flame quenching in the narrow, annular gap called the "crevice volume" between the piston and cylinder walls (Heywood, 1988). A better understanding of how flames propagate in these volumes through experiments using Hele-Shaw cells could lead to identification of means to reduce these emissions.
OH-Planar Fluorescence Measurements of Pressurized, Hydrogen Premixed Flames in the SimVal Combustor
Strakey, P.A.; Woodruff, S.D.; Williams, T.C.; Schefer, R.W.
2008-07-01
Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in lean, premixed natural gas flames augmented with hydrogen are presented. The experiments were conducted in the Simulation Validation combustor at the National Energy Technology Laboratory at operating pressures from 1 to 8 atmospheres. The data, which were collected in a combustor with well-controlled boundary conditions, are intended to be used for validating computational fluid dynamics models under conditions directly relevant to land-based gas turbine engines. The images, which show significant effects of hydrogen on local flame quenching, are discussed in terms of a turbulent premixed combustion regime and nondimensional parameters such as Karlovitz number. Pressure was found to thin the OH region, but only had a secondary effect on overall flame shape compared with the effects of hydrogen addition, which was found to decrease local quenching and shorten the turbulent flame brush. A method to process the individual images based on local gradients of fluorescence intensity is proposed, and results are presented. Finally, the results of several large eddy simulations are presented and compared with the experimental data in an effort to understand the issues related to model validation, especially for simulations that do not include OH as an intermediate species.
Effects of buoyancy on the flowfields of lean premixed turbulentv-flames
Cheng, R.K.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D.T.; Greenberg, P.
2001-03-01
Open laboratory turbulent flames used for investigating fundament flame turbulence interactions are greatly affected by buoyancy. Though much of our current knowledge is based on observations made in these open flames, the effects of buoyancy are usually not included in data interpretation, numerical analysis or theories. This inconsistency remains an obstacle to merging experimental observations and theoretical predictions. To better understanding the effects of buoyancy, our research focuses on steady lean premixed flames propagating in fully developed turbulence. We hypothesize that the most significant role of buoyancy forces on these flames is to influence their flowfields through a coupling with mean and fluctuating pressure fields. Changes in flow pattern alter the mean aerodynamic stretch and in turn affect turbulence fluctuation intensities both upstream and downstream of the flame zone. Consequently, flame stabilization, reaction rates, and turbulent flame processes are all affected. This coupling relates to the elliptical problem that emphasizes the importance of the upstream, wall and downstream boundary conditions in determining all aspects of flame propagation. Therefore, buoyancy has the same significance as other parameters such as flow configuration, flame geometry, means of flame stabilization, flame shape, enclosure size, mixture conditions, and flow conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Tomoaki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Nagata, Kouji; Terashima, Osamu; Ito, Yasumasa; Hayase, Toshiyuki
2013-11-01
Characteristics of chemical reaction (A + B --> P) near the turbulent/non-turbulent (T/NT) interface are investigated by using the direct numerical simulation of reactive planar jet. The reactants A and B are separately premixed into the jet and ambient flows, respectively. DNS is performed at three different Damköhler numbers. The conditional statistics conditioned on the distance from the T/NT interface is used to investigate the chemical reaction near the T/NT interface. The conditional mean concentration of product P shows a sharp jump near the T/NT interface, and the product P hardly exists in the non-turbulent region. This implies that the chemical reaction takes place in the turbulent region after the reactant B in the ambient flow is entrained into the turbulent region. The conditional mean scalar dissipation rate of mixture fraction has a large peak value slightly inside the T/NT interface. At the same point, the chemical reaction rate also has a peak value in the case of large Damköhler number. On the other hand, when the Damköhler number is small, the chemical reaction rate near the T/NT interface is smaller than that in the turbulent region. This work was carried out under the Collaborative Research Project of the Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University. Part of this work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25002531 and MEXT KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25289030, 25289031, 2563005.
Tabulated Combustion Model Development For Non-Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundu, Prithwish
Turbulent non-premixed flames play a very important role in the field of engineering ranging from power generation to propulsion. The coupling of fluid mechanics and complicated combustion chemistry of fuels pose a challenge for the numerical modeling of these type of problems. Combustion modeling in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the most important tools used for predictive modeling of complex systems and to understand the basic fundamentals of combustion. Traditional combustion models solve a transport equation of each species with a source term. In order to resolve the complex chemistry accurately it is important to include a large number of species. However, the computational cost is generally proportional to the cube of number of species. The presence of a large number of species in a flame makes the use of CFD computationally expensive and beyond reach for some applications or inaccurate when solved with simplified chemistry. For highly turbulent flows, it also becomes important to incorporate the effects of turbulence chemistry interaction (TCI). The aim of this work is to develop high fidelity combustion models based on the flamelet concept and to significantly advance the existing capabilities. A thorough investigation of existing models (Finite-rate chemistry and Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF)) and comparative study of combustion models was done initially on a constant volume combustion chamber with diesel fuel injection. The CFD modeling was validated with experimental results and was also successfully applied to a single cylinder diesel engine. The effect of number of flamelets on the RIF model and flamelet initialization strategies were studied. The RIF model with multiple flamelets is computationally expensive and a model was proposed on the frame work of RIF. The new model was based on tabulated chemistry and incorporated TCI effects. A multidimensional tabulated chemistry database generation code was developed based on the 1
Scalar fluctuations in turbulent combustion - An experimental study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballal, D. R.; Chen, T. H.; Yaney, P. P.
1986-01-01
Temperature and velocity fluctuations data were gathered for turbulent premixed combustion to evaluate a model for scalar transport and scalar dissipation. The data were collected using laser Raman spectroscopy and laser Doppler anemometry with a premixed CH4-air flame from a Bunsen burner. Mean temperature profiles were generated and the pdf's temperature fluctuations were calculated. A wrinkled laminar flame structure was noted in the reaction zone, where the scalar field was anisotropic and where the temperature fluctuations exhibited peak values. The Bray, Moss and Libby model (1985) was successful in predicting the temperature fluctuation intensity and the dissipation ratios, the latter reaching peak values in the flame tip region.
Lean stability augmentation for premixing, prevaporizing combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.
1979-01-01
An experimental program was conducted to investigate techniques for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. Augmented flameholders employing recessed perforated plates, catalyzed tube bundles, and configurations in which pilot fuel was injected into the wakes of V-gutters or perforated plates were designed and tested. Stable operation of the piloted designs was achieved at equivalence ratios as low as 0.25; NOx emissions of less than 1.0 g/kg at simulated turbine engine cruise conditions were obtained. A piloted perforated plate employing four percent pilot fuel flow produced the best performance while meeting severe NOx constraints.
Premixed rapid-setting calcium phosphate composites for bone repair.
Carey, Lisa E; Xu, Hockin H K; Simon, Carl G; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C
2005-08-01
Although calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is promising for bone repair, its clinical use requires on site powder-liquid mixing. To shorten surgical time and improve graft properties, it is desirable to develop premixed CPC in which the paste remains stable during storage and hardens only after placement into the defect. The objective of this study was to develop premixed CPC with rapid setting when immersed in a physiological solution. Premixed CPCs were formulated using the following approach: Premixed CPC = CPC powder + nonaqueous liquid + gelling agent + hardening accelerator. Three premixed CPCs were developed: CPC-monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), CPC-chitosan, and CPC-tartaric. Setting time for these new premixed CPCs ranged from 5.3 to 7.9 min, significantly faster than 61.7 min for a premixed control CPC reported previously (p < 0.05). SEM revealed the formation of nano-sized needle-like hydroxyapatite crystals after 1 d immersion and crystal growth after 7 d. Diametral tensile strength for premixed CPCs at 7 d ranged from 2.8 to 6.4 MPa, comparable to reported strengths for cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants. Osteoblast cells attained a normal polygonal morphology on CPC-MCPM and CPC-chitosan with cytoplasmic extensions adhering to the nano-hydroxyapatite crystals. In summary, fast-setting premixed CPCs were developed to avoid the powder-liquid mixing in surgery. The pastes hardened rapidly once immersed in physiological solution and formed hydroxyapatite. The cements had strengths matching those of cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite and non-cytotoxicity similar to conventional non-premixed CPC. PMID:15769536
Premixed rapid-setting calcium phosphate composites for bone repair✩
Carey, Lisa E.; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Simon, Carl G.; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C.
2009-01-01
Although calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is promising for bone repair, its clinical use requires on site powder–liquid mixing. To shorten surgical time and improve graft properties, it is desirable to develop premixed CPC in which the paste remains stable during storage and hardens only after placement into the defect. The objective of this study was to develop premixed CPC with rapid setting when immersed in a physiological solution. Premixed CPCs were formulated using the following approach: Premixed CPC = CPC powder+nonaqueous liquid+gelling agent+hardening accelerator. Three premixed CPCs were developed: CPC–monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), CPC–chitosan, and CPC–tartaric. Setting time for these new premixed CPCs ranged from 5.3 to 7.9 min, significantly faster than 61.7 min for a premixed control CPC reported previously (p<05). SEM revealed the formation of nano-sized needle-like hydroxyapatite crystals after 1 d immersion and crystal growth after 7 d. Diametral tensile strength for premixed CPCs at 7 d ranged from 2.8 to 6.4 MPa, comparable to reported strengths for cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants. Osteoblast cells attained a normal polygonal morphology on CPC–MCPM and CPC–chitosan with cytoplasmic extensions adhering to the nano-hydroxyapatite crystals. In summary, fast-setting premixed CPCs were developed to avoid the powder–liquid mixing in surgery. The pastes hardened rapidly once immersed in physiological solution and formed hydroxyapatite. The cements had strengths matching those of cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite and non-cytotoxicity similar to conventional non-premixed CPC. PMID:15769536
The effect of background turbulence on the propagation of large-scale flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matalon, Moshe
2008-12-01
This paper is based on an invited presentation at the Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond held in the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy (August 2007). It consists of a summary of recent investigations aimed at understanding the nature and consequences of the Darrieus-Landau instability that is prominent in premixed combustion. It describes rigorous asymptotic methodologies used to simplify the propagation problem of multi-dimensional and time-dependent premixed flames in order to understand the nonlinear evolution of hydrodynamically unstable flames. In particular, it addresses the effect of background turbulent noise on the structure and propagation of large-scale flames.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Chen, J.H.
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
Stirring turbulence with turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Joosten, René; van de Water, Willem
2015-12-01
We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada shell model, which is a simple dynamical model of turbulence that produces a velocity field displaying inertial-range scaling behavior. The range of scales can be adjusted by selection of shells. We find that the largest energy input and the smallest anisotropy are reached when the time scale of the random numbers matches that of the largest eddies of the wind-tunnel turbulence. A large mismatch of these times creates a highly intermittent random flow with interesting but quite anomalous statistics.
A model for premixed combustion oscillations
Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.
1996-03-01
Combustion oscillations are receiving renewed research interest due to increasing application of lean premix (LPM) combustion to gas turbines. A simple, nonlinear model for premixed combustion is described; it was developed to explain experimental results and to provide guidance for developing active control schemes based on nonlinear concepts. The model can be used to quickly examine instability trends associated with changes in equivalence ratio, mass flow rate, geometry, ambient conditions, etc. The model represents the relevant processes occurring in a fuel nozzle and combustor analogous to current LPM turbine combustors. Conservation equations for the nozzle and combustor are developed from simple control volume analysis, providing ordinary differential equations that can be solved on a PC. Combustion is modeled as a stirred reactor, with bimolecular reaction between fuel and air. Although focus is on the model, it and experimental results are compared to understand effects of inlet air temperature and open loop control schemes. The model shows that both are related to changes in transport time.
Confined superadiabatic premixed flame-flow interaction
Najm, H.N.
1995-12-31
Laminar premixed unity-Lewis number flames are studied numerically, to examine flow-flame interaction in a two-dimensional closed domain. Two opposed planar flame fronts are perturbed sinusoidally and allowed to develop by consuming premixed reactants. Combustion heat release leads to global pressure and temperature rise in the domain, due to confinement. A superadiabatic condition, with products temperature rising with distance behind the flame front, is observed due to stagnation pressure rise. Variations in tangential strain rate behind the perturbed flame fronts, due to flame curvature and heat release, result in a modified local superadiabatic temperature gradient in the products. These variations in temperature gradients are shown to determine the net local confinement-heating rate in the products, leading to corresponding deviations in products temperature, and the local reaction rate along the flame front. These observations, which are not consistent with one-dimensional superadiabatic stagnation flame behavior, are a direct result of the unrestrained unsteady nature of two-dimensional flame-flow interaction.
Preparation of feed premix for veterinary purposes.
Franc, Aleš; Lehocký, Róbert; Muselík, Jan; Vetchý, David; Dobšíková, Radka; Modrá, Helena
2014-10-01
This experimental study describes the preparation of a veterinary medicated premix containing tetracycline hydrochloride for oral administration to aquatic animals. For the manufacture of the premix, commercially produced animal feed is used, which is intended for consumption in the form of pellets that were coated with a mixture of chlortetracycline hydrochloride and other excipients. Feed pellets were combined with a mixture of an active substance and excipients with a large specific surface (colloidal silica - Aerosil® 200) allowing an easy adhesion to the surface of the pellets, and a solid polymer with a low glass transition point (Eudragit® E) which ensures the formation of a hard coat. A mixture of these substances has been applied to the surface of the pellets either A) in the solid state simply by dry adhesion; B) by coating the pellets with the mixture and additional impregnation with ethanol; or C) the polymer was subsequently applied in solution. In the final stage, the pellets were heated in order to achieve the glass transition point of the polymer to create a solid and mechanically resistant coating. Coated pellets prepared by three methods described above are almost identical in their physical properties. With this technology it is possible to produce a feed mixture with a very low content of the active substance in situ without the need for a complex technological equipment. PMID:25354741
Premixer Design for High Hydrogen Fuels
Benjamin P. Lacy; Keith R. McManus; Balachandar Varatharajan; Biswadip Shome
2005-12-16
This 21-month project translated DLN technology to the unique properties of high hydrogen content IGCC fuels, and yielded designs in preparation for a future testing and validation phase. Fundamental flame characterization, mixing, and flame property measurement experiments were conducted to tailor computational design tools and criteria to create a framework for predicting nozzle operability (e.g., flame stabilization, emissions, resistance to flashback/flame-holding and auto-ignition). This framework was then used to establish, rank, and evaluate potential solutions to the operability challenges of IGCC combustion. The leading contenders were studied and developed with the most promising concepts evaluated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and using the design rules generated by the fundamental experiments, as well as using GE's combustion design tools and practices. Finally, the project scoped the necessary steps required to carry the design through mechanical and durability review, testing, and validation, towards full demonstration of this revolutionary technology. This project was carried out in three linked tasks with the following results. (1) Develop conceptual designs of premixer and down-select the promising options. This task defined the ''gap'' between existing design capabilities and the targeted range of IGCC fuel compositions and evaluated the current capability of DLN pre-mixer designs when operated at similar conditions. Two concepts (1) swirl based and (2) multiple point lean direct injection based premixers were selected via a QFD from 13 potential design concepts. (2) Carry out CFD on chosen options (1 or 2) to evaluate operability risks. This task developed the leading options down-selected in Task 1. Both a GE15 swozzle based premixer and a lean direct injection concept were examined by performing a detailed CFD study wherein the aerodynamics of the design, together with the chemical kinetics of the combustion process, were
Marley, S.K.; Danby, S.J.; Roberts, W.L.; Drake, M.C.; Fansler, T.D.
2008-07-15
Relative flame speeds of time-dependent highly curved premixed methane-air flames (spark-ignited flame kernels) interacting with a laminar vortex have been quantified using high-speed chemiluminescence imaging, particle image velocimetry, and piezoelectric pressure measurements. The goals of this study are to improve fundamental understanding of transient stretch effects on highly curved premixed flames, to provide practical insight into the turbulent growth of spark-ignited flame kernels in internal combustion (IC) engines burning light hydrocarbon fuels, and to provide data for IC engine ignition and combustion model development. Lean and rich CH{sub 4}-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} flames were tested ({phi}=0.64, 0.90, and 1.13, with nitrogen dilution to equalize the flame speeds (S{sub b}) in the absence of vortex interaction). Transient stretch rates were varied using three different vortex strengths, and the size of the flame kernel at the start of the vortex interaction controlled by time delay between ignition and vortex generation. Vortex interactions with small ({proportional_to}5 mm radius) flame kernels were found to increase burning rates for lean ({phi}=0.64) flame kernels substantially. Burning rates for rich ({phi}=1.13) flames were decreased, with total flame kernel extinction occurring in extreme cases. These small flame kernel-vortex interactions are dominated by transient stretch effects and thermodiffusive stability, in agreement with premixed flame theory. However, vortex interactions with larger methane-air flame kernels ({proportional_to}30 mm radius) led to slight flame speed enhancements for both lean and rich flame kernels, with the flame-vortex process dominated by increased flamefront area generated by vortex-induced flame wrinkling. (author)
Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goh, K. H. H.; Geipel, P.; Hampp, F.; Lindstedt, R. P.
2013-12-01
Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values ∼0.1 and ∼0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration.
Lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mularz, E. J.
1979-01-01
The application of lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion to aircraft turbine engine systems can result in benefits in terms of superior combustion performance, improved combustor and turbine durability, and environmentally acceptable pollutant emissions. Lean, premixed prevaporized combustion is particularly attractive for reducing the oxides of nitrogen emissions during high altitude cruise. The NASA stratospheric cruise emission reduction program will evolve and demonstrate lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion technology for aircraft engines. This multiphased program is described. In addition, the various elements of the fundamental studies phase of the program are reviewed, and results to date of many of these studies are summarized.
Direct spectral/hp element simulation of piloted jet non-premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nastase, Cristian R.
2004-11-01
The spectral/hp element method is used for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of piloted non premixed methane jet flames. This method combines the accuracy of spectral methods with versatility of finite element methods, and allows accurate simulations of complex flows on structured and unstructured grids. Here, the methodology is extended for simulation of multi-species, reactive flows using the discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Parallel computation is performed via MPI standards coupled with a domain decomposition methodology. The overall computational scheme allows for an efficient partitioning of the flow configuration. Tests performed with up to 64 processors show quasi-linear parallel performance and scalability. The flame configurations are similar to the piloted jet non-premixed flame considered at the Combustion Research Facility at the Sandia National Laboratories. For a momentum dominated flame, the simulated results portray many of the features observed experimentally. This pertains to both the spatial and the compositional structures of the flow. For a buoyancy controlled flame (at elevated gravity levels), the results indicate an increase in both the turbulence levels and flow acceleration. Departure from equilibrium, including localized extinction is observed on a significant portion of this flame.
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the
Premixed flames in closed cylindrical tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metzener, Philippe; Matalon, Moshe
2001-09-01
We consider the propagation of a premixed flame, as a two-dimensional sheet separating unburned gas from burned products, in a closed cylindrical tube. A nonlinear evolution equation, that describes the motion of the flame front as a function of its mean position, is derived. The equation contains a destabilizing term that results from the gas motion induced by thermal expansion and has a memory term associated with vorticity generation. Numerical solutions of this equation indicate that, when diffusion is stabilizing, the flame evolves into a non-planar form whose shape, and its associated symmetry properties, are determined by the Markstein parameter, and by the initial data. In particular, we observe the development of convex axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric flames, tulip flames and cellular flames.
Implementation of Premixed Equilibrium Chemistry Capability in OVERFLOW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, Mike E.; Liu, Yen; Vinokur, M.; Olsen, Tom
2004-01-01
An implementation of premixed equilibrium chemistry has been completed for the OVERFLOW code, a chimera capable, complex geometry flow code widely used to predict transonic flowfields. The implementation builds on the computational efficiency and geometric generality of the solver.
Implementation of Premixed Equilibrium Chemistry Capability in OVERFLOW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, M. E.; Liu, Y.; Vinokur, M.; Olsen, T.
2003-01-01
An implementation of premixed equilibrium chemistry has been completed for the OVERFLOW code, a chimera capable, complex geometry flow code widely used to predict transonic flowfields. The implementation builds on the computational efficiency and geometric generality of the solver.
Mechanisms of combustion limits in premixed gas flames at microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, Paul D.
1991-01-01
A three-year experimental and theoretical research program on the mechanisms of combustion limits of premixed gasflames at microgravity was conducted. Progress during this program is identified and avenues for future studies are discussed.
Stabilization of turbulent lifted jet flames assisted by pulsed high voltage discharge
Criner, K.; Cessou, A.; Louiche, J.; Vervisch, P.
2006-01-01
To reduce fuel consumption or the pollutant emissions of combustion (furnaces, aircraft engines, turbo-reactors, etc.), attempts are made to obtain lean mixture combustion regimes. These lead to poor stability of the flame. Thus, it is particularly interesting to find new systems providing more flexibility in aiding flame stabilization than the usual processes (bluff-body, stabilizer, quarl, swirl, etc.). The objective is to enlarge the stability domain of flames while offering flexibility at a low energy cost. Evidence is presented that the stabilization of a turbulent partially premixed flame of more than 10 kW can be enhanced by pulsed high-voltage discharges with power consumption less than 0.1% of the power of the flame. The originality of this work is to demonstrate that very effective stabilization of turbulent flames is obtained when high-voltage pulses with very short rise times are used (a decrease by 300% in terms of liftoff height for a given exit jet velocity can be reached) and to provide measurements of minimum liftoff height obtained with discharge over a large range of the stability domain of the lifted jet flame.
Lean Combustion Limits of a Confined Premixed-Prevaporized Propane Jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huck, K. L.; Marek, C. J.
1978-01-01
Lean blowout limits were reported for a premixed prevaporized propane jet issuing into a cylindrical combustor. A single hole in a flat plate was used as a flameholder. Flameholders with various hole diameters were used. Jet velocities were varied from 3 to 290 meters per second. The combustor cross sectional area was changed by using different quartz liners of 12.7 and 22.2 millimeters diameters. As a result the combustor Reynolds number varied from 1000 to 9000. Stability was achieved at laminar as well as turbulent conditions. Three zones of flame stability were observed. The blowout equivalence ratio varied with step size and the combustor and jet Reynolds numbers. The combustor inlet mixture temperature was 395 K, and the combustor pressure was 1 atmosphere.
Gopinath, Prarthana; Gore, Jay
2007-11-15
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on a grid supported cobalt nanocatalyst were grown, by exposing it to combustion gases from ethylene/air rich premixed flames. Ten equivalence ratios ({phi}) were investigated, as follows: 1.37, 1.44, 1.47, 1.50, 1.55, 1.57, 1.62, 1.75, 1.82, and 1.91. MWCNT growth could be observed for the range of equivalence ratios between 1.45 and 1.75, with the best yield restricted to the range 1.5-1.6. A one-dimensional premixed flame code with a postflame heat loss model, including detailed chemistry, was used to estimate the gas phase chemical composition that favors MWCNT growth. The results of the calculations show that the mixture, including the water gas shift reaction, is not even in partial chemical equilibrium. Therefore, past discussions of compositional parameters that relate to optimum carbon nanotube (CNT) growth are revised to include chemical kinetic effects. Specifically, rapid departures of the water gas shift reaction from partial equilibrium and changes in mole fraction ratios of unburned C{sub 2} hydrocarbons to hydrogen correlate well with experimentally observed CNT yields. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, L. P.
1979-01-01
An experimental and analytical study of the combustion of partially vaporized fuelair mixtures was performed to assess the impact of the degree of fuel vaporization upon emissions for a premixing-prevaporizing flametube combustor. Data collected show near linear increases in nitrogen oxide emissions with decreasing vaporization at equivalence ratios of 0.6. For equivalence ratio of 0.72, the degree of vaporization had very little impact on nitrogen oxide emissions. A simple mechanism which accounts for the combustion of liquid droplets in partially vaporized mixtures was found to agree with the measured results with fair accuracy with respect to both trends and magnitudes.
Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.
beta-TCP/MCPM-based premixed calcium phosphate cements.
Han, Bing; Ma, Peng-Wei; Zhang, Li-Li; Yin, Yu-Ji; Yao, Kang-De; Zhang, Fu-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Dong; Li, Xiu-Lan; Nie, Wei
2009-10-01
Novel premixed calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared by combining cement liquids comprised of glycerol or polyethylene glycol with CPC powders that consisted of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM). Changing the powder to liquid mass ratio enabled the setting time to be regulated, and improved the compressive strength of the CPCs. Although some ratios of the new premixed CPCs had long setting times, these ranged from 12.4 to 27.8 min which is much shorter than the hour or more reported previously for a premixed CPC. The premixed CPCs had tolerable washout resistance before final setting, and the cements had strengths matching that of cancellous bone (5-10 MPa); their maximum compressive strength was up to 12 MPa. The inflammatory response around the premixed CPCs implanted in the subcutaneous tissue in rabbits was more prominent than that of apatite cement. These differences might be due to the much faster resorption rate of the premixed CPCs. PMID:19427931
Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines
Littlejohn, David; Littlejohn, David; Cheng, R.K.
2007-12-03
Laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate the fuel effects on the turbulent premixed flames produced by a gas turbine low-swirl injector (LSI). The lean-blow off limits and flame emissions for seven diluted and undiluted hydrocarbon and hydrogen fuels show that the LSI is capable of supporting stable flames that emit < 5 ppm NO{sub x} ({at} 15% O{sub 2}). Analysis of the velocity statistics shows that the non-reacting and reacting flowfields of the LSI exhibit similarity features. The turbulent flame speeds, S{sub T}, for the hydrocarbon fuels are consistent with those of methane/air flames and correlate linearly with turbulence intensity. The similarity feature and linear S{sub T} correlation provide further support of an analytical model that explains why the LSI flame position does not change with flow velocity. The results also show that the LSI does not need to undergo significant alteration to operate with the hydrocarbon fuels but needs further studies for adaptation to burn diluted H{sub 2} fuels.
Pre-mixed flame simulations for non-unity Lewis numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutland, C. J.; Trouve, A.
1990-01-01
A principal effect of turbulence on premixed flames in the flamelet region is to wrinkle the flame fronts. For non-unity Lewis numbers (Le), the local flame structure is altered in curved regions. This effect is examined using direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional, constant density, decaying isotropic turbulence with a single step, finite rate chemical reaction. Simulations of Lewis numbers 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 are compared. The turbulent flame speed, S(sub T), increases as Le decreases. The correlation between S(sub T) and u prime found in previous Le = 1 simulations has a strong Lewis number dependency. The variance of the pdf of the flame curvature increases as Le decreases, indicating that the flames become more wrinkled. A strong correlation between local flame speed and curvature was found. For Le greater than 1, the flame speed increases in regions concave towards the products and decreases in convex regions. The opposite correlation was found for Le less than 1. The mean temperature of the products was also found to vary with Lewis number. For Le = 0.8, it is less than the adiabatic flame temperature and for Le = 1.2 it is greater.
Numerical simulation of turbulent combustion: Scientific challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, ZhuYin; Lu, Zhen; Hou, LingYun; Lu, LiuYan
2014-08-01
Predictive simulation of engine combustion is key to understanding the underlying complicated physicochemical processes, improving engine performance, and reducing pollutant emissions. Critical issues as turbulence modeling, turbulence-chemistry interaction, and accommodation of detailed chemical kinetics in complex flows remain challenging and essential for high-fidelity combustion simulation. This paper reviews the current status of the state-of-the-art large eddy simulation (LES)/prob-ability density function (PDF)/detailed chemistry approach that can address the three challenging modelling issues. PDF as a subgrid model for LES is formulated and the hybrid mesh-particle method for LES/PDF simulations is described. Then the development need in micro-mixing models for the PDF simulations of turbulent premixed combustion is identified. Finally the different acceleration methods for detailed chemistry are reviewed and a combined strategy is proposed for further development.
Troiani, G.; Marrocco, M.; Giammartini, S.; Casciola, C.M.
2009-03-15
A combination of PIV/OH laser induced fluorescence technique is used to measure the conditional - burned and unburned - gas velocity in a turbulent premixed CH{sub 4}/air annular bluff-body stabilized burner. By changing the equivalence ratio from lean to almost stoichiometric, the energy budget of the recirculating region anchoring the flame is altered in such a way to increasingly lift the flame away from the jet exit. The overall turbulence intensity interacting with each flame is thus systematically varied in a significant range, allowing for a parametric study of its effect on turbulent scalar transport under well controlled conditions, always well within the flamelet regime. The component of the flux normal to the average front is found to reverse its direction, confirming the Bray number as a good indicator of gradient/counter-gradient behavior, once the actual incoming turbulence level felt locally by the flame is assumed as the proper control parameter. (author)
Laminar and Turbulent Gaseous Diffusion Flames. Appendix C
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Recent measurements and predictions of the properties of homogeneous (gaseous) laminar and turbulent non-premixed (diffusion) flames are discussed, emphasizing results from both ground- and space-based studies at microgravity conditions. Initial considerations show that effects of buoyancy not only complicate the interpretation of observations of diffusion flames but at times mislead when such results are applied to the non-buoyant diffusion flame conditions of greatest practical interest. This behavior motivates consideration of experiments where effects of buoyancy are minimized; therefore, methods of controlling the intrusion of buoyancy during observations of non-premixed flames are described, considering approaches suitable for both normal laboratory conditions as well as classical microgravity techniques. Studies of laminar flames at low-gravity and microgravity conditions are emphasized in view of the computational tractability of such flames for developing methods of predicting flame structure as well as the relevance of such flames to more practical turbulent flames by exploiting laminar flamelet concepts.
Aerodynamic properties of turbulent combustion fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsiao, C. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.
1985-01-01
Flow fields involving turbulent flames in premixed gases under a variety of conditions are modeled by the use of a numerical technique based on the random vortex method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and a flame propagation algorithm to trace the motion of the front and implement the Huygens principle, both due to Chorin. A successive over-relaxation hybrid method is applied to solve the Euler equation for flows in an arbitrarily shaped domain. The method of images, conformal transformation, and the integral-equation technique are also used to treat flows in special cases, according to their particular requirements. Salient features of turbulent flame propagation in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to the aerodynamic properties of the flow field. Included among them is the well-known cellular structure of flames stabilized by bluff bodies, as well as the formation of the characteristic tulip shape of flames propagating in ducts. In its rudimentary form, the mechanism of propagation of a turbulent flame is shown to consist of: (1) rotary motion of eddies at the flame front, (2) self-advancement of the front at an appropriate normal burning speed, and (3) dynamic effects of expansion due to exothermicity of the combustion reaction. An idealized model is used to illustrate these fundamental mechanisms and to investigate basic aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases. The case of a confined flame stabilized behind a rearward-facing step is given particular care and attention. Solutions are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental results, especially with respect to global properties such as the average velocity profiles and reattachment length.
OH-PLIF Measurements of High-Pressure, Hydrogen Augmented Premixed Flames in the SimVal Combustor
Strakey, P.A.; Woodruff, S.D.; Williams, T.C.; Schefer, R.W.
2007-01-01
Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of the hydroxyl radical in lean, premixed natural gas flames augmented with hydrogen are presented. The experiments were conducted in the SimVal combustor at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) at operating pressures from 1 to 8 atmospheres. The data, which was collected in a combustor with well controlled boundary conditions, is intended to be used for validating Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models under conditions directly relevant to land-based gas turbine engines. The images, which show significant effects of hydrogen on local flame quenching are discussed in terms of a turbulent premixed combustion regime and non-dimensional parameters such as Karlovitz number. Pressure was found to thin the OH region, but only had a secondary effect on overall flame shape compared to the effects of hydrogen addition which was found to decrease local quenching and shorten the turbulent flame brush. A method to process the individual images based on local gradients of fluorescence intensity is proposed and results are presented. Finally, the results of several Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are presented and compared to the experimental data in an effort to understand the issues related to model validation, especially for simulations that do not include OH as an intermediate species.
The structure of particle cloud premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seshadri, K.; Berlad, A. L.
1992-01-01
The structure of premixed flames propagating in combustible systems containing uniformly distributed volatile fuel particles in an oxidizing gas mixture is analyzed. This analysis is motivated by experiments conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center on the structure of flames propagating in combustible mixtures of lycopodium particles and air. Several interesting modes of flame propagation were observed in these experiments depending on the number density and the initial size of the fuel particle. The experimental results show that steady flame propagation occurs even if the initial equivalence ratio of the combustible mixture based on the gaseous fuel available in the particles, phi sub u, is substantially larger than unity. A model is developed to explain these experimental observations. In the model, it is presumed that the fuel particles vaporize first to yield a gaseous fuel of known chemical composition which then reacts with oxygen in a one-step overall process. The activation energy of the chemical reaction is presumed to be large. The activation energy characterizing the kinetics of vaporization is also presumed to be large. The equations governing the structure of the flame were integrated numerically. It is shown that the interplay of vaporization kinetics and oxidation process can result in steady flame propagation in combustible mixtures where the value of phi sub u is substantially larger than unity. This prediction is in agreement with experimental observations.
Dynamics of premixed confined swirling flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palies, P.; Durox, D.; Schuller, T.; Morenton, P.; Candel, S.
2009-06-01
Considerable effort is currently being extended to examine the fundamental mechanisms of combustion instabilities and develop methods allowing predictions of these phenomena. One central aspect of this problem is the dynamical response of the flame to incoming perturbations. This question is examined in the present article, which specifically considers the response of premixed swirling flames to perturbations imposed on the upstream side of the flame in the feeding manifold. The flame response is characterized by measuring the unsteady heat release induced by imposed velocity perturbations. A flame describing function is defined by taking the ratio of the relative heat release rate fluctuation to the relative velocity fluctuation. This quantity is determined for a range of frequencies and for different levels of incoming velocity perturbations. The flame dynamics is also documented by calculating conditional phase averages of the light emission from the flame and taking the Abel transform of these average images to obtain the flame geometry at various instants during the cycle of oscillation. These data can be useful to the determination of possible regimes of instability. To cite this article: P. Palies et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).
Soot Formation in Freely-Propagating Laminar Premixed Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, K.-C.; Hassan, M. I.; Faeth, G. M.
1997-01-01
Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science. Thus, the present study is considering soot formation in freely-propagating laminar premixed flames, exploiting the microgravity environment to simplify measurements at the high-pressure conditions of interest for many practical applications. The findings of the investigation are relevant to reducing emissions of soot and continuum radiation from combustion processes, to improving terrestrial and spacecraft fire safety, and to developing methods of computational combustion, among others. Laminar premixed flames are attractive for studying soot formation because they are simple one-dimensional flows that are computationally tractable for detailed numerical simulations. Nevertheless, studying soot-containing burner-stabilized laminar premixed flames is problematical: spatial resolution and residence times are limited at the pressures of interest for practical applications, flame structure is sensitive to minor burner construction details so that experimental reproducibility is not very good, consistent burner behavior over the lengthy test programs needed to measure soot formation properties is hard to achieve, and burners have poor durability. Fortunately, many of these problems are mitigated for soot-containing, freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. The present investigation seeks to extend work in this laboratory for various soot processes in flames by observing soot formation in freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. Measurements are being made at both Normal Gravity (NG) and MicroGravity (MG), using a short-drop free-fall facility to provide MG conditions.
Annular fuel and air co-flow premixer
Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Melton, Patrick Benedict; York, William David
2013-10-15
Disclosed is a premixer for a combustor including an annular outer shell and an annular inner shell. The inner shell defines an inner flow channel inside of the inner shell and is located to define an outer flow channel between the outer shell and the inner shell. A fuel discharge annulus is located between the outer flow channel and the inner flow channel and is configured to inject a fuel flow into a mixing area in a direction substantially parallel to an outer airflow through the outer flow channel and an inner flow through the inner flow channel. Further disclosed are a combustor including a plurality of premixers and a method of premixing air and fuel in a combustor.
Vaporization of droplets in premixing chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yule, A. J.; Chigier, N. A.
1980-01-01
Detailed measurements were made of the structures of turbulent fuel sprays vaporizing in heated airstreams. The measurements show the size dependent vaporization and dispersion of the droplets and the important influence of the large eddies in the turbulence. The measurements form a data base for the development of models of fuel spray vaporization. Two laser techniques were specially developed for the investigation. A laser tomography technique converts line-of-sight light scattering measurements into time averaged 'point' measurements of droplet size distribution and volume concentration. A laser anemometer particle sizing technique was further developed to permit accurate measurements of individual particle sizes and velocities, with backscatter collection of light. The experiments are combined with heat transfer models to analyze the performance of miniature thermocouples in liquid sprays.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ibarreta, Alfonso F.; Driscoll, James F.; Feikema, Douglas A.; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The effect of flame stretch, composed of strain and curvature, plays a major role in the propagation of turbulent premixed flames. Although all forms of stretch (positive and negative) are present in turbulent conditions, little research has been focused on the stretch due to curvature. The present study quantifies the Markstein number (which characterizes the sensitivity of the flame propagation speed to the imposed stretch rate) for an inwardly-propagating flame (IPF). This flame is of interest because it is negatively stretched, and is subjected to curvature effects alone, without the competing effects of strain. In an extension of our previous work, microgravity experiments were run using a vortex-flame interaction to create a pocket of reactants surrounded by an IPF. Computations using the RUN-1DL code of Rogg were also performed in order to explain the measurements. It was found that the Markstein number of an inwardly-propagating flame, for both the microgravity experiment and the computations, is significantly larger than that of an outwardly-propagating flame. Further insight was gained by running the computations for the simplified (hypothetical) cases of one step chemistry, unity Lewis number, and negligible heat release. Results provide additional evidence that the Markstein numbers associated with strain and curvature have different values.
Analytical Modeling of Operating Characteristics of Premixing-prevaporizing Fuel-air Mixing Passages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, O. L.
1983-01-01
A model for predicting the distribution of liquid fuel droplets and fuel vapor in premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages of the direct injection type is described. This model consists of three computer programs: a calculation of the two dimensional or axisymmetric air flow field neglecting the effects of fuel; a calculation of the three dimensional fuel droplet trajectories and evaporation rates in a known, moving air flow; and a calculation of fuel vapor diffusing into a moving three dimensional air flow with source terms dependent on the droplet evaporation rates. The air flow calculation can treat compressible swirling flows in arbitrary ducts with arbitrary distributions of temperature and velocity as initial conditions. The fuel droplets are treated as initial conditions. The fuel droplets are treated as individual particle classes each satisfying Newton's law, a heat transfer, and a mass transfer equation. The vapor diffusion calculation treats three dimensional, gas phase, turbulent diffusion processes with the turbulence level determined by the air flow calculations and the source terms determined by the droplet evaporation rates.
Combustion-acoustic stability analysis for premixed gas turbine combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Darling, Douglas; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Oyediran, Ayo; Cowan, Lizabeth
1995-01-01
Lean, prevaporized, premixed combustors are susceptible to combustion-acoustic instabilities. A model was developed to predict eigenvalues of axial modes for combustion-acoustic interactions in a premixed combustor. This work extends previous work by including variable area and detailed chemical kinetics mechanisms, using the code LSENS. Thus the acoustic equations could be integrated through the flame zone. Linear perturbations were made of the continuity, momentum, energy, chemical species, and state equations. The qualitative accuracy of our approach was checked by examining its predictions for various unsteady heat release rate models. Perturbations in fuel flow rate are currently being added to the model.
A transport equation for reaction rate in turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabelnikov, V. A.; Lipatnikov, A. N.; Chakraborty, N.; Nishiki, S.; Hasegawa, T.
2016-08-01
New transport equations for chemical reaction rate and its mean value in turbulent flows have been derived and analyzed. Local perturbations of the reaction zone by turbulent eddies are shown to play a pivotal role even for weakly turbulent flows. The mean-reaction-rate transport equation is shown to involve two unclosed dominant terms and a joint closure relation for the sum of these two terms is developed. Obtained analytical results and, in particular, the closure relation are supported by processing two widely recognized sets of data obtained from earlier direct numerical simulations of statistically planar 1D premixed flames associated with both weak large-scale and intense small-scale turbulence.
An experimental and numerical study on the stability and propagation of laminar premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagelopoulos, Christina Maria
The laminar flame speed is a very important property of laminar premixed flames, especially for the validation of chemical kinetics and modeling of turbulent combustion. The counterflow technique is one of the best approaches for the experimental determination of this property because it allows for the establishment of planar, nearly adiabatic, steady, quasi-one dimensional flames that are subjected to well-defined aerodynamic strain rate. However non-linear effects as the strain rate goes to zero lead to overprediction of the laminar flame speed. In the present study these non-linear effects were investigated experimentally and numerically and significant overprediction was verified, particularly for weakly-burning hydrogen/air flames. Subsequently effort was made to establish and study flame properties at a very-low strain rate regime and qualitative and quantitative conclusions were drawn for the stability of the flame surface subjected to very low aerodynamic strain rate, coupled with the effect of gravity and preferential diffusion. A new experimental technique was developed, based on the observation that if a laminar premixed flame undergoes a transition from planar to Bunsen the strain rate changes from positive to negative values and a near-zero strain-rate regime is established. Flame speed measurements were conducted by using LDV for this regime; the flame speed measured is the true laminar flame speed and this is the first time that this property is directly and experimentally measured. Particle Streak velocimetry was developed to evaluate the strain-rates for near-zero strain-rate regime. The laminar flame speed was measured for atmospheric methane/air, ethane/air and propane/air mixtures for the whole range of equivalence ratios; the new data are lower when compared to previous ones and the overprediction is at the order of 15%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umeh, Chukwueloka O. U.
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations on fossil fuel-burning combustors in land-based and aviation gas turbine engines has led engine manufacturers to turn to lean burning premixed combustors. In modern lean premixed gas turbine combustors, flame stabilization is achieved by the use of a high level of inlet swirl and an expansion into a larger chamber. This predisposes the inlet vortex flow to transition to a vortex breakdown state, which is characterized by a stagnation and recirculation zone near the exit plane of the inlet region. A compact, turbulent and highly mixed flame results. Although this breakdown phenomenon helps reduce emissions drastically compared to rich-burn engines, it also contributes to the formation of thermo-acoustic instabilities (or combustion dynamics), flashback and lean blow out, which hinder performance and in extreme cases, causes very expensive damage to the combustion system. Theoretical, computational and experimental studies of vortex breakdown in a finite length, axisymmetric chamber with a swirling inlet flow demonstrate that critical conditions for the first appearance of breakdown in the combustion chamber as well as in the combustor's inlet region govern the flow's behavior. These critical conditions are satisfied for both the average and the instantaneous behavior of the flow for ambient temperature, preheated and lean premixed reacting flows. Good agreement is found between the theoretical and numerical simulations, as well as the experimental results. Results show that these critical conditions, as well as the appearance, location, size and stability of the breakdown are affected by inlet airflow rate, inlet air temperature, flame temperature (in reacting flow), inlet tube length, dump plane configuration and chamber air leakage. In the presence of combustion, experimental results show that the existence of a breakdown zone, its shape, location and stability influence flame stabilization, combustion dynamics
Stochastic modeling of turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox, R. O.; Hill, J. C.; Gao, F.; Moser, R. D.; Rogers, M. M.
1992-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of a single-step irreversible chemical reaction with non-premixed reactants in forced isotropic turbulence at R(sub lambda) = 63, Da = 4.0, and Sc = 0.7 were made using 128 Fourier modes to obtain joint probability density functions (pdfs) and other statistical information to parameterize and test a Fokker-Planck turbulent mixing model. Preliminary results indicate that the modeled gradient stretching term for an inert scalar is independent of the initial conditions of the scalar field. The conditional pdf of scalar gradient magnitudes is found to be a function of the scalar until the reaction is largely completed. Alignment of concentration gradients with local strain rate and other features of the flow were also investigated.
DNS of autoigniting turbulent jet flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asaithambi, Rajapandiyan; Mahesh, Krishnan
2014-11-01
Direct numerical simulation of a round turbulent hydrogen jet injected into vitiated coflowing air is performed at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 and the results are discussed. A predictor-corrector density based method for DNS/LES of compressible chemically reacting flows is developed and used on a cylindrical grid. A novel strategy to remove the center-line stiffness is developed. A fully developed turbulent pipe flow simulation is prescribed as the velocity inlet for the fuel jet. The flame base is observed to be stabilized primarily by autoignition. Further downstream the flame exhibits a diffusion flame structure with regions of rich and lean premixed regimes flanking the central diffusion flame. The lift-off height is well predicted by a simple relation between the ignition delay of the most-reactive mixture fraction and the streamwise velocity of the jet and coflow.
Analysis of homogeneous turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, A. D.; Hill, J. C.; Mahalingam, S.; Ferziger, J. H.
1988-01-01
Full turbulence simulations at low Reynolds numbers were made for the single-step, irreversible, bimolecular reaction between non-premixed reactants in isochoric, decaying homogeneous turbulence. Various initial conditions for the scalar field were used in the simulations to control the initial scalar dissipation length scale, and simulations were also made for temperature-dependent reaction rates and for non-stoichiometric and unequal diffusivity conditions. Joint probability density functions (pdf's), conditional pdf's, and various statistical quantities appearing in the moment equations were computed. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates that compressive strain-rate correlates better than other dynamical quantities with local reaction rate, and the locations of peak reaction rates seem to be insensitive to the scalar field initial conditions.
The multispecies modeling of the premixed, laminar steady-state ozone flame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heimerl, J. M.; Coffee, T. P.
1980-01-01
Species dependent kinetic, transport and thermodynamic coefficients were employed in a one dimensional model of the premixed, laminar, steady state ozone flame. Convenient expressions for these coefficients are reported. They are based on independent measurements, no arbitrary parameters are used. The governing equations are solved using a relaxation technique and the partial differential equation package, PDECOL. Species and temperature profiles and the burning velocities are found over the range of initial ozone mole fraction of 0.25 to 1.00. The computed burning velocities are no more than 30% greater than the measurements of Streng and Grosses. Comparison with the computed results of Warnatz shows agreement within + or - 12%, even though quite different expressions for some of the kinetic coefficients were used. These differences are most obvious in the atomic oxygen and temperature profiles at an initial ozone mole fraction of unity.
Studies of the Turbulent Burning Velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bray, K. N. C.
1990-11-01
A laminar flamelet model of pre-mixed turbulent combustion is described in which a characteristic length scale hat{L}y controls the flamelet surface-to-volume ratio. An analysis, based on the Bray-Moss-Libby model of turbulent combustion, leads to the conclusion that hat{L}y/l is proportional to the ratio of the laminar burning velocity to the turbulence velocity u', where l is the integral length scale of the turbulence. A fractal flame model and an analysis of experimental time series data both support this conclusion. Several different theories for the turbulent burning velocity are shown to be equivalent to each other and to be generalizations of the classical theory of Kolmogorov, Petrovski & Piskonov. A method of characteristics analysis confirms the resulting expression. This expression, containing only one disposable constant which must be of order unity, is compared with a published correlation of a large amount of experimental data. This leads to an experimental determination of the ratio of effective to true laminar burning velocities, as a function of Karlovitz number, which shows satisfactory agreement with results of strained laminar flame calculations.
PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.
2010-12-01
The goals of the International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a broad scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together researchers from different areas, which include but are not limited to fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and Earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and telecommunications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a broad variety of phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales and high or low energy density regimes. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or
Apparatus for the premixed gas phase combustion of liquid fuels
Roffe, G.A.; Trucco, H.A.
1981-04-21
This invention relates to improvements in the art of liquid fuel combustion and, more particularly, concerns a method and apparatus for the controlled gasification of liquid fuels, the thorough premixing of the then gasified fuel with air and the subsequent gas-phase combustion of the mixture to produce a flame substantially free of soot, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and unburned fuel.
PREMIXED ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLAME (PROF) CODE USER'S MANUAL
The report is a user's manual that describes the problems that can be treated by the Premixed One-dimensional Flame (PROF) code. It also describes the mathematical models and solution procedures applied to these problems. Complete input instructions and a description of output ar...
Horton, W.; Hu, G.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.
Di Sarli, Valeria; Di Benedetto, Almerinda; Russo, Gennaro
2010-08-15
In this work, an assessment of different sub-grid scale (sgs) combustion models proposed for large eddy simulation (LES) of steady turbulent premixed combustion (Colin et al., Phys. Fluids 12 (2000) 1843-1863; Flohr and Pitsch, Proc. CTR Summer Program, 2000, pp. 61-82; Kim and Menon, Combust. Sci. Technol. 160 (2000) 119-150; Charlette et al., Combust. Flame 131 (2002) 159-180; Pitsch and Duchamp de Lageneste, Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 2001-2008) was performed to identify the model that best predicts unsteady flame propagation in gas explosions. Numerical results were compared to the experimental data by Patel et al. (Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 1849-1854) for premixed deflagrating flame in a vented chamber in the presence of three sequential obstacles. It is found that all sgs combustion models are able to reproduce qualitatively the experiment in terms of step of flame acceleration and deceleration around each obstacle, and shape of the propagating flame. Without adjusting any constants and parameters, the sgs model by Charlette et al. also provides satisfactory quantitative predictions for flame speed and pressure peak. Conversely, the sgs combustion models other than Charlette et al. give correct predictions only after an ad hoc tuning of constants and parameters. PMID:20471163
Angular distribution of turbulence in wave space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coleman, G.; Ferziger, J. H.; Bertoglio, J. P.
1987-01-01
An alternative to the one-point closure model for turbulence, the large eddy simulation (LES), together with its more exact relative, direct numerical simulation (DNS) are discussed. These methods are beginning to serve as partial substitutes for turbulence experiments. The eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian (EDQNM) theory is reviewed. Angular distribution of the converted data was examined in relationship to EDQNM.
Experimental analysis of an oblique turbulent flame front propagating in a stratified flow
Galizzi, C.; Escudie, D.
2010-12-15
This paper details the experimental study of a turbulent V-shaped flame expanding in a nonhomogeneous premixed flow. Its aim is to characterize the effects of stratification on turbulent flame characteristics. The setup consists of a stationary V-shaped flame stabilized on a rod and expanding freely in a lean premixed methane-air flow. One of the two oblique fronts interacts with a stratified slice, which has an equivalence ratio close to one and a thickness greater than that of the flame front. Several techniques such as PIV and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence are used to investigate the instantaneous fields, while laser Doppler anemometry and thermocouples are combined with a concentration probe to provide information on the mean fields. First, in order to provide a reference, the homogeneous turbulent case is studied. Next, the stratified turbulent premixed flame is investigated. Results show significant modifications of the whole flame and of the velocity field upstream of the flame front. The analysis of the geometric properties of the stratified flame indicates an increase in flame brush thickness, closely related to the local equivalence ratio. (author)
Staged multi-tube premixing injector
Zuo, Baifang; Khan, Abdul Rafey; York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve
2012-10-02
A fuel injection nozzle includes a body member having an upstream wall opposing a downstream wall, and an internal wall disposed between the upstream wall and the downstream wall, a first chamber partially defined by the an inner surface of the upstream wall and a surface of the internal wall, a second chamber partially defined by an inner surface of the downstream wall and a surface of the internal wall a first gas inlet communicative with the first chamber operative to emit a first gas into the first chamber, a second gas inlet communicative with the second chamber operative to emit a second gas into the second chamber, and a plurality of mixing tubes, each of the mixing tubes having a tube inner surface, a tube outer surface, a first inlet communicative with an aperture in the upstream wall operative to receive a third gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Undapalli, Satish
A new combustor referred to as Stagnation Point Reverse Flow (SPRF) combustor has been developed at Georgia Tech to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. The combustor incorporates a novel design to meet the conflicting requirements of low pollution and high stability in both premixed and non-premixed modes. The objective of this thesis work is to perform Large Eddy Simulations (LES) on this lab-scale combustor and elucidate the underlying physics that has resulted in its excellent performance. To achieve this, numerical simulations have been performed in both the premixed and non-premixed combustion modes, and velocity field, species field, entrainment characteristics, flame structure, emissions, and mixing characteristics have been analyzed. Simulations have been carried out first for a non-reactive case to resolve relevant fluid mechanics without heat release by the computational grid. The computed mean and RMS quantities in the non-reacting case compared well with the experimental data. Next, the simulations were extended for the premixed reactive case by employing different sub-grid scale combustion chemistry closures: Eddy Break Up (EBU), Artificially Thickened Flame (TF) and Linear Eddy Mixing (LEM) models. Results from the EBU and TF models exhibit reasonable agreement with the experimental velocity field. However, the computed thermal and species fields have noticeable discrepancies. Only LEM with LES (LEMLES), which is an advanced scalar approach, has been able to accurately predict both the velocity and species fields. Scalar mixing plays an important role in combustion, and this is solved directly at the sub-grid scales in LEM. As a result, LEM accurately predicts the scalar fields. Due to the two way coupling between the super-grid and sub-grid quantities, the velocity predictions also compare very well with the experiments. In other approaches, the sub-grid effects have been either modeled using conventional approaches (EBU) or need
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarenko, Sergey
2015-07-01
Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Kay, P.; Griffiths, A.
2011-06-01
Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving the ability to produce low NOx systems coupled with wide stability limits. The common element is the swirl burner, which depends on the generation of an aerodynamically formed central recirculation zone (CRZ) and which serves to recycle heat and active chemical species to the root of the flame as well as providing low-velocity regions where the flame speed can match the local flow velocity. Enhanced mixing in and around the CRZ is another beneficial feature. The structure of the CRZ and hence that of the associated flames, stabilisation and mixing processes have shown to be extremely complex, three-dimensional and time dependent. The characteristics of the CRZ depend very strongly on the level of swirl (swirl number), burner configuration, type of flow expansion, Reynolds number (i.e. flowrate) and equivalence ratio. Although numerical methods have had some success when compared to experimental results, the models still have difficulties at medium to high swirl levels, with complex geometries and varied equivalence ratios. This study thus focuses on experimental results obtained to characterise the CRZ formed under varied combustion conditions with different geometries and some variation of swirl number in a generic swirl burner. CRZ behaviour has similarities to the equivalent isothermal state, but is strongly dependent on equivalence ratio, with interesting effects occurring with a high-velocity fuel injector. Partial premixing and combustion cause more substantive changes to the CRZ than pure diffusive combustion.
Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.
2011-09-07
Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.
Swirl effects on combustion characteristics of premixed flames
Daurer, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.
1998-07-01
The effects of swirl direction on the structure of two different premixed flames are investigated in a double concentric premixed swirl burner. The flames were stabilized with two annular jets and a central pipe. Mean and fluctuating temperatures, thermal integral and micro time scales and direct flame photographs were taken to receive information about global flame structures, flame stability and the distribution of the thermal field in these flames. Direct flame photographs, compensated temperature data as well as thermal micro-time scales of temperature data are presented to give a complete insight in the thermal distribution in these flames. It was found that the swirl direction of the stabilizing annular jets seems to take great influence on flame symmetry. The flame with the counter-swirling jets showed a very unsymmetrical behavior which was confirmed in flame photographs, temperature maps and time scales.
Workshop on Engineering Turbulence Modeling
Povinelli, L.A.; Liou, W.W.; Shabbir, A.; Shih, T.H.
1992-03-01
Discussed here is the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion. For each level of computation, there are a few turbulence models which represent the state-of-the-art for that level. However, it is important to know their capabilities as well as their deficiencies in order to help engineers select and implement the appropriate models in their real world engineering calculations. This will also help turbulence modelers perceive the future directions for improving turbulence models. The focus is on one-point closure models (i.e., from algebraic models to higher order moment closure schemes and partial differential equation methods) which can be applied to CFD computations. However, other schemes helpful in developing one-point closure models, are also discussed.
Unsteady turbulent boundary layer analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singleton, R. E.; Nash, J. F.; Carl, L. W.; Patel, V. C.
1973-01-01
The governing equations for an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a swept infinite cylinder, composed of a continuity equation, a pair of momentum equations and a pair of turbulent energy equations which include upstream history efforts, are solved numerically. An explicit finite difference analog to the partial differential equations is formulated and developed into a computer program. Calculations were made for a variety of unsteady flows in both two and three dimensions but primarily for two dimensional flow fields in order to first understand some of the fundamental physical aspects of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. Oscillating free stream flows without pressure gradient, oscillating retarded free stream flows and monotonically time-varying flows have all been studied for a wide frequency range. It was found that to the lowest frequency considered, the lower frequency bound being determined by economic considerations (machine time), there were significant unsteady effects on the turbulent boundary layer.
Workshop on Engineering Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Povinelli, Louis A. (Editor); Liou, W. W. (Editor); Shabbir, A. (Editor); Shih, T.-H. (Editor)
1992-01-01
Discussed here is the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion. For each level of computation, there are a few turbulence models which represent the state-of-the-art for that level. However, it is important to know their capabilities as well as their deficiencies in order to help engineers select and implement the appropriate models in their real world engineering calculations. This will also help turbulence modelers perceive the future directions for improving turbulence models. The focus is on one-point closure models (i.e., from algebraic models to higher order moment closure schemes and partial differential equation methods) which can be applied to CFD computations. However, other schemes helpful in developing one-point closure models, are also discussed.
Spontaneous transition of turbulent flames to detonations in unconfined media.
Poludnenko, Alexei Y; Gardiner, Thomas A; Oran, Elaine S
2011-07-29
A deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) can occur in environments ranging from experimental and industrial systems to astrophysical thermonuclear (type Ia) supernovae explosions. Substantial progress has been made in explaining the nature of DDT in confined systems with walls, internal obstacles, or preexisting shocks. It remains unclear, however, whether DDT can occur in unconfined media. Here we use direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that for high enough turbulent intensities unconfined, subsonic, premixed, turbulent flames are inherently unstable to DDT. The associated mechanism, based on the nonsteady evolution of flames faster than the Chapman-Jouguet deflagrations, is qualitatively different from the traditionally suggested spontaneous reaction-wave model. Critical turbulent flame speeds, predicted by this mechanism for the onset of DDT, are in agreement with DNS results. PMID:21867073
Mixing and chemical reaction in sheared and nonsheared homogeneous turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, Andy D.; Hill, James C.
1992-01-01
Direct numerical simulations were made to examine the local structure of the reaction zone for a moderately fast reaction between unmixed species in decaying, homogeneous turbulence and in a homogeneous turbulent shear flow. Pseudospectral techniques were used in domains of 64 exp 3 and higher wavenumbers. A finite-rate, single step reaction between non-premixed reactants was considered, and in one case temperature-dependent Arrhenius kinetics was assumed. Locally intense reaction rates that tend to persist throughout the simulations occur in locations where the reactant concentration gradients are large and are amplified by the local rate of strain. The reaction zones are more organized in the case of a uniform mean shear than in isotropic turbulence, and regions of intense reaction rate appear to be associated with vortex structures such as horseshoe vortices and fingers seen in mixing layers. Concentration gradients tend to align with the direction of the most compressive principal strain rate, more so in the isotropic case.
Numerical methods for turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, James C., Jr.
1988-09-01
It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.
On burner-stabilized cylindrical premixed flames in microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eng, James A.; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.
1995-01-01
An experimental and theoretical program on cylindrical and spherical premixed flames in microgravity has been initiated. We are especially interested in: (1) assessing heat loss versus flow divergence as the dominant stabilization mechanism; (2) understanding the effects of flame curvature on the burning intensity; and (3) determining the laminar burning velocity by using this configuration. In the present study we have performed analytical, computational, and mu g-experimental investigations of the cylindrical flame. The results are presented.
Lean, Premixed-Prevaporized (LPP) combustor conceptual design study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickman, R. A.; Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.
1979-01-01
Four combustion systems were designed and sized for the energy efficient engine. A fifth combustor was designed for the cycle and envelope of the twin-spool, high bypass ratio, high pressure ratio turbofan engine. Emission levels, combustion performance, life, and reliability assessments were made for these five combustion systems. Results of these design studies indicate that cruise NOx emission can be reduced by the use of lean, premixed-prevaporaized combustion and airflow modulation.
Pulsed jet combustion generator for non-premixed charge engines
Oppenheim, A. K.; Stewart, H. E.
1990-01-01
A device for introducing fuel into the head space of cylinder of non-premixed charge (diesel) engines is disclosed, which distributes fuel in atomized form in a plume, whose fluid dynamic properties are such that the compression heated air in the cylinder head space is entrained into the interior of the plume where it is mixed with and ignites the fuel in the plume interior, to thereby control combustion, particularly by use of a multiplicity of individually controllable devices per cylinder.
Characterization of oscillations during premix gas turbine combustion
Richards, G.A.; Janus, M.C.
1998-04-01
The use of premix combustion in stationary gas turbines can produce very low levels of NO{sub x} emissions. This benefit is widely recognized, but turbine developers routinely encounter problems with combustion oscillations during the testing of new premix combustors. Because of the associated pressure fluctuations, combustion oscillations must be eliminated in a final combustor design. Eliminating these oscillations is often time-consuming and costly because there is no single approach to solve an oscillation problem. Previous investigations of combustion stability have focused on rocket applications, industrial furnaces, and some aeroengine gas turbines. Comparatively little published data is available for premixed combustion at conditions typical of an industrial gas turbine. In this paper, the authors report experimental observations of oscillations produced by a fuel nozzle typical of industrial gas turbines. Tests are conducted in a specially designed combustor capable of providing the acoustic feedback needed to study oscillations. Tests results are presented for pressures up to 10 atmospheres, theoretical considerations, it is expected that oscillations can be characterized by a nozzle reference velocity, with operating pressure playing a smaller role. This expectation is compared to observed data that shows both the benefits and limitations of characterizing the combustor oscillating behavior in terms of a reference velocity rather than other engine operating parameters. This approach to characterizing oscillations is then used to evaluate how geometric changes to the fuel nozzle will affect the boundary between stable and oscillating combustion.
Premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement: characterization of strength and microstructure.
Aberg, J; Brisby, H; Henriksson, H B; Lindahl, A; Thomsen, P; Engqvist, H
2010-05-01
By using a premixed calcium phosphate cement (CPC), the handling properties of the cement are drastically improved, which is a challenge for traditional injectable CPCs. Previously premixed cements have been based on apatitic cements. In this article, acidic cement has been developed and evaluated. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and beta-tricalcium phosphate were mixed with glycerol to form a paste. As the paste does not contain water, no setting reaction starts and thus the working time is indefinite. Powder/liquid ratios (P/L) of 2.25, 3.5 and 4.75 were evaluated. Setting time (ST) and compressive strength (CS) were measured after 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, and the corresponding microstructure was evaluated using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ST started when the cements were placed in PBS and ranged from 28 to 75 min, higher P/L gave a lower ST. Higher P/L also gave a higher CS, which ranged from 2 to 16 MPa. The microstructure mainly consisted of monetite, 1-5 microm in grain size. After 4 weeks in PBS, the strength increased. As acidic cements are resorbed faster in vivo, this cement should allow faster bone regeneration than apatitic cements. Premixed cements show a great handling benefit when compared with normal CPCs and can be formulated with similar ST and mechanical properties. PMID:20127991
Thermoacoustic limit cycles in a premixed laboratory combustor with open and choked exits
Hield, Peter A.; Brear, Michael J.; Jin, Seong Ho
2009-09-15
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of the response of a turbulent premixed flame during thermoacoustic limit cycle in a simple, laboratory combustor. The flame dynamics are examined using high-speed pressure transducers and CH* chemiluminescence. The so-called 'interaction index' and time delay between the acoustic velocity fluctuations at the flame holder and the flame's overall heat release fluctuations are then determined. A wide range of operating conditions, traversing the combustor's flammability limits in Mach number and equivalence ratio, are studied for four different combustor exits, including one where the exit is choked. In all cases the time delay correlates very well with the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations. There is also some correlation between the interaction index and these velocity fluctuations, but this is less clear. These results suggest a novel, nonlinear flame model, derived entirely empirically. An existing low-order thermoacoustic model is then extended to include convection and dispersion of entropy fluctuations downstream of the flame, enabling the effect of the choked nozzle to be examined. The novel nonlinear flame model is integrated into the low-order thermoacoustic model, and used to investigate the experimentally observed thermoacoustic limit cycles. The model correctly simulates the observed switch to a low-frequency, entropically driven instability observed when the combustor exit is choked. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reisel, John R.; Laurendeau, Normand M.
1994-01-01
Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been applied to the quantitative measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in premixed, laminar, high-pressure flames. Their chemistry was also studied using three current kinetics schemes to determine the predictive capabilities of each mechanism with respect to NO concentrations. The flames studied were low-temperature (1600 less than T less than 1850K) C2H6/O2/N2 and C2H6/O2/N2 flames, and high temperature (2100 less than T less than 2300K) C2H6/O2/N2 flames. Laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) was initially used to measure the NO concentrations. However, while the excitation transition was well saturated at atmospheric pressure, the fluorescence behavior was basically linear with respect to laser power at pressures above 6 atm. Measurements and calculations demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching rate variation is negligible for LIF measurements of NO at a given pressure. Therefore, linear LIF was used to perform quantitative measurements of NO concentration in these high-pressure flames. The transportability of a calibration factor from one set of flame conditions to another also was investigated by considering changes in the absorption and quenching environment for different flame conditions. The feasibility of performing LIF measurements of (NO) in turbulent flames was studied; the single-shot detection limit was determined to be 2 ppm.
Modeling complex chemical effects in turbulent nonpremixed combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Nigel S. A.
1995-01-01
Virtually all of the energy derived from the consumption of combustibles occurs in systems which utilize turbulent fluid motion. Since combustion is largely related to the mixing of fluids and mixing processes are orders of magnitude more rapid when enhanced by turbulent motion, efficiency criteria dictate that chemically powered devices necessarily involve fluid turbulence. Where combustion occurs concurrently with mixing at an interface between two reactive fluid bodies, this mode of combustion is called nonpremixed combustion. This is distinct from premixed combustion where flame-fronts propagate into a homogeneous mixture of reactants. These two modes are limiting cases in the range of temporal lag between mixing of reactants and the onset of reaction. Nonpremixed combustion occurs where this lag tends to zero, while premixed combustion occurs where this lag tends to infinity. Many combustion processes are hybrids of these two extremes with finite non-zero lag times. Turbulent nonpremixed combustion is important from a practical standpoint because it occurs in gas fired boilers, furnaces, waste incinerators, diesel engines, gas turbine combustors, and afterburners etc. To a large extent, past development of these practical systems involved an empirical methodology. Presently, efficiency standards and emission regulations are being further tightened (Correa 1993), and empiricism has had to give way to more fundamental research in order to understand and effectively model practical combustion processes (Pope 1991). A key element in effective modeling of turbulent combustion is making use of a sufficiently detailed chemical kinetic mechanism. The prediction of pollutant emission such as oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and sulphur (SO(x)) unburned hydrocarbons, and particulates demands the use of detailed chemical mechanisms. It is essential that practical models for turbulent nonpremixed combustion are capable of handling large numbers of 'stiff' chemical species
Brandt, M.; Gugel, K.O.; Hassa, C.
1997-10-01
Liquid fuel evaporation was investigated in a premix duct, operating at conditions expected for lean premixed and prevaporized combustion. Results from a flat prefilming airblast atomizer are presented. Kerosine Jet A was used in all experiments. Air pressure, air temperature, and liquid fuel flow rate were varied separately; their relative influences on atomization, evaporation, and fuel dispersion are discussed. The results show that at pressures up to 15 bars and temperatures up to 850 K, nearly complete evaporation of the fuel was achieved, without autoignition of the fuel. For the configuration tested, the fuel distributions of the liquid and evaporated fuel show very little difference in their dispersion characteristics and were not much affected by a variation of the operating conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Jian; Yu, NanJia; Cai, GuoBiao
2015-12-01
Single-element combustor experiments are conducted for three shear coaxial geometry configuration injectors by using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) as propellants. During the combustion process, several spatially and timeresolved non-intrusive optical techniques, such as OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), high speed imaging, and infrared imaging, are simultaneously employed to observe the OH radical concentration distribution, flame fluctuations, and temperature fields. The results demonstrate that the turbulent flow phenomenon of non-premixed flame exhibits a remarkable periodicity, and the mixing ratio becomes a crucial factor to influence the combustion flame length. The high speed and infrared images have a consistent temperature field trend. As for the OH-PLIF images, an intuitionistic local flame structure is revealed by single-shot instantaneous images. Furthermore, the means and standard deviations of OH radical intensity are acquired to provide statistical information regarding the flame, which may be helpful for validation of numerical simulations in future. Parameters of structure configurations, such as impinging angle and oxygen post thickness, play an important role in the reaction zone distribution. Based on a successful flame contour extraction method assembled with non-linear anisotropic diffusive filtering and variational level-set, it is possible to implement a fractal analysis to describe the fractal characteristics of the non-premixed flame contour. As a result, the flame front cannot be regarded as a fractal object. However, this turbulent process presents a self-similarity characteristic.
Premixed Atmosphere and Convection Influences on Flame Inhibition and Combustion (Pacific)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Honda, Linton K.; Ronney, Paul D.
1997-01-01
Flame spread over flat solid fuel beds is a useful paradigm for studying the behavior of more complex two-phase nonpremixed flames. For practical applications, two of the most important elements of flame spreading are the effects of (1) the ambient atmosphere (e.g. pressure and composition) and (2) the flow environment on the spread rate and extinction conditions. Concerning (1), studies of flame spread in vitiated air and non-standard atmospheres such as those found in undersea vessels and spacecraft are particularly important for the assessment of fire hazards in these environments as well as determination of the effectiveness of fire suppressants. Concerning (2), the flow environment may vary widely even when no forced flow is present because of buoyancy effects. Consequently, the goal of this work is to employ microgravity (micro g) experiments to extend previous studies of the effects of ambient atmosphere and the flow environment on flame spread through the use of microgravity (micro g) experiments. Because of the considerable differences between upward (concurrent-flow) and downward (opposed-flow) flame spread at 1g (Williams, 1976, Fernandez-Pello, 1984), in this work both upward and downward 1g spread are tested. Two types of changes to the oxidizing atmosphere are considered in this work. One is the addition of sub-flammability-limit concentrations of a gaseous fuel ('partially premixed' atmospheres). This is of interest because in fires in enclosures, combustion may occur under poorly ventilated conditions, so that oxygen is partially depleted from the air and is replaced by combustible gases such as fuel vapors, H2 or CO. Subsequent fire spread over the solid fuel could occur under conditions of varying oxygen and gaseous fuel content. The potential significance of flame spread under vitiated or partially premixed conditions has been noted previously (Beyler, 1984). The second change is the diluent type, which affects the radiative properties of the
Properties of Injectable Apatite-Forming Premixed Cements
Shimada, Yashushi; Chow, Laurence C.; Takagi, Shozo; Tagami, Junji
2010-01-01
Previous studies reported premixed calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) that were stable in the package and form hydroxyapatite (HA) as the product after exposure to an aqueous environment. These cements had setting times of greater than 60 min, which are too long to be useful for some clinical applications. The present study investigated properties of fast-setting HA-forming premixed CPCs that initially consisted of two separate premixed pastes: (1) finely ground (1.0 μm in median size) dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with an aqueous NaH2PO4 solution, 1.5 mol/L or 3.0 mol/L in concentration, and (2) tetracalcium phosphate consisting of combinations of particles of two different size distributions, 5 μm (TTCP5) and 17 μm (TTCP17) in median size, mixed with glycerin. Equal volume of Pastes 1 and 2 were injected with the use of atwo-barrel syringe fitted with a static mixer into sample molds. The molar Ca/P ratio of combined paste was approximately 1.5. Cements were characterized in terms of setting time (Gilmore needle), diametral tensile strength (DTS), and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction, XRD). Setting times were found to range from (4.3 ± 0.6 to 68 ± 3) min (mean ± sd; n = 3), and 1-d and 7-d DTS values were from (0.89 ± 0.08 to 2.44 ± 0.16) MPa (mean ± sd; n = 5). Both the NaH2PO4 concentration and TTCP particle size distribution had significant (p < 0.01) effects on setting time and DTS. Powder XRD analysis showed that low crystallinity HA and unreacted DCPA were present in the 1-day specimens, and the extent of HA formation increased with increasing amount of TTCP5 in the TTCP paste. Conclusion: Injectable HA-forming premixed CPCs with setting times from 4 to 70 min can be prepared by using DCPA and TTCP as the ingredients. Compared to the conventional powder liquid cements, these premixed CPCs have the advantages of being easy to use and having a range of hardening times. PMID:21479133
Numerical simulations and modeling of turbulent combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuenot, B.
Turbulent combustion is the basic physical phenomenon responsible for efficient energy release by any internal combustion engine. However it is accompanied by other undesirable phenomena such as noise, pollutant species emission or damaging instabilities that may even lead to the system desctruction. It is then crucial to control this phenomenon, to understand all its mecanisms and to master it in industrial systems. For long time turbulent combustion has been explored only through theory and experiment. But the rapid increase of computers power during the last years has allowed an important development of numerical simulation, that has become today an essential tool for research and technical design. Direct numerical simulation has then allowed to rapidly progress in the knowledge of turbulent flame structures, leading to new modelisations for steady averaged simulations. Recently large eddy simulation has made a new step forward by refining the description of complex and unsteady flames. The main problem that arises when performing numerical simulation of turbulent combustion is linked to the description of the flame front. Being very thin, it can not however be reduced to a simple interface as it is the location of intense chemical transformation and of strong variations of thermodynamical quantities. Capturing the internal structure of a zone with a thickness of the order of 0.1 mm in a computation with a mesh step 10 times larger being impossible, it is necessary to model the turbulent flame. Models depend on the chemical structure of the flame, on the ambiant turbulence, on the combustion regime (flamelets, distributed combustion, etc.) and on the reactants injection mode (premixed or not). One finds then a large class of models, from the most simple algebraic model with a one-step chemical kinetics, to the most complex model involving probablity density functions, cross-correlations and multiple-step or fully complex chemical kinetics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong
2014-04-18
We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028
Turbulence in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.
Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle
Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul
2013-12-17
A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.
Scaling of turbulent flame speed for expanding flames with Markstein diffusion considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung K.
2013-09-01
In this paper we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity, which is the product of the planar laminar flame speed and the Markstein length, on the turbulent flame speed and its scaling, based on experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding turbulent flames. Turbulent flame propagation data are presented for premixed flames of mixtures of hydrogen, methane, ethylene, n-butane, and dimethyl ether with air, in near-isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. For each individual fuel-air mixture presented in this work and the recently published iso-octane data from Leeds, normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual fuel-air mixtures approximately follow a ReT,f0.5 scaling, for which the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property of the turbulence Reynolds number. At a given ReT,f, it is experimentally observed that the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Markstein number, which could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the leading dissipation mechanism for the large wave number flame surface fluctuations. Consequently, by replacing thermal diffusivity with the Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, it is found that normalized turbulent flame speeds could be scaled by ReT,M0.5 irrespective of the fuel, equivalence ratio, pressure, and turbulence intensity for positive Markstein number flames.
Scaling of turbulent flame speed for expanding flames with Markstein diffusion considerations.
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung K
2013-09-01
In this paper we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity, which is the product of the planar laminar flame speed and the Markstein length, on the turbulent flame speed and its scaling, based on experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding turbulent flames. Turbulent flame propagation data are presented for premixed flames of mixtures of hydrogen, methane, ethylene, n-butane, and dimethyl ether with air, in near-isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. For each individual fuel-air mixture presented in this work and the recently published iso-octane data from Leeds, normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual fuel-air mixtures approximately follow a Re_{T,f}^{0.5} scaling, for which the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property of the turbulence Reynolds number. At a given Re_{T,f}^{}, it is experimentally observed that the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Markstein number, which could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the leading dissipation mechanism for the large wave number flame surface fluctuations. Consequently, by replacing thermal diffusivity with the Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, it is found that normalized turbulent flame speeds could be scaled by Re_{T,M}^{0.5} irrespective of the fuel, equivalence ratio, pressure, and turbulence intensity for positive Markstein number flames. PMID:24125342
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1995-01-01
The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.
Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.
1993-12-01
Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.
Periodic and Chaotic Modes in Premixed Laminar Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Hamdi, Mohamed Abbes
1991-06-01
In this thesis, we report the discoveries of many periodic and chaotic modes of laminar premixed flames on porous plug burners. This report is the first confirmation of predictions of a number of recent theoretical studies on the dynamics of premixed flames. The experimental innovations and techniques presented in section 3.6 are at the heart of the discoveries of these dynamical modes. In our experiments, a flame front is stabilized on a porous plug burner enclosed within a pyrex chamber. By varying the total flow rate, the stoichiometry of the combustible mixture, and the chamber pressure, we discovered many periodic and chaotic modes. We show that different fuels and/or oxidizers as well as the symmetries of the system can affect the dynamics of the flame front. Experimental evidence is presented that shows that laminar premixed flames exhibit low-dimensional, deterministic chaos. The largest Liapunov exponent and the pointwise dimension calculations are used to confirm that chaos exists in certain regions of parameter space. We also describe a power spectrum technique that can be used to identify deterministic dynamics in real time. With the help of a spectrum analyzer, an experimentalist can map the dynamics (simple and complex) of the system under investigation in a relatively short time. As far as we know, this is the first time that nonlinear dynamics techniques are used to analyze experimental data from combustion. All the nonperiodic modes that we have discovered exhibit low-dimensional deterministic chaos and we believe that this result is a general one for propagating fronts. The implication of our work is that such nonperiodic states can be described by a tractable set of ordinary differential equations.
Unusual pulsating states in hydrocarbon-oxygen premixed flames.
Gorman, M; Perrollier, S
2006-12-01
An unusual type of pulsating state has been observed using a new ignition protocol for heavy hydrocarbon-oxygen premixed flames on a circular porous plug burner. The shape and motion of these states are quasicircular, luminous, pulsating regions of M (M=1, 2, 3, or 4) lobes that increase in size as the flame propagates outward. As the lobes expand, they break apart near their midpoints and form counterpropagating spiral-like arms. These spiral arms rotate, "collide" with arms generated by adjacent lobes, and are extinguished. We will describe the unusual characteristics of the dynamics of these states. PMID:17199402
Response mechanisms of attached premixed flames subjected to harmonic forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shreekrishna
The persistent thrust for a cleaner, greener environment has prompted air pollution regulations to be enforced with increased stringency by environmental protection bodies all over the world. This has prompted gas turbine manufacturers to move from nonpremixed combustion to lean, premixed combustion. These lean premixed combustors operate quite fuel-lean compared to the stochiometric, in order to minimize CO and NOx productions, and are very susceptible to oscillations in any of the upstream flow variables. These oscillations cause the heat release rate of the flame to oscillate, which can engage one or more acoustic modes of the combustor or gas turbine components, and under certain conditions, lead to limit cycle oscillations. This phenomenon, called thermoacoustic instabilities, is characterized by very high pressure oscillations and increased heat fluxes at system walls, and can cause significant problems in the routine operability of these combustors, not to mention the occasional hardware damages that could occur, all of which cumulatively cost several millions of dollars. In a bid towards understanding this flow-flame interaction, this research works studies the heat release response of premixed flames to oscillations in reactant equivalence ratio, reactant velocity and pressure, under conditions where the flame preheat zone is convectively compact to these disturbances, using the G-equation. The heat release response is quantified by means of the flame transfer function and together with combustor acoustics, forms a critical component of the analytical models that can predict combustor dynamics. To this end, low excitation amplitude (linear) and high excitation amplitude (nonlinear) responses of the flame are studied in this work. The linear heat release response of lean, premixed flames are seen to be dominated by responses to velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations at low frequencies, and to pressure fluctuations at high frequencies which are in the
Large-eddy simulation/PDF modeling of a non-premixed CO/H2 temporally evolving jet flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yue; Wang, Haifeng; Pope, Stephen B.; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2011-11-01
We report a large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) study of a non-premixed CO/H2 temporally evolving planar jet flame at Re = 9079 and Da = 0.011 with skeletal chemistry. The flame exhibits strong turbulence- chemistry interactions resulting in local extinction followed by re-ignition. In this study, the filtered velocity field in LES is computed using the NGA code (Desjardins et al., 2008) and the PDF transported equations with the modified Curl's mixing model are solved by the new highly-scalable HPDF code (Wang and Pope, 2011) with second order accuracy in space and time. The performance of the hybrid LES/PDF methodology is assessed through detailed a posteriori comparisons with DNS of the same flame (Hawkes et al., 2007). The comparison shows good agreement of the temporal evolution of the temperature and mass fractions of major chemical species, as well as the prediction of local extinction and re-ignition. In addition, the effects of the subgrid scale model, the mixing model, and grid resolution on turbulence-chemistry interactions are investigated to improve the capabilities of LES/PDF. Supported in part by the CEFRC funded by the DOE.
Computational modeling of thermodynamic irreversibilities in turbulent non-premixed combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouras, Fethi; Khaldi, Fouad
2016-04-01
This work is focused on the analysis of various computed terms of entropy generation rate in the gaseous combustion processes at different inlet temperatures of air and CH4. Therefore, the expression of the entropy generation rate includes the effect of the viscosity friction, the thermal diffusion, the species diffusion and the chemical reaction. The expressions have been used for each term of entropy generation in order to examine the influence of each one in the overall system.
Galley, D.; Ducruix, S.; Lacas, F.; Veynante, D.
2011-01-15
A laboratory-scale swirling burner, presenting many similarities with gas turbines combustors, has been studied experimentally using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) on OH radical and acetone vapor in order to characterize the flame stabilization process. These diagnostics show that the stabilization point rotates in the combustion chamber and that air and fuel mixing is not complete at the end of the mixing tube. Fuel mass fraction decays exponentially along the mixing tube axis and transverse profiles show a gaussian shape. However, radial pressure gradients tend to trap the fuel in the core of the vortex that propagates axially in the mixing tube. As the mixing tube vortex enters the combustion chamber, vortex breakdown occurs through a precessing vortex core (PVC). The axially propagating vortex shows a helicoidal trajectory in the combustion chamber which trace is observed with transverse acetone PLIF. As a consequence, the stabilizing point of the flame in the combustion chamber rotates with the PVC structure. This phenomenon has been observed in the present study with a high speed camera recording spontaneous emission of the flame. The stabilization point rotation frequency tends to increase with mass flow rates. It was also shown that the coupling between the PVC and the flame stabilization occurs via mixing, explaining one possible coupling mechanism between acoustic waves in the flow and the reaction rate. This path may also be envisaged for flashback, an issue that will be more completely treated in a near future. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.
1987-01-01
Recent developments at several levels of statistical turbulence modeling applicable to aerodynamics are briefly surveyed. Emphasis is on examples of model improvements for transonic, two-dimensional flows. Experience with the development of these improved models is cited to suggest methods of accelerating the modeling process necessary to keep abreast of the rapid movement of computational fluid dynamics into the computation of complex three-dimensional flows.
Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Huang, Qingqing
2016-08-01
Rytov theory was employed to establish the transmission model for the optical vortices carried by Bessel-Gaussian (BG) beams in weak anisotropic turbulence based on the generalized anisotropic von Karman spectrum. The influences of asymmetry anisotropic turbulence eddies and source parameters on the signal orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode detection probability of partially coherent BG beams in anisotropic turbulence were discussed. Anisotropic characteristics of the turbulence could enhance the OAM mode transmission performance. The spatial partially coherence of the beam source would increase turbulent aberration's effect on the optical vortices. BG beams could dampen the influences of the turbulence because of their nondiffraction and self-healing characteristics. PMID:27505641
Sen, Baris Ali; Menon, Suresh
2010-01-15
A large eddy simulation (LES) sub-grid model is developed based on the artificial neural network (ANN) approach to calculate the species instantaneous reaction rates for multi-step, multi-species chemical kinetics mechanisms. The proposed methodology depends on training the ANNs off-line on a thermo-chemical database representative of the actual composition and turbulence (but not the actual geometrical problem) of interest, and later using them to replace the stiff ODE solver (direct integration (DI)) to calculate the reaction rates in the sub-grid. The thermo-chemical database is tabulated with respect to the thermodynamic state vector without any reduction in the number of state variables. The thermo-chemistry is evolved by stand-alone linear eddy mixing (LEM) model simulations under both premixed and non-premixed conditions, where the unsteady interaction of turbulence with chemical kinetics is included as a part of the training database. The proposed methodology is tested in LES and in stand-alone LEM studies of three distinct test cases with different reduced mechanisms and conditions. LES of premixed flame-turbulence-vortex interaction provides direct comparison of the proposed ANN method against DI and ANNs trained on thermo-chemical database created using another type of tabulation method. It is shown that the ANN trained on the LEM database can capture the correct flame physics with accuracy comparable to DI, which cannot be achieved by ANN trained on a laminar premix flame database. A priori evaluation of the ANN generality within and outside its training domain is carried out using stand-alone LEM simulations as well. Results in general are satisfactory, and it is shown that the ANN provides considerable amount of memory saving and speed-up with reasonable and reliable accuracy. The speed-up is strongly affected by the stiffness of the reduced mechanism used for the computations, whereas the memory saving is considerable regardless. (author)
Evaluation of fuel preparation systems for lean premixing- prevaporizing combustors
Dodds, W.J.; Ekstedt, .E.E.
1986-04-01
A series of tests was conducted to provide data for the design of premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixture preparation systems for aircraft gas turbine engine combustors. Fifteen configurations of four different fuel-air mixture preparation system design concepts were evaluated to determine fuel-air mixture uniformity at the system exit over a range of conditions representative of cruise operation for a modern commercial turbofan engine. Operating conditions, including pressure, temperature, fuel-air ratio and velocity had no clear effect on mixture uniformity in systems which used low-pressure fuel injectors. However, performance of systems using pressure atomizing fuel nozzles and large-scale mixing devices was shown to be sensitive to operating conditions. Variations in system design variables were also evaluated and correlated. Mixture uniformity improved with increased system length, pressure drop, and number of fuel injection points per unit area. A premixing system compatible with the combustor envelope of a typical combustion system and capable of providing mixture nonuniformity (standard deviation/mean) below 15% over a typical range of cruise operating conditions was demonstrated.
Results of a model for premixed combustion oscillations
Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.
1996-09-01
Combustion oscillations are receiving renewed research interest due to increasing use of lean premix (LPM) combustion to gas turbines. A simple, nonlinear model for premixed combustion is described in this paper. The model was developed to help explain specific experimental observations and to provide guidance for development of active control schemes based on nonlinear concepts. The model can be used to quickly examine instability trends associated with changes in equivalence ratio, mass flow rate, geometry, ambient conditions, etc. The model represents the relevant processes occurring in a fuel nozzle and combustor which are analogous to current LPM turbine combustors. Conservation equations for the fuel nozzle and combustor are developed from simple control volume analysis, providing a set of ordinary differential equations that can be solved on a personal computer. Combustion is modeled as a stirred reactor, with a bimolecular reaction rate between fuel and air. A variety of numerical results and comparisons to experimental data are presented to demonstrate the utility of the model. Model results are used to understand the fundamental mechanisms which drive combustion oscillations, effects of inlet air temperature and nozzle geometry on instability, and effectiveness of open loop control schemes.
Finite amplitude wave interaction with premixed laminar flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aslani, Mohamad; Regele, Jonathan D.
2014-11-01
The physics underlying combustion instability is an active area of research because of its detrimental impact in many combustion devices, such as turbines, jet engines, and liquid rocket engines. Pressure waves, ranging from acoustic waves to strong shocks, are potential sources of these disturbances. Literature on flame-disturbance interactions are primarily focused on either acoustics or strong shock wave interactions, with little information about the wide spectrum of behaviors that may exist between these two extremes. For example, the interaction between a flame and a finite amplitude compression wave is not well characterized. This phenomenon is difficult to study numerically due to the wide range of scales that need to be captured, requiring powerful and efficient numerical techniques. In this work, the interaction of a perturbed laminar premixed flame with a finite amplitude compression wave is investigated using the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM). This method optimally solves the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations while capturing the essential scales. The results show that depending on the amplitude and duration of a finite amplitude disturbance, the interaction between these waves and premixed flames can produce a broad range of responses.
FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES
Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub
2008-06-13
In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.
Auto-ignition system for premixed gas turbine combustors
Mumford, S.E.
1993-08-24
In a gas turbine power plant having at least one combustor, the combustor is described comprising a pilot section and a main burn section, the pilot section, having a recirculation zone and comprising inlet air vents for providing inlet air into the recirculation zone, the main burn section being downstream and adjacent to the pilot section, a method for establishing a diffusion flame in the pilot section, comprising the steps of: injecting a flow of natural gas fuel into the pilot section; providing inlet air into the recirculation zone through the inlet air vents; operating the pilot section in a premix mode where the natural gas fuel mixes with the inlet air without combustion in the pilot section; and injecting a flow of liquid fuel into the recirculation zone of the pilot section just prior to the end of operation of the pilot section in the premix mode, the liquid fuel having an auto-ignition temperature less than the temperature of the inlet air, whereby the liquid fuel is auto-ignited in the recirculation zone and the natural gas fuel bursts into flame to establish the diffusion flame in the pilot section.
Results of a model for premixed combustion oscillation
Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.
1996-12-31
Combustion oscillations are receiving renewed research interest due to the increasing application of lean premix (LPM) combustion to gas turbines. A simple, nonlinear model for premixed combustion is described in this paper. The model was developed to help explain specific experimental observations, and to provide guidance for the development of active control schemes based on nonlinear concepts. The model can be used to quickly examine instability trends associated with changes in equivalence ratio, mass flow rate, geometry, ambient conditions, and other pertinent factors. The model represents the relevant processes occurring in a fuel nozzle and combustor which are analogous to current LPM turbine combustors. Conservation equations for the fuel nozzle and combustor are developed from simple control volume analysis, providing a set of ordinary differential equations that can be solved on a personal computer. Combustion is modeled as a stirred reactor, with a bi- molecular reaction rate between fuel and air. A variety of numerical results and comparisons to experimental data are presented to demonstrate the utility of the model. Model results are used to understand the fundamental mechanisms which drive combustion oscillations, the effects of inlet air temperature and nozzle geometry on instability, and the effectiveness of active control schemes. The technique used in the model may also be valuable to understand oscillations in low NO{sub x} industrial burners.
Graded plasma spraying of premixed metalceramic powders on metallic substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, C. R. C.; Trevisan, R.-E.
1997-06-01
The mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of ceramics and metals and the differential stresses it causes at the interface create problems in metal to ceramic joining. Research has been con-ducted to solve this problem in thermal barrier coating technology. Previous studies have considered met-al-ceramic multilayers or graded-coatings, which include a metallic bond coat. In this study, a graded plasma-sprayed metal-ceramic coating is developed using the deposition of premixed metal and ceramic powders without the conventional metallic bond coat. Influences of thickness variations, number, and composition of the layers are investigated. Coatings are prepared by atmospheric plasma-spraying on In-conel 718 superalloy substrates. Ni-Cr-Al and ZrO2 -8 % Y2O3 powders are used for plasma spraying. Ad-hesive and cohesive strength of the coatings are determined. The concentration profile of the elements is determined by x-ray energy-dispersive analysis. The microstructure and morphology of the coatings are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the mixed metal-ce-ramic coating obtained with the deposition of premixed powders is homogeneous. The morphology and microstructure of the coatings are considered satisfactory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnen, Jakob; Hof, Björn
2015-11-01
We show that a simple modification of the velocity profile in a pipe can lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and the flow fully relaminarises. The annihilation of turbulence is achieved by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component alone, greatly reducing control efforts. Several different control techniques are presented: one with a local modification of the flow profile by means of a stationary obstacle, one employing a nozzle injecting fluid through a small gap at the pipe wall and one with a moving wall, where a part of the pipe is shifted in the streamwise direction. All control techniques act on the flow such that the streamwise velocity profile becomes more flat and turbulence gradually grows faint and disappears. In a smooth straight pipe the flow remains laminar downstream of the control. Hence a reduction in skin friction by a factor of 8 and more can be accomplished. Stereoscopic PIV-measurements and movies of the development of the flow during relaminarisation are presented.
An explicit Runge-Kutta method for turbulent reacting flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boretti, A. A.
1989-01-01
The paper presents a numerical method for the solution of the conservation equations governing steady, reacting, turbulent viscous flow in two-dimensional geometries, in both Cartesian and axisymmetric coordinates. These equations are written in Favre-averaged form and closed with a first order model. A two-equation K-epsilon model, where low Reynolds number and compressibility effects are included, and a modified eddy-break up model are used to simulate fluid mechanics turbulence, chemistry and turbulence-combustion interaction. The solution is obtained by using a pseudo-unsteady method with improved perturbation propagation properties. The equations are discretized in space by using a finite volume formulation. An explicit multi-stage dissipative Runge-Kutta algorithm is then used to advance the flow equations in the pseudo-time. The method is applied to the computation of both diffusion and premixed turbulent reacting flows. The computed temperature distributions compare favorably with experimental data.
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Propane-Air Combustion with Non-Homogeneous Reactants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haworth, D.; Cuenot, B.; Poinsot, T.; Blint, R.
1998-11-01
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent propane-air combustion have been performed including complex chemistry and realistic molecular transport. The aerothermochemical conditions simulated (reactant temperature and pressure, turbulence rms velocity and integral length scale) correspond to conditions at the time of ignition in an automotive gasoline direct-injection reciprocating IC engine at low speed and light load. Both stoichiometric homogeneous reactants and non-homogeneous reactants with fuel-based equivalence ratios ranging from zero to four have been simulated. In the case of non-homogeneous reactants, a primary premixed flame (defined based on disappearance of the propane fuel) is followed by a secondary heat-release zone that is dominated by CO kinetics and turbulent mixing. Beyond a few flame thicknesses behind the primary flame, any remaining fuel has been broken down into carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Quantitative information relevant for modeling turbulent flame propagation through nonhomogeneous reactants has been extracted.
Experimental study of the premixed combustion within the nonhomogeneous porous ceramic media
Hsu, P.F.
1996-12-01
An experimental investigation of premixed methane-air combustion within the one-dimensional porous ceramic burners for various burner configurations is presented. The burner is nonhomogeneous because of different pore size ceramic block used in different section of the burner. Therefore, the thermophysical and transport properties are nonuniform along the burner core length. The burners are constructed of partially stabilized zirconia. The CO and NO{sub x} emissions, flame speed, and flame stability are examined and compared at lean equivalence ratios for five different burner configurations. The sandwich-structured burner has very favorable flame stabilizing characteristic due to the radiation reflecting region. While the combustion proceeds at faster rate than other burner configurations, the radiation reflecting region and the exit surface have low temperature. Thus the NO{sub x} emission can be kept at the same low level as the other burner configurations exhibit., It is found that the sandwich-structured burner has the potential for applications such as the liquid waste and volatile organic compounds incinerations. By placing a radiant shield during the emission sampling to simulated hot exit boundary condition, no discernible effect is found on the emission levels.
In Vivo Evaluation of an Injectable Premixed Radiopaque Calcium Phosphate Cement
Åberg, Jonas; Pankotai, Eszter; Hulsart Billström, Gry; Weszl, Miklós; Larsson, Sune; Forster-Horváth, Csaba; Lacza, Zsombor; Engqvist, Håkan
2011-01-01
In this work a radiopaque premixed calcium phosphate cement (pCPC) has been developed and evaluated in vivo. Radiopacity was obtained by adding 0–40 % zirconia to the cement paste. The effects of zirconia on setting time, strength and radiopacity were evaluated. In the in vivo study a 2 by 3.5 mm cylindrical defect in a rat vertebrae was filled with either the pCPC, PMMA or bone chips. Nano-SPECT CT analysis was used to monitor osteoblast activity during bone regeneration. The study showed that by adding zirconia to the cement the setting time becomes longer and the compressive strength is reduced. All materials evaluated in the in vivo study filled the bone defect and there was a strong osteoblast activity at the injury site. In spite of the osteoblast activity, PMMA blocked bone healing and the bone chips group showed minimal new bone formation. At 12 weeks the pCPC was partially resorbed and replaced by new bone with good bone ingrowth. The radiopaque pCPC may be considered to be used for minimal invasive treatment of vertebral fractures since it has good handling, radiopacity and allows healing of cancellous bone in parallel with the resorption of the cement. PMID:21760794
Phase transition to turbulence in a pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldenfeld, Nigel
Leo Kadanoff taught us much about phase transitions, turbulence and collective behavior. Here I explore the transition to turbulence in a pipe, showing how a collective mode determines the universality class. Near the transition, turbulent puffs decay either directly or through splitting, with characteristic time-scales that exhibit a super-exponential dependence on Reynolds number. Direct numerical simulations reveal that a collective mode, a so-called zonal flow emerges at large scales, activated by anisotropic turbulent fluctuations, as represented by Reynolds stress. This zonal flow imposes a shear on the turbulent fluctuations that tends to suppress their anisotropy, leading to a Landau theory of predator-prey type, in the directed percolation universality class. Stochastic simulations of this model reproduce the functional form and phenomenology of pipe flow experiments. Talk based on work performed with Hong-Yan Shih and Tsung-Lin Hsieh. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF-DMR-1044901.
A two-step chemical scheme for kerosene-air premixed flames
Franzelli, B.; Riber, E.; Sanjose, M.; Poinsot, T.
2010-07-15
A reduced two-step scheme (called 2S-KERO-BFER) for kerosene-air premixed flames is presented in the context of Large Eddy Simulation of reacting turbulent flows in industrial applications. The chemical mechanism is composed of two reactions corresponding to the fuel oxidation into CO and H{sub 2}O, and the CO - CO{sub 2} equilibrium. To ensure the validity of the scheme for rich combustion, the pre-exponential constants of the two reactions are tabulated versus the local equivalence ratio. The fuel and oxidizer exponents are chosen to guarantee the correct dependence of laminar flame speed with pressure. Due to a lack of experimental results, the detailed mechanism of Dagaut composed of 209 species and 1673 reactions, and the skeletal mechanism of Luche composed of 91 species and 991 reactions have been used to validate the reduced scheme. Computations of one-dimensional laminar flames have been performed with the 2S{sub K}ERO{sub B}FER scheme using the CANTERA and COSILAB softwares for a wide range of pressure ([1; 12] atm), fresh gas temperature ([300; 700] K), and equivalence ratio ([0.6; 2.0]). Results show that the flame speed is correctly predicted for the whole range of parameters, showing a maximum for stoichiometric flames, a decrease for rich combustion and a satisfactory pressure dependence. The burnt gas temperature and the dilution by Exhaust Gas Recirculation are also well reproduced. Moreover, the results for ignition delay time are in good agreement with the experiments. (author)
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the
Large eddy simulation of flame flashback in a turbulent channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanaly, Malik; Lietz, Christopher; Raman, Venkat; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline; Gruber, Andrea; Computational Flow Physics Group Team
2014-11-01
In high-hydrogen content gas turbines, the propagation of a premixed flame along with boundary layers on the combustor walls is a source of failure, whereby the flame could enter the fuel-air premixing region that is not designed to hold high-temperature fluid. In order to develop models for predicting this phenomenon, a large eddy simulation (LES) based study is carried out here. The flow configuration is based on a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent channel, where an initial planar flame is allowed to propagate upstream in a non-periodic channel. The LES approach uses a flamelet-based combustion model along with standard models for the unresolved subfilter flux terms. It is found that the LES are very accurate in predicting the structure of the turbulent flame front. However, there was a large discrepancy for the transient evolution of the flame, indicating that the flame-boundary layer interaction modulates flame propagation significantly, and the near-wall flame behavior may be non-flamelet like due to the anisotropic of the flow in this region.
Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition Induced by Hot Jets in a Supersonic Premixed Airstream
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Xu; Zhou, Jin; Lin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Yu
2013-05-01
Detonation is initiated through a hot jet in a supersonic premixed mixture of H2 and air, which is produced by using a air heater. The results show that initiation fails in the low-equivalence-ratio premixed gas. With the increase of equivalence ratio, the hot jet can induce deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) in the premixed mixture, which an indirect initiation of detonation. Further studies show that the DDT process is due to the combined effect of a local hemispherical explosion shock wave, the bow shock, and the flame produced by the hot jet.
A Jet-Stirred Apparatus for Turbulent Combustion Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davani, Abbasali; Ronney, Paul
2015-11-01
A novel jet-stirred combustion chamber is designed to study turbulent premixed flames. In the new approach, multiple impinging turbulent jets are used to stir the mixture. It is well known that pair of counterflowing turbulent jets produces nearly a constant intensity (u') along the jet axes. In this study, different numbers of impinging jets in various configurations are used to produce isotropic turbulence intensity. FLUENT simulations have been conducted to assess the viability of the proposed chamber. In order to be able to compare different configurations, three different non dimensional indices are introduces. Mean flow index; Homogeneity index, and Isotropicity index. Using these indices one can compare various chambers including conventional Fan-stirred Reactors. Results show that a concentric inlet/outlet chamber (CAIO) with 8 inlets and 8 outlets with inlet velocity of 20 m/s and initial intensity of 15% produces near zero mean flow and 2.5 m/s turbulence intensity which is much more higher than reported values for Fan-stirred chamber. This research was sponsored by National Science Foundation.
Turbulent flame-wall interaction: a DNS study
Chen, Jackie; Hawkes, Evatt R; Sankaran, Ramanan; Gruber, Andrea
2010-01-01
A turbulent flame-wall interaction (FWI) configuration is studied using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) and detailed chemical kinetics. The simulations are used to investigate the effects of the wall turbulent boundary layer (i) on the structure of a hydrogen-air premixed flame, (ii) on its near-wall propagation characteristics and (iii) on the spatial and temporal patterns of the convective wall heat flux. Results show that the local flame thickness and propagation speed vary between the core flow and the boundary layer, resulting in a regime change from flamelet near the channel centreline to a thickened flame at the wall. This finding has strong implications for the modelling of turbulent combustion using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes or large-eddy simulation techniques. Moreover, the DNS results suggest that the near-wall coherent turbulent structures play an important role on the convective wall heat transfer by pushing the hot reactive zone towards the cold solid surface. At the wall, exothermic radical recombination reactions become important, and are responsible for approximately 70% of the overall heat release rate at the wall. Spectral analysis of the convective wall heat flux provides an unambiguous picture of its spatial and temporal patterns, previously unobserved, that is directly related to the spatial and temporal characteristic scalings of the coherent near-wall turbulent structures.
Pulsating instability and self-acceleration of fast turbulent flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poludnenko, Alexei Y.
2015-01-01
A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations is used to study the intrinsic stability of high-speed turbulent flames. Calculations model the interaction of a fully resolved premixed flame with a highly subsonic, statistically steady, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The computational domain is unconfined to prevent the onset of thermoacoustic instabilities. We consider a wide range of turbulent intensities and system sizes, corresponding to the Damköhler numbers Da = 0.1 - 6.0. These calculations show that turbulent flames in the regimes considered are intrinsically unstable. In particular, we find three effects. (1) Turbulent flame speed, ST, develops pulsations with the observed peak-to-peak amplitude ST max / ST min > 10 and a characteristic time scale close to a large-scale eddy turnover time. Such variability is caused by the interplay between turbulence, which continuously creates the flame surface, and highly intermittent flame collisions, which consume the flame surface. (2) Unstable burning results in the periodic pressure build-up and the formation of pressure waves or shocks, when ST approaches or exceeds the speed of a Chapman-Jouguet deflagration. (3) Coupling of pressure gradients formed during pulsations with density gradients across the flame leads to the anisotropic amplification of turbulence inside the flame volume and flame acceleration. Such process, which is driven by the baroclinic term in the vorticity transport equation, is a reacting-flow analog of the mechanism underlying the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. With the increase in turbulent intensity, the limit-cycle instability discussed here transitions to the regime described in our previous work, in which the growth of ST becomes unbounded and produces a detonation.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Design of turbulent tangential micro-mixers that mix liquids on the nanosecond time scale.
Mitic, Sandra; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan W; van den Berg, Albert; de Vries, Simon
2015-01-15
Unravelling (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms and macromolecular folding pathways on the (sub)microsecond time scale is limited by the time resolution of kinetic instruments for mixing reactants and observation of the progress of the reaction. To improve the mixing time resolution, turbulent four- and two-jet tangential micro-mixers were designed and characterized for their mixing and (unwanted) premixing performances employing acid-base reactions monitored by a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. The mixing performances of the micro-mixers were determined after the mixing chamber in a free-flowing jet. The premixing behavior in the vortex chamber was assessed in an optically transparent glass-silicon replica of a previously well-characterized stainless-steel four-jet tangential micro-mixer. At the highest flow rates, complete mixing was achieved in 160ns with only approximately 9% premixing of the reactants. The mixing time of 160ns is at least 50 times shorter than estimated for other fast mixing devices. Key aspects to the design of ultrafast turbulent micro-mixers are discussed. The integration of these micro-mixers with an optical flow cell would enable the study of the very onset of chemical reactions in general and of enzyme catalytic reactions in particular. PMID:25447461
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Jacob; Kostka, Stanislav; Lynch, Amy; Ganguly, Biswa
2011-09-01
The effects of millisecond-wide, pulsed current-voltage-induced behavior in premixed laminar flames have been investigated through the simultaneous collection of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and chemiluminescence data with particular attention paid to the onset mechanisms. Disturbances caused by applied voltages of 2 kV over a 30-mm gap to a downward propagating, atmospheric pressure, premixed propane/air flame with a flow speed near 2 m/s and an equivalence ratio of 1.06 are investigated. The combined PIV and chemiluminescence-based experimental data show the observed disturbance originates only in or near the cathode fall region very close to the burner base. The data also suggest that the coupling mechanism responsible for the flame disturbance behavior is fluidic in nature, developing from the radial positive chemi-ion distribution and an ion-drift current-induced net body force that acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone in or near the cathode fall. This net body force causes a reduction in flow speed above these near cathodic regions causing the base of the flame to laterally spread. Also, this effect seems to produce a velocity gradient leading to the transition of a laminar flame to turbulent combustion for higher applied current-voltage conditions as shown in previous work (Marcum and Ganguly in Combust Flame 143:27-36, 2005; Schmidt and Ganguly in 48th AIAA aerospace sciences meeting. Orlando, 2010).
Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.
Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M
2013-06-21
We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741
Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges
Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI
2003-12-30
During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.
Flashback detection sensor for lean premix fuel nozzles
Thornton, Jimmy Dean; Richards, George Alan; Straub, Douglas L.; Liese, Eric Arnold; Trader, Jr., John Lee; Fasching, George Edward
2002-08-06
A sensor for detecting the flame occurring during a flashback condition in the fuel nozzle of a lean premix combustion system is presented. The sensor comprises an electrically isolated flashback detection electrode and a guard electrode, both of which generate electrical fields extending to the walls of the combustion chamber and to the walls of the fuel nozzle. The sensor is positioned on the fuel nozzle center body at a location proximate the entrance to the combustion chamber of the gas turbine combustion system. The sensor provides 360.degree. detection of a flashback inside the fuel nozzle, by detecting the current conducted by the flame within a time frame that will prevent damage to the gas turbine combustion system caused by the flashback condition.
[Ulcerative contact dermitis caused by premixed concrete (cement burns)].
Ancona Alayón; Aranda Martínez, J G
1978-01-01
Cement dermatitis manifests clinically as a chronic dermatitis of irritative character, due to its alkaline nature and as allergic contact dermatitis produced by sensitization to chromium and cobalt occurring as trace elements. the present report deals with a mason without previous dermatitis, presenting bullae, ulcers and necrosis in lower limbs, short time after incidental contact at work, with premixed concrete. The clinical manifestations, such as short evolution, clear limitation to sites in close contact with concrete, negativity to standard patch testing and good prognosis with early treatment, are mentioned. The acute irritant nature of the disease is clear, in opposition to the classical manifestations of cement dermatitis. The need of studies of the chemical properties of this material including pH, alkalinity and the possible roll of additives employed, is part of the strategy for prevention of occupational dermatitis in the building trade, which should include also, information of hazards and proper training in their trade. PMID:162070
Pre-mixing apparatus for a turbine engine
Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Zuo, Baifang; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Felling, David Kenton; Uhm, Jong Ho
2012-04-03
A pre-mixing apparatus for a turbine engine includes a main body having an inlet portion, an outlet portion and an exterior wall that collectively establish at least one fluid delivery plenum, and a plurality of fluid delivery tubes extending through at least a portion of the at least one fluid delivery plenum. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes at least one fluid delivery opening fluidly connected to the at least one fluid delivery plenum. With this arrangement, a first fluid is selectively delivered to the at least one fluid delivery plenum, passed through the at least one fluid delivery opening and mixed with a second fluid flowing through the plurality of fluid delivery tubes prior to being combusted in a combustion chamber of a turbine engine.
Premixed flame propagation in combustible particle cloud mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seshadri, K.; Yang, B.
1993-01-01
The structures of premixed flames propagating in combustible systems, containing uniformly distributed volatile fuel particles, in an oxidizing gas mixtures is analyzed. The experimental results show that steady flame propagation occurs even if the initial equivalence ratio of the combustible mixture based on the gaseous fuel available in the particles, phi(u) is substantially larger than unity. A model is developed to explain these experimental observations. In the model it is presumed that the fuel particles vaporize first to yield a gaseous fuel of known chemical composition which then reacts with oxygen in a one-step overall process. It is shown that the interplay of vaporization kinetics and oxidation process, can result in steady flame propagation in combustible mixtures where the value of phi(u) is substantially larger than unity. This prediction is in agreement with experimental observations.
Behaviour of a Premixed Flame Subjected to Acoustic Oscillations
Qureshi, Shafiq R.; Khan, Waqar A.; Prosser, Robert
2013-01-01
In this paper, a one dimensional premixed laminar methane flame is subjected to acoustic oscillations and studied. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the effects of acoustic perturbations on the reaction rates of different species, with a view to their respective contribution to thermoacoustic instabilities. Acoustically transparent non reflecting boundary conditions are employed. The flame response has been studied with acoustic waves of different frequencies and amplitudes. The integral values of the reaction rates, the burning velocities and the heat release of the acoustically perturbed flame are compared with the unperturbed case. We found that the flame's sensitivity to acoustic perturbations is greatest when the wavelength is comparable to the flame thickness. Even in this case, the perturbations are stable with time. We conclude that acoustic fields acting on the chemistry do not contribute significantly to the emergence of large amplitude pressure oscillations. PMID:24376501
Development of a methane premixed catalytic burner for household applications
Cerri, I.; Saracco, G.; Geobaldo, F.; Specchia, V.
2000-01-01
A catalytic premixed burner prototype for domestic-boiler applications was developed on the basis of a perovskite-type catalyst (LaMnO{sub 3}) deposited over a FeCrAlloy fiber panel. An economic and simple catalyst-deposition route, based on in situ pyrolysis of suitable precursors, was conceived and optimized on purpose. Finally, a catalytic burner and a reference noncatalytic one were comparatively tested in a pilot plant (maximum power, 30 kW, corresponding to about 2,000 kW/m{sup 2}). The catalytic burner allowed a strong reduction of CO and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to very low and acceptable levels (down to 3--5 times lower than those of the noncatalytic burner) when operated below 800 kW/m{sup 2}. In these conditions, the NO{sub x} emissions remained quite acceptable and practically unaffected by the presence of the catalyst.
Dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flames in mesoscale channels
Pizza, Gianmarco; Frouzakis, Christos E.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Mantzaras, John; Tomboulides, Ananias G.
2008-10-15
Direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and transport is used to study the stabilization and dynamics of lean ({phi}=0.5) premixed hydrogen/air atmospheric pressure flames in mesoscale planar channels. Channel heights of h=2, 4, and 7 mm, and inflow velocities in the range 0.3{<=}U{sub IN}{<=}1100cm/ s are investigated. Six different burning modes are identified: mild combustion, ignition/extinction, closed steady symmetric flames, open steady symmetric flames, oscillating and, finally, asymmetric flames. Chaotic behavior of cellular flame structures is observed for certain values of U{sub IN}. Stability maps delineating the regions of the different flame types are finally constructed. (author)
Stabilization of premixed flames on rotating Bunsen burners
Cha, J.M.; Sohrab, S.H.
1996-09-01
The effect of rotation on stabilization of methane-air premixed Bunsen flame sis experimentally investigated. Both the flame blowoff and flashback contours are determined in the fuel mole fraction versus Reynolds number plane (X{sub F}-Re) with the rotational Reynolds number Re{sub 4} as a parameter. It is found that rotation of the gas increases the flame stabilization area A{sub s} = A{sub B} {minus} A{sub F} defined as the difference between the flame blowoff A{sub B} and flashback A{sub F} areas in the (X{sub F}-Re) plane. The flame stabilization efficiency is defined as {eta}{sub s} = 1 {minus} A{sub F}/A{sub B} that approaches unity in either A{sub B} {yields} {infinity} or A{sub F} {yields} 0 limit. The experimental results suggest that rotation decreases the flame stabilization efficiency. However, rotation is found to substantially increase the flame stabilization coefficient defined as {beta}{sub s} = A{sub s}/A{sub st}, where A{sub st} is the stabilization area of the standard nonrotating burner. The parameters {eta}{sub s} and {beta}{sub s} may be useful in combustion technology for quantitative evaluation of the stabilization performance of different types of flame holders. In addition, the local hydrodynamics near the center of rotating Bunsen burner is simulated by investigating stabilization of planar laminar premixed flames on rotating porous disks with uniform surface velocity. Physical concepts concerning mechanisms of flame stabilization are discussed in terms of three important parameters namely the translational Reynolds number Re, the rotation Reynolds number Re{sub r}, and the fuel mole fraction X{sub F}. The results of the experimental findings are shown to be in accordance with prior theoretical investigation.
On burner-stabilized cylindrical premixed flames in microgravity
Eng, J.A.; Law, C.K.; Zhu, D.L.
1994-12-31
The structure and response of the curved but unstretched cylindrically symmetric one-dimensional premixed flame generated by a cylindrical porous burner has been studied using (1) activation energy asymptotics with one-step reaction and constant properties, (2) numerical computation with detailed chemistry and transport, and (3) drop-tower microgravity experimentation. The study emphasizes the relative importance of heat loss (to the burner surface) vs flow divergence as the dominant mechanism for flame stabilization, the possibility of establishing a one-dimensional, adiabatic, unstretched, premixed flame in microgravity, the influence of curvature on the upstream and downstream burning rates of the flame, and the relation of these burning rates to those of the inherently nonadiabatic flat-burner flame as well as the freely propagating adiabatic planar flame. Results show that, with increasing flow discharge rate, the dominant flame stabilization mechanism changes from heat loss to flow divergence, hence demonstrating the feasibility of establishing a freely standing, adiabatic, one-dimensional, unstretched flame. It is further shown that, in this adiabatic, divergence-stabilized regime in which the burner discharge flux exceeds that of the adiabatic planar flame, the downstream burning flux is equal to the (constant) burning flux of the adiabatic planar flame while the upstream burning flux exceeds it, and the upstream burning velocity exhibits a maximum with increasing discharge rate. Based on the property of the downstream burning flux, it is also proposed that the laminar burning velocity of a combustible can be readily determined from the experimental values of the burner discharge rate and flame radius. Microgravity results on the flame radius compare favorably with the computed values, while the corresponding laminar burning velocity also agrees well with that obtained from independent numerical computation.
Extinction conditions of a premixed flame in a channel
Alliche, Mounir; Haldenwang, Pierre; Chikh, Salah
2010-06-15
A local refinement method is used to numerically predict the propagation and extinction conditions of a premixed flame in a channel considering a thermodiffusive model. A local refinement method is employed because of the numerous length scales that characterize this phenomenon. The time integration is self adaptive and the solution is based on a multigrid method using a zonal mesh refinement in the flame reaction zone. The objective is to determine the conditions of extinction which are characterized by the flame structure and its properties. We are interested in the following properties: the curvature of the flame, its maximum temperature, its speed of propagation and the distance separating the flame from the wall. We analyze the influence of heat losses at the wall through the thermal conductivity of the wall and the nature of the fuel characterized by the Lewis number of the mixture. This investigation allows us to identify three propagation regimes according to heat losses at the wall and to the channel radius. The results show that there is an intermediate value of the radius for which the flame can bend and propagate provided that its curvature does not exceed a certain limit value. Indeed, small values of the radius will choke the flame and extinguish it. The extinction occurs if the flame curvature becomes too small. Furthermore, this study allows us to predict the limiting values of the heat loss coefficient at extinction as well as the critical value of the channel radius above which the premixed flame may propagate without extinction. A dead zone of length 2-4 times the flame thickness appears between the flame and the wall for a Lewis number (Le) between 0.8 and 2. For small values of Le, local extinctions are observed. (author)
Inhibition of premixed methane-air flames by fluoromethanes
Linteris, G.T.; Truett, L.
1996-04-01
This paper presents the first calculations and measurements of the burning velocity of premixed hydrocarbon flames inhibited by the three one-carbon fluorinated species CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, CF{sub 3}H, and CF{sub 4}. Studying their behavior in methane flames provides an important first step towards understanding the suppression mechanism of hydrocarbon fires by fluorinated compounds. The burning velocity of premixed methane-air flames is determined using the total area method from a schlieren image of the flame. The inhibitors are tested over a range of concentration and fuel-air equivalence ratio, {phi}. The measured burning velocity reduction caused by addition of the inhibitor is compared with that predicted by numerical solution of the species and energy conservation equations employing a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism recently developed at NIST. Even in this first test of the kinetic mechanism on inhibited hydrocarbon flames, the numerically predicted burning velocity reductions for methane-air flames with values of {phi} of 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1 and inhibitor mole fractions in the unburned gases up to 0.08, are in excellent agreement for CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} and within 35% for CF{sub 3}H. The numerical results indicate that the agents CF{sub 3}H and CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} are totally consumed in the flame and the burning velocity is reduced primarily by a reduction in the H-atom concentration through reactions leading to HF formation. In contrast, only about 10% of the CF{sub 4} is consumed and it reduces the burning velocity primarily by lowering the final temperature of the burned gases.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...
Chemical Kinetic Study of Toluene Oxidation Under Premixed and Nonpremixed Conditions
Costa, I D; Bozzelli, J W; Seiser, R; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Chen, C -; Fournet, R; Seshadri, K; Battin-Leclerc, F; Billaud, F
2003-12-10
A study was performed to elucidate the chemical-kinetic mechanism of combustion of toluene. A detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for toluene was improved by adding a more accurate description of the phenyl + O{sub 2} reaction channels, toluene decomposition reactions and the benzyl + O reaction. Results of the chemical kinetic mechanism are compared with experimental data obtained from premixed and non-premixed systems. Under premixed conditions, predicted ignition delay times are compared with new experimental data obtained in shock tube. Also, calculated species concentration histories are compared to experimental flow reactor data from the literature. Under non-premixed conditions, critical conditions of extinction and autoignition were measured in strained laminar flows in the counterflow configuration. Numerical calculations are performed using the chemical-kinetic mechanism at conditions corresponding to those in the experiments. Critical conditions of extinction and autoignition are predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental results of ignition delay times in shock tube, and extinction and autoignition in non-premixed systems show that the chemical-kinetic mechanism predicts that toluene/air is overall less reactive than observed in the experiments. For both premixed and non-premixed systems, sensitivity analysis was used to identify the reaction rate constants that control the overall rate of oxidation in each of the systems considered. Under shock tube conditions, the reactions that influence ignition delay time are H + O{sub 2} chain branching, the toluene decomposition reaction to give an H atom, and the toluene + H abstraction reaction. The reactions that influence autoignition in non-premixed systems involve the benzyl + HO{sub 2} reaction and the phenyl + O{sub 2} reaction.
Turbulence modeling of gas-solid suspension flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1988-01-01
The purpose here is to discuss and review advances in two-phase turbulent modeling techniques and their applications in various gas-solid suspension flow situations. In addition to the turbulence closures, heat transfer effect, particle dispersion and wall effects are partially covered.
Experimental investigation of stabilization mechanisms in turbulent, lifted jet diffusion flames
Su, L.K.; Sun, O.S.; Mungal, M.G.
2006-02-01
Simultaneous planar-laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) provide a comprehensive view of the molecular mixing and velocity fields in the stabilization region of turbulent, lifted jet diffusion flames. The Mie scattering medium for PIV is a glycerol-water fog, which evaporates at elevated temperatures and allows inference of the location of the high-temperature interface at the flame base. The jet Reynolds numbers vary from 4400 to 10,700. The mixing and velocity fields upstream of the flame base evolve consistently with nonreacting jet scaling. Conditional statistics of the fuel mole fraction at the instantaneous high-temperature interface show that the flame stabilization point does not generally correspond to the most upstream point on the interface (called here the leading point), because the mixture there is typically too lean to support combustion. Instead, the flame stabilization point lies toward the jet centerline relative to the leading point. Conditional axial velocity statistics indicate that the mean axial velocity at the flame front is {approx}1.8S{sub L}, where S{sub L} is the stoichiometric laminar flame speed. The data also permit determination of the scalar dissipation rates, {chi}, with the results indicating that {chi} values near the high-temperature interfaces do not typically exceed the quenching value. Thus, the flame stabilization process is more consistent with theories based on partial fuel-air premixing than with those dependent on diffusion flame quenching. We propose a description of flame stabilization that depends on the large-scale organization of the mixing field. (author)
Coriton, Bruno; Smooke, Mitchell D.; Gomez, Alessandro
2010-11-15
The extinction of premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames counterflowing against a jet of combustion products in chemical equilibrium was investigated numerically using detailed chemistry and transport mechanisms. Such a problem is of relevance to combustion systems with non-homogeneous air/fuel mixtures or recirculation of the burnt gases. Contrary to similar studies that were focused on heat loss/gain, depending on the degree of non-adiabaticity of the system, the emphasis here was on the yet unexplored role of the composition of counterflowing burnt gases in the extinction of lean-to-stoichiometric premixed flames. For a given temperature of the counterflowing products of combustion, it was found that the decrease of heat release with increase in strain rate could be either monotonic or non-monotonic, depending on the equivalence ratio {phi}{sub b} of the flame feeding the hot combustion product stream. Two distinct extinction modes were observed: an abrupt one, when the hot counterflowing stream consists of either inert gas or equilibrium products of a stoichiometric premixed flame, and a smooth extinction, when there is an excess of oxidizing species in the combustion product stream. In the latter case four burning regimes can be distinguished as the strain rate is progressively increased while the heat release decreases smoothly: an adiabatic propagating flame regime, a non-adiabatic propagating flame regime, the so-called partially-extinguished flame regime, in which the location of the peak of heat release crosses the stagnation plane, and a frozen flow regime. The flame structure was analyzed in detail in the different burning regimes. Abrupt extinction was attributed to the quenching of the oxidation layer with the entire H-OH-O radical pool being comparably reduced. Under conditions of smooth extinction, the behavior is different and the concentration of the H radical decreases the most with increasing strain rate, whereas OH and O remain
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
Stopper, U.; Aigner, M.; Ax, H.; Meier, W.; Sadanandan, R.; Stoehr, M.; Bonaldo, A.
2010-04-15
Several laser diagnostic measurement techniques have been applied to study the lean premixed natural gas/air flames of an industrial swirl burner. This was made possible by equipping the burner with an optical combustion chamber that was installed in the high-pressure test rig facility at the DLR Institute of Combustion Technology in Stuttgart. The burner was operated with preheated air at various operating conditions with pressures up to p = 6 bar and a maximum thermal power of P = 1 MW. The instantaneous planar flow field inside the combustor was studied with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals on a single-shot basis was used to determine the shape and the location of the flame front as well as the spatial distribution of reaction products. 1D laser Raman spectroscopy was successfully applied for the measurement of the temperature and the concentration of major species under realistic gas turbine conditions. Results of the flow field analysis show the shape and the size of the main flow regimes: the inflow region, the inner and the outer recirculation zone. The highly turbulent flow field of the inner shear layer is found to be dominated by small and medium sized vortices. High RMS fluctuations of the flow velocity in the exhaust gas indicate the existence of a rotating exhaust gas swirl. From the PLIF images it is seen that the primary reactions happened in the shear layers between inflow and the recirculation zones and that the appearance of the reaction zones changed with flame parameters. The results of the multiscalar Raman measurements show a strong variation of the local mixture fraction allowing conclusions to be drawn about the premix quality. Furthermore, mixing effects of unburnt fuel and air with fully reacted combustion products are studied giving insights into the processes of the turbulence-chemistry interaction. (author)
Froud, D.; O`Doherty, T.; Syred, N.
1995-02-01
The flow patterns produced in and past the exhaust of a 100-KW swirl burner have been investigated experimentally under piloted premixed combustion conditions. The well-known three-dimensional time-dependent instability called the precessing vortex core (PVC) dominates the flow and mixing patterns. The PVC and its associated cycle time were used to trigger a three-component laser anemometry system. Successive cycles were overlaid and phase averaged to give a three-dimensional picture of the rotating flow fields. Measurements were obtained over successive slices of the flow, extending to X/De = 2.5 past the burner exit. A description of the flow was thus obtained in terms of phase averaged tangential, axial and radial velocities in tangential/radial and axial/radial planes. The results confirm previous reported work on the same burner operated isothermally and show that the center of the vortex flow is displaced from the central axis of the burner, creating the PVC phenomena as the center of the vortex precesses around the central axis of symmetry. As a consequence of this displacement the reverse flow zone (RFZ) is also displaced, while also partially lagging behind the PVC by up to 180{degree}. The RFZ acts as a feedback mechanism for the PVC phenomena. As a consequence of the displaced vortex center, flow between the PVC center and the wall is squeezed. Thus, due to angular momentum flux consideration, it produces a considerable increase in tangential velocity and gives the characteristic PVC signal. The displaced RFZ is both rotating through a region of forward flow while also being of an intermittent nature, giving rise to the excellent flame stabilization and mixing characteristics of these types of burners. Similar results were obtained for isothermal and premixed combustion conditions providing the flame was stabilized close to the burner exit nozzle.
2011-01-01
Introduction About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy? What is the risk of relapse in people in remission when withdrawing antiepileptic drugs? What are the effects of behavioural and psychological treatments for people with epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiepileptic drugs after a single seizure; monotherapy for partial epilepsy using carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate, or topiramate; addition of second-line drugs for drug-resistant partial epilepsy (allopurinol, eslicarbazepine, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, losigamone, oxcarbazepine, retigabine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or zonisamide); antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with partial or
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aumeier, Thomas
2011-12-01
The modeling of combustion phenomena in turbulent flows is an important requirement to calculate the effects on the underlying flow field and thus to use the results for design studies and optimization processes in technical applications. Complex chemical systems arise due to the large amount of species participating in combustion reactions as well as multiple reaction paths which are represented by a set of reaction equations. These systems have to be solved with suitable numerical techniques and must consider the influence of turbulence in the mean transport equations, respectively. Compared to the time scales in the flow, chemical reactions occur on a more expanded range of time at a molecular level. This effect reflects in the formulation of the equations for the calculation of chemical reaction rates, which are given in a Lagrangian formulation and therefore only depends on time. In practical cases specific combustion models are used depending on the combustion regime which is associated within an application. In this thesis a combustion model for turbulence chemistry interactions is presented, which can be used, independently of the combustion regime, for both diffusion and premixed flames as well as for partially premixed flames in realistic combustors. With the aid of the model the mean chemical source terms can be coupled to the species transport equations and the energy equation of the commercial CFD - solver FLUENTÂ®. This is done within the solver by a user-friendly interface, the so-called User Defined Functions (UDF). Transport equations for each specie progressing in the chemical reactions are solved and its source terms are calculated with the aid of a detailed reaction mechanism. In the presented model the calculation of the mean values is performed by coupling a Lagrangian solution procedure with an Eulerian finite volume solver. A very large amount of individual particles are considered where for each particle additional Lagrangian equations
Triantafyllidis, A.; Mastorakos, E.; Eggels, R.L.G.M.
2009-12-15
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced ignition of a bluff-body stabilised non-premixed methane flame using the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) turbulent combustion model have been performed. The aim is to investigate the feasibility of the use of CMC/LES for ignition problems and to examine which, if any, of the characteristics already observed in related experiments could be predicted. A three-dimensional formulation of the CMC equation was used with simple and detailed chemical mechanisms, and sparks with different parameters (location, size) were used. It was found that the correct pattern of flame expansion and overall flame appearance were predicted with reasonable accuracy with both mechanisms, but the detailed mechanism resulted in expansion rates closer to the experiment. Moreover, the distribution of OH was predicted qualitatively accurately, with patches of high and low concentration in the recirculation zone during the ignition transient, consistent with experimental data. The location of the spark relative to the recirculation zone was found to determine the pattern of the flame propagation and the total time for the flame stabilisation. The size was also an important parameter, since it was found that the flame extinguishes when the spark is very small, in agreement with expectations from experiment. The stabilisation mechanism of the flame was dominated by the convection and sub-grid scale diffusion of hot combustion products from the recirculation zone to the cold gases that enter the burner, as revealed by analysis of the CMC equation. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, O. L.; Chiappetta, L. M.; Edwards, D. E.; Mcvey, J. B.
1982-01-01
A model for predicting the distribution of liquid fuel droplets and fuel vapor in premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages of the direct injection type is reported. This model consists of three computer programs; a calculation of the two dimensional or axisymmetric air flow field neglecting the effects of fuel; a calculation of the three dimensional fuel droplet trajectories and evaporation rates in a known, moving air flow; a calculation of fuel vapor diffusing into a moving three dimensional air flow with source terms dependent on the droplet evaporation rates. The fuel droplets are treated as individual particle classes each satisfying Newton's law, a heat transfer, and a mass transfer equation. This fuel droplet model treats multicomponent fuels and incorporates the physics required for the treatment of elastic droplet collisions, droplet shattering, droplet coalescence and droplet wall interactions. The vapor diffusion calculation treats three dimensional, gas phase, turbulent diffusion processes. The analysis includes a model for the autoignition of the fuel air mixture based upon the rate of formation of an important intermediate chemical species during the preignition period.
Emulsification in turbulent flow 2. Breakage rate constants.
Vankova, Nina; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai D; Vulchev, Vassil D; Danner, Thomas
2007-09-15
Systematic experimental study of the effects of several factors on the breakage rate constant, k(BR), during emulsification in turbulent flow is performed. These factors are the drop size, interfacial tension, viscosity of the oil phase, and rate of energy dissipation in the flow. As starting oil-water premixes we use emulsions containing monodisperse oil drops, which have been generated by the method of membrane emulsification. By passing these premixes through a narrow-gap homogenizer, working in turbulent regime of emulsification, we study the evolution of the number concentration of the drops with given diameter, as a function of the emulsification time. The experimental data are analyzed by a kinetic scheme, which takes into account the generation of drops of a given size (as a result of breakage of larger drops) and their disappearance (as a result of their own breakage process). The experimental results for k(BR) are compared with theoretical expressions from the literature and their modifications. The results for all systems could be described reasonably well by an explicit expression, which is a product of: (a) the frequency of collisions between drops and turbulent eddies of similar size, and (b) the efficiency of drop breakage, which depends on the energy required for drop deformation. The drop deformation energy contains two contributions, originating from the drop surface extension and from the viscous dissipation inside the breaking drop. In the related subsequent paper, the size distribution of the daughter drops formed in the process of drop breakage is analyzed for the same experimental systems. PMID:17553511
Multidimensional Potential Burgers Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boritchev, Alexandre
2016-03-01
We consider the multidimensional generalised stochastic Burgers equation in the space-periodic setting: partial {u}/partial t+(nabla f({u}) \\cdot nabla) {u}-ν Δ {u}= nabla η, quad t ≥ 0, {x} in{T}^d=({R}/ {Z})^d, under the assumption that u is a gradient. Here f is strongly convex and satisfies a growth condition, ν is small and positive, while η is a random forcing term, smooth in space and white in time. For solutions u of this equation, we study Sobolev norms of u averaged in time and in ensemble: each of these norms behaves as a given negative power of ν. These results yield sharp upper and lower bounds for natural analogues of quantities characterising the hydrodynamical turbulence, namely the averages of the increments and of the energy spectrum. These quantities behave as a power of the norm of the relevant parameter, which is respectively the separation ℓ in the physical space and the wavenumber k in the Fourier space. Our bounds do not depend on the initial condition and hold uniformly in {ν}. We generalise the results obtained for the one-dimensional case in [10], confirming the physical predictions in [4, 30]. Note that the form of the estimates does not depend on the dimension: the powers of {ν, |{{k}}|, ℓ} are the same in the one- and the multi-dimensional setting.
Cheng, R.K.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D.T.
1999-07-01
The field effects of buoyancy on laminar and turbulent premixed v-flames have been studied by the use of laser Doppler velocimetry to measure the velocity statistics in +1g, -1g and {micro}g flames. The experimental conditions covered mean velocity, Uo, of 0.4 to 2 m/s, methane/air equivalence ratio, f, of 0.62 to 0.75. The Reynolds numbers, from 625 to 3130 and the Richardson number from 0.05 to 1.34. The results show that a change from favorable (+1g) to unfavorable (-1g) mean pressure gradient in the plume create stagnating flows in the far field whose influences on the mean and fluctuating velocities persist in the near field even at the highest Re we have investigated. The use of Richardson number < 0.1 as a criterion for momentum dominance is not sufficient to prescribe an upper limit for these buoyancy effects. In {micro}g, the flows within the plumes are non-accelerating and parallel. Therefore, velocity gradients and hence mean strain rates in the plumes of laboratory flames are direct consequences of buoyancy. Furthermore, the rms fluctuations in the plumes of {micro}g flames are lower and more isotropic than in the laboratory flames to show that the unstable plumes in laboratory flames also induce velocity fluctuations. The phenomena influenced by buoyancy i.e. degree of flame wrinkling, flow acceleration, flow distribution, and turbulence production, can be subtle due to their close coupling with other flame flow interaction processes. But they cannot be ignored in fundamental studies or else the conclusions and insights would be ambiguous and not very meaningful.
Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels
Seitzman, Jerry; Lieuwen, Timothy
2014-09-30
This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These results provide
Identification of Coherent Structures in Premixed Reacting Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haffner, Eileen; Green, Melissa; Oran, Elaine; Syracuse University Team; University of Maryland Team
2014-11-01
Many studies have been conducted on the best ways to quantitatively characterize the turbulence-flame interaction in reacting flows. It has been observed that increased turbulence intensity both wrinkles and broadens the flame front throughout the preheat zone and reaction zone. A Lagrangian coherent structures analysis is used to identify the individual coherent turbulent structures as the maximizing ridges of the Finite-Time Lyapunov exponent scalar field (FTLE). This method provides different information than Eulerian criteria which have predominantly been used in previous reacting flow studies. Preliminary results show that LCS ridges exhibit a clear qualitative correlation to the contour of the fuel mass-fraction of the flame. A quantitative characterization of how the LCS results correlate to observed flame geometries will allow for a better understanding of how these structures affect the flame brush, and could lead to improved efficiency in particular engines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yue
2016-02-01
The recent progress on non-local Lagrangian and quasi-Lagrangian structures in turbulence is reviewed. The quasi-Lagrangian structures, e.g., vortex surfaces in viscous flow, gas-liquid interfaces in multi-phase flow, and flame fronts in premixed combustion, can show essential Lagrangian following properties, but they are able to have topological changes in the temporal evolution. In addition, they can represent or influence the turbulent flow field. The challenges for the investigation of the non-local structures include their identification, characterization, and evolution. The improving understanding of the quasi-Lagrangian structures is expected to be helpful to elucidate crucial dynamics and develop structure-based predictive models in turbulence.
Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.
Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N
2016-08-01
Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows
An abbreviated Reynolds stress turbulence model for airfoil flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaffney, R. L., Jr.; Hassan, H. A.; Salas, M. D.
1990-01-01
An abbreviated Reynolds stress turbulence model is presented for solving turbulent flow over airfoils. The model consists of two partial differential equations, one for the Reynolds shear stress and the other for the turbulent kinetic energy. The normal stresses and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy are computed from algebraic relationships having the correct asymptotic near wall behavior. This allows the model to be integrated all the way to the wall without the use of wall functions. Results for a flat plate at zero angle of attack, a NACA 0012 airfoil and a RAE 2822 airfoil are presented.
Potential capabilities of Reynolds stress turbulence model in the COMMIX-RSM code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, F. C.; Bottoni, M.
1994-01-01
A Reynolds stress turbulence model has been implemented in the COMMIX code, together with transport equations describing turbulent heat fluxes, variance of temperature fluctuations, and dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy. The model has been verified partially by simulating homogeneous turbulent shear flow, and stable and unstable stratified shear flows with strong buoyancy-suppressing or enhancing turbulence. This article outlines the model, explains the verifications performed thus far, and discusses potential applications of the COMMIX-RSM code in several domains, including, but not limited to, analysis of thermal striping in engineering systems, simulation of turbulence in combustors, and predictions of bubbly and particulate flows.
3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.
2013-07-01
non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion discs, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples to list. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or acceleration. Their scaling, spectral and invariant properties differ substantially from those of classical Kolmogorov turbulence. At atomistic and meso-scales, the non-equilibrium dynamics depart dramatically from a standard scenario given by Gibbs statistic ensemble average and quasi-static Boltzmann equation. The singular aspect and the similarity of the non-equilibrium dynamics at macroscopic scales are interplayed with the fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations and with the problem sensitivity to the boundary conditions at discontinuities. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multi-phase flows suggest new methods for predictive modelling of the multi-scale non-equilibrium dynamics in fluids and plasmas, for error estimates and uncertainty quantifications, as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. 3. International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' The First and Second International Conferences on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond found that: (i) TMB-related problems have in common a set of outstanding research issues; (ii) their solution has a potential to significantly advance a variety of disciplines in science
Numerical simulation of premixed flame propagation in a closed tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzuu, Kazuto; Ishii, Katsuya; Kuwahara, Kunio
1996-08-01
Premixed flame propagation of methane-air mixture in a closed tube is estimated through a direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations coupled with chemical reaction. In order to deal with a combusting flow, an extended version of the MAC method, which can be applied to a compressible flow with strong density variation, is employed as a numerical method. The chemical reaction is assumed to be an irreversible single step reaction between methane and oxygen. The chemical species are CH 4, O 2, N 2, CO 2, and H 2O. In this simulation, we reproduce a formation of a tulip flame in a closed tube during the flame propagation. Furthermore we estimate not only a two-dimensional shape but also a three-dimensional structure of the flame and flame-induced vortices, which cannot be observed in the experiments. The agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data is satisfactory, and we compare the phenomenon near the side wall with the one in the corner of the tube.
Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in non-premixed reacting flames.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attal, Nitesh; Ramaprabhu, Praveen
2015-11-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) occurs at a perturbed interface between fluids of different densities when a light fluid pushes a heavier fluid. The mixing driven by RTI affects several physical phenomena, such as Inertial Confinement Fusion, Supernovae detonation, centrifugal combustors and liquid rocket engines. The RTI in such flows is often coupled with chemical/nuclear reactions that may form complex density stratifications in the form of flames or ablative layers. We investigate such a non-premixed fuel-air interface subject to a constant acceleration and developing under the influence of chemical reactions using high-resolution, Navier-Stokes simulations. The H2 fuel is diluted with N2 to vary the density difference across the interface in thermal equilibrium (at 1000K). The intervening layer between fuel and air is subject to exothermic combustion reactions to form a flame. Following combustion, initially unstable fuel-air interfaces at an Atwood number (At) <0.5, transform into stable (fuel-flame) and unstable (flame-air) interfaces. We report on interfaces (At = 0.2 and 0.6) with single wavelength, sinusoidal perturbations and a broadband spectrum of multimode perturbations.
A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations
Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.
1996-03-01
This report discusses design and operation of a single-nozzle test combustor for studying lean, premixed combustion oscillations from gas turbine fuel nozzles. It was used to study oscillations from a prototype fuel nozzle that produced oscillations during testing in a commercial engine. Similar, but not identical, oscillations were recorded in the test device. Basic requirements of the device design were that the flame geometry be maintained and acoustic losses be minimized; this was achieved by using a Helmholtz resonator as the combustor geometry. Surprisingly, the combustor oscillated strongly at several frequencies, without modification of the resonator. Brief survey of operating conditions suggests that it may be helpful to characterize oscillating behavior in terms of reference velocity and inlet air temperature with the rig backpressure playing a smaller role. The preliminary results do not guarantee that the single-nozzle test device will reproduce arbitrary oscillations that occur on a complete engine test. Nozzle/nozzle interactions may complicate the response, and oscillations controlled by acoustic velocities transverse to the nozzle axis may not be reproduced in a test device that relies on a bulk Helmholtz mode. Nevertheless, some oscillations can be reproduced, and the single-nozzle test device allows both active and passive control strategies to be tested relatively inexpensively.
Development of a lean premixed burner for hydrogen utilization
Keller, J.O.
1996-10-01
The long-term mandate of the hydrogen program is to develop the technologies needed to establish a hydrogen economy. Although a hydrogen fueled automobile has been established as a demonstration project, there are at least three other end use sectors that are recognized by the H{sub 2} program and that are addressed by this project. These end uses are: (1) power generation from stationary turbines, (2) generation of process heat or steam, and (3) commercial and residential direct use applications. Eliminating carbon from the fuel will remove carbon containing species from the emissions, however, NO{sub x} resulting from thermal NO production cannot be ignored. Thermal NO production is minimized by reducing the peak combustion temperature and the residence time at the peak temperature. NO can be reduced to extremely low levels (a few ppm) by operating sufficiently lean to reduce the peak combustion temperatures below 1700 to 1800 K. The objectives for this project are to: (1) develop an environmentally benign and safe burner operating on hydrogen in a lean premixed mode, (2) provide a facility in which fundamental investigations can be performed to support other programs.
Torch ignition: Ideal for lean burn premixed-charge engines
Mavinahally, N.S. ); Assanis, D.N. ); Govinda Mallan, K.R.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V. )
1994-10-01
Sluggish flame initiation and propagation, and even potential misfiring, become major problems with lean-fueled, premixed-charge, spark-ignited engines. This work studies torch ignition as a means for improving combustion, fuel economy, and emissions of a retrofitted, large combustion chamber with nonideal spark plug location. A number of alternative configurations, employing different torch chamber designs, spark-plug locations, and materials, were tested under full-load and part-load conditions. Results indicate a considerable extension of the lean operating limit of the engine, especially under part-load conditions. In addition, torch ignition can lead to substantial thermal efficiency gains for either leaner or rich air-fuel ratios than the optimum for the conventional ignition system. On the richer side, in particular, the torch-ignited engine is capable of operating at maximum brake torque spark timings, rather than compromised, knock-limited spark timings used with conventional ignition. This translates into thermal efficiency improvements as high as 8% at an air-fuel ratio of 20:1 and full load.
Stationary premixed flames in spherical and cylindrical geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, P. D.; Whaling, K. N.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Gatto, J. L.; Pisowiscz, V. L.
1994-01-01
Stationary source-free spherical flames ('flame balls') in premixed combustible gases were studied by employing low-gravity (micro-g) environments in a drop tower and an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories to diminish the impact of buoyancy-induced convective flow. Flame balls were found in all mixture families tested when: (1) the Lewis number Le of the deficient reactant was sufficiently low; and (2) the compositions were sufficiently close to the flammability limits. Probably as a consequence of the reduction in buoyant convection, the flammability limits at micro-g were significantly more dilute than those at Earth gravity; for example, 3.35% H2 vs 4.0% H2 in lean H2-air mixtures. By comparison with analytical and computational models, it is inferred that the phenomenon is probably related to diffusive-thermal effects in low-Le mixtures in conjunction with flame-front curvature and radiative heat losses from the combustion products. The chemical reaction mechanism appears to play no qualitative role. In the aircraft experiments, the gravity levels (approximately equal 10(exp -2)g(sub 0)) were found to cause noticeable motion of flame balls due to buoyancy, which in turn influenced the behavior of flame balls. At these g levels, a new type of transient, nearly cylindrical flame structure, termed 'flame strings,' was observed.
Ohira, Yutaka
2013-04-10
We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.
Geophysical and astrophysical turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffatt, H. K.
Spiral structures in two-dimensional turbulence are studied and a theory (Moffatt, 1985, 1986) which regards fully three-dimensional turbulence as an agglomeration of 'random vortex sheets and coherent helical structures' is reviewed. Consideration is given to the process by which current-sheet discontinuities may appear during magnetic relaxation. Within the framework of dynamo theory, the determination of the generation coefficient and the turbulent diffusivity in mean-field electrodynamics for turbulence with helicity in the limit of a large magnetic Reynolds number is discussed. Certain features of 'chromospheric turbulence' (i.e., turbulence in the solar atmosphere outside the photosphere) are also examined.
Photon-counting chirped amplitude modulation lidar using a smart premixing method.
Zhang, Zijing; Zhang, Jianlong; Wu, Long; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yuan; Su, Jianzhong
2013-11-01
We proposed a new premixing method for photon-counting chirped amplitude modulation lidar (PCCAML). Earlier studies used the counting results of the returned signal detected by a Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector (Gm-APD) to mix with the reference signal, called the postmixing method. We use an alternative method known as the premixing method, in which the reference signal is used to directly modulate the sampling gate width of the Gm-APD, and the mixing of the returned signal and the reference signal is completed before the Gm-APD. This premixing method is more flexible and may perform better than the postmixing method in terms of signal-to-noise ratio by cutting down a separated mixer commonly used in the postmixing lidar system. Furthermore, this premixing method lowers the demand for the sampling frequency of the Gm-APD. It allows the use of a much wider modulation bandwidth to improve the range accuracy and resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to use the premixing method in the PCCAML system, which will benefit future lidar applications. PMID:24177101
Influence of drop size distribution and fuel vapor fraction on premixed spray combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machiroutu, Sridhar Venkatabojji
Premixed spray combustion is affected by fuel and oxidizer properties, mixture equivalence ratio and spray quality. The spray quality is characterized by a mean droplet diameter (SMD) and a droplet size distribution (DSD). Prior experimental studies have considered only the influence of SMD, in part due to the difficulty in controlling the DSD independently. The present work provides experimental evidence demonstrating the effect of the fuel droplet size distribution and fuel vapor fraction on premixed spray combustion. Combustion experiments were performed in a pilot-ignited, continuous flow, tubular, vertical test rig wherein fuel sprays were injected into an air stream. A novel twin-atomizer technique that allowed control over overall equivalence ratio, SMD, DSD, and fuel vapor fraction of the premixed spray was used to generate test sprays. A line-of-sight, infrared (IR) extinction technique was developed to quantify the fuel vapor fraction in premixed sprays. Radial distributions of fuel vapor were evaluated using an 'onion peeling' deconvolution technique. Combustion of test sprays indicated flame propagation among regions of high fuel vapor fraction to generate a high rate of combustion. In lean premixed sprays, the presence of a low fuel vapor concentration does not impact the combustion process. Experimental evidence demonstrating the enhancement of flame propagation velocity for optimal SMDs of ethanol sprays has been found. It was observed that test sprays with narrower DSDs have faster burning rates and more complete combustion. The DSD of the sprays were characterized with a droplet surface-area-based standard deviation of the DSD.
Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion
Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi
2002-01-01
A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.
Preparation of lipid nanoemulsions by premix membrane emulsification with disposable materials.
Gehrmann, Sandra; Bunjes, Heike
2016-09-25
The possibility to prepare nanoemulsions as drug carrier systems on small scale was investigated with disposable materials. For this purpose premix membrane emulsification (premix ME) as a preparation method for nanoemulsions with narrow particle size distributions on small scale was used. The basic principle of premix ME is that the droplets of a coarse pre-emulsion get disrupted by the extrusion through a porous membrane. In order to implement the common preparation setup for premix ME with disposable materials, the suitability of different syringe filters (made from polyethersulfone, cellulose acetate, cellulose ester and nylon) and different pharmaceutically relevant emulsifiers (phospholipids, polysorbate 80 and sucrose laurate) for the preparation of nanoemulsions was investigated. Already the preparation of the premix could be realized by emulsification with the help of two disposable syringes. As shown for a phospholipid-stabilized emulsion, the polyethersulfone filter was the most appropriate one and was used for the study with different emulsifiers. With this syringe filter, the median particle size of all investigated emulsions was below 500nm after 21 extrusion cycles through a 200nm filter and a subsequent extrusion cycle through a 100nm filter. Furthermore, the particle size distribution of the polysorbate 80- and sucrose laurate-stabilized emulsions prepared this way was very narrow (span value of 0.7). PMID:27477104
Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan
2011-04-01
This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477
Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujiana, Kandaga; Moum, James N.; Smyth, William D.; Warner, Sally J.
2015-05-01
Measurements of currents and turbulence beneath a geostationary ship in the equatorial Indian Ocean during a period of weak surface forcing revealed unexpectedly strong turbulence beneath the surface mixed layer. Coincident with the turbulence was a marked reduction of the current speeds registered by shipboard Doppler current profilers, and an increase in their variability. At a mooring 1 km away, measurements of turbulence and currents showed no such anomalies. Correlation with the shipboard echo sounder measurements indicate that these nighttime anomalies were associated with fish aggregations beneath the ship. The fish created turbulence by swimming against the strong zonal current in order to remain beneath the ship, and their presence affected the Doppler speed measurements. The principal characteristics of the resultant ichthyogenic turbulence are (i) low wave number roll-off of shear spectra in the inertial subrange relative to geophysical turbulence, (ii) Thorpe overturning scales that are small compared with the Ozmidov scale, and (iii) low mixing efficiency. These factors extend previous findings by Gregg and Horne (2009) to a very different biophysical regime and support the general conclusion that the biological contribution to mixing the ocean via turbulence is negligible.
Study of premixing phase of steam explosion with JASMINE code in ALPHA program
Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun
1996-08-01
Premixing phase of steam explosion has been studied in ALPHA Program at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). An analytical model to simulate the premixing phase, JASMINE (JAERI Simulator for Multiphase Interaction and Explosion), has been developed based on a multi-dimensional multi-phase thermal hydraulics code MISTRAL (by Fuji Research Institute Co.). The original code was extended to simulate the physics in the premixing phenomena. The first stage of the code validation was performed by analyzing two mixing experiments with solid particles and water: the isothermal experiment by Gilbertson et al. (1992) and the hot particle experiment by Angelini et al. (1993) (MAGICO). The code predicted reasonably well the experiments. Effectiveness of the TVD scheme employed in the code was also demonstrated.
Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel
Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P
2012-11-20
A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.
Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel
Steele, Robert C.; Edmonds, Ryan G.; Williams, Joseph T.; Baldwin, Stephen P.
2009-10-20
A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.
Effect of premixing quality on oxides of nitrogen in gas turbine combustors foi HC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roffe, G.; Ferri, A.
1976-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of several premixing prevaporizing gas turbine combustor designs in reducing formation of oxides of nitrogen at the supersonic cruise condition. An atomized spray from a single injector mounted on the axis of the mixer tube produced a high initial concentration of fuel near the axis and only moderate premixed conditions entering the combustor. A fuel spray produced by 12 flush-mounted normal injection orifices in the mixer tube wall produced a good initial despersion of fuel and resulted in nearly complete premixing. Oxides of nitrogen emission levels of the order of 0.2 g NO2/kg fuel were obtained at 99 percent combustion efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. Overall total pressure drop was less than 3 percent through the 1-meter combustor module.
Exhaust emissions from a premixing, prevaporizing flame tube using liquid jet A fuel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marek, C. J.; Papathakos, L. C.
1976-01-01
Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons were measured in a burner where liquid Jet A fuel was sprayed into the heated air stream and vaporized upstream of a perforated plate flameholder. The burner was tested at inlet air temperatures at 640, 800, and 833 K, an inlet pressure of 5.6 X 100,000 N/m squared, a reference velocity of 25 m/sec, and equivalence ratios from lean blowout to 0.7. Nitrogen oxide levels of below 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel were obtained at combustion efficiencies greater than 99 percent. The measured emission levels for the liquid fuel agreed well with previously reported premixed gaseous propane data and agreed with well stirred reactor predictions. Autoignition of the premixed fuel air mixture was a problem at inlet temperatures above 650 K with 104 msec premixing time.
Characterization of Turbulent Flows for Turbulence Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, W. C.; Haire, S. L.
1998-11-01
A diagram for the characterization of turbulent flows using the invariants of the mean velocity gradient tensor is introduced. All mean flows, from irrotationally strained flows to shearing flows, to purely rotational flows, can be identified on this diagram. Different flow fields which occupy the same region on the diagram are said to be comprised of the same topological features. The current state of turbulence modeling can be identified on the diagram based on the type of mean flow fields which can be accurately computed. Regions on the diagram can be shown for which current capabilities in turbulence modeling fail to accurately resolve the turbulent structures. Relevant mean field topology is identified for future work in turbulence modeling. Using this analysis, we suggest a number of flows to be computed by DNS or LES and used as testing cases for new models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Z. W.; Alwahabi, Z. T.; Gu, D. H.; Mahmoud, S. M.; Nathan, G. J.; Dally, B. B.
2015-03-01
The influence of beam steering and signal trapping on the accuracy of soot volume fractions measured using planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) has been investigated in turbulent non-premixed sooting flames at atmospheric pressure. In turbulent non-premixed C2H4/air flames, the influence of local de-focusing/focusing of the laser sheet from beam steering can result in the underestimate of the averaged LII signal by 30 %, even when operating within the so-called plateau regime of laser fluence. Beam steering was also found to be significant in both the upstream region of C2H4/air flames and non-reacting C2H4 flows, because the fuel has a relatively high refractive index compared with ambient air. The extent of beam steering at different heights of reacting and isothermal flows as well as its dependence on exit Reynolds number (Re) has been measured. The measurements reveal that even at low turbulence levels (2000 < Re < 3000), beam steering effects can be significant. Also found is that the LII signal at a 450 nm wavelength can be attenuated by a few per cent at high soot loading regions in turbulent flames due to signal trapping. Finally, the feasibility of directly evaluating the signal attenuation via planar LII results was assessed by comparing the virtual soot attenuation calculated based on the planar LII result with that measured using light-of-sight extinction.
The propagation of premixed flames in closed tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matalon, Moshe; Metzener, Philippe
1997-04-01
A nonlinear evolution equation that describes the propagation of a premixed flame in a closed tube has been derived from the general conservation equations. What distinguishes it from other similar equations is a memory term whose origin is in the vorticity production at the flame front. The two important parameters in this equation are the tube's aspect ratio and the Markstein parameter. A linear stability analysis indicates that when the Markstein parameter [alpha] is above a critical value [alpha]c the planar flame is the stable equilibrium solution. For [alpha] below [alpha]c the planar flame is no longer stable and there is a band of growing modes. Numerical solutions of the full nonlinear equation confirm this conclusion. Starting with random initial conditions the results indicate that, after a short transient, a at flame develops when [alpha]>[alpha]c and it remains flat until it reaches the end of the tube. When [alpha]<[alpha]c, on the other hand, stable curved flames may develop down the tube. Depending on the initial conditions the flame assumes either a cellular structure, characterized by a finite number of cells convex towards the unburned gas, or a tulip shape characterized by a sharp indentation at the centre of the tube pointing toward the burned gases. In particular, if the initial conditions are chosen so as to simulate the elongated finger-like flame that evolves from an ignition source, a tulip flame evolves downstream. In accord with experimental observations the tulip shape forms only after the flame has travelled a certain distance down the tube, it does not form in short tubes and its formation depends on the mixture composition. While the initial deformation of the flame front is a direct result of the hydrodynamic instability, the actual formation of the tulip flame results from the vortical motion created in the burned gas which is a consequence of the vorticity produced at the flame front.
An experimental investigation of an acoustically excited laminar premixed flame
Kartheekeyan, S.; Chakravarthy, S.R.
2006-08-15
A two-dimensional laminar premixed flame is stabilized over a burner in a confined duct and is subjected to external acoustic forcing from the downstream end. The equivalence ratio of the flame is 0.7. The flame is stabilized in the central slot of a three-slotted burner. The strength of the shear layer of the cold reactive mixture through the central slot is controlled by the flow rate of cold nitrogen gas through the side slots. The frequency range of acoustic excitation is 400-1200 Hz, and the amplitude levels are such that the acoustic velocity is less than the mean flow velocity of the reactants. Time-averaged chemiluminescence images of the perturbed flame front display time-mean changes as compared to the unperturbed flame shape at certain excitation frequencies. Prominent changes to the flame front are in the form of stretching or shrinkage, asymmetric development of its shape, increased/preferential lift-off of one or both of the stabilization points of the flame, and nearly random three-dimensional fluctuations over large time scales under some conditions. The oscillations of the shear layer and the response of the confined jet of the hot products to the acoustic forcing, such as asymmetric flow development and jet spreading, are found to be responsible for the observed mean changes in the flame shape. A distinct low-frequency component ({approx}60-90 Hz) relative to the excitation frequency is observed in the fluctuations of the chemiluminescent intensity in the flame under most conditions. It is observed that fluctuations in the flame area predominantly contribute to the origin of the low-frequency component. This is primarily due to the rollup of vortices and the generation of enthalpy waves at the burner lip. Both of these processes are excited at the externally imposed acoustic time scale, but convect/propagate downstream at the flow time scale, which is much larger. (author)
Accelerating confined premixed flames using a transverse slot jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Joseph P.
2011-12-01
An experimental study of the transient interaction of a premixed laminar methane-air flame propagating into a transverse fluidic obstacle is considered. The de agration-to-detonation transition (DDT) mechanism for use in pulse detonation engines (PDE) is the main but not only motivation for this study. When DDT is initiated through the use of solid obstacles, the system incurs a drag penalty and subsequent total pressure losses due to the physical obstacle impeding on the flow. This study utilizes a fluidic obstacle to generate flame acceleration without the subsequent penalties associated with form drag of a solid obstacle. The experimental setup was designed specifically for non-intrusive optical measurement techniques such as schlieren, CH* chemiluminescence and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The channel utilizes a length to width aspect ratio of L/W = 6, and was chosen along with the fuel (CH4) to guarantee the impossibility of excessive overpressures associated with unanticipated detonations. The mixture is ignited in the center of the closed end of the channel, and the flame propagates towards the obstacle located at 3.1H. The medium emitted from the slot-jet orifice is the same methane-air mixture used to fill the channel and is released post ignition to allow an interaction with the laminar propagating flame. A comparison of this transverse fluidic slot jet obstacle is made to four different solid obstacle geometries at various blockage ratios (BR) and at stoichiometric and lean (φ = 0:88) equivalence ratios. The results of this study show that a transverse slot jet is capable of increasing heat release, flame surface area and subsequently flame speed compared to that of any tested solid obstacle with similar maximum flame deflection over an obstacle.
On the modelling of non-reactive and reactive turbulent combustor flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, Mohammad; So, Ronald M. C.
1987-01-01
A study of non-reactive and reactive axisymmetric combustor flows with and without swirl is presented. Closure of the Reynolds equations is achieved by three models: kappa-epsilon, algebraic stress and Reynolds stress closure. Performance of two locally nonequilibrium and one equilibrium algebraic stress models is analyzed assuming four pressure strain models. A comparison is also made of the performance of a high and a low Reynolds number model for combustor flow calculations using Reynolds stress closures. Effects of diffusion and pressure-strain models on these closures are also investigated. Two models for the scalar transport are presented. One employs the second-moment closure which solves the transport equations for the scalar fluxes, while the other solves the algebraic equations for the scalar fluxes. In addition, two cases of non-premixed and one case of premixed combustion are considered. Fast- and finite-rate chemistry models are applied to non-premixed combustion. Both show promise for application in gas turbine combustors. However, finite rate chemistry models need to be examined to establish a suitable coupling of the heat release effects on turbulence field and rate constants.
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal Homogeneous Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
2002-01-01
Plasmas, such as those found in the space environment or in plasma confinement devices, are often modeled as electrically conducting fluids. When fluids and plasmas are energetically stirred, regions of highly nonlinear, chaotic behavior known as turbulence arise. Understanding the fundamental nature of turbulence is a long-standing theoretical challenge. The present work describes a statistical theory concerning a certain class of nonlinear, finite dimensional, dynamical models of turbulence. These models arise when the partial differential equations describing incompressible, ideal (i.e., nondissipative) homogeneous fluid and magnetofluid (i.e., plasma) turbulence are Fourier transformed into a very large set of ordinary differential equations. These equations define a divergenceless flow in a high-dimensional phase space, which allows for the existence of a Liouville theorem, guaranteeing a distribution function based on constants of the motion (integral invariants). The novelty of these particular dynamical systems is that there are integral invariants other than the energy, and that some of these invariants behave like pseudoscalars under two of the discrete symmetry transformations of physics, parity, and charge conjugation. In this work the 'rugged invariants' of ideal homogeneous turbulence are shown to be the only significant scalar and pseudoscalar invariants. The discovery that pseudoscalar invariants cause symmetries of the original equations to be dynamically broken and induce a nonergodic structure on the associated phase space is the primary result presented here. Applicability of this result to dissipative turbulence is also discussed.
Turbulent kinetic energy equation and free mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morel, T.; Torda, T. P.; Bradshaw, P.
1973-01-01
Calculation of free shear flows was carried out to investigate the usefulness of several concepts which were previously successfully applied to wall flows. The method belongs to the class of differential approaches. The turbulence is taken into account by the introduction of one additional partial differential equation, the transport equation for the turbulent shear stress. The structure of turbulence is modeled after Bradshaw et al. This model was used successfully in boundary layers and its applicability to other flows is demonstrated. The work reported differs substantially from that of an earlier attempt to use this approach for calculation of free flows. The most important difference is that the region around the center line is treated by invoking the interaction hypothesis (concerning the structure of turbulence in the regions separated by the velocity extrema). The compressibility effects on shear layer spreading at low and moderate Mach numbers were investigated. In the absence of detailed experiments in free flows, the evidence from boundary layers that at low Mach numbers the structure of turbulence is unaffected by the compressibility was relied on. The present model was tested over a range of self-preserving and developing flows including pressure gradients using identical empirical input. The dependence of the structure of turbulence on the spreading rate of the shear layer was established.
Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames
Bremer, Peer-Timo; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Day, Marc; Bell, John
2009-06-01
This paper presents topology-based methods to robustly extract, analyze, and track features defined as subsets of isosurfaces. First, we demonstrate how features identified by thresholding isosurfaces can be defined in terms of the Morse complex. Second, we present a specialized hierarchy that encodes the feature segmentation independent of the threshold while still providing a flexible multi-resolution representation. Third, for a given parameter selection we create detailed tracking graphs representing the complete evolution of all features in a combustion simulation over several hundred time steps. Finally, we discuss a user interface that correlates the tracking information with interactive rendering of the segmented isosurfaces enabling an in-depth analysis of the temporal behavior. We demonstrate our approach by analyzing three numerical simulations of lean hydrogen flames subject to different levels of turbulence. Due to their unstable nature, lean flames burn in cells separated by locally extinguished regions. The number, area, and evolution over time of these cells provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. Utilizing the hierarchy we can perform an extensive parameter study without re-processing the data for each set of parameters. The resulting statistics enable scientist to select appropriate parameters and provide insight into the sensitivity of the results wrt. to the choice of parameters. Our method allows for the first time to quantitatively correlate the turbulence of the burning process with the distribution of burning regions, properly segmented and selected. In particular, our analysis shows that counter-intuitively stronger turbulence leads to larger cell structures, which burn more intensely than expected. This behavior suggests that flames could be stabilized under much leaner conditions than previously anticipated.
Turbulent Mixing Effects in NOx Control via Reburning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cha, C. M.; Kosály, G.; Kramlich, J. C.
1997-11-01
An integral model of a turbulent, reacting jet, based on the Two-Stage Lagrangian (TSL) model of Broadwell and Lutz, is used to gain insight into how mixing influences performance in a reburning application. Reburning is a promising NO_ x control technology for industrial furnaces that has been demonstrated at full-scale in a number of embodiments. Past work on reburning have applied plug-flow reactor (PFR) modeling, which assumes the fuel and oxidizer to be perfectly premixed initially and a perfectly mixed volume of the reacting species thereafter, in order to concentrate on the understanding of the underlying (reburning) kinetics. However, PFR predictions of reburning efficiency yield results which are far below the experimental data. Present results account for finite-rate mixing and yield, thereby, improved predictions over those from PFR calculations. The cause of the improved reburning performance in a delayed mixing environment is discussed and a number of parametric studies are reported.
Introduction to quantum turbulence.
Barenghi, Carlo F; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R
2014-03-25
The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870
Modeling Compressed Turbulence
Israel, Daniel M.
2012-07-13
From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.
Introduction to quantum turbulence
Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2014-01-01
The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.
2013-07-01
Mixing and turbulent mixing are non-equilibrium processes that occur in a broad variety of processes in fluids, plasmas and materials. The processes can be natural or artificial, their characteristic scales can be astrophysical or atomistic, and energy densities can be low or high. Understanding the fundamental aspects of turbulent mixing is necessary to comprehend the dynamics of supernovae and accretion discs, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, mantle-lithosphere tectonics and volcanic eruptions, atmospheric and oceanographic flows in geophysics, and premixed and non-premixed combustion. It is crucial for the development of the methods of control in technological applications, including mixing mitigation in inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, and mixing enhancement in reactive flows, as well as material transformation under the action of high strain rates. It can improve our knowledge of realistic turbulent processes at low energy density involving walls, unsteady transport, interfaces and vortices, as well as high energy density hydrodynamics including strong shocks, explosions, blast waves and supersonic flows. A deep understanding of mixing and turbulent mixing requires one to go above and beyond canonical approaches and demands further enhancements in the quality and information capacity of experimental and numerical data sets, and in the methods of theoretical analysis of continuous dynamics and kinetics. This has the added potential then of bringing the experiment, numerical modelling, theoretical analysis and data processing to a new level of standards. At the same time, mixing and turbulent mixing being one of the most formidable and multi-faceted problems of modern physics and mathematics, is well open for a curious mind. In this article we briefly review various aspects of turbulent mixing, and present a summary of over 70 papers that were discussed at the third International Conference on 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2011, that
Calculations of reactive turbulent flows in aeronautical chambers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caillau, P.; Dupoirieux, F.
1993-02-01
The progress which was recently achieved in the modeling of turbulent combustion for applications to propulsion are described. The averaged equations of reactive turbulent flows are given, then the Probabilist EUlerian Langrangian model (PEUL) intended for the calculation of the average source terms of categories and of enthalpy are presented. The possibility of taking into account by this model the reactional mechanisms to several categories is applied to the prediction of the pollutants and in particular to the calculation of thermal NO. In order to obtain the best possible prediction of the chemical composition and the temperature, three total mechanisms of oxidation of methane are successively coupled with the PEUL model and their results compared. Two applications are then studied. The first application is a premixed flame stabilized by a hot gas flow. The computation results are compared with the experimental results obtained with ONERA and present a suitable agreement, in particular with regard to the profiles of thermal NO. The second concerns a portion of an annular aeronautical chamber. The comparison of the average production rates obtained with a model of turbulent combustion with rapid chemistry and with the PEUL model highlights, in this case, the importance of not making the hypothesis of rapid chemistry.
Decaying turbulence at the laminar-turbulence transition in a pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldenfeld, Nigel; Hsieh, Tsung-Lin; Shih, Hong-Yan
2015-11-01
As a follow-up to Donnelly's pioneering research on the decay of superfluid turbulence in a pipe, we have studied a different regime: transitional turbulence. Near the onset to turbulence in a pipe, turbulent puffs decay either directly or through splitting, with characteristic time-scales that exhibit a super-exponential dependence on Reynolds number. Using direct numerical simulations of transitional pipe flow, we show that a collective mode, a so-called zonal flow emerges at large scales, activated by anisotropic turbulent fluctuations, as measured in terms of Reynolds stress. This zonal flow imposes a shear on the turbulent fluctuations that tends to suppress their anisotropy, leading to stochastic oscillatory dynamics. These results motivate the proposal that the laminar-turbulence non-equilibrium phase transition can be modeled by an effective theory, usefully thought of as predator-prey dynamics, leading to a predicted universality class of directed percolation. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through grant NSF-DMR-1044901.
Aeroacoustics of Turbulent High-Speed Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, Ram Mohan; Lundgren, Thomas S.
1996-01-01
Aeroacoustic noise generation in a supersonic round jet is studied to understand in particular the effect of turbulence structure on the noise without numerically compromising the turbulence itself. This means that direct numerical simulations (DNS's) are needed. In order to use DNS at high enough Reynolds numbers to get sufficient turbulence structure we have decided to solve the temporal jet problem, using periodicity in the direction of the jet axis. Physically this means that turbulent structures in the jet are repeated in successive downstream cells instead of being gradually modified downstream into a jet plume. Therefore in order to answer some questions about the turbulence we will partially compromise the overall structure of the jet. The first section of chapter 1 describes some work on the linear stability of a supersonic round jet and the implications of this for the jet noise problem. In the second section we present preliminary work done using a TVD numerical scheme on a CM5. This work is only two-dimensional (plane) but shows very interesting results, including weak shock waves. However this is a nonviscous computation and the method resolves the shocks by adding extra numerical dissipation where the gradients are large. One wonders whether the extra dissipation would influence small turbulent structures like small intense vortices. The second chapter is an extensive discussion of preliminary numerical work using the spectral method to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations to study turbulent jet flows. The method uses Fourier expansions in the azimuthal and streamwise direction and a 1-D B-spline basis representation in the radial direction. The B-spline basis is locally supported and this ensures block diagonal matrix equations which are solved in O(N) steps. A very accurate highly resolved DNS of a turbulent jet flow is expected.
Experimental study of turbulent flame kernel propagation
Mansour, Mohy; Peters, Norbert; Schrader, Lars-Uve
2008-07-15
Flame kernels in spark ignited combustion systems dominate the flame propagation and combustion stability and performance. They are likely controlled by the spark energy, flow field and mixing field. The aim of the present work is to experimentally investigate the structure and propagation of the flame kernel in turbulent premixed methane flow using advanced laser-based techniques. The spark is generated using pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 20 mJ pulse energy in order to avoid the effect of the electrodes on the flame kernel structure and the variation of spark energy from shot-to-shot. Four flames have been investigated at equivalence ratios, {phi}{sub j}, of 0.8 and 1.0 and jet velocities, U{sub j}, of 6 and 12 m/s. A combined two-dimensional Rayleigh and LIPF-OH technique has been applied. The flame kernel structure has been collected at several time intervals from the laser ignition between 10 {mu}s and 2 ms. The data show that the flame kernel structure starts with spherical shape and changes gradually to peanut-like, then to mushroom-like and finally disturbed by the turbulence. The mushroom-like structure lasts longer in the stoichiometric and slower jet velocity. The growth rate of the average flame kernel radius is divided into two linear relations; the first one during the first 100 {mu}s is almost three times faster than that at the later stage between 100 and 2000 {mu}s. The flame propagation is slightly faster in leaner flames. The trends of the flame propagation, flame radius, flame cross-sectional area and mean flame temperature are related to the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The relations obtained in the present work allow the prediction of any of these parameters at different conditions. (author)
Time-dependent Computational Studies of Premixed Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kailasanath, K.; Patnaik, Gopal; Oran, Elaine S.
1993-01-01
This report describes the research performed at the Center for Reactive Flow and Dynamical Systems in the Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, at the Naval Research Laboratory, in support of NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program. The primary focus of this research is on investigating fundamental questions concerning the propagation and extinction of premixed flames in earth gravity and in microgravity environments. Our approach is to use detailed time-dependent, multispecies, numerical models as tools to simulate flames in different gravity environments. The models include a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism consisting of elementary reactions among the eight reactive species involved in hydrogen combustion, coupled to algorithms for convection, thermal conduction, viscosity, molecular and thermal diffusion, and external forces. The external force, gravity, can be put in any direction relative to flame propagation and can have a range of values. Recently more advanced wall boundary conditions such as isothermal and no-slip have been added to the model. This enables the simulation of flames propagating in more practical systems than before. We have used the numerical simulations to investigate the effects of heat losses and buoyancy forces on the structure and stability of flames, to help resolve fundamental questions on the existence of flammability limits when there are no external losses or buoyancy forces in the system, to understand the interaction between the various processes leading to flame instabilities and extinguishment, and to study the dynamics of cell formation and splitting. Our studies have been able to bring out the differences between upward- and downward-propagating flames and predict the zero-gravity behavior of these flames. The simulations have also highlighted the dominant role of wall heat losses in the case of downward-propagating flames. The simulations have been able to qualitatively predict the
Non-premixed acoustically perturbed swirling flame dynamics
Idahosa, Uyi; Saha, Abhishek; Xu, Chengying; Basu, Saptarshi
2010-09-15
An investigation into the response of non-premixed swirling flames to acoustic perturbations at various frequencies (f{sub p}=0-315 Hz) and swirl intensities (S=0.09 and 0.34) is carried out. Perturbations are generated using a loudspeaker at the base of an atmospheric co-flow burner with resulting velocity oscillation amplitudes vertical stroke u'/U{sub avg} vertical stroke in the 0.03-0.30 range. The dependence of flame dynamics on the relative richness of the flame is investigated by studying various constant fuel flow rate flame configurations. Flame heat release rate is quantitatively measured using a photomultiplier with a 430 nm bandpass filter for observing CH* chemiluminescence which is simultaneously imaged with a phase-locked CCD camera. The flame response is observed to exhibit a low-pass filter characteristic with minimal flame response beyond pulsing frequencies of 200 Hz. Flames at lower fuel flow rates are observed to remain attached to the central fuel pipe at all acoustic pulsing frequencies. PIV imaging of the associated isothermal fields show the amplification in flame aspect ratio is caused by the narrowing of the inner recirculation zone (IRZ). Good correlation is observed between the estimated flame surface area and the heat release rate signature at higher swirl intensity flame configurations. A flame response index analogous to the Rayleigh criterion in non-forced flames is used to assess the potential for a strong flame response at specific perturbation configurations and is found to be a good predictor of highly responsive modes. Phase conditioned analysis of the flame dynamics yield additional criteria in highly responsive modes to include the effective amplitude of velocity oscillations induced by the acoustic pulsing. In addition, highly responsive modes were characterized by velocity to heat release rate phase differences in the {+-}{pi}/2 range. A final observed characteristic in highly responsive flames is a Strouhal number between
Kinetic mechanisms for premixed, laminar, steady state hydrogen/nitrous oxide flames
Coffee, T.P.
1986-07-01
A model has been developed for premixed, laminar, one-dimensional hydrogen/nitrous oxide flames. Results have been compared with a range of experimental data. The present model roughly reproduces the data, but inaccuracies still exist. Sensitivity and screening analyses have been used to indicate the additional experimental data needed to improve the model.
21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... guanylate, hydrolysates of animal or plant origin (such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein), oleoresins of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170.60 Section 170.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...
Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane_{¯}oxygen_{¯}argon burner s...
Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of OH distribution in lean premixed swirling flames
Birouk, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.
1998-07-01
The spatial distribution of OH specie in lean premixed methane-air swirling flames at atmospheric pressure conditions has been investigated using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique. Tests were conducted in a burner with a central nozzle surrounded by two concentric annuli, through which the methane-air mixture could be injected with variable equivalence ratio, swirl and momentum. The geometry was chosen to simulate a single burner in a typical gas turbine combustor. Experiments were carried out across a range of three independently-varied parameters: the swirl distribution in the outer annulus, the axial momentum in the inner annulus, and the premixed equivalence ratio ({phi} = 0.75, 0.68, and 0.61). Instantaneous and ensemble-averaged OH images were obtained at vertical cross-sections of the flame (referenced through the centerline) under different flame conditions. These images provide information on the flame reaction zone which is of interest for understanding the complex structure and dynamics of a swirling premixed combustion system. These images also assist in understanding why lean premixed gas turbine combustion systems may experience combustion instability, particularly under leaner conditions.
IMPORTANCE OF THE NITROUS OXIDE PATHWAY TO NOX IN LEAN-PREMIXED COMBUSTION
The paper reports results of a study addressing the importance of the different chemical pathways responsible for nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation in lean-premixed combustion, and especially the role of the nitrous oxide pathway relative to the traditional Zeldovich pathway. he pr...
PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.
2010-12-01
The goals of the International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a broad scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together researchers from different areas, which include but are not limited to fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and Earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and telecommunications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a broad variety of phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales and high or low energy density regimes. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or
Rate-ratio asymptotic analysis of non-premixed methane flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, X. S.; Seshadri, K.
1999-03-01
The asymptotic structure of laminar, non-premixed methane flames is analysed using a reduced four-step chemical-kinetic mechanism. Chemical reactions are presumed to take place in two layers: the inner layer and the oxidation layer. In the inner layer the fuel reacts with radicals and the main compounds formed are the intermediate species CO and H2. These intermediate species are oxidized in the oxidation layer. The structure of the oxidation layer is described by two second-order differential equations: one for CO and the other for H2. Two limiting cases are considered. At one limit the global step partial equilibrium everywhere in the oxidation layer except in a thin layer adjacent to the inner layer. At the other limit the steady-state approximation is introduced for H2 everywhere in the oxidation layer except in a thin layer adjacent to the inner layer. This limit, called `slow CO oxidation', has not been analysed previously. The structure of the inner layer is described by two second-order differential equations: one for the fuel and the other for the H radicals. This is a significant improvement over previous models in which either a steady-state approximation is introduced for the H radicals in the inner layer, or the reaction between the fuel and radicals is presumed to be very fast. The chain-breaking elementary reaction CH3 + H + M → CH4 + M is found to have a significant influence on the structure of the inner layer and on the scalar dissipation rates at extinction. The influence of this reaction was either neglected in previous models or was included as a perturbation to the principal elementary reactions taking place to the leading order in the inner layer. Using the results of the asymptotic analysis the scalar dissipation rates at extinction are calculated at a pressure of 1 bar. They are found to agree well with those
Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.
2015-01-01
Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.
Turbulence generation by waves
Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S.
1995-12-31
The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Marino, R.
2016-03-01
Turbulence in the solar wind is ubiquitous. To understand the transport of low-frequency turbulence in the sub- and super-Alfvénic solar wind flow, Zank et al. 2012 developed an extensive turbulence transport model that describes the evolution of the energy in forward and backward propagating modes, the total turbulent energy, the cross-helicity, the residual energy, the correlation lengths corresponding to forward and backward propagating modes, and the correlation length of the residual energy. Adhikari et. al. 2015 presented the first detailed solution of Zank et al., and found good agreement between the Zank et al. model and observations. Here, we solve the 1D steady-state turbulence transport equations with and without sources of turbulence, and show that all the identified sources are required to reproduce the theoretical results to be consistent with the observations.